Sample records for unit conversion factors

  1. Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashurst, W. Robert

    Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2.921 inHg at 0 C Energy 1 J = 1 N·m = 107 ergs = 107 dyne·cm = 2.778×10-7 kW·h 1 J = 0.23901 cal = 0·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T

  2. Energy Unit Conversion Factors / 1Joule (J) equals 1 2.78 x lO-7 9.49 x 1o-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Energy Unit Conversion Factors J kWh Btu -~ / 1Joule (J) equals 1 2.78 x lO-7 9.49 x 1o-4 1 electron volt (eV) equals 1.60 x lo-l9 4.45 x lo-26 1.52 x 1o-22 Energy Equivalents Crude petroleum (42

  3. Residual oil conversion in Ashland FCC Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, D.F.; Miller, C.B.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Petroleum Company is a production-poor refining and marketing company. A company must have refining flexibility to compete in today's crude and marketing situation. Ashland has adopted a dual approach to achieving the required refining flexibility: development and construction of the RCC process, and development of techniques to practice residual oil conversion in Ashland FCC units. This paper discusses the operating techniques Ashland has used to allow residual oil conversion to be practiced in their present day FCC's and shows some of the yields which have been achieved.

  4. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide's chemical form.

  5. A comparison of dose and dose-rate conversion factors from the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, US Department of Energy, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Abbott, M.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several independent data sets of radiological dose and dose-rate conversion factors (DCF/DRCF) have been tabulated or developed by the international community both for fission and fusion safety purposes. This report compares sets from the US Department of Energy, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom with those calculated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Fusion Safety Program. The objectives were to identify trends and potential outlying values for specific radionuclides and contribute to a future benchmark evaluation of the CARR computer code. Fifty-year committed effective dose equivalent factors were compared for the inhalation and ingestion pathways. External effective dose equivalent rates were compared for the air immersion and ground surface exposure pathways. Comparisons were made by dividing dose factors in the different data bases by the values in the FSP data base. Differences in DCF/DRCF values less than a factor of 2 were considered to be in good agreement and are likely due to the use of slightly different decay data, variations in the number of organs considered for calculating CEDE, and rounding errors. DCF/DRCF values that differed by greater than a factor of 10 were considered to be significant. These differences are attributed primarily to the use of different radionuclide decay data, selection and nomenclature for different isomeric states, treatment of progeny radionuclides, differences in calculational methodology, and assumptions on a radionuclide`s chemical form.

  6. Reduced Crude Conversion-2: demetallization unit broadens RCC feed slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

    1984-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reduced Crude Conversion (RCC) process has been shown as capable of handling feedstocks with high levels of heavy metals contamination. This article extends the applicability of the RCC process further to handle feedstock derived in part from extremely high metal crude oils, in discussing a commercial unit installed by Ashland which is capable of metals removal using the ART technology. Nickel and vanadium removal from certain highly contaminated RCC feedstocks shown that the RCC unit with ART technology benefits from substantial catalyst savings while extending RCC technology to more challenging feedstocks. The demetallized product is mixed with virgin reduced crude oil and with lower metal content asphalts to provide feedstock for the RCC unit.

  7. Characterization of an FFDM unit based on a-Se direct conversion detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanconelli, Nico

    Characterization of an FFDM unit based on a-Se direct conversion detector Achille Albanese1 µm. The direct conversion of X-rays into charge provides excellent imaging performance. In this work, detectors based on a direct-conversion technology seem to give a better performance, especially at high

  8. MTBE catalyst shows increased conversion in commercial unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising demand for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has spawned interest in finding a cost-effective means of increasing production from existing units. A commercial trial of an improved MTBE catalyst was conducted recently at Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview, Tex., plant. The new catalyst called Amberlyst 35 Wet, enhanced oxygenate production in the Lyondell trial. The new catalyst changes the activity coefficients of at least one of the components of the MTBE reaction, resulting in higher equilibrium conversion relative to its first-generation counterpart. Key catalyst properties are: particle size, 0.4--1.25 mm; Apparent density, 0.82 g/ml; Surface area, 44 sq m/g; Moisture content, 56%; Concentration of acid sites, 1.9 meq/ml (5.4 meq/g); Porosity, 0.35 cc/g; and Average pore diameter, 300 [angstrom]. Suggested operating conditions are: maximum temperature, 284 F (140 C); minimum bed depth, 24 in. (0.61 m); and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), 1--5 hr[sup [minus]1].

  9. The Exposure Rate Conversion Factor for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fallout is comprised of approximately 2000 radionuclides. About 1000 of these radionuclides are either primary fission products or activated fission products that are created during the burn process. The exposure rate one meter above the surface produced by this complex mixture of radionuclides varies rapidly with time since many of the radionuclides are short-lived and decay numerous times before reaching a stable isotope. As a result, the mixture of radionuclides changes rapidly with time. Using a new code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the mixture of radionuclides at any given point in time can be calculated. The code also calculates the exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for all 3864 individual isotopes contained in its database based on the total gamma energy released per decay. Based on the combination of isotope mixture and individual ECFs, the time-dependent variation of the composite exposure rate conversion factor for nuclear fallout can be easily calculated. As example of this new capability, a simple test case corresponding to a 10 kt, uranium-plutonium fuel has been calculated. The results for the time-dependent, composite ECF for this test case are shown in Figure 1. For comparison, we also calculated the composite exposure rate conversion factor using the conversion factors found in Federal Guidance Report No.12 (FGR-12) published by ORNL, which contains the conversion factors for approximately 1000 isotopes. As can be noted from Figure 1, the two functions agree reasonably well at times greater than about 30 minutes. However, they do not agree at early times since FGR-12 does not include all of the short-lived isotopes that are produced in nuclear fallout. It should also be noted that the composite ECF at one hour is 19.7 R/hr per Ci/m{sup 2}. This corresponds to 3148 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile, which agrees reasonably well with the value of 3000 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile as quoted by Glasstone. We have also tabulated the top 50 contributors to the exposure rate at various points in time following a detonation. These major contributors are given in Table 1.

  10. Prediction and Realisation of Conversational Characteristics by Utilising Spontaneous Speech for Unit Selection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersson, Sebastian; Georgila, Kallirroi; Traum, David; Aylett, Matthew; Clark, Robert A J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than how people read. In this paper we included carefully selected utterances from spontaneous conversational speech in a unit selection voice. Using this voice and by automatically predicting type and placement of lexical fillers and filled pauses we...

  11. Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface fluence spectra 45 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Properties of commercially available TLDs . . PNNL dose equivalent averaged quality factors . 16 3 MCNP input deck geometries Phantoms modeled in MCNP input decks . . Comparison of calculated..., PNNL and DOELAP fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for bare '"Cf . . . . 37 Comparison of calculated, PNNL and DOELAP fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for D, O moderated '"Cf. 37 Fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors...

  12. Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NO{sub x} combustion: Impact on fly ash quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Haeberlin, B.O. [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States)] [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} combustion can influence fly ash quality in terms of the amount and forms of carbon, the overall fly ash fineness, and the relative amount of glass versus crystalline inorganic phases. All of these factors can influence the potential for a fly ash to be marketed for utilization. In this study, three coal-fired combustors, two tangentially fired and one wall-fired, all burning high-sulfur Illinois coal at the same power plant, were studied before and after conversion to low-NO{sub x} combustion. In all cases, the post-conversion fly ash was higher in carbon than the pre-conversion ash from the same unit. The fly ashes in at least two of the units would appear to have post-conversion ashes which still fall within the regional guidelines for the limit of carbon (or loss on ignition).

  13. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  14. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors: Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors Contents I. INTRODUCTION 3 II. AVIATION 4 Previous Approach 4 New Passenger Air Transport Emission Factors 5 New Freight Air Transport Emission Factors 10 Other

  15. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--FischerTropsch Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the United States--Fischer­Tropsch Synthesis Tad W to be at the center of that effort. We calculate that the energy efficiency of the best existing Fischer­Tropsch (FT?'' Schweitzer said at a press conference. Here, we give a brief background of Fischer­ Tropsch (FT) synthesis

  16. 2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    update 44 Passenger Air Transport Direct CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 6) 44 Freight Air Transport Direct CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 7) 49 Air Transport Direct Emission Factors for CH4 and N2O 52 Air. ELECTRICITY CONVERSION FACTORS (ANNEX 3) 10 Summary of changes since previous update 10 Direct Emissions from

  17. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of ICRP Dose Conversion Factor Recommendations for Accident Analysis Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, A.M.

    2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Accident analysis for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is an integral part of the overall safety basis developed by the contractor to demonstrate facility operation can be conducted safely. An appropriate documented safety analysis for a facility discusses accident phenomenology, quantifies source terms arising from postulated process upset conditions, and applies a standardized, internationally-recognized database of dose conversion factors (DCFs) to evaluate radiological conditions to offsite receptors.

  19. 84Unit Conversions Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what property is being

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kilowatt- hour (1 kWh)? Problem 4 ­ How many ergs of energy are collected from a solar panel on a roof, if the sunlight provides a flux of 300 Joules/sec/meter 2 , the solar panels have an area of 27 square feet84Unit Conversions ­ Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what

  20. Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES): The United State's demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Timothy O.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) is a pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility. Pits are the core of a nuclear weapon that contains fissile material. With the end of the cold war, the United States began a program to dispose of the fissile material contained in surplus nuclear weapons. In January of 1997, the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Material Disposition issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the disposition of surplus plutonium. This decision contained a hybrid option for disposition of the plutonium, immobilization and mixed oxide fuel. ARIES is the cornerstone of the United States plutonium disposition program that supplies the pit demonstration plutonium feed material for either of these disposition pathways. Additionally, information from this demonstration is being used to design the United States Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility. AH of the ARIES technologies were recently developed and incorporate waste minimization. The technologies include pit bisection, hydride/dehydride, metal to oxide conversion process, packaging, and nondestructive assay (NDA). The current schedule for the ARIES integrated Demonstration will begin in the Spring of 1998. The ARIES project involves a number of DOE sites including Los Alamos National Laboratory as the lead laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories. Moreover, the ARIES team is heavily involved in working with Russia in their pit disassembly and conversion activities.

  1. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 ColonelBy Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

  2. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  3. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dosimetric measurements were performed to determine the exposure-to-dose conversion factors (Cx) for simple extremity phantoms suitable for extremity dosimeter performance testing. The phantoms studied represented the forearm or lower leg and the finger. Measurements were performed for solid plastic phantoms and for phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the simulated bone to the phantom surface. Photon beam energies used for the measurements ranged from 16 keV to 1.25 MeV (average). The Cx factors for the finger phantoms did not vary significantly with phantom composition. The Cx factors in the arm/leg phantoms with the bone simulant material differed significantly from those for the solid plastic phantom over the energy range of 40-100 keV. This effect was attributed to the preferential absorption of the lower energy backscattered photons by the higher atomic number material that was contained in the bone-simulant insert. The position of the bone-simulating material below the surface of the phantom was more important than its size or level of bone equivalency. For calibrations and dosimeter testing, Al was found adequate as a bone-simulating material.

  4. TEXT-INDEPENDENT VOICE CONVERSION BASED ON UNIT SELECTION David Sundermann1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W

    ,Antonio Bonafonte2 ,Hermann Ney4 ,Alan Black5 ,Shri Narayanan3 1 Siemens Corporate Technology, Munich, Pittsburgh, USA david@suendermann.com harald.hoege@siemens.com antonio.bonafonte@upc.edu ney BASED ON LINEAR TRANSFORMATION The most popular voice conversion technique is the applica- tion

  5. Power conversion unit studies for the next generation nuclear plant coupled to a high-temperature steam electrolysis facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barner, Robert Buckner

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Supercritical-water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) and the Very-high-temperature Reactor (VHTR). An international effort to develop these new... and the hydrogen production plant4,5. Davis et al. investigated the possibility of helium and molten salts in the IHTL2. The thermal efficiency of the power conversion unit is paramount to the success of this next generation technology. Current light water...

  6. Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

  7. ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the temperature and pressure, if known.) (3 points) g. How many square meters of solar panels (assume that the panels are placed in the Southwest in an area with an annual average solar radiation of 5.7 kWh/m2 /day, and that the solar panels have a conversion efficiency of 14%) (3 points) h. How many gallons of water that fall

  8. 50Are U Still Nuts? That's right... It's time for more unit conversion exercises!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Problem 1: The solar constant is an important number if you are trying to build a solar, hot water heater: The Solar Constant is the amount of energy that the sun delivers to the surface of Earth each second or generate electricity using solar panels. Although astronomers use ergs and centimeter units, solar energy

  9. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  10. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geothermal, digester and landfill gas, small hydro, andenergy sources, such as landfill gas. Market Factors Theenergy sources, such as landfill gas. Integrated Resource

  11. 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . OVERSEAS ELECTRICITY EMISSION FACTORS (ANNEX 10) 54 ANNEX: EXTRACT FROM THE CRG PASSENGER TRANSPORT CO2 (ANNEX 6 AND ANNEX 7) 12 Previous Approach 12 New Passenger Air Transport CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 6) 13 New Freight Air Transport CO2 Emission Factors (Annex 7) 18 New Air Transport Emission Factors

  12. An Assessment of Land Availability and Price in the Coterminous United States for Conversion to Algal Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realistic economic assessment of land-intensive alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, and biofuels) requires information on land availability and price. Accordingly, we created a comprehensive, national-scale model of these parameters for the United States. For algae-based biofuel, a minimum of 1.04E+05 km2 of land is needed to meet the 2022 EISA target of 2.1E+10 gallons year-1. We locate and quantify land types best converted. A data-driven model calculates the incentive to sell and a fair compensation value (real estate and lost future income). 1.02E+6 km2 of low slope, non-protected land is relatively available including croplands, pasture/ grazing, and forests. Within this total there is 2.64E+5 km2 of shrub and barren land available. The Federal government has 7.68E+4 km2 available for lease. Targeting unproductive lands minimizes land costs and impacts to existing industries. However, shrub and barren lands are limited by resources (water) and logistics, so land conversion requires careful consideration.

