Sample records for unit co2 enhanced

  1. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frailey, Scott M.; Krapac, Ivan G.; Damico, James R.; Okwen, Roland T.; McKaskle, Ray W.

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding. As part of the MGSC�������¢����������������s Validation Phase (Phase II) studies, the small injection pilot test was conducted at the Bald Unit site within the Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern Indiana, which was chosen for the project on the basis of site infrastructure and reservoir conditions. Geologic data on the target formation were extensive. Core analyses, porosity and permeability data, and geophysical logs from 40 wells were used to construct cross sections and structure contour and isopach maps in order to characterize and define the reservoir architecture of the target formation. A geocellular model of the reservoir was constructed to improve understanding of CO2 behavior in the subsurface. At the time of site selection, the Field was under secondary recovery through edge-water injection, but the wells selected for the pilot in the Bald Unit had been temporarily shut-in for several years. The most recently shut-in production well, which was surrounded by four nearby shut-in production wells in a five-spot pattern, was converted to CO2 injection for this pilot. Two additional wells outside the immediate five-spot pattern, one of which was an active producer, were instrumented to measure surface temperature and pressure. The CO2 injection period lasted from September 3, 2009, through December 14, 2010, with one three-month interruption caused by cessation of CO2 deliveries due to winter weather. Water was injected into the CO2 injection well during this period. A total of 6,300 tonnes (6,950 tons) of CO2 were injected into the reservoir at rates that generally ranged from 18 to 32 tonnes (20 to 35 tons) per day. The CO2 injection bottomhole pressure generally remained at 8.3 to 9.0 MPag (1,200 to 1,300 psig). The CO2 injection was followed by continued monitoring for nine months during post-CO2 water injection. A monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program was designed to determine the fate of injected CO2. Extensive periodic sampling and analysis of brine, groundwater, and produced gases began before CO2 injection and continued through the monitored waterflood periods. Samples were gathered from production wells and three newly installed groundwater monitoring wells. Samples underwent geochemical and isotopic analyses to reveal any CO2-related changes. Groundwater and kinetic modeling and mineralogical analysis were also employed to better understand the long-term dynamics of CO2 in the reservoir. No CO2 leakage into groundwater was detected, and analysis of brine and gas chemistry made it possible to track the path of plume migration and infer geochemical reactions and trapping of CO2. Cased-hole logging did not detect any CO2 in the near-wellbore region. An increase in CO2 concentration was first detected in February 2010 from the gas present in the carboy during brine sampling; however, there was no appreciable gas volume associated with the detection of CO2. The first indication of elevated gas rates from the commingled gas of the pilot�������¢����������������s production wells occurred in July 2010 and reached a maximum of 0.36 tonnes/day (0.41 tons/day) in September 2010. An estimated 27 tonnes (30 tons) of CO2 were produced at the surface from the gas separator at the tank battery from September 3, 2009, through September 11, 2011, representing 0.5% of the injected CO2. Consequently, 99.5%

  2. Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia, Wei; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Ampomah, William; Grigg, Reid

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study develops a statistical method to perform uncertainty quantification for understanding CO2 storage potential within an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and reactive transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major uncertainty metrics: net CO2 injection, cumulative oil production, cumulative gas (CH4) production, and net water injection. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/gas recovery rates. The well spacing and the initial water saturation also have large impact on the oil/gas recovery rates. Further, this study has revealed key insights into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s...

  3. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration. Abstract: A novel EOR method using...

  4. CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics B.R. Bock1 , R.G. Rhudy2 , and H technologies and practices under development for CO2 storage and sink enhancement, including options. For the geologic and ocean storage options, CO2 capture costs from another project were added to the costs of CO2

  5. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 06/30/2004. The major accomplishment was the modification of the header and harvesting work, with a system designed to distribute algae at startup, sustain operations and harvest in one unit.

  6. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.

  7. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/03/2000 through 10/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. This is the fourth quarterly report for this project, so it also serves as a year-1 project review. We have made significant progress on our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts are focused on fulfilling these research objectives ''on time'' relative to the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Our results to date concerning the individual factors which have the most significant effect on CO{sub 2} uptake are inconclusive, but we have gathered useful information about the effects of lighting, temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration on one particular organism (Nostoc) and significant progress has been made in identifying other organisms that are more suitable for use in the bioreactor due to their better tolerance for the high temperatures likely to be encountered in the flue gas stream. Our current tests are focused on one such thermophilic organism (Cyanidium), and an enlarged bioreactor system (CRF-2) has been prepared for testing this organism. Tests on the enhanced mass transfer CO{sub 2} absorption technique are underway and useful information is currently being collected concerning pressure drop. The solar collectors for the deep-penetration hybrid solar lighting system have been designed and a single solar collector tracking unit is being prepared for installation in the pilot scale bioreactor system currently under construction. Much progress has been made in designing the fiber optic light delivery system, but final selection of the ''optimum'' delivery system design depends on many factors, most significantly the configuration and orientation of the growth surfaces in the bioreactor. For the growth surface subsystem we have identified advantages and disadvantages for several candidate growth surface materials, we have built and tested various ''screen'' systems and fluid delivery systems, and we continue to test compatibility of the candidate materials with the organisms and with the moisture delivery and harvesting system designs. These tests will be ongoing until an ''optimum'' combination of growth surface material/organism type/harvesting system is identified. For the harvesting system, a nozzle-based water jet system has been shown to be effective, but it has disadvantages for the overall system design in terms of space utilization. A streamlined and integrated screen wetting/harvesting system design is currently under development and will be the focus of harvesting system tests in the foreseeable future. This report addresses each of the key project tasks as defined in the statement of work, giving both a summary of key accomplishments over the past year and a plan for future work.

  8. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/3/2001 through 1/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Our research team has made significant progress towards completion of our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts remain focused on fulfilling these research objectives in accordance with the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2001 include: (1) New procedures and protocols have been developed to increase the chances of successful implementation in the bioreactor of organisms that perform well in the lab. The new procedures include pre-screening of organisms for adhesion characteristics and a focus on identifying the organisms with maximum growth rate potential. (2) Preliminary results show an increase in adhesion to glass and a decrease in overall growth rates when using growth media prepared with tap water rather than distilled water. (3) Several of the organisms collected from Yellowstone National Park using the new procedures are currently being cultured in preparation for bioreactor tests. (4) One important result from a test of growth surface temperature distribution as a function of gas stream and drip-fluid temperatures showed a high dependence of membrane temperature on fluid temperature, with gas stream temperature having minimal effect. This result indicates that bioreactor growth surface temperatures can be controlled using fluid delivery temperature. The possible implications for implementation of the bioreactor concept are encouraging, since it may be possible to use the bioreactor with very high gas stream temperatures by controlling the temperature of the organisms with the fluid temperature. (5) Investigation of growth surface materials continues, with Omnisil and Scotch Brite emerging as the leading candidates. More investigation of these and other material types is still needed to determine the best material for particular combinations of organisms and harvesting methods. (6) Tests of harvesting methods and harvesting system designs have shown that desirable levels of ''percentage algae removal'' can be achieved for particular organisms and growth surface materials, for example Cyanidium on polyester felt. Additional testing continues to better characterize sensitivity of the ''percentage removal'' to various system design parameters, but these tests have been delayed due to the lack of suitable organisms for the tests. (7) The solar collectors and the pilot-scale bioreactor light distribution panels for the deep-penetration hybrid solar lighting system have been designed. One solar lighting system (solar collector tracking unit, fiber optic light transmission cables, light distribution panels) is almost completely prepared for installation during the next quarter in the pilot scale bioreactor system. (8) Pressure drop results from tests on the enhanced mass transfer CO{sub 2} absorption technique (the translating slug flow reactor) are encouraging, with reasonable values of 2.5 psi maximum over an 11.48 meter distance between pressure taps for test conditions of 0.6 m/sec slug velocity and approximately 10 m/sec gas velocity. Preparations are under way for CO{sub 2} scrubbing tests.

  9. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the period from 10/1/2001 through 01/02/2006. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts during this project were focused on the selection of candidate organisms and growth surfaces and initiating long-term tests in the bench-scale and pilot-scale bioreactor test systems. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include: (1) CRF-2 test system: (a) Sampling test results have shown that the initial mass of algae loaded into the Carbon Recycling Facility Version 2 (CRF-2) system can be estimated with about 3% uncertainty using a statistical sampling procedure. (b) The pressure shim header pipe insert design was shown to have better flow for harvesting than the drilled-hole design. (c) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units, with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe-end-sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. Qualitative system tests showed that the harvesting system performed wonderfully, cleaning the growth surfaces within a matter of seconds. (d) Qualitative tests have shown that organisms can be repopulated on a harvested section of a bioreactor screen, demonstrating that continuous bioreactor operation is feasible, with continuous cycles of harvesting and repopulating screens. (e) Final preparations are underway for quantitative, long-term tests in the CRF-2 with weekly harvesting. (2) Pilot-scale test system: (a) The construction of the pilot-scale bioreactor was completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. Over the course of the project, the solar collector used in the light delivery system showed some degradation, but performed well overall. (b) Testing confirmed that algae can be grown in a sustainable fashion in the pilot bioreactor, even with intermittent availability of sunlight. (c) The pilot-scale tests indicated that algal growth rate followed photon delivery during productivity testing. (3) Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (a) The aeration of growth media with 5% CO{sub 2} in air stimulates cyanobacterial growth 10-20 times over that with air alone. It is possible that the rate of the stimulation of cyanobacterial growth in the CRF will be higher because cyanobacteria will be grown as a biofilm. We plan to increase the concentration to 15% CO{sub 2} in air. (b) Tests have shown a doubling time of the cyanobacterial culture of about 7.5 hours with illumination of about 170 {micro}mol m{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. All lower levels of illumination led to a decrease in the cyanobacterial growth rate. (c) Macroscopical and microscopical observations suggest that the culture of this isolate undergoes significant morphological changes after 60-70 hours of incubation in the batch culture mode. First of all, the culture begins to clump. This clumping could lead to the decrease of effective illumination of culture and may reflect a medium alkalinization. (d) Organization of our collection of the thermophilic cyanobacteria isolated from Yellowstone National Park has resulted in 13 unialgal cultures of thermophilic cyanobacteria. (e) A new species (even probably a new genus) of cyanobacteria, 5.2 s. c. 1, isolated from LaDuke Spring in Great Yellowstone Basin, demonstrates an elevated resistance to some compounds of iron. This might be very important for our project, because plant gases may have elevated amount of iron. Our study of the effect of different concentration of FeCl{sub 3}* 6H{sub 2}O on the growth of the 5.2 s.c.1 isolate showed that iron additions stimulated rather then inhibited the growth of the isolate. Because of this we would recommend this isolate for further experiments. (f) The shape of the Chlorogloeopsis siderophila cells (cyanobacteria) was found to be affected b

  10. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  11. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first quarterly report of the project Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation. The official project start date, 10/02/2000, was delayed until 10/31/2000 due to an intellectual property dispute that was resolved. However, the delay forced a subsequent delay in subcontracting with Montana State University, which then delayed obtaining a sampling permit from Yellowstone National Park. However, even with these delays, the project moved forward with some success. Accomplishments for this quarter include: Culturing of thermophilic organisms from Yellowstone; Testing of mesophilic organisms in extreme CO{sub 2} conditions; Construction of a second test bed for additional testing; Purchase of a total carbon analyzer dedicated to the project; Construction of a lighting container for Oak Ridge National Laboratory optical fiber testing; Modified lighting of existing test box to provide more uniform distribution; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties; Experimentation on water-jet harvesting techniques; and Literature review underway regarding uses of biomass after harvesting. Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  12. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/03/2001 through 7/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Note that this version of the quarterly technical report is a revision to add the reports from subcontractors Montana State and Oak Ridge National Laboratories The significant accomplishments for this quarter include: Development of an experimental plan and initiation of experiments to create a calibration curve that correlates algal chlorophyll levels with carbon levels (to simplify future experimental procedures); Completion of debugging of the slug flow reactor system, and development of a plan for testing the pressure drop of the slug flow reactor; Design and development of a new bioreactor screen design which integrates the nutrient delivery drip system and the harvesting system; Development of an experimental setup for testing the new integrated drip system/harvesting system; Completion of model-scale bioreactor tests examining the effects of CO{sub 2} concentration levels and lighting levels on Nostoc 86-3 growth rates; Completion of the construction of a larger model-scale bioreactor to improve and expand testing capabilities and initiation of tests; Substantial progress on construction of a pilot-scale bioreactor; and Preliminary economic analysis of photobioreactor deployment. Plans for next quarter's work are included in the conclusions. A preliminary economic analysis is included as an appendix.

  13. Does low stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity enhance growth at elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easlon, Hsien M; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K; Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhance growth at elevated CO 2 ? To whom correspondence mayDoes low g enhance growth at elevated CO 2 ? Does lowenhance growth at elevated CO 2 in Arabidopsis thaliana?

  14. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  15. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System Design for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    with low production rates such as CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This paper proposes a SCADA systemSupervisory Control and Data Acquisition System Design for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Xie Lu College

  16. CO2 Capture and Utilization for Enhanced Oil Poul Jacob Vilhelmsen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 Capture and Utilization for Enhanced Oil Recovery Poul Jacob Vilhelmsen1 , William Harrar2 Hørsholm Denmark 1 Abstract CO2 is an international theme and the cap-and-trade systems under. A possible technical step to reduce atmospheric emissions is CO2 capture and the utilisation of the CO2

  17. Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are a strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gasEnhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification Youn-Sang Bae

  18. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    problems of aqueous fluids, make heretofore inaccessible energy resources available for human use, and provide ancillary benefits by using and storing CO2. A CO2-based EGS is...

  19. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2as Heat Transmission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program eere.energy.gov * The project started in FY10 * Collaboration between LBNL (Pruess) and INL (Redden) - Berkeley leads modeling, CO 2 -brine flow and heat...

  20. CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability Richard J for review May 9, 2010) Stimulation of terrestrial plant production by rising CO2 concentra- tion is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coupled climate­carbon cycle

  1. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Feasibility Evaluation for East Texas Oil Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ping

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) has been undergoing for four decades and is now a proven technology. CO2-EOR increases oil recovery, and in the meantime reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by capture CO2 underground. The objectives...

  2. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  3. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall objective of the research is to explore the feasibility of operating enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2as heat transmission fluid.

  4. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO 2Fluid, Proceedings, World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali,Remain? Transactions, Geothermal Resources Council, Vol. 17,

  5. Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal opening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Ryo

    1 Enhancement of photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant growth through the promotion of stomatal ­ By determining the key factor in regulating photosynthesis and plant growth, scientists, Prof. Toshinori-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), have succeeded in developing a method to increase photosynthesis (CO2 uptake) and plant

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  7. QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    limits Component Unit (Max unless Otherwise noted) Carbon Steel Pipeline Enhanced Oil Recovery Saline Reservoir Sequestration Saline Reservoir CO 2 & H 2 S Co- sequestration...

  8. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  9. Short Communication Enhancement of CO2/CH4 selectivity in metal-organic frameworks containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lithium cations Youn-Sang Bae a,1 , Brad G. Hauser b,1 , Omar K. Farha b , Joseph T. Hupp b, , Randall Q November 2010 Keywords: Lithium doping Carbon dioxide (CO2) Metal-organic framework (MOF) Separation improvement by the Li cation exchange comes from enhanced solid­gas interactions. Ó 2010 Elsevier Inc. All

  10. Carbon isotope evidence for recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon isotope evidence for recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat change. In this study, peat cores up to 2 m in depth from four moss banks on Signy Island were used included radiocarbon dating (to determine peat accumulation rates) and stable carbon isotope composition

  11. Laboratory and Field Experimental Studies of CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: obtain basic information on the performance of CO2-based EGS; and enhance and calibrate modeling capabilities for such systems.