  13. Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

  14. Rethinking the N(H2)/I(CO) Conversion Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. F. Wall

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved formulation for the X-factor is proposed. The statement that the velocity-integrated radiation temperature of the $\\COone$ line, $I(\\CO)$, ``counts'' optically thick clumps is quantified using the formalism of \\citet{Martin84} for line emission in a clumpy cloud. Adopting the simplifying assumptions of thermalized $\\COone$ line emission and isothermal gas, an effective optical depth, $\\tef$, is defined as the product of the clump filling factor within each velocity interval and the clump effective optical depth as a function of the optical depth on the clump's central sightline, $\\tau_0$. The clump effective optical depth is well approximated as a power law in $\\tau_0$ with power-law index, $\\epsilon$, referred to here as the clump ``fluffiness,'' and has values between zero and unity. While the $\\COone$ line is optically thick within each clump (i.e., high $\\tau_0$), it is optically thin ``to the clumps'' (i.e., low $\\tef$). Thus the dependence of $I(CO)$ on $\\tef$ is linear, resulting in an X-factor that depends only on clump properties and {\\it not} directly on the entire cloud. Assuming virialization of the clumps yields an expression for the X-factor whose dependence on physical parameters like density and temperature is ``softened'' by power-law indices of less than unity that depend on the fluffiness parameter, $\\epsilon$. The X-factor provides estimates of gas column density because each sightline within the beam has optically thin gas within certain narrow velocity ranges. Determining column density from the optically thin gas is straightforward and parameters like $\\epsilon$ then allow extrapolation of the column density of the optically thin gas to that of all the gas.

  15. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  16. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  17. Dust temperature and CO-to-H2 conversion factor variations in the SFR-M* plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnelli, B; Lutz, D; Tacconi, L J; Berta, S; Bournaud, F; Charmandaris, V; Dannerbauer, H; Elbaz, D; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Graciá-Carpio, J; Ivison, R; Maiolino, R; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Rodighiero, G; Santini, P; Wuyts, S

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep Herschel imaging and 12CO(2-1) line luminosities from the IRAM PdBI are combined for a sample of 17 galaxies at z>1 from the GOODS-N field. The sample includes galaxies both on and above the main sequence (MS) traced by star-forming galaxies in the SFR-M* plane. The far-infrared data are used to derive dust masses, Mdust. Combined with an empirical prescription for the dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on metallicity (GDR), the CO luminosities and Mdust values are used to derive for each galaxy the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, alpha_co. Like in the local Universe, the value of alpha_co is a factor of ~5 smaller in starbursts compared to normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs). We also uncover a relation between alpha_co and dust temperature (Tdust; alpha_co decreasing with increasing Tdust) as obtained from modified blackbody fits to the far-infrared data. While the absolute normalization of the alpha_co(Tdust) relation is uncertain, the global trend is robust against possible systematic biases in the deter...

  18. EIS-0092: Conversion to Coal, Holyoke Water Power Company, Mt. Tom Generating Station Unit 1 Holyoke, Hampden County, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Unit 1 of the Mt. Tom Generation Station Unit 1 from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

  19. Comment on `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A letter to the editor of the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity on the article: E. Gasser, A. Nachab, A. Nourreddine, Ch. Roy, and A. Sellam, `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil', J. Environ. Radioactiv. 138, 68-71 (2014), DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.08.002.

  20. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015GrossA Few SimpleEnergy Conversion

  1. Appendix G: Conversion factors

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469Appendix E44D-2 Table4

  2. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deokjin-dong 150, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  3. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  4. Policies and market factors driving wind power development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,100 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states in which a substantial amount of wind energy capacity has been developed or planned. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  5. Test factoring with amock: generating readable unit tests from system tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasser, David Samuel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated unit tests are essential for the construction of reliable software, but writing them can be tedious. If the goal of test generation is to create a lasting unit test suite (and not just to optimize execution of ...

  6. ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    : Gas turbine power plants and air craft propulsion Week 5: Liquidvapor mixtures, vapor power systems: Selected problems will be solved and questions about lecture material or assignments of the course material. However, you are permitted to use a photocopy of unit conversion tables from

  7. Impact of individual, environmental, and policy level factors on healthcare utilization among United States farmworkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoerster, Katherine D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Individual, Environmental, and Policy Level Factors onof Individual, Environmental, and Policy Level Factors onindividual, environmental, and policy level correlates of

  8. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    than electricity from coal if cost of carbon capture is factored in Great promise for solving globalPhotovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel No pollution No greenhouse gases No moving parts, little or no maintenance Sunlight is plentiful

  9. Factors Affecting the Stability of Biodiesel Sold in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Ratcliff, M.; Moens, L.; Lawrence, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a survey of biodiesel quality and stability in the United States, 27 biodiesel (B100) samples were collected from blenders and distributor nationwide. For this sample set, 85% met all of the requirements of the industry standard for biodiesel, ASTM D6751.

  10. Landholders, Residential Land Conversion, and Market Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margulis, Harry L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    465– Margulis: Landholders, Residential Land Conversion, and1983. An Analysis of Residential Developer Location FactorsHow Regulation Affects New Residential Development. New

  11. EIS-0105: Conversion to Coal, Baltimore Gas & Electric Company, Brandon Shores Generating Station Units 1 and 2, Anne Arundel County, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Economic Regulatory Administration Office of Fuels Program, Coal and Electricity Division prepared this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts associated with prohibiting the use of petroleum products as a primary energy source for Units 1 and 2 of the Brandon Shores Generating Station, located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.

  12. EIS-0086: Conversion to Coal, New England Power Company, Salem Harbor Generating Station Units 1, 2, and 3, Salem, Essex County, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Units I, 2, and 3 of the Salem Harbor Generating Station from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

  13. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  14. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzel, Michael, A., Jr.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Menzel, M.A. 2003. An examination of factors influencing the spatial distribution of foraging bats in pine stands in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D Dissertation. Davis College of Agriculture, Forestry and Consumer Sciences at West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia. 336 pp. The general objective of this dissertation was to determine the effect of changes in forest structure on bat activity patterns in southern pine stands. Four sub studies are included in the dissertation: (1) An examination of the homerange size, habitat use and diet of four reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats (Corynorhimus rafinesquii); (2) An examination of the diet of 5 reproductively active male Rafinesque's big eared bats; (3) A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 vegetational community types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature plantations, and pine savannahs; (4) A summarization of information concerning the natural history of all bat species common in the SPR.

  15. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  16. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 7th Ocean Energy Conference, Washington,Power Applications, Division of Ocean Energy Systems, UnitedSands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  17. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 7th Ocean Energy Conference, Washington,Power Applications, Division of Ocean Energy Systems, UnitedM.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft

  18. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

  20. 2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , emissions factors have only been provided for CO2. The 2009 update provides emissions factors for the non-CO to landfill) into kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq). Carbon dioxide equivalent is a universal and refrigeration have been added. v. International electricity emission factors have been added Major changes

  1. Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

  2. Application of Planck's law to thermionic conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, F.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, highly accurate, mathematical model of heat-to-electricity conversion is developed from Planck's law for the distribution of the radiant exitance of heat at a selected temperature. An electrical power curve is calculated by integration of the heat law over a selected range of electromagnetic wavelength corresponding to electrical voltage. A novel wavelength-voltage conversion factor, developed from the known wavelength-electron volt conversion factor, establishes the wavelength ({lambda}) for the integration. The Planck law is integrated within the limits {lambda} to 2{lambda}. The integration provides the ideal electrical power that is available from heat at the emitter temperature. When multiplied by a simple ratio, the calculated ideal power closely matches published thermionic converter experimental data. The thermal power model of thermionic conversion is validated by experiments with thermionic emission of ordinary electron tubes. A theoretical basis for the heat law based model of thermionic conversion is found in linear oscillator theory.

  3. 2011 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that allows the global warming potential of different GHGs to be compared. Values for CH4 and N2O are presented as CO2 equivalents (CO2e) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) factors*, consistent with reporting resulting from electricity supplied to the consumer that are counted in both Scope 2 (electricity GENERATED

  4. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SOLID-STATE SOLAR-THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CENTER NanoEngineering Group Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Gang Chen, 1 Daniel Kraemer, 1 Bed Poudel, 2 Hsien-Ping Feng, 1 J....

  5. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S [Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States); Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R [Department of Radiology, Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different phantoms can contribute different backscatter for identical exposure parameters. Research supported in part by Toshiba Medical Systems and NIH Grants R43FD0158401, R44FD0158402 and R01EB002873.

  6. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  7. QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Melvin Calvin Januaryas it occurs in modern photosynthesis can only take place inof the problem or photosynthesis, or any specific aspect of

  8. Electronic dose conversion technique using a NaI(Tl) detector for assessment of exposure dose rate from environmental radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, G.; Kim, H.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, H.; Oh, G. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, D.K. [Samchang Enterprise Co., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Samchang Enterprise Co., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic dose conversion technique to assess the exposure dose rate due to environmental radiation especially from terrestrial sources was developed. For a 2 x 2 inch cylindrical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, pulse-height spectra were obtained for gamma-rays of energy up to 3 MeV by Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the simulation results and the experimentally fitted energy resolution, dose conversion factors were calculated by a numerical decomposition method. These calculated dose conversion factors were, then, electronically implemented to a developed dose conversion unit (DCU) which is a microprocessor-controlled single channel analyzer (SCA) with variable discrimination levels. The simulated spectra were confirmed by measurement of several monoenergetic gamma spectra with a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The converted exposure dose rates from the implemented dose conversion algorithm in the DCU were also evaluated for a field test in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant at Kori as well as for several standard sources, and the results were in good agreement with separate measurement by a high pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) within a 6.4% deviation.

  9. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  10. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  11. Object Closure Conversion * Neal Glew

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glew, Neal

    of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object closure conversio* *n Object Closure Conversion * Neal into closed code and auxiliary data* * structures. Closure conversion has been extensively studied

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Thermochemical Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  13. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  14. Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327­340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients; Dose conversion coefficients; Scaling factors; Radon progeny 1. Introduction Epidemiological studies cancer associated with exposure to radon progeny (Lubin, 1988). More recently, Lubin et al (1994

  15. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  16. Ashland oil, Inc. v. Sonford Products Corp., Kelley v. Tiscornia, and United States v. Fleet Factors Corp.: Upholding EPA`s lender liability rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, W.D. Jr. [San Francisco`s Graham & James, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    John Grisham`s novel The Firm relates the story of Mitchell McDeere, a young law school graduate who believes that he is joining a {open_quotes}white shoe{close_quotes} Memphis, Tennessee, firm but discovers that the firm is controlled by the Mob. A similar, but different, {open_quotes}surprise{close_quotes} has befallen banks as a result of toxic waste cleanup cost claims. When the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) was passed in 1980, banks had no cause for alarm because the Act provided an exemption from its ownership-based liability for any lender holding {open_quotes}indicia of ownership primarily to protect his security interest{close_quotes} in a hazardous waste facility. Based on the statutory language, it seemed reasonably clear that Congress did not intend to impose liability on secured creditors merely for securing a debt with a deed of trust or mortgage. Unfortunately, lender liability for CERCLA claims arose in the mid-1980s out of two lower federal court decisions and the Eleventh Circuit`s controversial, to say the least, 1990 decision in United States v. Fleet Factors Corp (Fleet Factors II). The major issues currently confronting lenders under CERCLA are (1) the extent to which a secured creditor may involve itself in the debtor`s operations, especially during a loan workout program, without becoming liable for cleanup costs as a CERCLA {open_quotes}owner or operator{close_quotes} and (2) whether a lender who forecloses on collateral and takes title is liable under CERCLA. 94 refs.

  17. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  18. Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section distinguishes between large (capacity 5,000 kW or more) and small (capacity of less than 5,000 kW) wind energy conversion systems (WECS), and regulates the siting of large conversion...

  19. Hydrocarbon conversion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Field, L.A.; Robinson, R.C.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrocarbon conversion process is disclosed having a very high selectivity for dehydrocyclization. In one aspect of this process, a hydrocarbon feed is subjected to hydrotreating, then the hydrocarbon feed is passed through a sulfur removal system which reduces the sulfur concentration of the hydrocarbon feed to below 500 ppb, and then the hydrocarbon feed is reformed over a dehydrocyclization catalyst comprising a large pore zeolite containing at least one Group VIII metal to produce aromatics and hydrogen.

  20. Object Closure Conversion Cornell University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glew, Neal

    that a direct formulation of object closure conversion is interesting and gives further insight into generalObject Closure Conversion Neal Glew Cornell University 24 August 1999 Abstract An integral part of implementing functional languages is closure conversion--the process of converting code with free variables

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesWavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion Materials Overview of SSL Wavelength Conversion Materials Rare-Earth Phosphors Inorganic phosphors doped with...

  2. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftin Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology haveThe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 2rogrammatic

  3. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

  4. Collaborative Unit Construction in Korean: Pivot Turns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Hee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. (1996). Practices in the construction of turns: the ‘TCU’Scheutz, H. (2005). Pivot constructions in spoken German. InM. (2000). The construction of units in conversational talk.

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  6. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Berkeley...

  8. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  9. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: biomass conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass conversion Sandia Video Featured by DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office On December 10, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News &...

  11. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  12. Friction pressure drop measurements and flow distribution analysis for LEU conversion study of MIT Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Susanna Yuen-Ting

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MIT Nuclear Research Reactor (MITR) is the only research reactor in the United States that utilizes plate-type fuel elements with longitudinal fins to augment heat transfer. Recent studies on the conversion to low-enriched ...

  13. Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozik, A.; Miller, J.

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient and cost-effective direct conversion of solar photons into solar electricity and solar fuels is one of the most important scientific and technological challenges of this century. It is estimated that at least 20 terawatts of carbon-free energy (1 and 1/2 times the total amount of all forms of energy consumed today globally), in the form of electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels, will be required by 2050 in order to avoid the most serious consequences of global climate change and to ensure adequate global energy supply that will avoid economic chaos. But in order for solar energy to contribute a major fraction of future carbon-free energy supplies, it must be priced competitively with, or perhaps even be less costly than, energy from fossil fuels and nuclear power as well as other renewable energy resources. The challenge of delivering very low-cost solar fuels and electricity will require groundbreaking advances in both fundamental and applied science. This Thematic Issue on Solar Photon Conversion will provide a review by leading researchers on the present status and prognosis of the science and technology of direct solar photoconversion to electricity and fuels. The topics covered include advanced and novel concepts for low-cost photovoltaic (PV) energy based on chemistry (dye-sensitized photoelectrodes, organic and molecular PV, multiple exciton generation in quantum dots, singlet fission), solar water splitting, redox catalysis for water oxidation and reduction, the role of nanoscience and nanocrystals in solar photoconversion, photoelectrochemical energy conversion, and photoinduced electron transfer. The direct conversion of solar photons to electricity via photovoltaic (PV) cells is a vital present-day commercial industry, with PV module production growing at about 75%/year over the past 3 years. However, the total installed yearly averaged energy capacity at the end of 2009 was about 7 GW-year (0.2% of global electricity usage). Thus, there is potential for the PV industry to grow enormously in the future (by factors of 100-300) in order for it to provide a significant fraction of total global electricity needs (currently about 3.5 TW). Such growth will be greatly facilitated by, and probably even require, major advances in the conversion efficiency and cost reduction for PV cells and modules; such advances will depend upon advances in PV science and technology, and these approaches are discussed in this Thematic Issue. Industrial and domestic electricity utilization accounts for only about 30% of the total energy consumed globally. Most ({approx}70%) of our energy consumption is in the form of liquid and gaseous fuels. Presently, solar-derived fuels are produced from biomass (labeled as biofuels) and are generated through biological photosynthesis. The global production of liquid biofuels in 2009 was about 1.6 million barrels/day, equivalent to a yearly output of about 2.5 EJ (about 1.3% of global liquid fuel utilization). The direct conversion of solar photons to fuels produces high-energy chemical products that are labeled as solar fuels; these can be produced through nonbiological approaches, generally called artificial photosynthesis. The feedstocks for artificial photosynthesis are H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, either reacting as coupled oxidation-reduction reactions, as in biological photosynthesis, or by first splitting H{sub 2}O into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and then reacting the solar H{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} (or CO produced from CO2) in a second step to produce fuels through various well-known chemical routes involving syngas, water gas shift, and alcohol synthesis; in some applications, the generated solar H{sub 2} itself can be used as an excellent gaseous fuel, for example, in fuel cells. But at the present time, there is no solar fuels industry. Much research and development are required to create a solar fuels industry, and this Thematic Issue presents several reviews on the relevant solar fuels science and technology. The first three manuscripts relate to the daunting problem of producing

  14. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - I United States Department of Energy D lSCk Al M E R "This book was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United...

  15. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and fabrication of a range of new cell materials and geometries at Konarka's manufacturing facilities, and the irradiation testing and evaluation of these new cell designs within the UML Radiation Laboratory. The primary focus of all this work was to establish the proof of concept of the basic gammavoltaic principle using a new class of dye-sensitized photon converter (DSPC) materials based on KTI's original DSSC design. In achieving this goal, this report clearly establishes the viability of the basic gammavoltaic energy conversion concept, yet it also identifies a set of challenges that must be met for practical implementation of this new technology.

  16. Conversion of DAP models to SPEEDUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aull, J.E.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several processes at the Savannah River Site are modeled using Bechtel`s Dynamic Analysis Program (DAP) which uses a sequential modular modeling architecture. The feasibility of conversion of DAP models to SPEEDUP was examined because of the benefits associated with this de facto industry standard. The equation-based approach used in SPEEDUP gives accuracy, stability, and ease of maintenance. The DAP licenses on our site are for single-user PS/2 machines whereas the SPEEDUP product is licensed on a VAX minicomputer which provides faster execution and ease of integration with existing visualization tools. In this paper the basic unit operations of a DAP model that simulates a ventilation system are described. The basic operations were modeled with both DAP and SPEEDUP, and the two models yield results that are in close agreement. Since the basic unit operations of the DAP model have been successfully duplicated using SPEEDUP, it is feasible to proceed with model conversion. DAP subroutines and functions that involve only algebraic manipulation may be inserted directly into the SPEEDUP model or their underlying equations may be extracted and written as SPEEDUP model equations. A problem modeled in SPEEDUP running on a VAX 8810 runs approximately fifteen times faster in elapsed time than the same problem modeled with DAP on a 33 MHz Intel 80486 processor.

  17. Factors that Determine Academic Versus Private Practice Career Interest in Radiation Oncology Residents in the United States: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Shaffer, Jenny L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine what factors US radiation oncology residents consider when choosing academic or nonacademic careers. Methods and Materials: A 20-question online survey was developed and sent to all US radiation oncology residents to assess factors that influence their career interest. Residents were asked to rate their interest in academics (A) versus private practice (PP) on a 0 (strong interest in A) to 100 (strong interest in PP) scale. Responses were classified as A (0-30), undecided (40-60), and PP (70-100). Residents were also asked to rank 10 factors that most strongly influenced their career interest. Results: Three hundred thirty-one responses were collected, of which 264 were complete and form the basis for this analysis. Factors that correlated with interest in A included having a PhD (P=.018), postgraduate year level (P=.0006), research elective time (P=.0003), obtaining grant funding during residency (P=.012), and number of publications before residency (P=.0001), but not number of abstracts accepted in the past year (P=.65) or publications during residency (P=.67). The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in A were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) research opportunities during residency. The 3 most influential factors for residents interested in PP were: (1) baseline interest before residency; (2) academic role models; and (3) academic pressure and obligations. Conclusions: Interest in A correlated with postgraduate year level, degree, and research time during residency. Publications before but not during residency correlated with academic interest, and baseline interest was the most influential factor. These data can be used by residency program directors to better understand what influences residents' career interest.

  18. HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glew, Neal

    classes is an exam* *ple of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion __________________________________________________________________________ Abstract An integral part of implementing functional languages is closure conversion_the process

  19. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~June 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  20. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftr:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)r:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  2. Third Report to the President of the United States of America...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and improved efficiencies in conversion processes. 6 In the United States, GHG emission reductions since 2005 from electricity and heat generation were driven in part by...

  3. The effect of sociocultural factors on the quality of relations of the United States with Hispaniola: analysis of the American military occupation of Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1915-1934)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Fausto B.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS ON THE QUALITY OF RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES WITH HISPANIOLA: ANALYSIS OF THE AMERICAN MILITARY OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1915-1934) A Thesis By FAUSTO B. ALVAREZ Submitted... WITH HISPANIOLA: ANALYSIS OF THE AMERICAN MILITARY OCCUPATION OF HAITI AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC (1915-1934) A Thesis by FAUSTO B. ALVAREZ Approved as to style and content by: C arrperson o Co ee) ames H. Copp (Member) Wm. Alex McIntosh (Member) James...

  4. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

  5. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  6. Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWindConversion Biochemical Conversion This area focuses

  7. UNIT NUMBER:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    193 UNIT NUMBER: 197 UNIT NAME: CONCRETE RUBBLE PILE (30) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside plant security fence, north of the plant on Big Bayou Creek on private property....

  8. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  9. Tenneco upgrades system with equipment conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, K. [Ariel Corp., Mt. Vernon, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tenneco Gas, Inc., Houston, recently completed the successful conversion of over 14,300 horsepower compression equipment at its transmission in Catlettsburg, KY. The system consists of three identical Ariel JGC/6 compressors, driven by three matching Ansaldo electric motors, capable of running between 450 and 900 rpm. These variable speed, synchronous electric motors allow for greater flexibility, without the use of traditional cylinder unloaders. If desired Eureka Energy Systems, Richardson, TX designed the compressor package. One of Tenneco`s objectives when selecting a package to upgrade existing compression capabilities was to ensure compliance with future regulations promulgated pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Initially, Tenneco considered separable compressors because of the availability of the newer, clean burning, gas ignited drivers in the 5,000 horsepower range, such as the Caterpillar 3612 and 3616. This paper reviews the design, performance and comparative operating cost of these compressor units.

  10. HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glew, Neal

    is an example of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object closure conversionHOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew 1 Department of Computer Science conversion--the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data structures

  11. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  12. UNIT NUMBER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 UNIT NAME C-611 Underaround Diesel Tank REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Immediately southeast of C-611 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 1000 gallon FUNCTION: Diesel storage OPERATIONAL...

  13. MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegel, Denis

    TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

  14. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  15. Automatic Test Factoring for Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saff, David

    2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Test factoring creates fast, focused unit tests from slow system-widetests; each new unit test exercises only a subset of the functionalityexercised by the system test. Augmenting a test suite with factoredunit tests ...

  16. Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Liu; C. M. Ko; B. W. Zhang

    2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Quark and gluon jets traversing through a quark-gluon plasma not only lose their energies but also can undergo flavor conversions. The conversion rates via the elastic $q(\\bar q)g\\to gq(\\bar q)$ and the inelastic $q\\bar q\\leftrightarrow gg$ scatterings are evaluated in the lowest order in QCD. Including both jet energy loss and conversions in the expanding quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, we have found a net conversion of quark to gluon jets. This reduces the difference between the nuclear modification factors for quark and gluon jets in central heavy ion collisions and thus enhances the $p/\\pi^+$ and ${\\bar p}/\\pi^-$ ratios at high transverse momentum. However, a much larger net quark to gluon jet conversion rate than the one given by the lowest-order QCD is needed to account for the observed similar ratios in central Au+Au and p+p collisions at same energy. Implications of our results are discussed.

  17. 57Unit Conversions III 1 Astronomical Unit = 1.0 AU = 1.49 x 108

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for solar panels. The roof measures 50 feet x 28 feet. The solar panels cost $1.00/cm 2 and generate 0 the solar panels cost to install? C) What would be the owners cost for the electricity in dollars per watt

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Biochemical Conversion Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with: Biochemical Conversion Program * Biofuels * Combustion Research Facility * CRF * Energy * Lignocellulosic biomass * Microalgae * SAND 2011-5054W * Transportation Energy...

  19. UNIT NUMBER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 C-750B Diesel UST UNIT NAME REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Southeast corner of C-750 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 10,000 gallon FUNCTION: Diesel storage OPERATIONAL STATUS: Removed...

  20. Petar Ljusev SIngle Conversion stage AMplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio outputPetar Ljusev SIngle Conversion stage AMplifier - SICAM PhD thesis, December 2005 #12;#12;To Elena of the project "SICAM - SIngle Conversion stage AMplifier", funded by the Danish Energy Authority under the EFP

  1. Data Conversion in Residue Number System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilic, Zeljko

    for direct conversion when interaction with the real analog world is required. We first develop two efficient schemes for direct analog-to-residue conversion. Another efficient scheme for direct residue analogique réel est nécessaire. Nous dévelopons deux systèmes efficaces pour la conversion directe du domaine

  2. HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glew, Neal

    classes is an example of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object closureHOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew 1 Department of Computer Science conversion---the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data

  3. Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion This fact sheet describes a next-generation thermionic solar energy conversion...

  4. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byand M.D. Sands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminaryof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotCommercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,

  7. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct energy conversion ..developed. Typically, direct energy conversion is achievedTechnologies 1.2.1. Direct energy conversion In a direct

  8. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALM.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion DraftDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  10. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminaryCompany. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission analysis

  11. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants bySands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotof the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,

  13. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant-impact assessment ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

  14. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants bySands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plantof the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,

  15. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)field of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

  17. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

  18. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionE. Hathaway. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. AElectric Company. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission

  19. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)the intermediate field of ocean thermal energy conversionII of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,and M.D. Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

  1. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  2. Method for regeneration and activity improvement of syngas conversion catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucki, Stanley J. (Runnemede, NJ); Brennan, James A. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for the treatment of single particle iron-containing syngas (synthes.s gas) conversion catalysts comprising iron, a crystalline acidic aluminosilicate zeolite having a silica to alumina ratio of at least 12, a pore size greater than about 5 Angstrom units and a constraint index of about 1-12 and a matrix. The catalyst does not contain promoters and the treatment is applicable to either the regeneration of said spent single particle iron-containing catalyst or for the initial activation of fresh catalyst. The treatment involves air oxidation, hydrogen reduction, followed by a second air oxidation and contact of the iron-containing single particle catalyst with syngas prior to its use for the catalytic conversion of said syngas. The single particle iron-containing catalysts are prepared from a water insoluble organic iron compound.

  3. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Treatment and reuse of coal conversion wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthy, R.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a synopsis of recent experimental activities to evaluate processing characteristics of coal conversion wastewaters. Treatment studies have been performed with high-BTU coal gasification process quench waters to assess enhanced removal of organic compounds via powdered activated carbon-activated sludge treatment, and to evaluate a coal gasification wastewater treatment train comprised of sequential processing by ammonia removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda softening, granular activated carbon adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In addition, treatment studies are in progress to evaluate solvent extraction of gasification process wastewater to recover phenolics and to reduce wastewater loading of priority organic pollutants. Biological oxidation of coal gasification wastewater has shown excellent removal efficiencies of major and trace organic contaminants at moderate loadings, addition of powdered activated carbon provides lower effluent COD and color. Gasification process wastewater treated through biological oxidation, lime-soda softening and activated carbon adsorption appears suitable for reuse as cooling tower make-up water. Solvent extraction is an effective means to reduce organic loadings to downstream processing units. In addition, preliminary results have shown that solvent extraction removes chromatographable organic contaminants to low levels.

  5. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E. (Bozeman, MT); Wheeler, Floyd J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cook, Jeremy L. (Greeley, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

  6. Sandia Energy - Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInApplied &ClimateContactEnergy Conversion

  7. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an...