  12. Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multi-state spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multi-state perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. Keywords: Fossil-fuel; Carbon dioxide emissions; Sectoral; Spatial cluster; Emissions mitigation policy

  13. Life Cycle Inventory of CO2 in an Enhanced Oil Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    identified as a method of sequestering CO2 recovered from power plants. In CO2- flood EOR, CO2 is injected in EOR projects, thus reducing the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. This claim, however with sequestration via CO2- flood EOR under a number of different scenarios and explores the impact of various

  14. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Could Sequestration of CO2 be Combined with the DevelopmentTOUGH2 Code for Studies of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers,and J. Ennis- King. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological

  15. CO2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STORAGE & ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Objective R MOTC can play a signifi cant role in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage and enhanced oil recovery technology development and fi eld...

  16. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathe, Mandar; Xu, Dikai; Hsieh, Tien-Lin; Simpson, James; Statnick, Robert; Tong, Andrew; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  17. A technical and economic comparison of waterflood infill drilling and CO2 flooding for Monahans Clearfork Unit of West Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Guoping

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF WATERFIXK)D INFILL DRILLING AND CO2 FLOODING FOR MONAHANS CLEARFORK UNIT OF WEST TEXAS A Thesis by GUOPING XUE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1993 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF WATERFLOOD INFILL DRILLING AND CO2 FLOODING FOR MONAHANS CLEARFORK UNIT OF WEST TEXAS A Thesis by GUOPING XUE...

  18. Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than by enhancing soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Elevated CO2 stimulates grassland soil respiration by increasing carbon inputs rather than It is not clear whether the consistent positive effect of elevated CO2 on soil respiration (soil carbon flux, SCF) results from increased plant and microbial activity due to (i) greater C availability through CO2-induced

  19. Enhanced root exudation induces microbial feedbacks to N cycling in a pine forest under long-term CO2 fumigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Richard P.

    enrichment increases tree seedling biomass (Curtis & Wang 1998), net primary production (NPP) in young forest enhancement of forest ecosystem NPP under elevated CO2 will require either the additional supply of limitingLETTER Enhanced root exudation induces microbial feedbacks to N cycling in a pine forest under long

  20. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  1. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes for2002, includes detail on combustion technology and forty-atmosphere is that due to the combustion of fossil fuels and

  2. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution, suggesting hysteresis and a possible rearrangement of coal structure due to CO2 sorption.

  3. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We find that in a fractured reservoir, CO 2 breakthrough atfor a hypothetical fractured reservoir with parameterswater-saturated fractured reservoir at temperature and

  4. Simulation assessment of CO2 sequestration potential and enhanced methane recovery in low-rank coalbeds of the Wilcox Group, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez Arciniegas, Gonzalo

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO2 disposal in high-rank coals. Low-rank coals in the Gulf Coastal plain, specifically in Texas, are possible targets for CO2 sequestration and enhanced methane...

  5. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  6. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of the world's energy needs, with the majority coming from coal, due to its low cost, wide availability, and high energy content. The extensive use of coal-fired power assumes that the resulting CO2 emissions can be vented to the atmosphere. However, exponentially increasing atmospheric CO2 levels have brought this assumption under critical review. Over the last decade, this discussion has evolved from whether exponentially increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions will adversely affect the global environment, to the timing and magnitude of their impact. A variety of sequestration technologies are being explored to mitigate CO2 emissions. These technologies must be both environmentally benign and economically viable. Mineral carbonation is an attractive candidate technology as it disposes of CO2 as geologically stable, environmentally benign mineral carbonates, clearly satisfying the first criteria. The primary challenge for mineral carbonation is cost-competitive process development. CO2 mineral sequestration--the conversion of stationary-source CO2 emissions into mineral carbonates (e.g., magnesium and calcium carbonate, MgCO3 and CaCO3)--has recently emerged as one of the most promising sequestration options, providing permanent CO2 disposal, rather than storage. In this approach a magnesium-bearing feedstock mineral (typically serpentine or olivine; available in vast quantities globally) is specially processed and allowed to react with CO2 under controlled conditions. This produces a mineral carbonate which (1) is environmentally benign, (2) already exists in nature in quantities far exceeding those that could result from carbonating the world's known fossil fuel reserves, and (3) is stable on a geological time scale. Minimizing the process cost via optimization of the reaction rate and degree of completion is the remaining challenge. As members of the DOE/NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO2 mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH)2. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO2 mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach has provided a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. We used ab initio techniques to significantly advance our understanding of atomic-level processes at the solid/solution interface by elucidating the origin of vibrational, electronic, x-ray and electron energy loss sp

  7. Ris Energy Report 6 CO2 capture and storage 2 6.1 What is CO2 capture and storage?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 Gas, oil Air O2 H2 Raw material Gas, ammonia, steel Air/O2 Steam Figure 15: the three main to produce more Co2 per unit of product than a plant without CCS (upper bar). With ef- fective Co2 removal mines. The last two of these, known re- spectively as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced coal bed

  8. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects on heat extraction rates and the water content ofof heat extraction for CO 2 and water- based systems, we hadover water-based systems, including larger heat extraction

  9. Reservoir simulation of co2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery in Tensleep Formation, Teapot Dome field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaviria Garcia, Ricardo

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Teapot Dome field is located 35 miles north of Casper, Wyoming in Natrona County. This field has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy to implement a field-size CO2 storage project. With a projected storage of 2.6 million tons of carbon...

  10. Imaging of CO2 injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection during an Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Experiment RolandEnergy (DOE) as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, was

  11. Targeted Enhancement of H2 and CO2 Uptake for Autotrophic Production of Biodiesel in the Lithoautotrophic Bacterium Ralsonia Eutropha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, C. A.; Sullivan, R.; Johnson, C.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 and H2 are promising feedstocks for production of valuable biocompounds. Ralstonia eutropha utilizes these feedstocks to generate energy (ATP) and reductant (NAD(P)H) via oxidation of H2 by a membrane-bound (MBH) and a soluble hydrogenase (SH) for CO2 fixation by the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Increased expression of the enzyme that fixes CO2 (RubisCO) resulted in 6-fold activity improvement in vitro, while increased expression of the MBH operon or the SH operon plus MBH operon maturation factors necessary for activity resulted in a 10-fold enhancement. Current research involves genetic manipulation of two endogenous cbb operons for increased expression, analysis of expression and activity of CBB/MBH/SH, cofactor ratios, and downstream products during autotrophic growth in control versus enhanced strains, and development of strategies for long-term, optimal overexpression. These studies will improve our understanding of autotrophic metabolism and provide a chassis strain for autotrophic production of biodiesel and other valuable carbon biocompounds.

  12. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heat transmission fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Clay Swelling in a Fractured Geothermal Reservoir,Transactions, Geothermal Resources Council, Vol. 28, pp.the 5-km Deep Enhanced Geothermal Reservoir at Soultz-sous-

  13. Sorption-Enhanced Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) Production from Syngas: A Novel Process Combining CO Methanation, Water-Gas Shift, and CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Liyu; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from syngas is under investigation again due to the desire for less dependency from imports and the opportunity for increasing coal utilization and reducing green house gas emission. CO methanation is highly exothermic and substantial heat is liberated which can lead to process thermal imbalance and deactivation of the catalyst. As a result, conversion per pass is limited and substantial syngas recycle is employed in conventional processes. Furthermore, the conversion of syngas to SNG is typically performed at moderate temperatures (275 to 325°C) to ensure high CH4 yields since this reaction is thermodynamically limited. In this study, the effectiveness of a novel integrated process for the SNG production from syngas at high temperature (i.e. 600?C) was investigated. This integrated process consists of combining a CO methanation nickel-based catalyst with a high temperature CO2 capture sorbent in a single reactor. Integration with CO2 separation eliminates the reverse-water-gas shift and the requirement for a separate water-gas shift (WGS) unit. Easing of thermodynamic constraint offers the opportunity of enhancing yield to CH4 at higher operating temperature (500-700ºC) which also favors methanation kinetics and improves the overall process efficiency due to exploitation of reaction heat at higher temperatures. Furthermore, simultaneous CO2 capture eliminates green house gas emission. In this work, sorption-enhanced CO methanation was demonstrated using a mixture of a 68% CaO/32% MgAl2O4 sorbent and a CO methanation catalyst (Ni/Al2O3, Ni/MgAl2O4, or Ni/SiC) utilizing a syngas ratio (H2/CO) of 1, gas-hour-space velocity (GHSV) of 22 000 hr-1, pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 600oC. These conditions resulted in ~90% yield to methane, which was maintained until the sorbent became saturated with CO2. By contrast, without the use of sorbent, equilibrium yield to methane is only 22%. Cyclic stability of the methanation catalyst and durability of the sorbent were also studied in the multiple carbonation-decarbonation cycle studies proving the potential of this integrated process in a practical application.

  14. Enhancement of CO2 and H2 Uptake for the Production of Biodiesel in Cupriavidus Necator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R. P.; Eckert, C. A.; Balzer, G. J.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cupriavidus necator fixes CO{sub 2} through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle using electrons and energy obtained from the oxidation of H{sub 2}. Producing biodiesel-equivalent electrofuel from renewable CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} has immense potential, especially if the fuel is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure. This research addressed enhanced substrate utilization by focusing on two strategies: (1) optimizing transcriptional regulations to afford over-expression of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), the enzyme responsible for assimilation of CO{sub 2} into the CBB cycle; and (2) hydrogenase over-expression by introduction of additional copies of genes encoding a membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), a soluble hydrogenase (SH), and their maturation machinery to enhance oxidation of H{sub 2} to generate NAD(P)H and ATP required for CO{sub 2} fixation. Incorporation of these strategies into a single production strain resulted in 6-fold CO{sub 2} and 3-fold H{sub 2} uptake improvement, in vitro, with the overarching goal of providing abundant reducing equivalents towards the economic production of biodiesel in C. necator.

  15. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Williams

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into the atmosphere are an inherent part of electricity generation, transportation, and industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels. These energy-related activities are responsible for more than 80 percent of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and most of these emissions are CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coalbed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, potentially reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the US DOE, has embarked on a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through two overlying coal seams. Once completed, all of the wells will be used initially to drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and recovered CBM, the program includes additional monitoring wells to further examine horizontal and vertical migration of CO{sub 2}. This is the fifth Technical Progress report for the project. Progress this period was focused on reclamation of the north access road and north well site, and development of revised drilling methods. This report provides a concise overview of project activities this period and plans for future work.

  16. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heater Residential CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) 2020 ResidentialEnergy Industrial Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) IndustrialFigure 5. Power Sector CO2 Emissions by Scenario E3 Max Tech

  17. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of clean, affordable energy is essential for the prosperity and security of the United States and the world in the 21st century. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions to the atmosphere are an inherent part of energy-related activities, such as electricity generation, transportation, and building systems. These energy-related activities are responsible for roughly 85% of the U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, and 95% of these emissions are dominated by CO{sub 2}. Over the last few decades, an increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the earth's atmosphere has been observed. Many scientists believe greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon sequestration technology offers an approach to redirect CO{sub 2} emissions into sinks (e.g., geologic formations, oceans, soils, and vegetation) and potentially stabilize future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Coal seams are attractive CO{sub 2} sequestration sinks, due to their abundance and proximity to electricity-generation facilities. The recovery of marketable coal bed methane (CBM) provides a value-added stream, reducing the cost to sequester CO{sub 2} gas. Much research is needed to evaluate this technology in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity, sequestration stability, commercial feasibility and overall economics. CONSOL Energy, with support from the U.S. DOE, is conducting a seven-year program to construct and operate a coal bed sequestration site composed of a series of horizontally drilled wells that originate at the surface and extend through overlying coal seams in the subsurface. Once completed, the wells will be used to initially drain CBM from both the upper (mineable) and lower (unmineable) coal seams. After sufficient depletion of the reservoir, centrally located wells in the lower coal seam will be converted from CBM drainage wells to CO{sub 2} injection ports. CO{sub 2} will be measured and injected into the lower unmineable coal seam while CBM continues to drain from both seams. In addition to metering all injected CO{sub 2} and CBM produced, the program includes a plan to monitor horizontal migration of CO{sub 2} within the lower seam. This is the second Technical Progress report for the project. Progress to date has been focused on pre-construction activities; in particular, attaining site approvals and securing property rights for the project. This report provides a concise overview of project activity this period and plans for future work. This is the second semi-annual Technical Progress report under the subject agreement. During this report period, progress was made in completing the environmental assessment report, securing land and coal rights, and evaluating drilling strategies. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

  18. Role of Fluid Pressure in the Production Behavior of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO2 as Working Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulated heat extraction performance of water-based systemsheat extraction rates for CO 2 as compared to water. Theextraction efficiency and wellbore hydraulics as compared to water (

  19. 1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP OXYGEN DEFECT FORMATION AND HYDROGEN EFFUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was partially supported by a DOE grant through United Solar Ovonics, Inc., under the Solar America Initiative1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States BACKGROUND THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP

  20. Rcupration assiste d'hydrocarbures, conventionnels ou non, par injection de CO2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    -combustion (gas processing) 5 (+ 3.5 in construction) EOR 2010 Air Products Steam Methane Reformer EOR United · Récupération d' hydrocarbures conventionnels - CO2 ­ EOR enhanced oil recovery - CO2 ­ EGR enhanced gas recovery · Récupération d' hydrocarbures non conventionnels - veines de charbon non exploitables - hydrates

  1. Rapid precipitation of magnesite micro-crystals from Mg(OH)2-H2O-CO2 slurry enhanced by NaOH and a heat-ageing step (from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    sequential reactions: (1) aqueous carbonation of synthetic brucite (Mg(OH)2) by injection of CO2 in a highly system at ambient temperatures and at atmospheric CO2 partial pressure is of both geological interest1 Rapid precipitation of magnesite micro-crystals from Mg(OH)2- H2O-CO2 slurry enhanced by Na

  2. The economic feasibility of enhanced coalbed methane recovery using CO2 sequestration in the San Juan Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Angeni

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . This basin was studied to investigate the potential of CO2 sequestration and ECBM. Primary recovery of methane is controversial ranging between 20-60% based on reservoir properties in coal bed reservoirs15. Using CO2 sequestration as a secondary recovery...

  3. CO2-Driven Enhanced Gas Recovery and Storage in Depleted Shale Reservoir-A Numerical Simulation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    are driving initiatives to develop carbon management technologies, including geologic sequestration of CO2 of carbon dioxide (CO2), especially from the combustion of fossil fuels, are being linked to global climate change and are of considerable concern. These concerns are driving initiatives to develop carbon

  4. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

    2000-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

  5. Potential for CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production, Blue Creek Field, NW Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Ting

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    basin, Alabama. It considered the injection and production rate, the components of injected gas, coal dewatering, permeability anisotropy, various CO2 soak times, completion of multiple reservoir layers and pressure constraints at the injector...

  6. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) % of Installed Capacity Decarbonization (Fuel Switching) & Coal Tech Switching Demand Reduction

  7. Enhanced isosteric heat, selectivity, and uptake capacity of CO2 adsorption in a metal-organic framework by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    on the combus- tion methods. The ue gas emitted from the post-combustion chamber has a pressure of 1 atm with 15. To apply a MOF in capturing CO2 from industrial ue gas that is emitted from a post-combustion chamber, its capture,2 and O2/N2 gas separation.3 In particular, selective and reversible capture of carbon dioxide

  8. Impact of Sorption Isotherms on the Simulation of CO2-Enhanced Gas Recovery and Storage Process in Marcellus Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    initiatives to develop carbon management technologies, including geologic sequestration of CO2. At present of how much carbon dioxide or methane can be stored in shale at a given pressure. In this paper, a shale to identify the impact of both methane and carbon dioxide sorption isotherms on cumulative methane production

  9. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and potential solutions to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions: energy conservation; improving energy efficiency; carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

  10. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Units Current Plant MEA CO 2 Recovery O 2 fired, Direct CO 2 Compression` MEA/MDEA CO 2 Recovery Steam

  11. Modeling Coal Matrix Shrinkage and Differential Swelling with CO2 Injection for Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery and Carbon Sequestration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. J. Pekot; S. R. Reeves

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix shrinkage and swelling can cause profound changes in porosity and permeability of coalbed methane reservoirs during depletion or when under CO{sub 2} injection processes, with significant implication for primary or enhanced methane recovery. Two models that are used to describe these effects are discussed. The first was developed by Advanced Resources International (ARI) and published in 1990 by Sawyer, et al. The second model was published by Palmer and Mansoori in 1996. This paper shows that the two provide equivalent results for most applications. However, their differences in formulation cause each to have relative advantages and disadvantages under certain circumstances. Specifically, the former appears superior for undersaturated coalbed methane reservoirs while the latter would be better if a case is found where matrix swelling is strongly disproportional to gas concentration. Since its presentation in 1996, the Palmer and Mansoori model has justifiably received much critical praise. However, the model developed by ARI for the COMET reservoir simulation program has been in use since 1990, and has significant advantages in certain settings. A review of data published by Levine in 1996 reveals that carbon dioxide causes a greater degree of coal matrix swelling compared to methane, even when measured on a unit of concentration basis. This effect is described in this report as differential swelling. Differential swelling may have important consequences for enhanced coalbed methane and carbon sequestration projects. To handle the effects of differential swelling, an extension to the matrix shrinkage and swelling model used by the COMET simulator is presented and shown to replicate the data of Levine. Preliminary field results from a carbon dioxide injection project are also presented in support of the extended model. The field evidence supports that considerable changes to coal permeability occur with CO{sub 2} injection, with significant implication for the design, implementation and performance of enhanced coalbed methane recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration projects.

  12. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) technology [6,7] .carbon dioxide emissions by major fuel, 2009…………….2 Fig.1.4 Schematic of CO 2 capture systems and technologies……………………………..carbon footprint. One unique technique is using in-situ CO 2 capture technology,

  13. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    projects based CO 2 enhanced oil recovery in the US. Energydeveloped for CO 2 -enhanced oil recovery. In: 16th SPE/DOEpurposes such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced

  14. Numerical studies of fluid-rock interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as working fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten; Apps, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006), “The Future of Geothermal Energy Impact of Enhanced2000), “A Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Concept UtilizingEnergy has broadly defined Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal

  15. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined CO 2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestrationMODEL The enhanced oil recovery (EOR)/sequestration

  16. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    size gasification for syngas, substitute natural gas andEffect of CO 2 containing syngas over Pt promoted Co/?-Al 2for biomass-derived syngas. NREL report (Report No. : NREL/

  17. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, George D. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Al-Saidi, Wissam A. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Jordan, Kenneth D. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Voora, Vamsee, K. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lopano, Christina L (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Myshakin, Eugene M. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Hur, Tae Bong (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Warzinski, Robert P. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lynn, Ronald J. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Howard, Bret H. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO2 molecules may remain trapped for several months following several hours of exposure to high pressure (supercritical conditions), high temperature (above boiling point of water) or both. Such trapping is well preserved in either inert gas or the ambient environment and appears to eventually result in carbonate formation. We performed computer simulations of CO2 interaction with free cations (normal modes of CO2 and Na+CO2 were calculated using B3LYP / aug-cc-pVDZ and MP2 / aug-cc-pVDZ methods) and with clay structures containing interlayer cations (MD simulations with Clayff potentials for clay and a modified CO2 potential). Additionally, interaction of CO2 with hydrated Na-montmorillonite was studied using density functional theory with dispersion corrections. The sorption energies and the swelling behavior were investigated. Preliminary modeling results and experimental observations indicate that the presence of water molecules in the interlayer region is necessary for intercalation of CO2. Our preliminary conclusion is that CO2 molecules may intercalate into interlayer region of swelling clay and stay there via coordination to the interlayer cations.

  18. CO2 sequestration | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 sequestration CO2 sequestration Leads No leads are available at this time. Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on...

  19. Study of CO2 Mobility Control in Heterogeneous Media Using CO2 Thickening Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Yousef, Zuhair

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 injection is an effective method for performing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). There are several factors that make CO2 useful for EOR, including promoting swelling, reducing oil viscosity, decreasing oil density, and vaporizing and extracting...

  20. Microstructure Of Multistage Annealed Nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B Alloy With Enhanced Magnetic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo2Fe2B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe)4B (1:4:1) and Sm2(Co,Fe)17Bx (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe2B at a scale of ~ 5 nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  1. Microstructure of multistage annealed nanocrystalline SmCo2Fe2B alloy with enhanced magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xiujuan; Devaraj, Arun; Balamurugan, B.; Cui, Jun; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and chemistry of SmCo2Fe2B melt-spun alloy after multistage annealing was investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 3D atom probe tomography. The multistage annealing resulted in an increase in both the coercivity and magnetization. The presence of Sm(Co,Fe)4B (1:4:1) and Sm2(Co,Fe)17Bx (2:17:x) magnetic phases were confirmed using both techniques. Fe2B at a scale of 􏰫5 nm was found by HRTEM precipitating within the 1:4:1 phase after the second-stage annealing. Ordering within the 2:17:x phase was directly identified both by the presence of antiphase boundaries observed by TEM and the interconnected isocomposition surface network found in 3D atom probe results in addition to radial distribution function analysis. The variations in the local chemistry after the secondary annealing were considered pivotal in improving the magnetic properties.

  2. Simulation assessment of CO2 sequestration potential and enhanced methane recovery in low-rank coalbeds of the Wilcox Group, east-central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez Arciniegas, Gonzalo

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) from energy consumption is a primary source of greenhouse gases. Injection of CO2 from power plants in coalbed reservoirs is a plausible method for reducing atmospheric emissions, and it can have the ...

  3. Visualizing the Surface Infrastructure Used to Move 2 MtCO2/year from the Dakota Gasification Company to the Weyburn CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Project: Version of July 1, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Google Earth Pro has been employed to create an interactive flyover of the world’s largest operational carbon dioxide capture and storage project. The visualization focuses on the transport and storage of 2 MtCO2/year which is captured from the Dakota Gasification Facility (Beula, North Dakota) and transported 205 miles and injected into the Weyburn oil field in Southeastern Saskatchewan.

  4. BNL | CO2 Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Laser The ATF is one of the only two facilities worldwide operating picosecond, terawatt-class CO2 lasers. Our laser system consists of a picoseconds pulse-injector based on...

  5. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    form of enhanced petroleum production as CO 2 is injected.for monitoring production in petroleum reservoirs. The cost

  6. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This simulation predicted that the CO{sub 2} injected into the reef would remain in the northern portion of the field. Two new wells, the State Charlton 4-30 and the Larsen 3-31, were drilled into the field in 2006 and 2008 respectively and supported this assessment. A second (or 'Monitor') 3D seismic survey was acquired during September 2007 over most of the field and duplicated the first (Base) survey, as much as possible. However, as the simulation and new well data available at that time indicated that the CO{sub 2} was concentrated in the northern portion of the field, the second seismic survey was not acquired over the extreme southern end of the area covered by the original (or Base) 3D survey. Basic processing was performed on the second 3D seismic survey and, finally, 4D processing methods were applied to both the Base and the Monitor surveys. In addition to this 3D data, a shear wave seismic data set was obtained at the same time. Interpretation of the 4D seismic data indicated that a significant amplitude change, not attributable to differences in acquisition or processing, existed at the locations within the reef predicted by the reservoir simulation. The reservoir simulation was based on the porosity distribution obtained from seismic attributes from the Base 3D survey. Using this validated reservoir simulation the location of oil within the reef at the time the Monitor survey was obtained and recommendations made for the drilling of additional EOR wells. The economic impact of this project has been estimated in terms of both enhanced oil recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. In the northern Michigan Basin alone, the Niagaran reef play is comprised of over 700 Niagaran reefs with reservoirs already depleted by primary production. Potentially there is over 1 billion bbls of oil (original oil in place minus primary recovery) remains in the reefs in Michigan, much of which could be more efficiently mobilized utilizing techniques similar to those employed in this study.

  7. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, Pasquale R.

    2001-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the evaluation, design, and implementation of a DOE funded CO2 pilot project in the Lost Hills Field, Kern County, California. The pilot consists of four inverted (injector-centered) 5-spot patterns covering approximately 10 acres, and is located in a portion of the field, which has been under waterflood since early 1992. The target reservoir for the CO2 pilot is the Belridge Diatomite. The pilot location was selected based on geology, reservoir quality and reservoir performance during the waterflood. A CO2 pilot was chosen, rather than full-field implementation, to investigate uncertainties associated with CO2 utilization rate and premature CO2 breakthrough, and overall uncertainty in the unproven CO2 flood process in the San Joaquin Valley.

  8. EMSL - CO2 sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    co2-sequestration en Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on Alumina. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

  9. Near Miscible CO2 Application to Improve Oil Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bui, Ly H.

    2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection for enhanced oil recovery is a proven technology. CO2 injection is normally operated at a pressure above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP), which is determined by crude oil composition and reservoir conditions...

  10. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    where CO 2 used for enhanced oil recovery has broken throughformations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been

  11. A Feasibility Study of Non-Seismic Geophysical Methods for Monitoring Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined CO 2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestrationis introduced for enhanced oil/gas recovery or for geologic

  12. The United States has put more CO2 into the atmosphere than anybody else, but without too much trouble we now can take the lead in slowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coal-fired power plants, which produce just over half of U.S. electricity and much more CO2 than any this argument they probably think in terms of familiar air pollution, such as sulfur dioxide. Once it enters the atmosphere, normal pollution stays there only a few hours or days. Carbon dioxide is not like that. Much

  13. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  14. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery project as a prototypeCO 2 injection for enhanced oil recovery. Indeed, most near-as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery projects. REFERENCES

  15. CINETIQUES DE SORPTION DU CO2 DANS LE CADRE DU STOCKAGE GEOLOGIQUE DU CO2 DANS LE CHARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PROCESSES OF CO2 SORPTION FOR CO2 STORAGE IN COAL SEAMS Delphine CHARRIERE1, 2 , Zbigniew POKRYSZKA1 storage in coal seams and the enhancement on coalbed methane production requires information on the gas sorption mechanism of kinetics. In this work, both sorption kinetics of CO2 and CH4 are studied onto a coal

  16. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  17. Demonstration of a Novel, Integrated, Multi-Scale Procedure for High-Resolution 3D Reservoir Characterization and Improved CO2-EOR/Sequestration Management, SACROC Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate a new and novel approach for high resolution, 3D reservoir characterization that can enable better management of CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects and, looking to the future, carbon sequestration projects. The approach adopted has been the subject of previous research by the DOE and others, and relies primarily upon data-mining and advanced pattern recognition approaches. This approach honors all reservoir characterization data collected, but accepts that our understanding of how these measurements relate to the information of most interest, such as how porosity and permeability vary over a reservoir volume, is imperfect. Ideally the data needed for such an approach includes surface seismic to provide the greatest amount of data over the entire reservoir volume of interest, crosswell seismic to fill the resolution gap between surface seismic and wellbore-scale measurements, geophysical well logs to provide the vertical resolution sought, and core data to provide the tie to the information of most interest. These data are combined via a series of one or more relational models to enable, in its most successful application, the prediction of porosity and permeability on a vertical resolution similar to logs at each surface seismic trace location. In this project, the procedure was applied to the giant (and highly complex) SACROC unit of the Permian basin in West Texas, one of the world's largest CO{sub 2}-EOR projects and a potentially world-class geologic sequestration site. Due to operational scheduling considerations on the part of the operator of the field, the crosswell data was not obtained during the period of project performance (it is currently being collected however as part of another DOE project). This compromised the utility of the surface seismic data for the project due to the resolution gap between it and the geophysical well logs. An alternative approach was adopted that utilized a relational model to predict porosity and permeability profiles from well logs at each well location, and a 3D geostatistical variogram to generate the reservoir characterization over the reservoir volume of interest. A reservoir simulation model was built based upon this characterization and history-matched without making significant changes to it, thus validating the procedure. While not the same procedure as originally planned, the procedure ultimately employed proved successful and demonstrated that the general concepts proposed (i.e., data mining and advanced pattern recognition methods) have the flexibility to achieve the reservoir characterization objectives sought even with imperfect or incomplete data.

  18. Novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process for Simultaneous Production of CO2 and H2 from Synthesis Gas Produced by Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivaji Sircar; Hugo S. Caram; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael G. Beaver; Fan Ni; Agbor Tabi Makebe

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the extensive feasibility of a novel concept called Thermal Swing Sorption Enhanced Reaction (TSSER) process to simultaneously produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} as a single unit operation in a sorber-reactor. The successful demonstration of the potential feasibility of the TSSER concept implies that it is worth pursuing further development of the idea. This can be done by more extensive evaluation of the basic sorptive properties of the CO{sub 2} chemisorbents at realistic high pressures and by continuing the experimental and theoretical study of the TSSER process. This will allow us to substantiate the assumptions made during the preliminary design and evaluation of the process and firm up the initial conclusions. The task performed under this project consists of (i) retrofitting an existing single column sorption apparatus for measurement of high pressure CO{sub 2} sorption characteristics, (ii) measurement of high pressure CO{sub 2} chemisorption equilibria, kinetics and sorption-desorption column dynamic characteristics under the conditions of thermal swing operation of the TSSER process, (iii) experimental evaluation of the individual steps of the TSSER process (iv) development of extended mathematical model for simulating cyclic continuous operation of TSSER to aid in process scale-up and for guiding future work, (v) simulate and test SER concept using realistic syngas composition, (vi) extensive demonstration of the thermal stability of sorbents using a TGA apparatus, (vii) investigation of the surfaces of the adsorbents and adsorbed CO{sub 2} ,and (viii) test the effects of sulfur compounds found in syngas on the CO{sub 2} sorbents.

  19. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Q.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 , excluding enhanced oil recovery operations 2 . Whenfor water flooding, enhanced oil recovery, and disposal, the

  20. A Framework for Environmental Assessment of CO2 Capture and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathre, Roger

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increased electricity generation from other power plants inplants require the capture of more CO 2 per unit of electricity generation.

  1. Natural and industrial analogues for leakage of CO2 from storagereservoirs: identification of features, events, and processes and lessonslearned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection and storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deepgeologic formations is a potentially feasible strategy to reduce CO2emissions and atmospheric concentrations. While the purpose of geologiccarbon storage is to trap CO2 underground, CO2 could migrate away fromthe storage site into the shallow subsurface and atmosphere if permeablepathways such as well bores or faults are present. Large-magnitudereleases of CO2 have occurred naturally from geologic reservoirs innumerous volcanic, geothermal, and sedimentary basin settings. Carbondioxide and natural gas have also been released from geologic CO2reservoirs and natural gas storage facilities, respectively, due toinfluences such as well defects and injection/withdrawal processes. Thesesystems serve as natural and industrial analogues for the potentialrelease of CO2 from geologic storage reservoirs and provide importantinformation about the key features, events, and processes (FEPs) that areassociated with releases, as well as the health, safety, andenvironmental consequences of releases and mitigation efforts that can beapplied. We describe a range of natural releases of CO2 and industrialreleases of CO2 and natural gas in the context of these characteristics.Based on this analysis, several key conclusions can be drawn, and lessonscan be learned for geologic carbon storage. First, CO2 can bothaccumulate beneath, and be released from, primary and secondaryreservoirs with capping units located at a wide range of depths. Bothprimary and secondary reservoir entrapments for CO2 should therefore bewell characterized at storage sites. Second, many natural releases of CO2have been correlated with a specific event that triggered the release,such as magmatic fluid intrusion or seismic activity. The potential forprocesses that could cause geomechanical damage to sealing cap rocks andtrigger the release of CO2 from a storage reservoir should be evaluated.Third, unsealed fault and fracture zones may act as fast and directconduits for CO2 flow from depth to the surface. Risk assessment shouldtherefore emphasize determining the potential for and nature of CO2migration along these structures. Fourth, wells that are structurallyunsound have the potential to rapidly release large quantities of CO2 tothe atmosphere. Risk assessment should therefore be focused on thepotential for both active and abandoned wells at storage sites totransport CO2 to the surface, particularly at sites with depleted oil orgas reservoirs where wellsare abundant. Fifth, the style of CO2 releaseat the surface varies widely between and within different leakage sites.In rare circumstances, the release of CO2 can be a self-enhancing and/oreruptive process; this possibility should be assessed in the case of CO2leakage from storage reservoirs. Sixth, the hazard to human health hasbeen small in most cases of large surface releases of CO2. This could bedue to implementation of public education and CO2 monitoring programs;these programs should therefore be employed to minimize potential health,safety, and environmental effects associated with CO2 leakage. Finally,while changes in groundwater chemistry were related to CO2 leakage due toacidification and interaction with host rocks along flow paths, watersremained potable in most cases. Groundwaters should be monitored forchanges that may be associated with storage reservoirleakage.