  8. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base Gregory D. Croft1 and Tad W the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production of this highest-rank coal. The pro- duction of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80

  9. USE OF MIXTURES AS WORKING FLUIDS IN OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CYCLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan Zafar Iqbal; Kenneth E. Starling

    Mixtures offer potential advantages over pure compounds as working fluids in ocean thermal energy conversion cycles. Power plant capital costs per unit of energy output can be reduced using mixtures because of increased thermal efficiency and/or decreased heat exchanger size requirements. Mixtures

  10. Pyroelectric energy conversion using PLZT ceramics and the ferroelectricergodic relaxor phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    with direct conversion of waste heat into electricity by executing the Olsen cycle on lead lanthanum zirconate. Introduction Waste heat is a necessary by-product of all thermodynamic cycles implemented in power in the United States was lost as low temperature waste heat, most of it discharged to the environment [2]. More

  11. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to accept a varying dc voltage source. The study will also look at technical issues pertaining to the interconnection and coordinated/compatible operation of multiple microturbines. It is important to know today if modifications to provide improved operation and additional services will entail complete redesign, selected component changes, software modifications, or the addition of power storage devices. This project is designed to provide a strong technical foundation for determining present technical needs and identifying recommendations for future work.

  12. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery PI - Chris Caylor, GMZ Director of Thermoelectric Systems GMZ Team: Bed Poudel, Giri Joshi, Jonathan D'Angelo,...

  13. LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

  14. "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News...

  15. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events...

  16. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential or otherwise restricted information Project ID ace47lagrandeur Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program- 2009 Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  17. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Start Date: Oct '04 Program End date: Oct '10 Percent Complete: 80% 2 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program- Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit...

  18. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading PNNL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates upgrading. ctabwebinarcarbohyd...

  19. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue University report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on Carbohydrates Production....

  20. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three basic steps to convert biomass feedstocks to fuels: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock Fermenting...

  1. Electrochemomechanical Energy Conversion in Nanofluidic Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Electrochemomechanical Energy Conversion in Nanofluidic Channels Hirofumi Daiguji,*, Peidong Yang the height of a nanofluidic channel containing surface charge, a unipolar solution of counterions

  2. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  3. INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Information Processing Devices, Nice 2006 S. Dilhaire, W. Claeys, S. Grauby, J.M. Rampnoux, Y. Ezzahri,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical delay Ti:Sa Laser Probe beam Pump beam AOMModulation Translation command unit Modulation filter WORKSHOP ON Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Information Processing Devices, Nice 2006 Metal Cap layer Super latticeLaser Nano Ultrasonics #12;INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON Nanoscale Energy Conversion and Information

  4. Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Shaun K.

    Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Karim Said Warby Parker's Facebook page and explore the ways customers formulate questions and conversations,000 Facebook posts, consisting of photos, comments, and "likes". Using statistical analyses and qualitative

  5. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  6. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  7. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, A A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  8. Heat to electricity thermoacoustic-magnetohydrodynamic conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Castrejon-Pita; G. Huelsz

    2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new concept for the conversion of heat into electricity is presented. The conversion is based on the combined effects of a thermoacoustic prime mover coupled with a magnetohydrodynamic generator, using different working fluids in each process. The results of preliminary experiments are also presented.

  9. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $55/dry T. programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quantity, quality and did not include a grower payment. The 2017 Design Case explores two approaches to addressing the logistics challenge: one is an agronomic solution based on blending and integrated landscape management and the second is a logistics solution based on distributed biomass preprocessing depots. The concept behind blended feedstocks and integrated landscape management is to gain access to more regional feedstock at lower access fees (i.e., grower payment) and to reduce preprocessing costs by blending high quality feedstocks with marginal quality feedstocks. Blending has been used in the grain industry for a long time; however, the concept of blended feedstocks in the biofuel industry is a relatively new concept. The blended feedstock strategy relies on the availability of multiple feedstock sources that are blended using a least-cost formulation within an economical supply radius, which, in turn, decreases the grower payment by reducing the amount of any single biomass. This report will introduce the concepts of blending and integrated landscape management and justify their importance in meeting the 2017 programmatic goals.

  10. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

  11. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, James Scott (Englewood, CO); Wanlass, Mark Woodbury (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy Arthur (Conifer, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  12. Oil Shale Mining Claims Conversion Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session on S. 2089, H. R. 1039, April 22, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hearing was called to examine two bills which address the processing of oil shale mining claims and patents by the Department of the Interior under the General Mining Law of 1872. S.2089 would provide for certain requirements relating to the conversion of oil shale mining claims located under the Mining Law of 1872 to leases and H.R.1039 would amend section 37 of the Mineral Lands Leasing Act of 1920 relating to oil shale claims. Under the new bills the owners of oil shale mining claims must make an election within 180 days after enactment as to whether to convert their claims to leases or to maintain their claims by performing 1000 dollars of annual assessment work on the claim, filing annually an affidavit of assessment work performed, and producing oil shale in significant marketable amounts within 10 years from the date of enactment of the legislation.

  13. An Olefin Unit's Energy Audit and Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehler, J. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conversion Energy Index is essentially constant above 85%jof capacity. Energy consumption increases as capacity is reduced from 85% to 62%. The energy increase results from recycling on the centrifugal cracked gas and propylene compressors. At 62.... The data covering a range of operating rates from 45% to 101% of design is presented in Figure No.2. The Olefins unit has two cracked gas compressors, one ethylene refrigeration and two propylene refrigeration compressors. The curve shows the ethylene...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

  18. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  19. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  20. Experimental and Analytical Studies on Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Felix

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-e?ciency direct conversion of heat to electrical energyJ. Yu and M. Ikura, “Direct conversion of low-grade heat tois concerned with direct conversion of thermal energy into

  1. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $35 programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quality

  2. Termination unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  3. Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Kathy Yelick

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kathy Yelick

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Kathy Yelick, Associate Berkeley Lab Director, Computing Sciences, in the second of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 18th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

  4. Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Kathy Yelick

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathy Yelick

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Kathy Yelick, Associate Berkeley Lab Director, Computing Sciences, in the second of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 18th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

  5. Energy Conversion and Transmission Facilities (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation applies to energy conversion facilities designed for or capable of generating 100 MW or more of electricity, wind energy facilities with a combined capacity of 100 MW, certain...

  6. Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Omar Yaghi

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Omar Yaghi

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, in the first of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 11th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

  7. Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Shylesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

  8. Radio frequency dc-dc power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivas, Juan, 1976-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THIS THESIS addresses the development of system architectures and circuit topologies for dc-dc power conversion at very high frequencies. The systems architectures that are developed are structured to overcome limitations ...

  9. Electrokinetic Energy Conversion Efficiency in Nanofluidic Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Electrokinetic Energy Conversion Efficiency in Nanofluidic Channels Frank H. J. van der Heyden- and nanofluidic devices2-5 whose geometries and material properties can be engineered. High energy

  10. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. Catalytic Consequences of Acid Strength in the Conversion of Methanol to Dimethyl Ether. Abstract:...

  11. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Process...

  12. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor...

  13. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

  14. Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts The Bioenergy...

  15. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on...

  16. WEC up! Energy Department Announces Wave Energy Conversion Prize...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    WEC up Energy Department Announces Wave Energy Conversion Prize Administrator WEC up Energy Department Announces Wave Energy Conversion Prize Administrator September 24, 2014 -...

  17. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent...

  18. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

  19. District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District This project will impact the...

  20. aspergillus fumigatus conversion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    135 Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Framing the...

  1. alkane conversion chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. 472 Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Framing the...

  2. antidiabetic bis-maltolato-oxovanadiumiv conversion: Topics by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88 Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Framing the...

  3. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a OTR truck schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  4. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  5. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    truck system. schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste...

  6. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  7. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This...

  8. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large

  9. Lattice effect in solid state internal conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalman, Peter; Keszthelyi, Tamas [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Experimental Physics, Budafoki ut 8. F. I.I.10, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the crystal lattice on nuclear fusion reactions p+d{yields}{sup 3}He taking place in internal conversion channels is studied. Fusionable particles solved in the investigated crystalline material form a sublattice. Fusion reaction is generated by a flux of incoming fusionable particles. The calculated cross sections are compared with those of an ordinary fusion reaction. The internal conversion coefficients are also calculated.

  10. Task 3.3: Warm Syngas Cleanup and Catalytic Processes for Syngas Conversion to Fuels Subtask 3: Advanced Syngas Conversion to Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Li, J.; Taylor, Charles E.; Wang, Yong; Dagle, Robert A.; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Bao, Xinhe

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative joint research project is in the area of advanced gasification and conversion, within the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Memorandum of Understanding. The goal for this subtask is the development of advanced syngas conversion technologies. Two areas of investigation were evaluated: Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Syngas The conversion of synthetic gas (syngas) to synthetic natural gas (SNG) is typically catalyzed by nickel catalysts performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325°C). The reaction is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated, which can lead to process thermal imbalance and destruction of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is typically limited, and substantial syngas recycle is employed. Commercial methanation catalysts and processes have been developed by Haldor Topsoe, and in some reports, they have indicated that there is a need and opportunity for thermally more robust methanation catalysts to allow for higher per-pass conversion in methanation units. SNG process requires the syngas feed with a higher H2/CO ratio than typically produced from gasification processes. Therefore, the water-gas shift reaction (WGS) will be required to tailor the H2/CO ratio. Integration with CO2 separation could potentially eliminate the need for a separate WGS unit, thereby integrating WGS, methanation, and CO2 capture into one single unit operation and, consequently, leading to improved process efficiency. The SNG process also has the benefit of producing a product stream with high CO2 concentrations, which makes CO2 separation more readily achievable. The use of either adsorbents or membranes that selectively separate the CO2 from the H2 and CO would shift the methanation reaction (by driving WGS for hydrogen production) and greatly improve the overall efficiency and economics of the process. The scope of this activity was to develop methods and enabling materials for syngas conversion to SNG with readily CO2 separation. Suitable methanation catalyst and CO2 sorbent materials were developed. Successful proof-of-concept for the combined reaction-sorption process was demonstrated, which culminated in a research publication. With successful demonstration, a decision was made to switch focus to an area of fuels research of more interest to all three research institutions (CAS-NETL-PNNL). Syngas-to-Hydrocarbon Fuels through Higher Alcohol Intermediates There are two types of processes in syngas conversion to fuels that are attracting R&D interest: 1) syngas conversion to mixed alcohols; and 2) syngas conversion to gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline process developed by Exxon-Mobil in the 1970s. The focus of this task was to develop a one-step conversion technology by effectively incorporating both processes, which is expected to reduce the capital and operational cost associated with the conversion of coal-derived syngas to liquid fuels. It should be noted that this work did not further study the classic Fischer-Tropsch reaction pathway. Rather, we focused on the studies for unique catalyst pathways that involve the direct liquid fuel synthesis enabled by oxygenated intermediates. Recent advances made in the area of higher alcohol synthesis including the novel catalytic composite materials recently developed by CAS using base metal catalysts were used.

  11. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  12. The conversion of solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    The conversion of solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process energy or photon units. Irradiance is the amount of energy that falls on a flat sensor of known area per and energy units for sunlight can be intercon- verted relatively easily, provided that the wavelength

  13. Public Health FAT FACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    : THE UNITED STATES SPENDS MORE ON HEALTH CARE THAN ANY OTHER COUNTRY. YET WE CONTINUE TO FALL FAR BEHIND States spends an astonishing percent of our gross domestic product on health care--significantly moreColumbia Public Health HOT TOPIC Climate Change FAT FACTORS Obesity Prevention BOOK SMART

  14. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)] [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  15. Land-use implications of wind-energy-conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noun, R.J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimated 20 utilities in the United States are now investigating potential wind machine sites in their areas. Identifying sites for wind machine clusters (wind farms) involves more than just finding a location with a suitable wind resource. Consideration must also be given to the proximity of sites to existing transmission lines, environmental impacts, aesthetics, and legal concerns as well as the availability of and alternative uses for the land. These issues have made it increasingly difficult for utilities to bring conventional power plants on-line quickly. Utilities are now required, however, to give careful consideration to specific legal, social, and environmental questions raised by the siting of wind energy conversion systems (WECS).

  16. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a catalyst composition. It comprises: a modified Y zeolite having a unit cell size below about 24.45 {angstrom}, a degree of crystallinity which is at least retained at increasing SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios, a SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio between about 8 to about 15, a water adsorption capacity at (25{degree}C and a p/p{sub {ital o}} value of 0.2) of between about 10--15% by weight of modified zeolite and a pore volume of at lest about 0.25 ml/g. Between about 10 to about 40% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least about 8 nm; an amorphous cracking component comprising a silica-alumina containing 50--95% by weight of silica; a binder comprising alumina; from about 0.05 to about 10 percent by weight of nickel and from about 2 to about 40 percent by weight of tungsten, calculated as metals per 100 parts by weight of total catalyst. The modified Y zeolite and amorphous cracking component comprises about 60--85% by weight of the total catalyst, the binder comprises about 15--40% by weight of the total catalyst and the amount of modified Y zeolite ranges between about 10--75% of the combined amount of modified Y zeolite and amorphous cracking component.

  17. Dual-fuel engine conversions evaluated by U.S. Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In seeking ways to reduce emissions from two-stroke locomotive type engines, the Navy has evaluated dual-fuel conversions operating on a compression ignition cycle, using up to 94% natural gas and 6% diesel pilot fuel. The Navy has conducted an evaluation and test program under the direction of Dr. Normnn L. Helgeson, at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California. Of the Navy`s many diesel engines, those installed in its MUSE (mobile utility support equipment) units for temporary electrical power were the first Navy off-road engines to be affected by emissions regulations. Most of the units are powered by the EMD 645 engine, and when burning diesel fuel do not meet the emission requirements in many areas of the country. This paper discusses the changes and results of the conversion and shakedown tests.

  18. The impact of conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners on ash characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robi, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Groppo, J.G.; Rathbone, R.F.; Taulbee, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research initiative focusing on the changes in coal-combustion byproducts that result from the conversion of coal-fired boilers to low-NO{sub x} burners has been implemented at the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER). This paper presents selected results from the first such study, the conversion of East Kentucky Power`s 116 MW, wall-fired unit {number_sign}1 at the John Sherman Cooper Station in Pulaski County, Kentucky. Samples of the coal feedstock and fly ash recovered in several downstream collection vessels were collected prior to and following conversion and extensively analyzed. The results presented in this report include total carbon, petrography, mineralogy, particle size, and leaching characteristics. The major changes noted in the fly-ash properties include an increase in carbon content, a slight increase in particle size, and a decrease in glassy components in the ash following conversion. Those changes induced by the conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners are evaluated in terms of the potential impact on the marketability of the fly ash.