  2. THE ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEPARATION AND CAPTURE Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    economic source of CO2, especially for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations where CO2 is injected the price of oil dropped in the mid-1980s, the recovered CO2 was too expensive for EOR operations, forcingTHE ECONOMICS OF CO2 SEPARATION AND CAPTURE Howard J. Herzog Principal Research Engineer MIT Energy

  3. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and/or used in enhanced oil recovery. This technology can beCO 2 for underground storage, enhanced oil recovery or other

  4. arbon dioxide (CO2 atmosphere has increased by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    responsive to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration than C3 species. In the southwestern United States substrate for photosynthetic energy acquisition by life, the process of using light energy to combine CO2 surface and scale up to affect the landscape water balance. Thus, through its impacts on plant water use

  5. East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit CO2 flood ten year performance review: Evolution of a reservoir management strategy and results of WAG optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpole, K.J.; Hallenbeck, L.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) recently completed ten years of successful CO{sub 2} miscible WAG injection. This paper briefly reviews the original CO{sub 2} project design and field performance over the past ten years, and discusses the evolution of a CO{sub 2} reservoir management strategy from the original, fixed 2:1 WAG design to the current flexible, performance-driven WAG strategy. Variations in the magnitude and character of CO{sub 2} flood response across the Unit due to variability in local reservoir geology presented numerous reservoir management challenges. Problems were encountered in areas such as injection conformance, pattern balancing and sweep efficiency; managing large swings in gas production rates, and changes in injection gas composition and MMP due to construction of an NGL recovery facility. These challenges required a re-evaluation of our understanding of the reservoir and prompted a review of the original project design and operating philosophy by an interdisciplinary study team. Significant elements of this effort included surveillance and data collection on selected infill wells, extensive reservoir characterization work, and use of operations-oriented simulation modeling. This work resulted in the evolution of a more flexible reservoir management strategy for EVGSAU utilizing selective, geologically-targeted infill drilling, well conversions, pattern realignment, and a performance-driven WAG management strategy. Operating changes implemented over the past two years have produced significant improvements in profitability and performance in terms of both increased oil production and reduced gas handling problems and expenses.

  6. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

  7. SIMULTANEOUS MECHANICAL AND HEAT ACTIVATION: A NEW ROUTE TO ENHANCE SERPENTINE CARBONATION REACTIVITY AND LOWER CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McKelvy; J. Diefenbacher; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal can support a large fraction of global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other candidate technologies, which propose long-term storage (e.g., ocean and geological sequestration), mineral sequestration permanently disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable mineral carbonates. Only benign, naturally occurring materials are formed, eliminating long-term storage and liability issues. Serpentine carbonation is a leading mineral sequestration process candidate, which offers large scale, permanent sequestration. Deposits exceed those needed to carbonate all the CO{sub 2} that could be generated from global coal reserves, and mining and milling costs are reasonable ({approx}$4 to $5/ton). Carbonation is exothermic, providing exciting low-cost process potential. The remaining goal is to develop an economically viable process. An essential step in this development is increasing the carbonation reaction rate and degree of completion, without substantially impacting other process costs. Recently, the Albany Research Center (ARC) has accelerated serpentine carbonation, which occurs naturally over geological time, to near completion in less than an hour. While reaction rates for natural serpentine have been found to be too slow for practical application, both heat and mechanical (attrition grinding) pretreatment were found to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity. Unfortunately, these processes are too energy intensive to be cost-effective in their present form. In this project we explored the potential that utilizing power plant waste heat (e.g., available up to {approx}200-250 C) during mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) offers to enhance serpentine mineral carbonation, while reducing pretreatment energy consumption and process cost. This project was carried out in collaboration with the Albany Research Center (ARC) to maximize the insight into the potential thermomechanical activation offers. Lizardite was selected as the model serpentine material for investigation, due to the relative structural simplicity of its lamellar structure when compared with the corrugated and spiral structures of antigorite and chrysotile, respectively. Hot-ground materials were prepared as a function of grinding temperature, time, and intensity. Carbonation reactivity was explored using the standard ARC serpentine carbonation test (155 C, 150 atm CO{sub 2}, and 1 hr). The product feedstock and carbonation materials were investigated via a battery of techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal, BET, elemental, and infrared analysis. The incorporation of low-level heat with moderate mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) was found to be able to substantially enhance serpentine carbonation reactivity in comparison with moderate mechanical activation alone. Increases in the extent of carbonation of over 70% have been observed in this feasibility study, indicating thermomechanical activation offers substantial potential to lower process cost. Investigations of the thermomechanically activated materials that formed indicate adding low-level heat during moderately intense lizardite mechanical activation promotes (1) energy absorption during activation, (2) structural disorder, and (3) dehydroxylation, as well as carbonation reactivity, with the level of energy absorption, structural disorder and dehydroxylation generally increasing with increasing activation temperature. Increasing activation temperatures were also associated with decreasing surface areas and water absorptive capacities for the activated product materials. The above decreases in surface area and water absorption capacity can be directly correlated with enhanced particle sintering during thermomechanical activation, as evidenced by electron microscopy observation. The level of induced structural disorder appears to be a key parameter in enhancing carbonation reactivity. However, p

  8. co2-use-reuse | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide economic benefits for fossil fuel-fired power plants or industrial processes. CO2 utilization through enhanced oil recovery (EOR) could also be pursued as a means to...

  9. Novel CO2-Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO2.

  10. 9,997,638 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 9, 2015 | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

  11. 9,805,742 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 27, 2015...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

  12. 9,981,117 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 2, 2015 | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

  13. 9,355,469 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of January 29, 2015...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

  14. 9,449,421 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 12, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

  15. 10,045,885 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of April 16, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE’s Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  16. 10,180,047 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of May 28, 2015 | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is...

  17. CO2 Sequestration short course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  18. INTEGRATING MEA REGENERATION WITH CO2 COMPRESSION AND PEAKING TO REDUCE CO2 CAPTURE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    system with no compression heat recovery, CO2 vapor recompression heat recovery, and multipressure stripping with and without vapor recompression heat recovery. These configurations were simulated using of power for sale to the grid based on 500 MW unit ) clearly outweighed the modest increases in capital

  19. ULTimateCO2 : A FP7 European Project dedicated to the understanding of the long term fate of geologically stored CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ULTimateCO2 : A FP7 European Project dedicated to the understanding of the long term fate of geologically stored CO2 Audigane, P.1 , Brown, S.2 , Dimier A.3 , Frykman P.4 , Gherardi F.5 , Le Gallo Y.6 Recherches Géologiques et minières - France 2 CO2SENSE limited, United Kingdom 3 EIFER, EIFER europaisches

  20. Applications of mineral carbonation to geological sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, G.E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological sequestration of CO2 is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. However, migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals could prove beneficial. Injection of a mineral reactant slurry could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by supplying the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry injection strategies by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin.

  1. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

  2. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale within the United States. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies (so called WRE450 and WRE550 stabilization scenarios) and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The analysis reveals that between 11,000 and 23,000 additional miles of dedicated CO2 pipeline might be needed in the U.S. before 2050 across these two cases. While that is a significant increase over the 3,900 miles that comprise the existing national CO2 pipeline infrastructure, it is critically important to realize that the demand for additional CO2 pipeline capacity will unfold relatively slowly and in a geographically dispersed manner as new dedicated CCS-enabled power plants and industrial facilities are brought online. During the period 2010-2030, the growth in the CO2 pipeline system is on the order of a few hundred to less than a thousand miles per year. In comparison during the period 1950-2000, the U.S. natural gas pipeline distribution system grew at rates that far exceed these projections in growth in a future dedicated CO2 pipeline system. This analysis indicates that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a major obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies in the U.S. Nevertheless, there will undoubtedly be some associated regulatory and siting issues to work through but these issues should not be unmanageable based on the size of infrastructure requirements alone.

  3. 24/02/2012 12:49SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction -CO2/Brine Surface Dissolution and Injection: CO2 Storage Enhancement Page 1 of 1http://www.spe.org/ejournals/jsp/journalapp.jsp?pageType=Preview&jid=EFC&pdfChronicleId=090147628022501b&mid=SPE-12471

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    24/02/2012 12:49SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction - CO2/Brine Surface Dissolution of Petroleum Engineers SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction Volume 6, Number 1, March 2011, pp. 41-53 SPE

  4. Changes in the chemistry of shallow groundwater related to the 2008 injection of CO2 at the ZERT Field Site, Bozeman, Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharaka, Y.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and as observed in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations (CO 2 -injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan,

  5. Changes in the chemistry of shallow groundwater related to the 2008 injection of CO2 at the ZERT field site, Bozeman, Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and as observed in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations (CO 2 -injection enhanced oil recovery site, Saskatchewan,

  6. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The experts represented a range of disciplines and hailed from North America and Europe. Major findings of the study are that compression and transport of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes in the United States has shown that impurities are not likely to cause transport problems if CO2 stream composition standards are maintained and pressures are kept at 10.3 MPa or higher. Cyclic, or otherwise intermittent, CO2 supplies historically have not impacted in-field distribution pipeline networks, wellbore integrity, or reservoir conditions. The U.S. EOR industry has demonstrated that it is possible to adapt to variability and intermittency in CO2 supply through flexible operation of the pipeline and geologic storage facility. This CO2 transport and injection experience represents knowledge that can be applied in future CCS projects. A number of gaps in knowledge were identified that may benefit from future research and development, further enhancing the possibility for widespread application of CCS. This project was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  7. An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration through Mineralization Conference on Sustainable Construction area and increased availability of CO2 for rapid carbonation. The hardened and carbonated materials Slag #12;Carbonation Chemistry Dissolution of CO2 in water. CO2(g) CO2(aq) Formation of carbonic acid

  8. A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 A Sectoral Prospective Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China, USA and France, 2010-2050 Pascal da mitigation targets for CO2 emissions, which reflect their own specific situations. In this article, scenarios for CO2 emissions up to 2050 are set up for three representative countries: the United States of America

  9. Author's personal copy Antioxidant capacity reduced in scallions grown under elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    ) of scallion extracts was determined using a radical cation scavenging assay. Both elevated CO2 and increasing that increasing atmo- spheric [CO2] enhances water use efficiency because of reduced stomatal conductance and antioxidant activity of the harvested fruits (Wang, 2006). However, reports regarding elevated CO2 effects

  10. Interaction between CO2-rich solutions and reservoir-seal rocks. Experimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    coal systems 5.Use of CO2 in enhanced coal bed methane recovery 6.Other suggested options (basalts, oilInteraction between CO2-rich solutions and reservoir-seal rocks. Experimentation María García formations (after Cook, 1999). Geological Storage Options for CO2 1.Depleted oil and gas reservoirs 2.Use

  11. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

  12. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    numbered 0-6. Plots of F CO2 measured along the surface wellin Figure 2. Figure 2. Log F CO2 maps for measurements madeof soil CO 2 flux (F CO2 ). The surface leakage onset,

  13. CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Kovar; Scott Wehner

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of cyclic CO2, often referred to as the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process, may find its niche in the maturing waterfloods of the Permian Basin. Coupling the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process to miscible flooding applications could provide the needed revenue to sufficiently mitigate near-term negative cash flow concerns in the capital-intensive miscible projects. Texaco Exploration & Production Inc. and the U. S. Department of Energy have teamed up in an attempt to develop the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in the Grayburg and San Andres formations which are light oil, shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs that exist throughout the Permian Basin. This cost-shared effort is intended to demonstrate the viability of this underutilized technology in a specific class of domestic reservoir. A significant amount of oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs. Specifically, the carbonates deposited in shallow shelf (SSC) environments make up the largest percentage of known reservoirs within the Permian Basin of North America. Many of these known resources have been under waterflooding operations for decades and are at risk of abandonment if crude oil recoveries cannot be economically enhanced 1,2 . The selected sites for this demonstration project are the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico and the Sundown Slaughter Field in Hockley County, Texas. Miscible CO2 flooding is the process of choice for enhancing recovery of light oils 3 and already accounts for over 12% of the Permian Basin?s daily production.4 There are significant probable reserves associated with future miscible CO2 projects. However, many are marginally economic at current market conditions due to large up-front capital commitments for a peak response, which may be several years in the future. The resulting negative cash-flow is sometimes too much for an operator to absorb. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is being investigated as a near-term option to mitigate the negative cash-flow situation--allowing acceleration of inventoried miscible CO2 projects when coupled together. The CO2 Huff-n-Puff process is a proven enhanced oil recovery technology in Louisiana-Texas Gulf-coast sandstone reservoirs 5,6 . Application seems to mostly confine itself to low pressure sandstone reservoirs 7 . The process has even been shown to be moderately effective in conjunction with steam on heavy California crude oils 8,9 . A review of earlier literature 5,10,11 provides an excellent discussion on the theory, mechanics of the process, and several case histories. Although the technology is proven in light oil sandstones, it continues to be a very underutilized enhanced recovery option for carbonates. However, the theories associated with the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process are not lithology dependent. It was anticipated that this project would show that the application of the CO2 Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates could be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project were the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential.

  14. A Framework for Environmental Assessment of CO2 Capture and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathre, Roger

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of CO 2 in an enhanced oil recovery system. Environ Scia process known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), serving tois in support of enhanced oil recovery efforts [43]. To

  15. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E EPM2- TIP4P2005 PPL- TIP4P2005 Predicted (f) a P ? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE a Surface excess CO

  16. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  17. Combustion-Assisted CO2 Capture Using MECC Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Steven R [ORNL; Gray, Dr. Joshua R. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Huang, Dr. Kevin [University of South Carolina, Columbia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO2 from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO2 capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO2 driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO2 in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO2 product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO2 capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE s goal that deployment of a CO2 capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  18. 8, 73737389, 2008 Scientists' CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 7373­7389, 2008 Scientists' CO2 emissions A. Stohl Title Page Abstract Introduction Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7373 #12;ACPD 8, 7373­7389, 2008 Scientists' CO2 substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this pa- per, the CO2 emissions of the employees working

  19. 6, 1092910958, 2006 Regional scale CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using radon A. I. Hirsch Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions On using radon-222 and CO2 to calculate regional-scale CO2 fluxes A. I (Adam.Hirsch@noaa.gov) 10929 #12;ACPD 6, 10929­10958, 2006 Regional scale CO2 flux estimation using

  20. Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

  1. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, J.

    We improve on existing estimates of the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of consumption across regions of the United States. Using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework, we estimate the direct and indirect CO2 emissions ...

  2. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE Lars Imsland Dagfinn Snarheim and control of a semi-closed O2/CO2 gas turbine cycle for CO2 capture. In the first part the process predictive control, Gas turbines, CO2 capture 1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbines are widely used for power

  3. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 46 and 47 - CO2 Budget...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Manafement For the purposes of these regulations, CO2 budget units are defined as units that serve an electricity generator with nameplate capacity greater than or equal to 25 MWe....

  4. Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Nanoparticle Silver Catalysts That Show Enhanced Activity for Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Amin,§ and Richard I. Masel*, Dioxide Materials, 60 Hazelwood Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, United States properties for CO2 conversion. INTRODUCTION The discovery and development of efficient catalysts for CO2

  5. Dynamic micro-mapping of CO2 sorption in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Cheng, Gang [ORNL; Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have applied X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques (SAXS, SANS and USANS) to study the interaction between fluids and porous media in the particular case of sub- and super-critical CO2 sorption in coal. These techniques are demonstrated to give unique, pore-size-specific insights into the kinetics of CO2 sorption in a wide range of coal pores (nano to meso), and to provide data that may be used to determine the density of the sorbed CO2. We observed densification of the adsorbed CO2 by a factor up to five compared to the free fluid at the same (p,T) conditions. Our results indicate that details of CO2 sorption into coal pores differ greatly between different coals and depend on the amount of mineral matter dispersed in the coal matrix: a purely organic matrix absorbs more CO2 per unit volume than one contaminated with mineral matter, but mineral matter markedly accelerates the sorption kinetics.

  6. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbondioxideatmosphericburden,PgC Land use Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion ­ was the dominant CO2 Comparison of CO2 mixing ratio from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes 400 380 360 340 cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

  7. Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal M. Vandamme1 , L. Brochard2 , B. Lecampion3.07.014 #12;Abstract Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal gets adsorbed at the surface of the coal pores, which causes the coal to swell. This swelling

  8. 5, 33133340, 2005 SCIAMACHY CO2 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 3313­3340, 2005 SCIAMACHY CO2 and aerosols S. Houweling et al. Title Page Abstract Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols S. Houweling 1,2 , W. Hartmann 1 Commons License. 3313 #12;ACPD 5, 3313­3340, 2005 SCIAMACHY CO2 and aerosols S. Houweling et al. Title

  9. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO(2) Enhanced Oil Recovery in California`s Monterey formation Siliceous Shales. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morea, M.F.

    1997-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a C0{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills Pilot C0{sub 2} project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of C0{sub 2} flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and C0{sub 2} Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  10. On the Road to Climate Stability: The Parable of the Secretary A-Team Report on Prospects for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions James Hansen1,2, Darnell Cain3, Robert Schmunk3 After President Bush) reducing non-CO2 climate forcings, and (2) getting CO2 emissions to level out in the near-term and decline for a path in which the United States achieves an energy and CO2 emissions pathway consistent

  11. A Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications for Regional Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    component of vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO2 generated by the combustion of motor gasoline and diesel fuel. CO2 emissions contribute to global climate change,2 but the United States has yetA Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications

  12. Samenvatting CO2 is het meest belangrijke broeikasgas. The concentratie van CO2 in de atmosfeer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    Samenvatting CO2 is het meest belangrijke broeikasgas. The concentratie van CO2 in de atmosfeer brandstoffen en veranderingen in landgebruik. Toenemende concentraties van CO2 in de atmosfeer zullen naar toename van CO2 in de atmosfeer op de dynamiek van de microbiële gemeenschap in de directe omgeving van de

  13. MAC-Kaust Project P1 CO2 Sequestration Modeling of CO2 sequestration including parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turova, Varvara

    MAC-Kaust Project P1 ­ CO2 Sequestration Modeling of CO2 sequestration including parameter identification and numerical simulation M. Brokate, O. A. PykhteevHysteresis aspects of CO2 sequestration modeling K-H. Hoffmann, N. D. Botkin Objectives and methods of CO2 sequestration There is a popular belief

  14. How secure is CO2 storage? Leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How secure is CO2 storage? Leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs Johannes Miocic, Stuart. The goal of CCS is to store carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface for a long period of time (>10,000 yr).1 It is important that the stored CO2 does not leak from the reservoir to the surface . 3. Faults as leakage

  15. Surface controls on the characteristics of natural CO2 seeps: implications for engineered CO2 stores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    of the CO2 seeps is most strongly governed by the flow properties of the outcropping rocks, and local emerge where valleys erode into CO2 aquifers, and these are typically high flux seeps. Seep type is knownSurface controls on the characteristics of natural CO2 seeps: implications for engineered CO2

  16. Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery, Energy Conversionin the U.S. for enhanced oil recovery for approximately 35gained from CO 2 -enhanced oil recovery has provided a solid

  17. CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of “CO2-phillic” groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin “polymer-like” surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

  18. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  19. THE INCREASING CONCENTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2: HOW MUCH, WHEN, AND WHY?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions when fuel consumption is expressed in energy units. Table 1: CO2 Emission Rates for Fossil, and we examine the trends in both. We review the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Finally, we

  20. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  1. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos,,,

    Feb 6, 2011 ... atmosphere, increasing its temperature (greenhouse effect). To minimize climate change impacts, geological sequestration of CO2 is an ...

  2. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  3. atmyb44 enhances stomatal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known 169 Metadata Models for Technology Enhanced Learning Computer...

  4. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  5. Capturing CO2 from Air Anca Timofte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    emissions through renewable fuels · Storage of fluctuating renewable energies · Short-term: Substitute concentrated CO2 from atmospheric air Renewable energy source for Climeworks and subsequent fuel synthesis in Greenhouses Beverage Carbonation CO2 Supply for Renewable Fuel Synthesis #12;5 Climeworks plant delivers

  6. Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage Jason Heinrich Working Paper Laboratory for Energy the deployment of CO2 storage technologies used in the marine environment. This paper will address some of the legal issues involved in ocean storage of carbon dioxide from a US perspective. The following paragraphs

  7. 2, 711743, 2006 Glacial CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 change: a simple "hypsometric effect" on deep-ocean carbon sequestration? L. C. Skinner Godwin carbon sequestration, this mechanism may help to significantly reduce the "deficit" of explained glacialCPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title Page Abstract Introduction

  8. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z [University of Cincinnati; Dong, J. H. [University of Cincinnati

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  9. 4, 23852405, 2007 CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 2385­2405, 2007 CO2 and climate affect European carbon ballance R. Harrison and C. Jones Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance R. Harrison and C. Jones Met Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK Received: 13 April 2007

  10. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  11. Prospects for Subsurface CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Prospects for Subsurface CO2 Sequestration Abbas Firoozabadi and Philip Cheng Dept. of Chemical in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Keywords: CO2 sequestration, mixing, diffusion coal in the future. Coal has a high carbon to hydrogen ratio while natural gas, the premium fuel

  12. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  13. PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY FROM COAL WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) reactors. Our focus is on separating H2 from the syngas and processing the carbon-bearing raffinate are replaced by, in order: syngas cooler, low-temperature WGS reactor, H2S and CO2 physical absorption units

  14. Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Oyewande

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

  15. Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Oyewande

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

  16. CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR -2010 Reprint -Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    CO2 Sequestration in Unminable Coal with ECBMR - 2010 Reprint - Proceedings 2010 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference, Istanbul, Turkey 1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN UNMINABLE COAL WITH ENHANCED COAL BED conducted in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, to evaluate enhanced coal bed methane recovery

  17. Potential method for measurement of CO2 leakage from underground sequestration fields using radioactive tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachelor, Paula P.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Amonette, James E.; Hayes, James C.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Saripalli, Prasad

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) release to the environment is a pressing challenge that should be addressed to avert the potential devastating effects of global warming. Within the United States, the most abundant sources of CO2 emissions are those generate from coal- or gas-fired power plants; one method to control CO2 emissions is to sequester it in deep underground geological formations. From integrated assessment models the overall leakage rates from these storage locations must be less than 0.1% of stored volume per year for long-term control. The ability to detect and characterize nascent leaks, in conjunction with subsequent remediation efforts, will significantly decrease the amount of CO2 released back into the environment. Because potential leakage pathways are not necessarily known a priori, onsite monitoring must be performed; the monitoring region in the vicinity of a CO2 injection well may be as large as 100 km2, which represents the estimated size of a supercritical CO2 bubble that would form under typical injection scenarios. By spiking the injected CO2 with a radiological or stable isotope tracer, it will be possible to detect ground leaks from the sequestered CO2 using fewer sampling stations, with greater accuracy than would be possible using simple CO2 sensors. The relative merits of various sorbent materials, radiological and stable isotope tracers, detection methods and potential interferences will be discussed.

  18. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 46 and 47- CO2 Budget Trading Program and Allowance Distribution (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of these regulations, CO2 budget units are defined as units that serve an electricity generator with nameplate capacity greater than or equal to 25 MWe. The regulations describe...

  19. co2 capture | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Dates: June 23-26, 2015 Registration Fee: 360.00 Venue: 300 West Station Square Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1122 Phone: (412)261-2000...

  20. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PCOR Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Deployment Issues) activities have focused on utilizing Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) experience and data with respect to DGC participation in the enhanced oil recovery project at Weyburn, Saskatchewan. A solid line of communication has been developed with the Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) for the mutual benefit of the PCOR Partnership and IOGCC's complementary efforts. Task 3 (Public Education and Outreach) activities have focused on developing a foundation of background materials in order to avoid a duplication of efforts and provide the best outreach and educational materials possible. Progress in Task 4 (Characterization and Evaluation) has included the development of a database format, the preliminary collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks, and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have resulted in a conceptual model for screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities have also been useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  1. Version 3.0 SOP 4 --p(CO2) October 12, 2007 (p(CO2))

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Version 3.0 SOP 4 -- p(CO2) October 12, 2007 91 SOP 4 (p(CO2)) - 1. . microatmospheres . (20°C 250-2000 µatm) (mole fraction) . 2. CO2 (mole fraction) . 2 2(CO ) (CO( ) . . Frit . #12;October 12, 2007 SOP 4 -- p(CO2) Version 3.0 92 CO2 CO2 2 . p(CO2) (1) . 4. 3

  2. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations (½CO2atm) during Earth's ancient greenhouse episodes is essential for accurately predicting the response of future climate to elevated CO2 levels. Empirical estimates of ½CO2atm

  3. CO2 stimulation of photosynthesis is not sustained during long-term (12 years) FACE treatments in Liquidambar styraciflua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Jensen, Anna M [ORNL; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Tissue, David Thomas [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species, although there is evidence that the increases may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following two years of ~40% enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if initial enhancement of CO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system. Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using consistent leaf photosynthesis model equations. Relationships between maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll content were assessed. In 1999, light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 0.8 mol m-2 s-1, 22% higher than aCO2 treatments (P<0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50% of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 0.7 mol m-2 s-1 for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17% less than in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N use efficiency (Asat:N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax:Vcmax through time. Results suggest that initial enhancement of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 will not be sustained through time if nitrogen becomes limited.

  4. Growth, CO2 Consumption, and H2 Production of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U under Different Irradiances and CO2 Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Barra, Natasha; Pilon, Laurent; Jay, Jenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase Medium Irradiance ? H2 ? CO2 Maximum Reported Ratesa) Specific CO 2 uptake rate, ? CO2 (kg CO 2 /kg dry cell/h)

  5. Selection of coals of different maturities for CO2 Storage by modelling of CH4 and CO2 adsorption isotherms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    rue de la Férollerie, 45072 Orléans Cedex, France Abstract CO2 injection in unmineable coal seams capacities on various coals for the future modelling of CO2 injection in coal seams. Keywords: CO2 storage is estimated from 3 up to 200 GtCO2 therefore CO2 storage in coal seams is one of the potential types

  6. Insights into the structure of mixed CO2/CH4 in gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exchange of CO2 for CH4 in natural gas hydrates is an attractive approach to methane for energy production while simultaneously sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental implications, the solid solution of clathrate hydrate (CH4)1-x(CO2)x 5.75H2O provides a model system to study how the distinct bonding and shapes of CH4 and CO2 influence the structure and properties of the compound. High-resolution neutron diffraction was used to examine mixed CO2/CH4 gas hydrates. CO2-rich hydrates had smaller lattice parameters, which were attributed to the higher affinity of the CO2 molecule interacting with H2O molecules that form the surrounding cages, and resulted in a reduction in the unit cell volume. Experimental nuclear scattering densities illustrate how the cage occupants and energy landscape change with composition. These results provide important insights on the impact and mechanisms for exchanging CH4 and CO2.

  7. Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For Phase 1 of this project, the Hopewell team developed a detailed design for the Small Scale Pilot-Scale Algal CO2 Sequestration System. This pilot consisted of six (6) x 135 gallon cultivation tanks including systems for CO2 delivery and control, algal cultivation, and algal harvesting. A feed tank supplied Hopewell wastewater to the tanks and a receiver tank collected the effluent from the algal cultivation system. The effect of environmental parameters and nutrient loading on CO2 uptake and sequestration into biomass were determined. Additionally the cost of capturing CO2 from an industrial stack emission at both pilot and full-scale was determined. The engineering estimate evaluated Amine Guard technology for capture of pure CO2 and direct stack gas capture and compression. The study concluded that Amine Guard technology has lower lifecycle cost at commercial scale, although the cost of direct stack gas capture is lower at the pilot scale. Experiments conducted under high concentrations of dissolved CO2 did not demonstrate enhanced algae growth rate. This result suggests that the dissolved CO2 concentration at neutral pH was already above the limiting value. Even though dissolved CO2 did not show a positive effect on biomass growth, controlling its value at a constant set-point during daylight hours can be beneficial in an algae cultivation stage with high algae biomass concentration to maximize the rate of CO2 uptake. The limited enhancement of algal growth by CO2 addition to Hopewell wastewater was due at least in part to the high endogenous CO2 evolution from bacterial degradation of dissolved organic carbon present at high levels in the wastewater. It was found that the high level of bacterial activity was somewhat inhibitory to algal growth in the Hopewell wastewater. The project demonstrated that the Honeywell automation and control system, in combination with the accuracy of the online pH, dissolved O2, dissolved CO2, turbidity, Chlorophyll A and conductivity sensors is suitable for process control of algae cultivation in an open pond systems. This project concluded that the Hopewell wastewater is very suitable for algal cultivation but the potential for significant CO2 sequestration from the plant stack gas emissions was minimal due to the high endogenous CO2 generation in the wastewater from the organic wastewater content. Algae cultivation was found to be promising, however, for nitrogen remediation in the Hopewell wastewater.

  8. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  9. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Geologic Storage of CO2, in Carbon Dioxide Capture forFormations - Results from the CO2 Capture Project: GeologicBenson, Process Modeling of CO2 Injection into Natural Gas

  10. Satellite remote sounding of mid-tropospheric CO 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Y. L. Yung (2006), CO 2 in the upper troposphere:derivatives with application to CO 2 , Geophys. Res. Lett. ,feasibility of monitoring CO 2 from high-resolution infrared

  11. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WITH SITE SCREENING AND SELECTION FOR CO 2 STORAGE D. A.77 ASSESSING AND EXPANDING CO 2 STORAGE CAPACITY IN DEPLETEDFOR CO 2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE IN CENTRAL COAL BASIN (NORTHERN

  12. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  13. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONSTRAIN CO2 INJECTION FEASIBILITY: TEAPOT DOME EOR PILOTEOR, and coupled process modeling will investigate the total system including preliminary estimates of CO2

  14. abiotic co2 flows: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s... Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia,...

  15. af co2 fra: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s... Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia,...

  16. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F Monitoring studies above EOR-CO2 fields Weyburn-MidaleTexas •? Over 30 years of CO2-EOR •? Sampled outside of

  17. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in a Saline Reservoir and Depleted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling CO 2 Sequestration in a Saline Reservoir and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate The Regional CO 2 Sequestration Potential of The Ozark Plateau Aquifer System,...

  18. Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for Magnesite Formation at Low Temperatures. Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for...

  19. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...

  20. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  1. Geologic CO2 sequestration inhibits microbial growth | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    community and could improve overall efficiency of CO2 sequestration. The Science Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep subsurface environments has received...

  2. numerical methodology to model and monitor co2 sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos,,,

    CO2 sequestration is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect [1]. Geologic sequestration involves injecting CO2 into a target geologic formation at depths ...