  19. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  20. Strong converse theorems using Rényi entropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Leditzky; Nilanjana Datta

    2015-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a R\\'enyi entropy approach to prove strong converse theorems for certain information-theoretic tasks which involve local operations and quantum (or classical) communication between two parties. These include state redistribution, coherent state merging, quantum state splitting, randomness extraction against quantum side information, and data compression with quantum side information. The method we employ in proving these results extends ideas developed by Sharma [arXiv:1404.5940] to prove the strong converse theorem for state merging. For state redistribution, we prove the strong converse property for the boundary of the entire achievable rate region in the $(e,q)$-plane, where $e$ and $q$ denote the entanglement cost and quantum communication cost, respectively. This extends a recent strong converse theorem for the quantum communication cost of state redistribution, proved by Berta et al. [arXiv:1409.4338]. For the other tasks as well, we provide new proofs for strong converse theorems which were previously established using smooth entropies.

  1. Multi-factor authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  6. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  7. Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

  8. The Food Crises: A quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely impacting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the US, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, while an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take ad...

  9. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  10. Probing nuclear matter with jet conversions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Fries, Rainer J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    present some estimates for the rate of jet conversions in a consistent Fokker-Planck framework and their impact on future high-p(T) identified hadron measurements at RHIC and LHC. We also suggest some novel observables to test flavor effects....

  11. Soft materials for linear electromechanical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antal Jakli; Nandor Eber

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review the literature of linear electromechanical effects of soft materials, especially in synthetic and biological polymers and liquid crystals (LCs). First we describe results on direct and converse piezoelectricity, and then we discuss a linear coupling between bending and electric polarization, which maybe called bending piezoelectricity, or flexoelectricity.

  12. IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) conversion, balances,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    #3/6 IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) VST rz13 1/118 3. Energy conversion, balances rz13 2/118 3.1: Energy #12;#3/6 IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) VST rz13 3/118 What is energy? · "Energy is any quantity that changes the state of a closed system when crossing the system boundary" (SEHB

  13. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Electrical power conversion is essential for improving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    % Electricity is the most flexible and efficient source of energy to power mankind. If we improveElectrical power conversion is essential for improving energy efficiency and harvesting renewable energy. Diploma Master of Science Electrical Engineering Track: Electrical Sustainable Energy Credits 120

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion History Mostly about USA 1980's to 1990's and bias towards Vega Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC) #12;#12;Claude's Off Rio de Janeiro (1933) · Floating Ice Plant: 2.2 MW OC- OTEC to produce 2000

  16. NAVFAC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NAVFAC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Project Contract Number N62583-09-C-0083 CDRL A014 OTEC Mini-Spar Pilot Plant 9 December 2011 OTEC-2011-001-4 Prepared for: Naval Facilities; distribution is unlimited. #12; Configuration Report and Development Plan Volume 4 Site Specific OTEC

  17. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion History Mostly about USA 1980's to 1990's and bias towards Vega · Floating Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC: Georges Claude (Open Cycle OTEC) · 1928 Ougree Experiment, France: Factory Water Outflow (33 °C) & Meuse

  18. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fifth Annual Conference on Materials for Coal Conversion and Utilization was held October 7-9, 1980, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Sixty-six papers have been entered individually into ERA and EDB; two had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting E. Kioupakis1,2 , P. Rinke1,3 , A. Janotti1 , Q. Yan1 fraction of the world's energy resources [1]. Lighting has been one of the earliest applications. The inefficiency of existing light sources that waste most of the power they consume is the reason for this large

  20. Power Conversion APEX Interim Report November, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Efficiency for different steam cycles. 17.2 Close cycle gas turbine: The closed cycle gas turbine has. POWER CONVERSION 17.1 Steam Cycle Different steam cycles have been well developed. A study by EPRI summarized the various advanced steam cycles which maybe available for an advanced coal power plant

  1. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on the conversion process, preconceptual plant description, rough capital and operating costs, and preliminary project schedule.

  2. Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel UGA, ORNL research team engineers microbes for the direct conversion of biomass to fuel July 11, 2014 New research from the University of...

  3. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be 500 oC deer09schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  4. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005...

  5. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3.3 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Liquid Fuels . 3.3.1Conversion in the U.S. – Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, NaturalConversion in the U.S. – Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Natural

  6. Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

  7. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionOpen cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary1978. 'Open cycle thermal energy converS1on. A preliminary

  8. Current Research on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R. M.; Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Pepiot, P.; Donohoe, B. S.; Hensley, J. E.; Phillips, S. D.

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermochemical research platform at the National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is primarily focused on conversion of biomass to transportation fuels using non-biological techniques. Research is conducted in three general areas relating to fuels synthesis via thermochemical conversion by gasification: (1) Biomass gasification fundamentals, chemistry and mechanisms of tar formation; (2) Catalytic tar reforming and syngas cleaning; and (3) Syngas conversion to mixed alcohols. In addition, the platform supports activities in both technoeconomic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of thermochemical conversion processes. Results from the TEA and LCA are used to inform and guide laboratory research for alternative biomass-to-fuels strategies. Detailed process models are developed using the best available material and energy balance information and unit operations models created at NREL and elsewhere. These models are used to identify cost drivers which then form the basis for research programs aimed at reducing costs and improving process efficiency while maintaining sustainability and an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases.

  9. Screening method for wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.D.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening method is presented for evaluating wind energy conversion systems (WECS) logically and consistently. It is a set of procedures supported by a data base for large conventional WECS. The procedures are flexible enough to accommodate concepts lacking cost and engineering detail, as is the case with many innovative wind energy conversion systems (IWECS). The method uses both value indicators and simplified cost estimating procedures. Value indicators are selected ratios of engineering parameters involving energy, mass, area, and power. Cost mass ratios and cost estimating relationships were determined from the conventional WECS data base to estimate or verify installation cost estimates for IWECS. These value indicators and cost estimating procedures are shown for conventional WECS. An application of the method to a tracked-vehicle airfoil concept is presented.

  10. Integrating and Piloting Lignocellulose Biomass Conversion Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on NREL's integrated biomass conversion capabilities. Presented at the 2009 Advanced Biofuels Workshop in Denver, CO, Cellulosic Ethanol session.

  11. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydra...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels Cross-cutting...

  12. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repowering Project, Clean Coal Topical Report Number 20,P. and Nel, H. G. 2004, Clean coal conversion options using

  13. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  14. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  15. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  16. E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Report: E2I EPRI WP ­ 004 ­ US ­ Rev 1 #12;E2I EPRI Assessment - Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Table of Contents Introduction Assessment - Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Introduction E2I EPRI is leading a U.S. nationwide

  17. Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion Modelling of the volume #12;Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion Momentum University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion rad pp qHm x T k xx Tc u t Tc

  18. Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion ModellingSpecies #12;Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion Continuity+ -¸ ¹ · ¨ © § = + #12;Chalmers University of Technology Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion rad pp qHm x T k

  19. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); White, James F. (Richland, WA); Holladay, Johnathan E. (Kennewick, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Muzatko, Danielle S. (Kennewick, WA); Orth, Rick J. (Kennewick, WA)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  20. Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaffari, Azad

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    77 5.2 Wind Energy Conversion System . . . . .Optimization and Control in Wind Energy Conversion SystemsAC matrix con- verter for wind energy conversion system,” in

  1. COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Constance J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at several proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Environmental assessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (FROH A PROPOSED OCEAN THERHAL _ENERGY _CONVERSION(OTEC) --:

  2. COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Constance J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites toassessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) program;operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power

  3. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) ProgramAssessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), U.S.recommendations for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  4. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) ProgramAssessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), U.S.for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants. Argonne,

  5. COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Constance J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) program;proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites tooperation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power

  6. COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Constance J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at several proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Environmental assessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (The operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  7. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  8. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  9. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Huber, George W. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysis–mass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?–C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 °C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450–600 °C). At low temperatures (450 °C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include Diels–Alder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  10. Fabrication and testing of an infrared spectral control component for thermophotovoltaic power conversion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis M. (Francis Martin), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion is the direct conversion of thermal radiation to electricity. Conceptually, TPV power conversion is a very elegant means of energy conversion. A thermal source emits a radiative ...

  11. Energy conversion device with improved seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Gerald R. (Salt Lake City, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Midvale, UT)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy conversion device comprising an improved sealing member adapted to seal a cation-permeable casing to the remainder of the device. The sealing member comprises a metal substrate which (i) bears a nonconductive and corrosion resistant coating on the major surface to which said casing is sealed, and (ii) is corrugated so as to render it flexible, thereby allowing said member to move relative to said casing without cracking the seal therebetween. Corrugations may be circumferential, radial, or both radial and circumferential so as to form dimples. The corrugated member may be in form of a bellows or in a substantially flat form, such as a disc.

  12. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  13. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  14. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NREL RefinesAnalysisBiochemical Conversion

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NRELChemical and CatalystNewResearchConversion

  16. BETO Conversion Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automationj.Conversion Program BETO

  17. Conversation with Paul Brown | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew| Exploration Technique: ControlledConversation with Paul

  18. Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Atlantic Biomass

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversions to someone by E-mail Share

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Conversions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulaseFuelsConversionsTelework to

  1. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  2. Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion bychemistry) and develop renewable energy based processes.biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In

  3. Investigation of proton focusing and conversion efficiency for proton fast ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Teresa Jean

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.2 Proton Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma (LSP) simulations . . Proton Focusing and ConversionProton Focusing and Conversion Efficiency with Hemispherical

  4. ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    ft3 natural gas g. 4.490x1012 kWhe/yr x 1 0.14 x 1 2· 5.7 x 1 365 = 1.5x1010 m2 solar panels h a bicycle) because it does not incorporate all of the energy required to grow, process, transport, and cook

  5. Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier Neophytos Neophytou}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Large efforts in improving thermoelectric energy conversion are devoted to energy filtering design, ~40% improvement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved if the following conditions

  6. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is experiencing a rapidly growing demand for commercially traded wood fuel for energy production. Forest biomass for the production of woody biomass-related energy. It includes a summary and synthesis of published literature of forest biomass to energy conversion facilities, including Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Canada

  7. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  8. Recovery of Valuable Chlorosilane Intermediates by a Novel Waste Conversion Process, Phase IIIB (Progress)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt E. Anderson

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From June 1998 through September 1999, direct process residue (DPR, a waste byproduct) hydrogenolysis has been studied at a large pilot plant within Dow Corning's Carrollton, KY, facility. The system reacts filtered DPR with chlorosilane monomers at high temperature and pressure. The process routinely demonstrates DPR conversions from 59% to 89% on a monthly basis. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. An expansion of the current unit's capacity is planned to be on-line by the end of CY2000. Furthermore, a larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning's Barry, Wales, site.

  9. The addition of multichannel analog-to-digital conversion capability to a minicomputer facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malek-Shahmirzadi, Homayoun

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diagram. The multichannel analog-to-digital conversion system is intended to be used in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard 2114B digital computer system to help in solving some of the problem areas in sampling theory, control theory, and biomedical... buffer exchanges. The input/output requests perform status checking of the standard I/O devices, data recording on the magnetic tape re- corder (MT) unit, and message printing on the teletype (TTY). Hewlett-Packard Software Interface The HP computers...

  10. US energy conversion and use characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

  11. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  12. Influence of conversion to low NO{sub x} combustion on fly ash petrology and mineralogy: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The wall-fired 116 MW unit 2 at the John Sherman Cooper Station, Pulaski County, Kentucky, was converted to low-NO{sub x} combustion in the winter of 1993--1994. The fly ash from before and after conversion was studied in detail. The coal feed, which did not change significantly over the study, was from southeastern Kentucky and had an ash range of 10--12% and a sulfur range of 1.5--1.9%. The coal rank was high volatile bituminous A with a vitrinite reflectance (R{sub max}) of about 0.8%. The coal had about 17% by volume inertinite macerals (mineral-free basis). The fly ash carbon can be divided into three types: anisotropic coke, isotropic coke and inertinite. The post-conversion fly ash has nearly twice the amount of carbon as the pre-conversion ash and shows an increase in anisotropic coke. Mullite and quartz were observed petrographically to be more abundant in the post-conversion fly ash, although only the mullite increase was confirmed by XRD. The proportion of glass is slightly less in the post-conversion ash and is accompanied by one-third drop in the amount of cenospheres.

  13. Advanced Rooftop Unit Control

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced-Rooftop-Unit-Control Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" " ",,,"East North Central Census...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  1. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., Ashland, OR 97520 and Gwyneth Myer, Consultant, 220 W. Rapp Rd. Unit 3, Talent, OR 97540. #12;2 THE FIRE

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  10. St. Paul -West Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    's cooling system is scheduled to be on. Status Color Code: On In Progress Not started Building Name BuildingSt. Paul - West Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status 19th ave ramp 217 N/A N/A N/A 21

  11. Health Sciences District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    system is scheduled to be on. Status Color Code: On In Progress Not started *** - Typically between May 1Health Sciences District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling-15, as requested. Building Name Building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status

  12. East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on. Status Color Code: On In Progress Not started Building Name Building # Date Central Cooling On Status Date Window A/C Units installed Status 1425 University Ave. 127 1901 University Ave SE

  13. Conversion of transuranic waste to low level waste by decontamination: a site specific update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a followup to an FY-1984 cost/benefit study, a program was conducted in FY-1985 to transfer to the relevant DOE sites the information and technology for the direct conversion of transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW) by decontamination. As part of this work, the economic evaluation of the various TRUW volume reduction and conversion options was updated and expanded to include site-specific factors. The results show, for the assumptions used, that size reduction, size reduction followed by decontamination, or in situ decontamination are cost effective compared with the no-processing option. The technology transfer activities included site presentations and discussions with operations and waste management personnel to identify application opportunities and site-specific considerations and constraints that could affect the implementation of TRU waste conversion principles. These discussions disclosed definite potential for the beneficial application of these principles at most of the sites, but also confirmed the existence of site-specific factors ranging from space limitations to LLW disposal restrictions that could preclude particular applications or diminish expected benefits. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

  15. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

  16. Efficiency of light-frequency conversion in an atomic ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. H. Jen; T. A. B. Kennedy

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of frequency up and down conversion of light in an atomic ensemble, with a diamond level configuration, is analyzed theoretically. The conditions of pump field intensities and detunings required to maximize the conversion as a function of optical thickness of the ensemble are determined. The influence of the probe pulse duration on the conversion efficiency is investigated by numeric solution of the Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  17. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 > Continuously variable transmissions: theory and...