  3. Variations in 13 C discrimination during CO2 exchange by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as to differential diffusivities of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 in air (Farquhar, O'Leary & Berry 1982; O'Leary 1984

  4. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate with another turbine-development team to construct a shared s-CO2 test facility. The synergy of the combined effort would result in greater facility capabilities than either separate project could produce and would allow for testing of both turbine designs within the combined budgets of the two projects. The project team requested a no-cost extension to Phase 1 to modify the subsequent work based on this collaborative approach. DOE authorized a brief extension, but ultimately opted not to pursue the collaborative facility and terminated the project.

  5. CO2 Compression | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess Stories Siteandscience, and8Critical4CO2 Compression CO2

  6. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of “staining” upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  7. Post-Combustion and Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Solid Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Stevens, R.W.; Robinson, Clark

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of fossil fuels is one of the major sources of the greenhouse gas CO2. Pressure swing adsorption/sorption (PSA/PSS) and temperature swing adsorption/sorption (TSA/TSS) are some of the potential techniques that could be utilized for removal of CO2 from fuel gas streams. It is very important to develop sorbents to remove CO2 from fuel gas streams that are applicable for a wide range of temperatures. NETL researchers have developed novel CO2 capture sorbents for low, moderate, and high temperature applications. A novel liquid impregnated solid sorbent was developed for CO2 removal in the temperature range of ambient to 60 °C. The sorbent is regenerable at 60 – 80 °C. The sorbent formulations were prepared to be suitable for various reactor configurations (i.e., fixed and fluidized bed). Minimum fluidization gas velocities were also determined. Multi-cycle tests conducted in an atmospheric bench scale reactor with simulated flue gas indicated that the sorbent retains its CO2 sorption capacity with a CO2 removal efficiency of approximately 99% and was unaffected by presence of water vapor. The sorbent was subsequently commercially prepared by Süd Chemie to determine the viability of the sorbent for mass production. Subsequent testing showed that the commercially-synthesized sorbent possesses the same properties as the lab-synthesized equivalent. An innovative solid sorbent containing mixture of alkali earth and alkali compounds was developed for CO2 removal at 200 – 315°C from high pressure gas streams suitable for IGCC systems. The sorbent showed very high capacity for CO2 removal from a gas streams containing 28% CO2 at 200 °C and at 20 atm during a lab scale reactor test. This sorbent can be regenerated at 20 atm and at 375 °C utilizing a gas stream containing steam. High pressure enhanced the CO2 sorption process. Bench scale testing showed consistent capacities and regenerability. A unique high temperature solid sorbent was developed for CO2 capture at temperatures of 500 – 700°C. Bench scale testing of the sorbent yielded very high CO2 capture capacity from a gas stream containing 10% CO2, 30% H2, 15% H2O, and 25% He. Regeneration of the sorbent is possible at 800 – 900 °C.

  8. A Computationally Efficient Approach to Applying the SAFT Equation for CO2 + H2O Phase Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    into depleted oil and/or natural gas reservoirs is already underway to reduce CO2 emission to the atmosphere [4 into oil (hydrocarbon) reservoirs is a recognized technology for enhancing oil production and CO2 injection]. Predicting the sequestration potential and long term behavior of man-made geologic reservoirs requires

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 Jason J. Heinrich, Howard J. Herzog, David M. Reiner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    operations worldwide (72 in US) involving enhanced oil recovery using CO2 floods (Kinder Morgan, 2001). CO2. Reiner Laboratory for Energy and the Environment Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Subsystem The most common risks associated with the operational subsystem are a result of well and pipeline

  10. Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Prussian blue analogues of M3[Fe(CN)6]2 x H2O (where M=Fe, Mn and Ni) were synthesized, characterized and tested for their gas sorption capabilities. The sorption studies reveal that, these Prussian blue materials preferentially sorb CO2 over N2 and CH4 at low pressure (1bar).

  11. Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childress, Michael J.

    reserved 1941-1405/09/0115-0169$20.00 Key Words biogeochemistry, calcification, carbon dioxide, climate of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well

  12. Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchliya, Abhishek

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage of carbon dioxide is being actively considered for the reduction of green house gases. To make an impact on the environment CO2 should be put away on the scale of gigatonnes per annum. The storage capacity of deep saline aquifers...

  13. Projecting human development and CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Luís; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate cumulative CO2 emissions during the period 2000 to 2050 from developed and developing countries based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita emissions of individual countries we make three assumptions which are detailed below. First, we use logistic regressions to fit and extrapolate the HDI on a country level as a function of time. This is mainly motivated by the fact that the HDI is bounded between 0 and 1 and that it decelerates as it approaches 1. Second, we employ for individual countries the correlations between CO2 per capita emissions and HDI in order to extrapolate their emissions. This is an ergodic assumption. Third, we let countries with incomplete data records evolve similarly as their close neighbors (in the emissions-HDI plane, see Fig. 1 in the main text) with complete time series of CO2 per capita emissions and HDI. Country-based emissions estimates a...

  14. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  15. Root-derived CO2 efflux via xylem stream rivals soil CO2 efflux.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubrey, Doug, P.; Teskey, Robert, O.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    • Respiration consumes a large portion of annual gross primary productivity in forest ecosystems and is dominated by belowground metabolism. Here, we present evidence of a previously unaccounted for internal CO2 flux of large magnitude from tree roots through stems. If this pattern is shown to persist over time and in other forests, it suggests that belowground respiration has been grossly underestimated. • Using an experimental Populus deltoides plantation as a model system, we tested the hypothesis that a substantial portion of the CO2 released from belowground autotrophic respiration remains within tree root systems and is transported aboveground through the xylem stream rather than diffusing into the soil atmosphere. • On a daily basis, the amount of CO2 that moved upward from the root system into the stem via the xylem stream (0.26 mol CO2 m?2 d?1) rivalled that which diffused from the soil surface to the atmosphere (0.27 mol CO2 m?2 d?1). We estimated that twice the amount of CO2 derived from belowground autotrophic respiration entered the xylem stream as diffused into the soil environment. • Our observations indicate that belowground autotrophic respiration consumes substantially more carbohydrates than previously recognized and challenge the paradigm that all root-respired CO2 diffuses into the soil atmosphere.

  16. Original article Limitation of photosynthetic activity by CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Limitation of photosynthetic activity by CO2 availability in the chloroplasts to resistances opposing the CO2 fluxes in the mesophyll of tree leaves. To validate this assertion, values of CO2 CO2 assimilation and respiration rate measurement, and using the known electron requirements (four

  17. CO2 levels during the greenhouse of the Paleocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    CO2 levels during the greenhouse of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Francesca A. Mc, Boulder #12;Estimating paleopCO2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Meter Level, start of CIE=0 pCO2 pCO2 values using different calculation methods Bulk nalk For the past 250 years human

  18. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest Colleen2 Ecological Society of America, 2008 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;+ [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] + C and N storage in biomass #12;+ Net primary production

  19. Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Yegulalp, T. M.; Singh, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation Frank E. Yeboah Tuncel M. Yegulalp Harmohindar Singh Research Associate Professor Professor Center for Energy Research... them carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This paper assesses the cost of sequestering CO 2 produced by a ZEC power plant using solid sequestration process. INTRODUCTION CO 2 is produced when electrical energy is generated using conventional fossil...

  20. Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Yegulalp, T. M.; Singh, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation Frank E. Yeboah Tuncel M. Yegulalp Harmohindar Singh Research Associate Professor Professor Center for Energy Research... them carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This paper assesses the cost of sequestering CO 2 produced by a ZEC power plant using solid sequestration process. INTRODUCTION CO 2 is produced when electrical energy is generated using conventional fossil...

  1. CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration process is to ensure a sustained confinement of the injected CO2CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining; Case Study of SACROC field, USA Abstract Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy-related sources and depositing

  2. Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

  3. Using CO2 & Algae to Treat Wastewater and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Using CO2 & Algae to Treat Wastewater and Produce Biofuel Feedstock Tryg Lundquist Cal Poly State of the Industry and Growth · Algae's Role in WW Treatment · CO2's New Role · Research at Cal Poly · Future Work/MG 0.3 MGD average flow per facility #12;Reclaimed Algae Bacteria O2 CO2 N Organics N P CO2 P CO2 Waste

  4. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  5. The response of soil CO2 ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    The response of soil CO2 ¯ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity J O. Paul, MN 55108 USA Abstract We measured soil CO2 ¯ux over 19 sampling periods that spanned two growing three major anthropogenic global changes: atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, nitrogen (N

  6. An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Citation: Erickson, D. J., III, R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, T. J

  7. Buildings, Commissioning, Efficiency, Comfort, and CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comfort, optimize energy use and identify retrofits for existing commercial and institutional buildings and central plant facilities. It includes the entire commissioning process from assessment through implementation and subsequent follow-up as necessary...Buildings, Commissioning, Efficiency, Comfort, and CO2 Asian Pacific Building Commissioning Conference ICEBONovember 8, 2006Shenzhen, ChinaPresented ByDavid E. ClaridgeEnergy Systems LaboratoryTexas A&M University Commissioning New Buildings...

  8. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  9. Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchliya, Abhishek

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to the Computer Modeling Group (CMG) and Kappa Engineering for providing the uninterrupted license of the software packages. I am grateful to Mr. Bob Brugman from CMG for his help with the GEM-GHG (Green House Gas) module of CMG. I would like to extend my... biological sinks of CO 2 and decreasing the carbon intensity of fossil fuels should be considered. Out of all the potential mitigation options for stabilizing atmospheric GHG concentrations, including injection into deep oceans, depleted oil reservoirs...

  10. 10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide turbine project, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The research team, led by NREL, intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle—the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycle. The cycle is being optimized and tested at conditions representing dry cooling in desert environments, thereby accurately simulating real-world concentrating solar power system operating conditions.

  11. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  12. A Parametric Study for Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing for the Capture of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resnik, K.P.; Garber, W.; Hreda, D.C.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO2 capture is currently being demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO2 from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO2 in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of the continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO2 and N2 gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. Recently, a series of tests have been conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO2 removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied include absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH3 concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. Results from this current testing campaign conducted in the continuous scrubbing unit as well as test results from a 5-cycle semi-batch reactor will be discussed.

  13. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  14. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Ian

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO?; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO? will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO? will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases from pipelines or wells are arguably the highest risk aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), carbon capture, and storage (CCS). Assertions in the CCS literature, that CO2 levels of 10% for ten minutes, or 20 to 30% for a few minutes are lethal to humans, are not supported by the available evidence. The results of published experiments with animals exposed to CO2, from mice to monkeys, at both normal and depleted oxygen levels, suggest that lethal levels of CO2 toxicity are in the range 50 to 60%. These experiments demonstrate that CO2 does not kill by asphyxia, but rather is toxic at high concentrations. It is concluded that quantitative risk assessments of CCS have overestimated the risk of fatalities by using values of lethality a factor two to six lower than the values estimated in this paper. In many dispersion models of CO2 releases from pipelines, no fatalities would be predicted if appropriate levels of lethality for CO2 had been used in the analysis.

  15. CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological sequestration of CO2, whether by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery, or saline aquifer injection is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. While tremendous experience exists for EOR, and CBM recovery has been demonstrated in existing fields, saline aquifer injection studies have only recently been initiated. Studies evaluating the availability of saline aquifers suitable for CO2 injection show great potential, however, the long-term fate of the CO2 injected into these ancient aqueous systems is still uncertain. For the subject study, a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests were conducted on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin. By conducting these tests on whole core samples rather than crushed core, an evaluation of the impact of the CO2 flood on the rock mechanics properties as well as the geochemistry of the core and brine solution has been possible. This empirical data could provide a valuable resource for the validation of reservoir models under development for these engineered CO2 systems.

  16. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  17. co2-transport | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2 CaptureTransport Cost

  18. Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 sequestration; In Salah; geomechanics; ground surfaceCO 2 injection, geomechanics, and ground surface

  19. Gulf of Mexico Miocene CO2 Site Characterization Mega Transect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckel, Timothy; Trevino, Ramon

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project characterized the Miocene-age sub-seafloor stratigraphy in the near-offshore portion of the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Texas coast. The large number of industrial sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) in coastal counties and the high density of onshore urbanization and environmentally sensitive areas make this offshore region extremely attractive for long-term storage of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources (CCS). The study leverages dense existing geologic data from decades of hydrocarbon exploration in and around the study area to characterize the regional geology for suitability and storage capacity. Primary products of the study include: regional static storage capacity estimates, sequestration “leads” and prospects with associated dynamic capacity estimates, experimental studies of CO2-brine-rock interaction, best practices for site characterization, a large-format ‘Atlas’ of sequestration for the study area, and characterization of potential fluid migration pathways for reducing storage risks utilizing novel high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic surveys. In addition, three subcontracted studies address source-to-sink matching optimization, offshore well bore management and environmental aspects. The various geologic data and interpretations are integrated and summarized in a series of cross-sections and maps, which represent a primary resource for any near-term commercial deployment of CCS in the area. The regional study characterized and mapped important geologic features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone, the regionally extensive Marginulina A and Amphistegina B confining systems, etc.) that provided an important context for regional static capacity estimates and specific sequestration prospects of the study. A static capacity estimate of the majority of the Study area (14,467 mi2) was estimated at 86 metric Gigatonnes. While local capacity estimates are likely to be lower due to reservoir-scale characteristics, the offshore Miocene interval is a storage resource of National interest for providing CO2 storage as an atmospheric emissions abatement strategy. The natural petroleum system was used as an analog to infer seal quality and predict possible migration pathways of fluids in an engineered system of anthropogenic CO2 injection and storage. The regional structural features (e.g., Clemente-Tomas fault zone) that exert primary control on the trapping and distribution of Miocene hydrocarbons are expected to perform similarly for CCS. Industrial?scale CCS will require storage capacity utilizing well?documented Miocene hydrocarbon (dominantly depleted gas) fields and their larger structural closures, as well as barren (unproductive, brine?filled) closures. No assessment was made of potential for CO2 utilization for enhanced oil and gas recovery. The use of 3D numerical fluid flow simulations have been used in the study to greatly assist in characterizing the potential storage capacity of a specific reservoir. Due to the complexity of geologic systems (stratigraphic heterogeneity) and inherent limitations on producing a 3D geologic model, these simulations are typically simplified scenarios that explore the influence of model property variability (sensitivity study). A specific site offshore San Luis Pass (southern Galveston Island) was undertaken successfully, indicating stacked storage potential. Downscaling regional capacity estimates to the local scale (and the inverse) has proven challenging, and remains an outstanding gap in capacity assessments. In order to characterize regional seal performance and identify potential brine and CO2 leakage pathways, results from three high-resolution 3D (HR3D) seismic datasets acquired by the study using novel HR3D (P-Cable) acquisition system showed steady and significant improvements in data quality because of improved acquisition and processing technique. Finely detailed faults and stratigraphy in the shallowest 1000 milliseconds (~800 m) of data allowed for the identification and mapping of unconformable surfaces including what is probably

  20. INFLUENCE OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE ON CO2 STORAGE AND MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    volume - 1 + + = + - 1 + = : 2 solubility in brine : 2 formation volume factor : brine formation volume factor The Black-Oil formulation = - - = - - Darcy's Empirical Law + = 1 - = : capillary pressure brine brine CO2 CO2 #12;· The numerical solution was obtained

  1. atmospheric co2 face: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study. Rates of An Katul, Gabriel 11 Soil carbon sequestration in a pine forest after 9 years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment...

  2. air co2 enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with increasing CO2 between ambient (1.0x California at Santa Cruz, University of 13 Soil carbon sequestration in a pine forest after 9 years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment...

  3. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

  4. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    157 WELL INTEGRITY IN CO 2 ENVIRONMENTS: PERFORMANCE, RISK,of CO 2 injection, wells integrity and long term behavior ofcan compromise the well integrity and thus its functional

  5. Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays | netl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon dioxide (CO2). The minerals may affect the reservoir storage capacity as well as the integrity of its natural seals such as caprock formations. CO2 interaction...

  6. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that...

  7. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2007 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  9. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. However, a better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions between CO2, water, and formation rock is necessary before sequestration. These interactions can be evaluated by the change in mineral...

  10. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WITH HETEROGENEITY IN OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS APPLIED TO CO 2sedimentary basins, oil and gas fields, and industrial CO 2Harr, C.L. , 1996, Paradox oil and gas potential of the Ute

  11. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakib Bouallou

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  12. Basin-scale hydrogeologic impacts of CO2 storage: Capacity and regulatory implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    94720, United States 1. Introduction Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep formations (e regulation of CO2 storage projects. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration aquifers. In this paper, we discuss how

  13. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy efficiency measures in heavy industry in China, India, Brazil,and energy (including electricity) in 2003-2004 were about 0.65 t CO 2 /t of cement in Brazil,Brazil, 78% in Italy, 80% in Spain, 74% in China, and 91% in the United This article was originally published in “Energy

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model Inputs Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid tonne CO2/MWh)  CO2 Emission factor for fuel  (tonne CO2/TJ)Improvements and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the

  15. electroseismic monitoring of co2 sequestration: a finite element ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio Zyserman

    Keywords: Electroseismic Modeling, Poroelasticity, CO2 sequestration, Finite element methods. 2000 AMS ... carbon dioxide emissisons into the atmosphere.

  16. CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink A N D R E W W H I T E , * M E L V, Hybrid v4.1, with a subdaily timestep, was driven by increasing CO2 and transient climate output from scenarios were used: (i) IS92a, giving 790 ppm CO2 by 2100, (ii) CO2 stabilization at 750 ppm by 2225

  17. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential CO 2 storage and water extraction projects based on the effort’s findings DOE’s Interagency CCS

  18. DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate the carbon storage potential and test the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of the Mississippian-aged Clore Formation in Posey County, Ind.

  19. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970, suggesting that human land use and management contribute to seasonal changes in the CO2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  20. Numerical Modeling Studies of The Dissolution-Diffusion-Convection ProcessDuring CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; Zhang, Keni

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    For purposes of geologic storage, CO2 would be injected into saline formations at supercritical temperature and pressure conditions, and would form a separate phase that is immiscible with the aqueous phase (brine). At typical subsurface temperature and pressure conditions, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has lower density than the aqueous phase and would experience an upward buoyancy force. Accordingly, the CO2 is expected to accumulate beneath the caprock at the top of the permeable interval, and could escape from the storage formation wherever (sub-)vertical pathways are available, such as fractures or faults through the caprock, or improperly abandoned wells. Over time, an increasing fraction of CO2 may dissolve in the aqueous phase, and eventually some of the aqueous CO2 may react with rock minerals to form poorly soluble carbonates. Dissolution into the aqueous phase and eventual sequestration as carbonates are highly desirable processes as they would increase permanence and security of storage. Dissolution of CO2 will establish phase equilibrium locally between the overlying CO2 plume and the aqueous phase beneath. If the aqueous phase were immobile, CO2 dissolution would be limited by the rate at which molecular diffusion can remove dissolved CO2 from the interface between CO2-rich and aqueous phases. This is a slow process. However, dissolution of CO2 is accompanied by a small increase in the density of the aqueous phase, creating a negative buoyancy force that can give rise to downward convection of CO2-rich brine, which in turn can greatly accelerate CO2 dissolution. This study explores the process of dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC), using high-resolution numerical simulation. We find that geometric features of convection patterns are very sensitive to small changes in problem specifications, reflecting self-enhancing feedbacks and the chaotic nature of the process. Total CO2 dissolution rates on the other hand are found to be quite robust against modest changes in problem parameters, and are essentially constant as long as no dissolved CO2 reaches the lower boundary of the system.

  1. CO2 Injection in the Subsurface Kjetil Haugen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    fuel. Nevertheless, natural gas combustion results in sub- stantial quantities of CO2. Instead Warming Fossil fuels produce CO2 upon combustion. CO2 is a greenhouse gas and contributes to global warm. Thus, replacing oil and coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas, is probably the fastest way

  2. Post-Combustion CO2 Capture 11 -13 July 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Tufts European Center Talloires, France Institute | | Clean Air Task Force | | Asia Clean Energy Innovation Initiative | #12;Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Talloires, France PROCEEDINGS: Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Navajo SandstonebrineCO2 interaction: implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Chen

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Navajo Sandstone­brine­CO2 interaction: implications for geological carbon to the injected CO2 is largely unknown. Experiments involving the reac- tion of Navajo Sandstone with acidic brine experiment examined sandstone interaction with CO2-impregnated brine; the second experiment examined

  4. A Numerical Investigation of Wettability Alteration during Immiscible CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, M. Enamul

    A Numerical Investigation of Wettability Alteration during Immiscible CO2 Flooding Process, April 2012 #12;2 Table of Contest Abstract 3 Introduction 3 Literature Review 5 CO2 Flooding 7 New alteration during CO2 flooding. However, limited research on numerical and/or analytical modeling

  5. Original article Interactive effects of elevated CO2, O3,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Interactive effects of elevated CO2, O3, and soil water deficit on spring wheat of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), and soil water deficit on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv consisting of two O3levels (ambient and 1.5-times ambient) in combination with two CO2levels (ambient

  6. Cimpor inventa nova frmula para reduzir pegada de CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Cimpor inventa nova fórmula para reduzir pegada de CO2 CIMENTO. A Cimpor descobriu uma nova fórmula para produzir ci- mento que lhe permitirá reduzir a pegada de CO 2 em 25%. Segundo as contas da as fábricas do grupo, seriam emitidos menos quatro milhões de toneladas de CO 2 por ano, o que permitiria uma

  7. results and benefits... Birmingham Cutting your CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    results and benefits... Birmingham Cutting your CO2 Birmingham City Council July 2007 c a s e s t u of the BirminghamCutting CO2 campaign, news items, display materials etc. · Advising on pledge gathering materials system was launched in July 2007 as part of the `Birmingham Cutting Your CO2' campaign. By the end

  8. Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world Etienne Low-De´carie, Gregor F. Fussmann, and Graham-Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increas- ing CO2 on aquatic: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into the co

  9. CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Updated Analysis of Advanced/2003) #12;PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Analysis of Advanced Technology of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at 450 parts per million by volume (ppmv) and 550 ppmv in MiniCAM. Each

  10. CO2-avskiljning med syrgasfrbrnning -nya tekniska mjligheter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemurell, Stefan

    CO2-avskiljning med syrgasförbränning - nya tekniska möjligheter Klas Andersson Avd. Energiteknik Chalmers Tekniska Högskola Chalmers Energikonferens 14 december 2012 #12;· Combustion and CO2 capture with power and industrial sectors #12;Air-Fuel Combustion Air Fuel Flue gas CO2: 10-20 % N2: 60

  11. Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2 Gordon F. Buchanana,b,1 and George B neurons are stimulated by CO2, and sero- tonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO2 (with 21% O2 in balance N2) but had normal arousal

  12. Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    climate change, reduced GHGs, improved air quality, CO2 reduction & sequestration, and carbon offsets. #12 for the development of a technology for the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik

  13. Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Current chemical CO2 scrubbing technology is primarily aqueous alkanolamine based. These systems rapidly bind CO2 (forming water-soluble carbamate and bicarbonate salts) however, the process has serious disadvantages. The concentration of monoethanolamine rarely exceeds 30 wt % due to the corrosive nature of the solution, and this reduces the maximum CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the CO2 scrubber. The ?30 wt % loading of ethanolamine also means that a large excess of water must be pumped and heated during CO2 capture and release, and this greatly increases the energy requirements especially considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1). Our approach is to switch to organic systems that chemically bind CO2 as liquid alkylcarbonate salts. Our CO2-binding organic liquids have higher CO2 solubility, lower specific heats, potential for less corrosion and lower binding energies for CO2 than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs also reversibly bind and release mixed sulfur oxides. Furthermore the CO2BOL system can be direct solvent replacements for any solvent based CO2 capture systems because they are commercially available reagents and because they are fluids they would not require extensive process re-engineering.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion for inherent CO2 capture in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluate CLC using syngas as fuel Effect of fuel Effect of operating conditions Use CLC for CO2-capture Reactor System O2,N2 CO2,H2O To CO2 recovery and compression #12;15 Clean syngas from different gasifiers

  15. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous.................................................................................................................................... 8 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  16. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing...................................................................................................................................11 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Second Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing.................................................................................................................................. 10 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  18. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  19. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  20. Directed Technical Change and the Adoption of CO2 Abatement Technology: The Case of CO2 Capture and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto, Vincent M.

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2 trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement ...

  1. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in Response to CO2 Leakage from Deep Geologicalstudy mineral trapping for CO2 disposal in deep arenaceousconstituents as function of P(CO2)? function of P(CO2)? – –

  2. Crystallography and Physical Properties of BaCo2As2, Ba0.94K0.06Co2As2, and Ba0.78K0.22Co2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, V K [Ames Laboratory; Quirinale, Dante G [Ames Laboratory; Lee, Yongbin [Ames Laboratory; Harmon, Bruce N [Ames Laboratory; Furukawa, Yuji [Ames Laboratory; Ogloblichev, V V [Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science; Huq, A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Abernathy, D L [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Stephens, P W [SUNY of Stony Brook; McQueeney, Robert J [Ames Laboratory; Kreyssig, Aandreas [Ames Laboratory; Goldman, Alan I [Ames Laboratory; Johnston, David C [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of BaCo2As2 and K-doped Ba{1-x}K{x}Co2As2 (x = 0.06, 0.22) are investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility chi, magnetization, heat capacity Cp, {75}As NMR and electrical resistivity rho measurements versus temperature T. The crystals were grown using both Sn flux and CoAs self-flux, where the Sn-grown crystals contain 1.6-2.0 mol% Sn. All samples crystallize in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). For BaCo2As2, powder neutron diffraction data show that the c-axis lattice parameter exhibits anomalous negative thermal expansion from 10 to 300 K, whereas the a-axis lattice parameter and the unit cell volume show normal positive thermal expansion over this T range. No transitions in BaCo2As2 were found in this T range from any of the measurements. Below 40-50 K, we find rho ~ T^2 indicating a Fermi liquid ground state. A large density of states at the Fermi energy D(EF) ~ 18 states/(eV f.u.) for both spin directions is found from low-T Cp(T) measurements, whereas the band structure calculations give D(EF) = 8.23 states/(eV f.u.). The {75}As NMR shift data versus T have the same T dependence as the chi(T) data, demonstrating that the derived chi(T) data are intrinsic. The observed {75}As nuclear spin dynamics are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic and/or stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The crystals of Ba{0.78}K{0.22}Co2As2 were grown in Sn flux and show properties very similar to those of undoped BaCo2As2. On the other hand, the crystals from two batches of Ba{0.94}K{0.06}Co2As2 grown in CoAs self-flux show evidence of weak ferromagnetism at T < 10 K with small ordered moments at 1.8 K of 0.007 and 0.03 muB per formula unit, respectively.

  3. Rate Determination of the CO2* Chemiluminescence Reaction CO + O + M = CO2* + M

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Madeleine Marissa, 1987-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    flame characteristics, such as fuel consumption rate, heat release rate, and H-atom concentration. In 2002, Kim et al. [2] made detailed spectral measurements in SI, HCCI, and SCCI engines from various excited state species and determined that CO2...

  4. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    within ± 15% of nominal P. EPM2-SPC/E DZ- SPC/E PPL-SPC/EEPM2- TIP4P2005 PPL- TIP4P2005 Predicted (f) a P ? CO2 2SE ?to C and O atoms (Table 1). The PPL model (In Het Panhuis et

  5. Energy Saving and CO2 Reduction Concept at Lufthansa Technik AG Hamburg 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahs, J. P.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -18, 2009 in Austin, Texas, USA ESL-IC-09-11-02 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 ICEBO 2009 ? CO 2 - Reduction at Lufthansa Technik AG 10-Sep-09 Page 4 Agenda..., Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 ICEBO 2009 ? CO 2 - Reduction at Lufthansa Technik AG 10-Sep-09 Page 9 Agenda Lufthansa ? Excellence in Aviation The Lufthansa Technik Base in Hamburg Our Environmental Responsibility EnergyCheck@LHT Case Studies...

  6. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. quinlan; A. Wylie

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO2 is being used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 Niagaran pinnacle reef located in Otsego County, Michigan. CO2 injection in the Dover 35 field into the Salling-Hansen 4-35A well began on May 6, 2004. A second injection well, the Salling-Hansen 1-35, commenced injection in August 2004. Oil production in the Pomerzynski 5-35 producing well increased from 9 BOPD prior to operations to an average of 165 BOPD in December, 2004 and has produced at an average rate of 61 BOPD (Jan-Dec, 2005). The Salling-Hansen 4-35A also produced during this reporting period an average of 29 BOPD. These increases have occurred as a result of CO2 injection and the production rate appears to be stabilizing. CO2 injection volume has reached approximately 2.18 BCF. The CO2 injection phase of this project has been fully operational since December 2004 and most downhole mechanical issues have been solved and surface facility modifications have been completed. It is anticipated that filling operations will run for another 6-12 months from July 1, 2005. In most other aspects, the demonstration is going well and hydrocarbon production has been stabilized at an average rate of 57 BOPD (July-Dec, 2005). Our industry partners continue to experiment with injection rates and pressures, various downhole and surface facility mechanical configurations, and the huff-n-puff technique to develop best practices for these types of enhanced recovery projects. Subsurface characterization was completed using well log tomography and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in the Belle River Mills, Chester 18, Dover 35, and Dover 36 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester 18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the log porosity, normalized gamma ray, core permeability, and core porosity curves are showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric and pore types of the carbonate reservoir rocks. Accumulated pressure data supports the hypothesis of extreme heterogeneity in the Dover 35. Some intervals now have pressure readings over 2345 psig (April 29, 2005) in the A-1 Carbonate while nearby Niagaran Brown intervals only show 1030 psig (March 7, 2005). This is a pressure differential over 1300 psig and suggests significant vertical barriers in the reef, consistent with the GR tomography modeling. Digital and hard copy data have been compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin, including a detailed summary of 20 fields in the vicinity of the demonstration well. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the reservoir heterogeneity in these Niagaran reefs. Oral presentations were given at two Petroleum Technology Transfer Council workshops, a Michigan Oil and Gas Association Conference, a Michigan Basin Geological Society meeting, and the Eastern American Association of Petroleum Geologist's Annual meeting. In addition, we met with our industry partners several times during the first half of 2005 to communicate and discuss the reservoir characterization and field site aspects of the demonstration project. A technical paper was published in the April 2005 issue of the AAPG Bulletin on the characterization of the Belle River Mills Field.

  7. CO2_white_paper.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    natural labo- ratory in which to conduct research in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration in geologic reservoirs. In addition, RMOTC provides a testing cen-...

  8. Microbial enhanced waterflooding Mink Unit and Phoenix field pilots. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, R.S.; Steep, A.K.; Bertus, K.M.; Burchfield, T.E. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Dennis, M. [Microbial Systems Corp., OK (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the feasibility of improving oil recovery and the economics of microbial enhanced waterflooding in mature oil wells in the United States, two field pilots have been conducted. Candidate fields were screened to determine whether they have any potential for a microbial system developed at the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), and microbial compatibility tests were conducted in the laboratory to select the target field. A specific microbial formulation was selected that was compatible with the chosen reservoir environment and had been shown to recover oil after waterflooding in Berea sandstone and field core. The microbial formulation was designed to improve microscopic oil displacement efficiency by surfactant, gas and acid production from fermentation of molasses. A 20-acre pilot test was initiated in October 1986, and completed in December 1989. Results from this pilot demonstrated that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood and that such injection could increase oil production by at least 13%. A larger test (520 acres) was completed in the same formation to evaluate the feasibility of commercial application of the technology. This field pilot was injected with microorganisms and molasses from a centralized injection station in June 1990. Although microorganisms were injected only once per site, nutrient injection continued throughout the project life. All 19 injection wells were treated, and oil production was monitored from the 47 production wells. Injection pressures and volumes were monitored throughout the project. No operational problems were encountered. At the end of May 1993, oil production was improved by 19.6 %. Results from both projects are presented and the potential for microbial-enhanced waterflooding technology is evaluated.