  18. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  19. Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) Continuously variable...

  20. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

  1. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources City of Eagan Civic Ice Arena Renovation Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling...

  2. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources City of Eagan Civic Ice Arena Renovation Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility...

  3. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment. 1978. Renewable ocean energy sources, Part I.on aquaculture and ocean energy systems for the county of310, the Ocean the Ocean Energy Thermal Energy Conversion

  4. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 environmental Seventh Ocean Energy Michel, H. B. , and M.of the Seventh Ocean Energy Conference, Washington, DC.1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)

  5. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and...

  6. CHEMICAL TRAPPING OF A PRIMARY QUANTUM CONVERSION PRODUCT IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P.; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONVERSION PRODUCT I N PHOTOSYNTHESIS G e r a l d A. C o r kthe two light acts of photosynthesis. Potassium Ecrricyanide

  7. Steam and Condensate System Optimization in Converse College, Spartanburg, SC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz, A.; Iordanova, N.; Stevenson, S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION IN CONVERSE COLLEGE, SPARTANBURG, SC Alberto Cruz, CEM Nevena Iordanova, CEM Susan Stevenson Energy Systems Engineer Director of Engineering Services VP for Finance...

  8. Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing July 30, 2014 Bryna Berendzen Technology Manager BETO Conversion...

  9. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured...

  10. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons...

  11. U-058: Apache Struts Conversion Error OGNL Expression Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in Apache Struts. A remote user can execute arbitrary commands on the target system. PLATFORM: Apache Struts 2.x ABSTRACT: Apache Struts Conversion...

  12. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of...

  13. 1 Conversational Agents 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lester, James C.

    Contents 1 Conversational Agents 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Technical Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.1 Natural

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland. merit08schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Efficiency Improvement in an...

  15. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most...

  16. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2006deerschock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Development of Thermoelectric...

  17. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  18. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. ctabwebinarbiooilsupgrading.pdf More...

  19. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production. ctabwebinarbiooilsproduction.pdf More Documents &...

  20. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Syngas upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels is one of...

  1. EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the...

  2. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to the DOE Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) in Lexington, Kentucky and the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project in Paducah, Kentucky and...

  3. AWARD FEE PLAN FOR Babcock and Wilcox Conversion Services, LLC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services, LLC Second Period -October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013 Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) Conversion Facilities at Paducah, Kentucky and...

  4. CONVERSION OF DOE TECHNICAL STANDARDS TO NON-GOVERNMENT STANDARDS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PurposeThis procedure provides guidance on the conversion of DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary Consensus Standards (VCSs), also referred to as non-Government standards. 

  5. Conversations and Connections - The Expertise of our Small Business...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    business owners like Goff find their niche in the government contracting world. "It's a win-win situation to connect someone to someone else," Hopper says. "These conversations...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: very high solar energy conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    very high solar energy conversion efficiency ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy...

  7. Metallurgical technologies, energy conversion, and magnetohydrodynamic flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branover, H.; Unger, Y.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present volume discusses metallurgical applications of MHD, R D on MHD devices employing liquid working medium for process applications, electromagnetic (EM) modulation of molten metal flow, EM pump performance of superconducting MHD devices, induction EM alkali-metal pumps, a physical model for EM-driven flow in channel-induction furnaces, grain refinement in Al alloys via EM vibrational method, dendrite growth of solidifying metal in dc magnetic field, MHD for mass and heat transfer in single-crystal melt growth, inverse EM shaping, and liquid-metal MHD development in Israel. Also discussed are the embrittlement of steel by lead, an open cycle MHD disk generator, the acceleration of gas-liquid piston flows for molten-metal MHD generators, MHD flow around a cylinder, new MHD drag coefficients, liquid-metal MHD two-phase flow, and two-phase liquid gas mixers for MHD energy conversion.

  8. Overview of the energy conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaSala, R.

    1996-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I wish we had time to cover all of the DOE-sponsored energy conversion and materials projects in detail, but we don`t. Instead, let me take a few minutes to bring you up to date on several items that will not be discussed elsewhere in this session. First, we still have a cooperative Agreement with Energy, Inc. to demonstrate a 12.4 MW Kalina cycle power plant at Steamboat, Nevada; but the project remains stalled by the lack of a power purchase agreement, a problem that I am sure many of you can appreciate. I hope we can get this project back on track by the time of the next annual meeting of the Geothermal Resources Council in late September.

  9. Modeling and analysis of energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Den Braven, K.R. (Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Stanger, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to assess the need for and the feasibility of developing a computer code that could model thermodynamic systems and predict the performance of energy conversion systems. To assess the market need for this code, representatives of a few industrial organizations were contacted, including manufacturers, system and component designers, and research personnel. Researchers and small manufacturers, designers, and installers were very interested in the possibility of using the proposed code. However, large companies were satisfied with the existing codes that they have developed for their own use. Also, a survey was conduced of available codes that could be used or possibly modified for the desired purpose. The codes were evaluated with respect to a list of desirable features, which was prepared as a result of the survey. A few publicly available codes were found that might be suitable. The development, verification, and maintenance of such a code would require a substantial, ongoing effort. 21 refs.

  10. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  11. Apparatus and method for pyroelectric power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, R.B.

    1984-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for converting heat to electrical energy by the use of one or more capacitors having temperature dependent capacitance are disclosed. The capacitor is cycled between relatively high and relatively low temperatures by successive thermal contact with relatively high and relatively low temperature portions of a heat transfer medium having a temperature gradient therein. Upon heating of the capacitor, the capacitance thereof is reduced, so that a charge therein is caused to expand into associated external circuitry in which it is available to do electrical work. The capacitor is then cooled and recharged and the cycle is repeated. The electrical output of the capacitor results from the regenerative delivery of heat to and removal of heat from the capacitor by the heat transfer medium, and efficient conversion of heat to electric energy is thereby effected. 12 figs.

  12. MHD compressor---expander conversion system integrated with GCR inside a deployable reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuninetti, G. (Ansaldo S.p.A., Genoa (Italy). Research Div.); Botta, E.; Criscuolo, C.; Riscossa, P. (Ansaldo S.p.A., Genoa (Italy). Nuclear Div.); Giammanco, F. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Rosa-Clot, M. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This work originates from the proposal MHD Compressor-Expander Conversion System Integrated with a GCR Inside a Deployable Reflector''. The proposal concerned an innovative concept of nuclear, closed-cycle MHD converter for power generation on space-based systems in the multi-megawatt range. The basic element of this converter is the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) consisting of a gas core reactor directly coupled to an MHD expansion channel. Integrated with the PCU, a deployable reflector provides reactivity control. The working fluid could be either uranium hexafluoride or a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and helium, added to enhance the heat transfer properties. The original Statement of Work, which concerned the whole conversion system, was subsequently redirected and focused on the basic mechanisms of neutronics, reactivity control, ionization and electrical conductivity in the PCU. Furthermore, the study was required to be inherently generic such that the study was required to be inherently generic such that the analysis an results can be applied to various nuclear reactor and/or MHD channel designs''.

  13. FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

  14. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  15. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory G.

    Assessment Thomas M. Quigley, Editor U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research, and Andy Wilson. Thomas M. Quigley Editor United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service United Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 120 p. (Quigley, Thomas M., ed.; Interior Columbia Basin

  16. United States Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency United · What you can do to protect your family · Where to go for more information Before renting or buying Family from Lead Hazards If you think your home has lead-based paint: · Don't try to remove lead

  17. Characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography based on irradiation side sampling technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivetti, Stefano [Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., 41049 Sassuolo (Italy)] [Fisica Medica, Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., 41049 Sassuolo (Italy); Lanconelli, Nico [Alma Mater Studiorum, Physics Department, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy)] [Alma Mater Studiorum, Physics Department, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea [Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 42123 Reggio Emilia (Italy)] [Medical Physics Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera ASMN, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, 42123 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Burani, Aldo [Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., 41049 Sassuolo (Italy)] [Ospedale di Sassuolo S.p.A., 41049 Sassuolo (Italy)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography (FUJIFILM FDR D-EVO) is presented. This system is based on the irradiation side sampling (ISS) technology and can be equipped with two different scintillators: one traditional gadolinium-oxysulphide phosphor (GOS) and a needle structured cesium iodide (CsI) phosphor panel.Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). For both scintillation screens the authors accomplished the measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9.Results: At the Nyquist frequency (3.33 lp/mm) the MTF is about 35% and 25% for CsI and GOS detectors, respectively. The CsI scintillator has better noise properties than the GOS screen in almost all the conditions. This is particularly true for low-energy beams, where the noise for the GOS system can go up to a factor 2 greater than that found for CsI. The DQE of the CsI detector reaches a peak of 60%, 60%, 58%, and 50% for the RQA3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9 beams, respectively, whereas for the GOS screen the maximum DQE is 40%, 44%, 44%, and 35%. The contrast-detail analysis confirms that in the majority of cases the CsI scintillator is able to provide improved outcomes to those obtained with the GOS screen.Conclusions: The limited diffusion of light produced by the ISS reading makes possible the achievement of very good spatial resolution. In fact, the MTF of the unit with the CsI panel is only slightly lower to that achieved with direct conversion detectors. The combination of very good spatial resolution, together with the good noise properties reached with the CsI screen, allows achieving DQE on average about 1.5 times greater than that obtained with GOS. In fact, the DQE of unit equipped with CsI is comparable to the best alternative methods available which are based on the same technology, and similar to others based on an a-Se direct conversion detectors.

  18. Interim operations report for atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion conversion at Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D. (Hamilton Maurer International, Inc., Falcon Heights, MN (USA))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Northern States Power Company converted its Black Dog Station Unit No. 2 boiler from a front wall fired pulverized coal boiler to a bubbling atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) boiler. The resulting unit was uprated from 85 MWe to 130 MWe burning western subbituminous coal. This report describes the AFBC operating and maintenance experience in the startup period from initial operation in June 1986 through March 1989 when a turbine oil fire caused a forced outage of 8 months. A brief review of the construction history is given in Section 1. Section 2 chronicles the AFBC operation. Section 3 describes how the boiler is restarted under several conditions. The performance history of the systems in the AFBC that are peculiar to the AFBC process or directly impacted by the AFBC process are described in detail in Section 4. The AFBC conversion at the Black Dog station has met nearly all of the original design objectives: (1) The unit can operate at rated output of 130 MWe burning western subbituminous coal, (2) The design life of the unit has been extended 25 years, (3) It has been shown that the EPA New Source Performance Standards for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} can be met with no flue gas treatment, (4) Operators have conducted over 200 routine daily unit restarts confirming the ability of the unit to serve in daily cycling mode, and (5) A variety of fuels have been successfully burned in the AFBC. The only objective that remains partially achieved is routine operation at full load. The boiler/turbine/generator have been shown to be fully capable of operation at full load, but the electrostatic precipitators (which were largely unchanged during the retrofit) have been inadequate to allow full load operation while remaining within permitted opacity and particulate emissions. The unit is currently dispatched in daily cycling service and is limited to operation below 106 MWe by its emissions control permit. 12 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Irradiation Experiment Conceptual Design Parameters for NBSR Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N. R.; Brown, N. R.; Baek, J. S; Hanson, A. L.; Cuadra, A.; Cheng, L. Y.; Diamond, D. J.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed to convert the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor, known as the NBSR, from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-Enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The motivation to convert the NBSR to LEU fuel is to reduce the risk of proliferation of special nuclear material. This report is a compilation of relevant information from recent studies related to the proposed conversion using a metal alloy of LEU with 10 w/o molybdenum. The objective is to inform the design of the mini-plate and full-size-Plate irradiation experiments that are being planned. This report provides relevant dimensions of the fuel elements, and the following parameters at steady state: average and maximum fission rate density and fission density, fuel temperature distribution for the plate with maximum local temperature, and two-dimensional heat flux profiles of fuel plates with high power densities. The latter profiles are given for plates in both the inner and outer core zones and for cores with both fresh and depleted shim arms (reactivity control devices). A summary of the methodology to obtain these results is presented. Fuel element tolerance assumptions and hot channel factors used in the safety analysis are also given.

  20. Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

  1. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); DePoy, David Moore (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul Francis (Clifton Park, NY)

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  2. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  3. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  4. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  5. Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong Ho Rong Yan Rajat Raina Eric P 15213 Facebook, 10 Hacker Way, Menlo Park CA 94025 Abstract In this paper, we explore salient questions

  6. On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1 , Olivier Rosec1 , Thierry.chonavel@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract This paper explores the benefits of transforming spectral peaks in voice conversion. First, in examining classic GMM- based transformation with cepstral coefficients, we show that the lack of transformed

  7. advanced energy conversion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy conversion First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Energy Conversion Advanced Heat...

  8. Commercial considerations in conversion and UF{sub 6} transactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article addresses various commercial considerations that result from the conversion of U3O8 into UF6 and the associated physical characteristics of natural UF6. Handling, transport, conversion, and enrichment of UF6 are discussed. Avenues of acquisition, including nation of origin, are also noted.

  9. Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ko, Che Ming; Zhang, B. W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quark and gluon jets traversing through a quark-gluon plasma not only lose their energies but also can undergo flavor conversions. The conversion rates via the elastic q((q) over bar )g -> gq((q) over bar )and the inelastic q (q) over bar gg...

  10. Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup

    Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

  11. The Benefits of Planar Magnetics in OF Power Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is increased, are related to the magnetic components: transformers and inductors. Unless the copper and coreThe Benefits of Planar Magnetics in OF Power Conversion Planar Magnetics (PM): The Technology that Meets the Challenges of HF Switch and Resonant Mode Power Conversion Professor Sam Ben-Yaakov Department

  12. Direct-Write Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanogenerator with High Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Direct-Write Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanogenerator with High Energy Conversion Efficiency Chieh conversion efficiency. Here, we report direct-write, piezoelectric polymeric nanogenerators based on organic to direct-write poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with in situ mechanical stretch and electrical

  13. Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks PNNL-16951 DRAFT Authors bottlenecks that may arise in the conversion and fuel fabrication steps when used in conjunction with the U.S.-sponsored Reliable Fuel Supply (RFS) reserve. Paper is also intended to identify pathways for assessing the magnitude

  14. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  15. A converse Lyapunov theorem for asymptotic stability in probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hespanha, João Pedro

    1 A converse Lyapunov theorem for asymptotic stability in probability A.R. Teel, J.P. Hespanha, A. Subbaraman Abstract A converse Lyapunov theorem is established for discrete-time stochastic systems with non implies the existence of a continuous Lyapunov function, smooth outside of the attractor, that decreases

  16. WHEELS: A CONVERSATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE AUTOMOBILE CLASSIFIEDS DOMAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHEELS: A CONVERSATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE AUTOMOBILE CLASSIFIEDS DOMAIN Helen Meng, Senis WHEELS is a conversational system which provides access to a database of eletronic automobile classified users to search through a database of 5,000 automobile classifieds. The current end-to-end system can re

  17. Automatically clustering similar units for unit selection in speech synthesis. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new method for synthesizing speech by concatenating sub-word units from a database of labelled speech. A large unit inventory is created by automatically clustering units of the same phone class ...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  1. Stochastic Unit Commitment in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    the amount of installed pumped storage capacity enables the inclusion of pumped storage plants units. Its total capacity is about 13,000 megawatts (MW), including a hydro capacity of 1,700 MW

  2. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Space...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  7. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a typical wind energy production facility, the results warrant further research on the use of acoustic;1 INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, wind energy production capacity in the United States has increased

  10. " Million Housing Units, Preliminary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, By Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Preliminary" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)"...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before...

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South"...

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

  1. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  3. High power density thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noreen, D.L. [R& D Technologies, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Du, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D Technologies is developing thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology based on the use of porous/fibrous ceramic broadband-type emitter designs that utilize recuperative or regenerative techniques to improve thermal efficiency and power density. This paper describes preliminary estimates of what will be required to accomplish sufficient power density to develop a practical, commercially-viable TPV generator. It addresses the needs for improved, thermal shock-resistant, long-life porous/fibrous ceramic emitters and provides information on the photocell technology required to achieve acceptable power density in broadband-type (with selective filter) TPV systems. TPV combustors/systems operating at a temperature of 1500 {degree}C with a broadband-type emitter is proposed as a viable starting point for cost-effective TPV conversion. Based on current projections for photocell cost, system power densities of 7.5--10 watts per square centimeter of emitter area will be required for TPV to become a commercially viable technology. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  4. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  5. Best Buys and Unit Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide explains how to determine a unit price--the cost of an item based on a specific unit such as pound or ounce. Unit pricing can be used to identify foods that are the most economical....

  6. Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G.L.

    2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the work performed during the first phase of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Research Announcement (NRA) Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System Compatible with Several Space Reactor Designs. The document includes an optimization of both 100-kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} (at the propulsion unit) Rankine cycle power conversion systems. In order to perform the mass optimization of these systems, several parametric evaluations of different design options were investigated. These options included feed and reheat, vapor superheat levels entering the turbine, three different material types, and multiple heat rejection system designs. The overall masses of these Nb-1%Zr systems are approximately 3100 kg and 6300 kg for the 100- kW{sub e} and 250-kW{sub e} systems, respectively, each with two totally redundant power conversion units, including the mass of the single reactor and shield. Initial conceptual designs for each of the components were developed in order to estimate component masses. In addition, an overall system concept was presented that was designed to fit within the launch envelope of a heavy lift vehicle. A technology development plan is presented in the report that describes the major efforts that are required to reach a technology readiness level of 6. A 10-year development plan was proposed.

  7. Sandia Energy - Phasor Measurement Units

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phasor Measurement Units Home Stationary Power Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Phasor Measurement Units Phasor Measurement Unitsashoter2015-05-11T21:0...

  8. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  9. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  10. Method for the photocatalytic conversion of gas hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburg, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburg, PA); Bockrath, Bradley C. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting methane hydrates to methanol, as well as hydrogen, through exposure to light. The process includes conversion of methane hydrates by light where a radical initiator has been added, and may be modified to include the conversion of methane hydrates with light where a photocatalyst doped by a suitable metal and an electron transfer agent to produce methanol and hydrogen. The present invention operates at temperatures below 0.degree. C., and allows for the direct conversion of methane contained within the hydrate in situ.

  11. Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion Apparatus. . . 20 22 Temperature Profile Inside the Reactor. . 30 Methane and Acetylene Conversion over Time on Stream, T = 412 C, Molar Feed Ratio = 6/I (CH4/CqHr). . 36 Mass Flow Rate (g/s) of the Effluent Gas (Unreacted Methane... and Acetylene, Isobutane, Ethylene, and Nitrogen) from the Reactor Integrated over Time on Stream. 40 Mass Flow Rate (g/s) of the Gas Products (Isobutane and Ethylene) Integrated over Time on Stream. 41 Methane and Acetylene Conversion over Time on Stream...

  12. Development of Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversion at Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL] [ORNL; Croft, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; McElroy, Robert Dennis [ORNL] [ORNL; Hertel, Nolan [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [ORNL] [ORNL; Cleveland, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on some source term modeling of uranyl nitrate (UN) as part of a comprehensive validation effort employing gamma-ray detector instrumentation for the detection of diversion from declared conversion activities. Conversion, the process by which natural uranium ore (yellowcake) is purified and converted through a series of chemical processes into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), has historically been excluded from the nuclear safeguards requirements of the 235U-based nuclear fuel cycle. The undeclared diversion of this product material could potentially provide feedstock for a clandestine weapons program for state or non-state entities. Given the changing global political environment and the increased availability of dual-use nuclear technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency has evolved its policies to emphasize safeguarding this potential feedstock material in response to dynamic and evolving potential diversion pathways. To meet the demand for instrumentation testing at conversion facilities, ORNL developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant. This work investigates gamma-ray signatures of UN circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluates detector instrumentation sensitivity to UN for safeguards applications. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the UN gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90g U/L of naturally enriched UN will be presented. A range of gamma-ray lines was examined and self-attenuation factors were calculated, in addition to attenuation for transmission measurement of density, concentration and enrichment. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be presented providing insights into instrumentation limitations to spoofing.

  13. Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method Chung-Li Tsengy,Chao-an Liz, Shmuel S. Oren x October 14, 1997 Abstract In this paper, we present an e cient and robust method for solving unit commit- ment problem using a unit decommitment method. 1 Introduction A problem that must be frequently solved

  14. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Sanchez, Travis

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at the manufacturers site (Barber-Nichols Inc.) and installed and operated at Sandia. A sufficiently detailed description of the loop is provided in this report along with the design characteristics of the turbo-alternator-compressor set to allow other researchers to compare their results with those measured in the Sandia test-loop. The third task consisted of a validation effort. In this task the test loop was operated and compared with the modeled results to develop a more complete understanding of this electrically heated closed power generation system and to validate the model. The measured and predicted system temperatures and pressures are in good agreement, indicating that the model is a reasonable representation of the test loop. Typical deviations between the model and the hardware results are less than 10%. Additional tests were performed to assess the capability of the Brayton engine to continue to remove decay heat after the reactor/heater is shutdown, to develop safe and effective control strategies, and to access the effectiveness of gas inventory control as an alternative means to provide load following. In one test the heater power was turned off to simulate a rapid reactor shutdown, and the turbomachinery was driven solely by the sensible heat stored in the heater for over 71 minutes without external power input. This is an important safety feature for CBC systems as it means that the closed Brayton loop will keep cooling the reactor without the need for auxiliary power (other than that needed to circulate the waste heat rejection coolant) provided the heat sink is available.

  15. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  16. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family...

  17. Evaluation of environmental-control technologies for commercial nuclear fuel-conversion (UF/sub 6/) facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present in the United States, there are two commercial conversion facilities. These facilities process uranium concentrate into UF/sub 6/ for shipment to the enrichment facilities. One conversion facility uses a dry hydrofluor process, whereas the other facility uses a process known as the wet solvent extraction-fluorination process. Because of the different processes used in the two plants, waste characteristics, quantities, and treatment practices differ at each facility. Wastes and effluent streams contain impurities found in the concentrate (such as uranium daughters, vanadium, molybdenum, selenium, arsenic, and ammonia) and process chemicals used in the circuit (including fluorine, nitrogen, and hydrogen), as well as small quantities of uranium. Studies of suitable disposal options for the solid wastes and sludges generated at the facilities and the long-term effects of emissions to the ambient environment are needed. 30 figures, 34 tables.

  18. advanced conversion technologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thomas S. Piwonka 1997-01-01 25 Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle Chang Oh CiteSeer Summary: ii iii The Department of Energy and the Idaho...

  19. Power conversion architecture for grid interface at high switching frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Seungbum

    This paper presents a new power conversion architecture for single-phase grid interface. The proposed architecture is suitable for realizing miniaturized ac-dc converters operating at high frequencies (HF, above 3 MHz) and ...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the external fluid mechanics of OTEC plants: report coveringocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants by mid-1980's.1980. A baseline design of a 40-MW OTEC Pilot Johns Hopkins

  1. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the external fluid mechanics of OTEC plants: report coveringthermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants by mid-1980 1 s.distributiion at potential OTEC sites. p. 7D-4/1-4/5. In

  2. Toward Widely-Available and Usable Multimodal Conversational Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruenstein, Alexander

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multimodal conversational interfaces, which allow humans to interact with a computer using a combination of spoken natural language and a graphical interface, offer the potential to transform the manner by which humans ...

  3. Coal Conversion Facility Privilege Tax Exemptions (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal Conversion Facility Privilege Tax Exemptions are granted under a variety of conditions through the North Dakota Tax Department. Privilege tax, which is in lieu of property taxes on the...

  4. Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Presentation given at the 16th...

  5. advanced coal conversion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the coal plant is transmitted over the transmission lines, Phadke, Amol 2008-01-01 7 Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration CiteSeer Summary:...

  6. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  7. Thermoelectrics and aerogels for solar energy conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about climate change, the world's growing energy needs, and energy independence are driving demand for solar energy conversion technologies. Solar thermal electricity generation has the potential to ll this demand. ...

  8. Drinking up endings: conversational resources of the café 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurier, Eric

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A first theme of this article is the abiding relationship between the café and conversation. A relationship which begins with Habermas’s emphasis on political debate in early modernity and continues to more contemporary ...

  9. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  10. Opportunities and challenges in Very High Frequency power conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper explores opportunities and challenges in power conversion in the VHF frequency range of 30-300 MHz. The scaling of magnetic component size with frequency is investigated, and it is shown that substantial ...

  11. Raconteur : intelligent assistance for conversational storytelling with media libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Pei-Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    People who are not professional storytellers sometimes have difficulty putting together a coherent and engaging story, even when it is about their own experiences. However, consider putting the same person in a conversation ...

  12. Kinetics of high-conversion hydrocracking of bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaishi, H.; Gray, M.R. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Chan, E.W.; Sanford, E.C. [Syncrude Canada, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Residues are complex mixtures of thousands of components. This mixture will change during hydrocracking, so that high conversion may result in a residue material with different characteristics from the starting material. Our objective is to determine the kinetics of residue conversion and yields of distillates at high conversions, and to relate these observations to the underlying chemical reactions. Athabasca bitumen was reacted in a 1-L CSTR in a multipass operation. Product from the first pass was collected, then run through the reactor again and so on, giving kinetic data under conditions that simulated a multi-reactor or packed-bed operation. Experiments were run both with hydrocracking catalyst and without added catalyst. Products were analyzed by distillation, elemental analysis, NMR, and GPC. These data will be used to derive a kinetic model for hydrocracking of bitumen residue covering a wide range of conversion (from 30% to 95%+), based on the underlying chemistry.

  13. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Presentation given at DEER...

  14. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Bio-Oils Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils Introduction presentation report-out at the CTAB webinar on bio-oils. ctabwebinarbiooilsintro.pdf...

  15. Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

  16. Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McCorkle Communications and Media Relations 865.574.7308 Vertimass licenses ORNL biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology Vertimass LLC, a California-based start-up...

  17. Y-12 fulfills major milestone in fuel conversion commitment for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Y-12 fulfills major milestone in fuel conversion commitment for Jamaican research reactor Posted: June 3, 2014 - 4:42pm The Y-12 National Security Complex recently completed...

  18. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

  19. COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Constance J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites to identify thefishery resources at potential OTEC sites. At this time, thethermal energy conversion (OTEC) program; preoperational

  20. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy conversion center plus discussion on phonon transport and solar thermoelectric energy conversion chen.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Thermoelectric...

  1. Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coso, Dusan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Conversion Applications By Dusan Coso B.S. (UniversitySolar Energy Conversion Applications by Dusan Coso Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering – Mechanical Engineering University

  2. A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nental Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Impact Assessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC),Intake Screens for Ocean Thermal Energy M.S. Thesis. Oregon

  3. Stepwise redefinition of the SI base units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issaev, L K; Khruschov, V V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The four SI base units are proposed to be redefined in two stages: first, the kilogram, mole and ampere should be defined, and then the kelvin. To realize the redefinition of a base unit of the SI in terms of fundamental physical constant (FPC), a principle of coincidence of their physical dimensions is put forward. Direct applying this principle will lead to the changing of the sets of base and derived units in the new SI. If we want to preserve the continuity of the division between base and derived units in the new and the current SI, the principle is to be generalized with the time dimension factor be included. The status of the mole as the base unit of measurement is considered in the current and new SI. It is proposed to redefine the kilogram using a fixed value of the Avogadro constant and then to redefine the kelvin, after the measurement accuracy of the Boltzmann constant has been increased and agreed with the values of other constants of molecular physics.

  4. NEUTRINO SPIN AND FLAVOUR CONVERSION AND OSCILLATIONS IN MAGNETIC FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Egorov; G. G. Likhachev; A. I. Studenikin

    1995-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the neutrino conversion and oscillations among the two neutrino species (active and sterile) induced by strong twisting magnetic field is presented and implications to neutrinos in neutron star, supernova, the Sun and interstellar galactic media are discussed. The ``cross-boundary effect" (CBE) (i.e., a possible conversion of one half of neutrinos of the bunch from active into sterile specie) at the surface of neutron star is also studied for a realistic neutron star structure.

  5. In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

  6. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Guidelines to Defra's Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annex 3 · To understand which industrial processes lead to GHG emissions see Annex 4 · Global warming from Combined Heat and Power (CHP) see Annex 2 · To calculate emissions from the use of Electricity see

  7. Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting Annexes updated June 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  8. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General. in the aircraft nuclear propulsion department at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. In 1961 Rothermel.S. Department of Agriculture, Fire Laboratory at Missoula was conceived in the aftermath of the Mann Gulch fire

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are thought to contribute to carbon sequestration, including current debates on this topic. The science regarding forestry and carbon sequestration is more advanced and less controversial than that for range, land management, carbon sequestration, carbon markets, United States. #12;ii Executive Summary

  10. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report NRS-112 Modeling the Effects of Emerald Ash Borer on Forest Composition in the Midwest of human population, energy, consumption, land use, and economic models to project the future condition of forests in the Midwest and Northeast United States. Our results suggest that in most cases EAB

  11. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Alabama, is receiving increasing attention as an economically recoverable natural gas source, and proximity to natural gas markets in the heavily urbanized northeastern United States have prompted increased-10 Reptile, Amphibian, and Small Mammal Species Associated with Natural Gas Development

  12. Nondestructive optical characterization of chemical conversion coatings on aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schram, T.; De Laet, J.; Terryn, H. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy, Electrochemistry, and Materials Science

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum have been characterized with nondestructive optical techniques. Complementary vibrational spectroscopy techniques, i.e., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, prove the presence of chromium phosphate as principal component in the coating. Additionally, aluminum oxide and indications for the presence of chromium oxide and aluminum fluoride are found. Reflection/absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) allows analysis of coatings as thin as 40 nm, while confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is limited to thicknesses above about 150 nm. Compared to RAIRS spectra, the interpretation of Raman spectra is easier due to the morphological characteristics of the conversion coatings, e.g., the coating thickness, using a simulation and regression procedure based on a two-layer optical model. The optical constants of the upper layer, which in a first approximation can be attributed to the chromium phosphate part of the conversion coating, can explain the greenish appearance of the thickest conversion coatings. A linear relationship exists between the coating thickness and the conversion time. An analogous linear relation exists between the conversion time and the peak areas of most of the absorption peaks in the RAIRS spectra.

  13. Guidelines in Wave Energy Conversion System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiberteau, K. L.; Liu, Y.; Lee, J.; Kozman, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surfaces. In the Minerals Management Service (MMS) report on the design standards of WECs, there are three areas in which the devices can be placed: topside, which is out of the water; in the splash zone, where water meets air; and subsea, which... is under the water [9]. When devices are subsea, air is less of a factor and these devices can better resist corrosion. Because of the presence of weather events like hurricanes and tropical storms, it is important that WECs are resilient and able...

  14. Particle Acceleration through Multiple Conversions from Charged into Neutral State and Back

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. V. Derishev; F. A. Aharonian; V. V. Kocharovsky; Vl. V. Kocharovsky

    2003-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new way of quick and very efficient acceleration of protons and/or electrons in relativistic bulk flows. The new mechanism takes advantage of conversion of particles from the charged state (protons or electrons/positrons) into neutral state (neutrons or photons) and back. In most cases, the conversion is photon-induced and requires presence of intense radiation fields, but the converter acceleration mechanism may also operate via inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions. Like in the traditional model -- ``stochastic'' (or diffusive) acceleration, -- the acceleration cycle in our scenario consists of escape of particles from the relativistic flow followed by their return back after deflection from the ambient magnetic field. The difference is that the charge-changing reactions, which occur during the cycle, allow accelerated particles to increase their energies in each cycle by a factor roughly equal to the bulk Lorentz factor squared. The emerging spectra of accelerated particles can be very hard and their cut-off energy in some cases is larger than in the standard mechanism. This drastically reduces the required energy budget of the sources of the highest-energy particles observed in cosmic rays. Also, the proposed acceleration mechanism may serve as an efficient means of transferring the energy of bulk motion to gamma-radiation and, if the accelerated particles are nucleons, routinely produces high-energy neutrinos at $\\sim 50 %$ relative efficiency.

  15. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    .....................2 1.3 DOSESCREEN Measure of Precision.......................................2 1.4 Factors readily accessible guidelines for bioassay design are probably those by Finney (1971). Finney's guidelines and from the optimal design for the ED50, guidelines f

  17. Development of CFD models to support LEU Conversion of ORNL s High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khane, Vaibhav B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL] [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is participating in the Global Threat Reduction Initiative to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. As an integral part of one of NNSA s subprograms, Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors, HFIR is being converted from the present HEU core to a low enriched uranium (LEU) core with less than 20% of U-235 by weight. Because of HFIR s importance for condensed matter research in the United States, its conversion to a high-density, U-Mo-based, LEU fuel should not significantly impact its existing performance. Furthermore, cost and availability considerations suggest making only minimal changes to the overall HFIR facility. Therefore, the goal of this conversion program is only to substitute LEU for the fuel type in the existing fuel plate design, retaining the same number of fuel plates, with the same physical dimensions, as in the current HFIR HEU core. Because LEU-specific testing and experiments will be limited, COMSOL Multiphysics was chosen to provide the needed simulation capability to validate against the HEU design data and previous calculations, and predict the performance of the proposed LEU fuel for design and safety analyses. To achieve it, advanced COMSOL-based multiphysics simulations, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD), are being developed to capture the turbulent flows and associated heat transfer in fine detail and to improve predictive accuracy [2].

  18. Conversion and Blending Facility Highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranium hexafluoride. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) which will have two missions: (1) convert surplus HEU materials to pure HEU UF{sub 6} and a (2) blend the pure HEU UF{sub 6} with diluent UF{sub 6} to produce LWR grade LEU-UF{sub 6}. The primary emphasis of this blending be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The chemical and isotopic concentrations of the blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. The blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry.

  19. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  20. Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.

  1. Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.

  2. ERDC/ELTR-14-3 Characterization of Underwater Sounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ...........................................................................................................................................................vii Unit Conversion Factors of Ocean Energy Management 381 Elden St. Herndon, VA 20170 Final report Approved for public release

  3. mConverse: Inferring Conversation Episodes from Respiratory Measurements Collected in the Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Santosh

    , Experimentation, Measurement, Human Factors Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work Electrical & Comp. Engg. Behavioral Medicine University of Memphis The Ohio State University University

  4. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF{sub 6} from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF6 [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) to Portsmouth; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). An option of shipping the ETTP cylinders to Paducah is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Portsmouth and ETTP sites. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0359) evaluates potential environmental impacts for the proposed Paducah conversion facility.

  5. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah site in northwestern Kentucky (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Paducah to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the ''Federal Register'' (FR) on September 18, 2001 (''Federal Register'', Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (''United States Code'', Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (''Code of Federal Regulations'', Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a ''Federal Register'' Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). Although not part of the proposed action, an option of shipping all cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF{sub 6} [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Paducah rather than to Portsmouth is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Paducah site. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0360) evaluates the potential environmental impacts for the proposed Portsmouth conversion facility.

  6. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  7. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  8. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  9. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  10. Soild State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective is to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of {<=}$400/kW.

  11. Soild State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective is to develop a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of {>=}35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of {>=}30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of {<=}$400/kW.

  12. Surface tension induced by sphingomyelin to ceramide conversion in lipid membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface tension induced by sphingomyelin to ceramide conversion in lipid membranes Iván López-Montero

  13. Assistant, Associate or Full Professor (Mid-Career)(10-657) Energy Conversion Position in MAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    , and biofuels. Excellent candidates in other areas of energy conversion will also be given full consideration

  14. SYNTAX-DIRECTED TRANSLATION SCHEMES FOR MULTI -AGENT SYSTEMS CONVERSATION MODELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred, Ana

    SYNTAX-DIRECTED TRANSLATION SCHEMES FOR MULTI - AGENT SYSTEMS CONVERSATION MODELLING Ana Fred-intensive business processes based on formal conversations, i.e. partially ordered sets of communicative acts representation of agent conversations. In this paper we present a formal method for conversation representation

  15. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  16. Energy Management in Olefins Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, T. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the point where waste heat from pyrolysis generates more than enough steam to power the olefins unit recovery section. Furthermore, incorporating gas turbine driven electrical generators or process compressors adds to the utility export potential of the unit...

  17. Energy Audits in Process Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corwin, J. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emphasis is placed on practical considerations in the effective organization and execution of a successful in-house energy audit of a process unit, based upon experience gained in several such audits of Gulf Coast petrochemical units. Staffing...

  18. Energy Management in Olefins Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, T. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the point where waste heat from pyrolysis generates more than enough steam to power the olefins unit recovery section. Furthermore, incorporating gas turbine driven electrical generators or process compressors adds to the utility export potential of the unit...

  19. Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

  20. Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackinger, W.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

  1. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  2. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  3. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

  4. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

    1997-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}. 10 figs.

  5. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Edward J. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middlegrove, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength .lambda..sub.IF approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength .lambda..sub.g of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5.lambda..sub.IF to .lambda..sub.IF and reflect from .lambda..sub.IF to about 2.lambda..sub.IF ; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5.lambda..sub.IF.

  6. Adding value to coal conversion`s char: A strategy for lower-priced fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Fatemi, M. [Amoco Corporation, Naperville, IL (United States); Feizoulof, C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal`s low hydrogen to carbon ratio gives coal physical properties that are not the most desired in fuel markets. The problem is dealt with in conversion technologies designed to upgrade coal to more desirable fuels by either: (1) chemically adding hydrogen, as in liquefaction or high-BTU gasification, or (2) the production of char, as in mild gasification. The first option is neither cost-effective nor environmentally sound. Liquefaction results in the production of one mole of carbon dioxide for each mole of hydrogen needed. The result is that despite the preferred hydrogen to carbon ratio in the fuel, carbon dioxide is produced in greater quantities than it would be by simply burning the coal. The depressed market value of char is the primary drawback of coal utilization technologies exercising the second option. Making value-added, non-fuel products from char could significantly improve the economics of overall operations and result in competitively-priced premium hydrocarbon fuels. The research goal of a growing number of groups, including ours, is to produce and describe carbon products which will command higher prices than the carbon (coal) from which they were produced.

  7. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  8. FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SH 11 .A443X FISH FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES ^ 1951 &ch 3. \\§^ ^/'· m:^ STATISTICAL DIGEST. Farley, Director Statistical Digest 30 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1951 BY A. W. ANDERSON;Fishery Statistics of the United States and Alaska are compiled and published annually to make available

  9. Entanglement Storage Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Caneva; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a protocol based on optimal control to drive many body quantum systems into long-lived entangled states, protected from decoherence by big energy gaps, without requiring any apriori knowledge of the system. With this approach it is possible to implement scalable entanglement-storage units. We test the protocol in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model, a prototype many-body quantum system that describes different experimental setups, and in the ordered Ising chain, a model representing a possible implementation of a quantum bus.

  10. l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 AugustAFRICAN3uj:'I,\ W CTheuse of_-_ ._UNITED

  11. Rooftop Unit Campaign

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundA l i c eRooftop Unit Campaign

  12. Rooftop Unit Network Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundA l i c eRooftop Unit

  13. Statistics of multiphoton events in spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojciech Wasilewski; Czeslaw Radzewicz; Robert Frankowski; Konrad Banaszek

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimental characterization of the statistics of multiple photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion realized in a nonlinear medium pumped by high-energy ultrashort pulses from a regenerative amplifier. The photon number resolved measurement has been implemented with the help of a fiber loop detector. We introduce an effective theoretical description of the observed statistics based on parameters that can be assigned direct physical nterpretation. These parameters, determined for our source from the collected experimental data, characterize the usefulness of down-conversion sources in multiphoton interference schemes that underlie protocols for quantum information processing and communication.

  14. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  15. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  16. Simultaneous constraint and phase conversion processing of oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Hellstrom, Eric E. (Madison, WI); Larbalestier, David C. (Madison, WI); DeMoranville, Kenneth L. (Jefferson, MA); Parrell, Jeffrey A. (Roselle Park, NJ); Reeves, Jodi L. (Madison, WI)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an oxide superconductor article includes subjecting an oxide superconductor precursor to a texturing operation to orient grains of the oxide superconductor precursor to obtain a highly textured precursor; and converting the textured oxide superconducting precursor into an oxide superconductor, while simultaneously applying a force to the precursor which at least matches the expansion force experienced by the precursor during phase conversion to the oxide superconductor. The density and the degree of texture of the oxide superconductor precursor are retained during phase conversion. The constraining force may be applied isostatically.

  17. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  18. AUSTRALIA BELGIUM CHINA FRANCE GERMANY HONG KONG SAR INDONESIA (ASSOCIATED OFFICE) ITALY JAPAN PAPUA NEW GUINEA SINGAPORE SPAIN SWEDEN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    PAPUA NEW GUINEA SINGAPORE SPAIN SWEDEN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

  19. 2013 Reporting Unit Codes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2013 Reporting Unit Codes 2013 Reporting Unit Codes CFC Reporting Unit Codes 2013.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-0372: Final Environmental Assessment Alignment: Achieving...

  20. Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association (USEA), August 2011 Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association (USEA), August 2011 The United...