  9. Scaling considerations for a multi-megawatt class supercritical CO2 brayton cycle and commercialization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Conboy, Thomas M.; Pasch, James Jay; Wright, Steven Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Fuller, Robert Lynn [Barber-Nichols, Inc., Arvada, CO

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-scale supercritical CO2 demonstration loops are successful at identifying the important technical issues that one must face in order to scale up to larger power levels. The Sandia National Laboratories supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle test loops are identifying technical needs to scale the technology to commercial power levels such as 10 MWe. The small size of the Sandia 1 MWth loop has demonstration of the split flow loop efficiency and effectiveness of the Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHXs) leading to the design of a fully recuperated, split flow, supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle demonstration system. However, there were many problems that were encountered, such as high rotational speeds in the units. Additionally, the turbomachinery in the test loops need to identify issues concerning the bearings, seals, thermal boundaries, and motor controller problems in order to be proved a reliable power source in the 300 kWe range. Although these issues were anticipated in smaller demonstration units, commercially scaled hardware would eliminate these problems caused by high rotational speeds at small scale. The economic viability and development of the future scalable 10 MWe solely depends on the interest of DOE and private industry. The Intellectual Property collected by Sandia proves that the ~10 MWe supercritical CO2 power conversion loop to be very beneficial when coupled to a 20 MWth heat source (either solar, geothermal, fossil, or nuclear). This paper will identify a commercialization plan, as well as, a roadmap from the simple 1 MWth supercritical CO2 development loop to a power producing 10 MWe supercritical CO2 Brayton loop.

  10. Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in microbial CO2 fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophic bacteria are able to grow in environments with limiting CO2 concentrations by employing a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that allows them to accumulate inorganic carbon in their cytoplasm to concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than that on the outside. The final step of this process takes place in polyhedral protein microcompartments known as carboxysomes, which contain the majority of the CO2-fixing enzyme, RubisCO. The efficiency of CO2 fixation by the sequestered RubisCO is enhanced by co-localization with a specialized carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes dehydration of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate and ensures saturation of RubisCO with its substrate, CO2. There are two genetically distinct carboxysome types that differ in their protein composition and in the carbonic anhydrase(s) they employ. Here we review the existing information concerning the genomics, structure and enzymology of these uniquely adapted carbonic anhydrases, which are of fundamental importance in the global carbon cycle.

  11. Microbial enhanced waterflooding pilot project, Mink Unit, Delaware-Childers (OK) field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, R.S.; Burchfield, T.E.; Dennis, D.M.; Hitzman, D.O.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first microbial-enhanced waterflood field project was initiated in October of 1986. The site selected for the project is in the Mink Unit of Delaware-Childers field in Nowata County, Oklahoma. The pilot area consists of four adjacent inverted five-spot patterns drilled on 5-acre spacing. There are 21 injection and 15 production wells on this pilot. Four of the 21 injection wells were treated with microbial formulation. Laboratory screening criteria were developed to evaluate microorganisms for this project. Several different microbial formulations were tested. Injectivity and microbial field survivability tests were conducted during the baseline period on two off-pattern wells, and a chemical tracer, fluorescein, was injected into the four injection wells during the baseline period. Methodologies for field applications of microorganisms in ongoing waterfloods were developed as a result of this project. Results from the field pilot showed that microorganisms could be injected into an ongoing waterflood without causing any problems in injectivity. Microbial treatment did improve oil production rate, and water/oil ratios for producing wells nearest the microbially treated injection wells continue to be more favorable than baseline values. 23 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  13. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATK’s design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity  (tonne CO2 Savings Figure 6. 2010-2030 Electricity and Electricity-Base CO 2 Emissions

  15. Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L. , 2006. Discussion of CO2 emission reduction in ChineseFurther discussion of CO2 emission reduction in Chinesecalculation method of CO2 emissions of cement production.

  16. Well injectivity during CO2storage operations in deep saline aquifers 6 Part 2: Numerical simulations of drying, salt deposit mechanisms and role of7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 2 3 4 5 Well injectivity during CO2storage operations in deep saline aquifers ­6 Part 2 or industrial units and stored in underground geological reservoirs.30 Return on experience withCO2 injection-well field scale is proposed. This approach is of major40 importance because it makes it possible

  17. Effects of elevated CH4 and CO2 on the mobility of metals in near-surface sediments Hingst, M. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    , and injecting it into deep, geologic reservoirs for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery and storage. One concern pathways such as fractures and/or improperly plugged and abandoned wells. We hypothesize that CO2 migration the surface and oxidizes to CO2 (34%) in the vadose zone near a plugged and abandoned well. Four sediment

  18. Temperature and pCO2 effect on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and1 trace elements in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    release of CO2 by human activities leads to ocean acidification and38 global warming. Both those with decreasing pH was43 larger at 16°C than at 19°C. Se was not detected in the embryo whereas it penetrated of an enhanced swelling of the cuttlefish egg under elevated CO2.48 49 Keywords: cephalopod, ocean acidification

  19. Supported polyethylenimine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Gray, M.L.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuel combustion are believed to contribute to undesired consequences in global climate. Major contributors towards CO2 emissions are fossil fuel-fired power plants for electricity production. For this reason, CO2 capture from flue gas streams together with permanent sequestration in geologic formations is being considered a viable solution towards mitigation of the major greenhouse gas1. Technologies based on chemical absorption with alkanolamines have been assessed for first generation CO2 post-combustion capture primarily due to its advanced stage of development. However, limitations associated with these chemical solvents (i.e., low CO2 loadings, amine degradation by oxygen, equipment corrosion) manifest themselves in high capital and operating costs with reduced thermal efficiencies. Therefore, necessary design and development of alternative, lower cost approaches for CO2 capture from coal-fired combustion streams are warranted.

  20. Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  1. Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (EFRC) - Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary The objective of the DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (NCGC) is to use new investigative tools, combined with experiments...

  2. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geomechanics of CO 2 storage in deep sedimentaryThis paper provides a review of the geomechanics andmodeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon

  3. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 Geological Storage and Ground Water Resources U.S.and Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) State and Federal Statutes Storage,

  4. Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force under a grant from...................................................................................... 3 2. Current Status of Post-Combustion Capture

  5. accelerating co2 emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    based on the empirical relationship between CO2 per capita emissions (due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production) and corresponding HDI. In order to project per capita...

  6. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soviet Union (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia),kg CO 2 /$GDP FSS Ukraine Kazakhstan Iran East Asia BelarusAsia China South Africa Kazakhstan Malaysia Russia Thailand

  7. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealingstrain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealingactions. 7 WELLBORE INTEGRITY The well design of a deep CO 2

  8. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts Investigating Water Extraction •! LLNL –! Active CObenefits of various water extraction, treatment, and reuseof CO 2 storage and water extraction scenarios –! Technical

  9. Influence of capillary pressure on CO2 storage and monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gabriela

    solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. We are interested in analyzing the influence of capillary pressure on CO2 in- jection, storage and monitoring in saline ...

  10. Micromodel Investigations of CO2 Exsolution from Carbonated Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of CO2 Exsolution from Carbonated Water in Sedimentary Rocks. Abstract: In this study, carbon dioxide exsolution from carbonated water is directly observed under reservoir...

  11. CO2 exposure at pressure impacts metabolism and stress responses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the model sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Abstract: Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration drives physical and geochemical changes in deep...

  12. Quantum Alloys Offer Prospects for CO2 Management Technologies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radical new catalysts capable of converting CO2 emissions into fuels, chemicals, and plastics. Their unique discovery involves shrinking gold into a system consisting of just 25...

  13. atmospheric co2 content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  14. atmospheric co2 concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  15. atmospheric co2 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  16. atmospheric co2 laser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  17. atmospheric co2 measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  18. atmospheric co2 variations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  19. atmospheric co2 mixing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  20. ORNL/CDIAC-160 Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/CDIAC-160 NDP-094 Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean. ORNL/CDIAC-160, NDP-094. Carbon Dioxide, total CO2 concentration (TCO2), and the degree of CaCO3 saturation for the global surface ocean waters

  1. A Theoretical Study of CO2 Anions on Anatase (101) Surface. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Anions on Anatase (101) Surface. A Theoretical Study of CO2 Anions on Anatase (101) Surface. Abstract: Binding configurations of CO2 and CO2 - on perfect and oxygen-deficient...

  2. Inducinga CO2 leak into ashallow aquifer (CO2FieldLab EUROGIA+ project): Monitoring the CO2 plume in groundwaters.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (saline aquifer, depleted oil/gas reservoir), aquifers are ubiquitousin the overlying sedimentary pile in case of unwanted CO2leakages from a storage site. Independently from the nature of the reservoir

  3. Solid molecular basket sorbent for CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2 concentration at ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State University; Ma, Xiaoliang [Pennsylvania State University; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Clark, Jason C [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Zhao, Shuqi [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Xu, Xiaochun [Pennsylvania State University; Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State University

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a solid molecular basket sorbent, 50 wt% PEI/SBA-15 was studied for CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2 concentration at ambient conditions. The sorbent was able to effectively and selectively capture CO2 from a gas stream containing 1% CO2 at 75 C, with a breakthrough and saturation capacity of 63.1 and 66.7 mg/g, respectively, and a selectivity of 14 for CO2/CO and 185 for CO2/Ar. The sorption performance of the sorbent was influenced greatly by the operating temperature. The CO2-TPD study showed that the sorbent could be regenerated at mild conditions (50-110 C) and was stable in the cyclical operations for at least 20 cycles. Furthermore, the possibility for CO2 capture from air using the PEI/SBA-15 sorbent was studied by FTIR and proved by TPD. A capacity of 22.5 mg/g was attained at 75 C via TPD method using a simulated air with 400 ppmv CO2 in N2.

  4. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneCO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites, Vadose Zoneseepage from geologic carbon sequestration sites may occur.

  5. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; William Smith; Carl Palmer

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing low-permeability hot rock reservoirs with a water solution. After that process, the fractures will be flushed with CO2 that is maintained under supercritical conditions (> 70 bars). Much of the injected water in the main fracture will be flushed out with the initial CO2 injection; however side fractures, micro fractures, and the lower portion of the fracture will contain connate water that will interact with the rock and the injected CO2. Dissolution/precipitation reactions in the resulting scCO2/brine/rock systems have the potential to significantly alter reservoir permeability, so it is important to understand where these precipitates form and how are they related to the evolving ‘free’ connate water in the system. To examine dissolution / precipitation behavior in such systems over time, we have conducted non-stirred batch experiments in the laboratory with pure minerals, sandstone, and basalt coupons with brine solution spiked with MnCl2 and scCO2. The coupons are exposed to liquid water saturated with scCO2 and extend above the water surface allowing the upper portion of the coupons to be exposed to scCO2 saturated with water. The coupons were subsequently analyzed using SEM to determine the location of reactions in both in and out of the liquid water. Results of these will be summarized with regard to significance for EGS with CO2 as a working fluid.

  6. Novel CO2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Quoc; Hirasaki, George; Johnston, Keith

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  7. Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,CO2...n and ,,CO2...n,,H2O...m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,CO2...n and ,,CO2...n 2006; published online 20 October 2006 Pure neutral CO2 n clusters and mixed CO2 n H2O m clustersV. The distribution of pure CO2 n clusters decreases roughly exponentially with increasing cluster size. During

  8. Greener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants would alleviate concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    to remove CO2 from dilute gas streams because they have very high affinity for CO2. Unfortunately high solvents that balance high affinity for CO2 with ease of solvent recovery and reuse. Because the numberGreener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from

  9. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Others* Air Conditioner Frozen Scenario Total CO2 EmissionsCO2 Emissions (million tonnes CO2)Improvement Scenario Total CO2 Emissions *Others include:

  10. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 CleanFOR IMMEDIATE RELEASENovel CO 2

  11. Intercomparison of simulation models for CO2 disposal in underground storage reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Law, David; Oldenburg, Curt

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 requires an understanding ofexperience with using CO2 for EOR projects (SPE, 1999), and

  12. Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

  13. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 mitigation potential and costs in China's electricityCO2 mitigation potential and costs in China's electricity

  14. EIS-0473: W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project (PCCS), Fort Bend County, TX

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for a project proposed by NRG Energy, Inc (NRG). DOE selected NRG’s proposed W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO2 Capture and Sequestration Project for a financial assistance award through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative Program. NRG would design, construct and operate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) capture facility at its existing W.A. Parish Generating Station in Fort Bend County, Texas; deliver the CO2 via a new pipeline to the existing West Ranch oil field in Jackson County, Texas, for use in enhanced oil recovery operations; and demonstrate monitoring techniques to verify the permanence of geologic CO2 storage.

  15. Original article Responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen supply of Quercus* School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, 326 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville. Elevated [CO2] increased biomass production only in the high-N treatment. Fine root/foliage mass ratio

  16. Comprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard Y.

    , carbon sequestration, ecosystem, multi-tier, multi-modal, multi-scale, self organized, sensor array to comprehensively monitor ecosystem carbon sequestration. The network consists of CO2, Weather (pressureComprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems and Its Relation

  17. HYDROMECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR SITE SELECTION IN CO2 PERMANENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    -BarcelonaTech), Barcelona, Spain 3 Energy City Foundation (CIUDEN), Spanish Government CO2 Geological Storage Programme (Vilarrasa et al., 2011, Energy Procedia) Trees killed by CO2 leakage in Mammoth Mountains (Farrar et al EQUATIONS Mass conservation equation Darcy's law Momentum balance Effective stress Hooke's law (linear

  18. The contribution of CO2 capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The contribution of CO2 capture and storage to a sustainable energy system Policy brief the prospects of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies in the power sector. Based on the results of 10. The uncertainties, particularly in storage capacities, are large. Using conservative estimates in line with the IPCC

  19. European and Global Perspectives for CO2 Capture and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European and Global Perspectives for CO2 Capture and Storage Heleen Groenenberg, Martine Uyterlinde, ECN Policy Studies, The Netherlands Abstract CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly mentioned a large point source, compression, transport and subsequent storage in a geological reservoir, the ocean

  20. Ex post evaluations of CO2 based taxes: a survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    of fossil fuels, and which are introduced with the explicit intention of abating CO2 emissions. This paper and, especially, subsidies, has been called into question. Secondly, the CO2-based taxes themselves and subsidies), it is unlikely that they have been cost-effective (in the sense of attaining their environmental

  1. Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean C. L. Sabine,1 R. A. Feely,2 R. M. Key,3 J] This work presents an estimate of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean based on measurements from the WOCE tracers; 9355 Information Related to Geographic Region: Pacific Ocean; KEYWORDS: Pacific Ocean

  2. The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for developing renewable electricity--wind, solar, and biomass-- would require expansion on an unprecedentedThe Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development

  3. Oxidation in Environments with Elevated CO2 Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy power productions focus primarily on either pre- or post-combustion removal of CO2. The research presented here examines corrosion and oxidation issues associated with two types of post-combustion CO2 removal processes—oxyfuel combustion in refit boilers and oxyfuel turbines.

  4. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

  5. Chemical Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a two phase project to assess the geochemical impact of CO2on geothermal energy production by: analyzing the geochemistry of existing geothermal fields with elevated natural CO2; measuring realistic rock-water rates for geothermal systems using laboratory and field-based experiments to simulate production scale impacts.

  6. Variations in 13 C discrimination during CO2 exchange1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exchange. Observed 13 were described well by the classical model of5 Farquhar, O'Leary & Berry (1982 enzymes, as well as to differential diffusivities of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 in air9 (O'Leary, 1984; Farquhar, O'Leary

  7. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. Modeling.................................................................................................................................. 11 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. In Campaign.................................................................................................................................... 9 Task 1 ­ Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  9. Evaluating the Suitability for CO2 Storage at the FutureGen 2.0 Site, Morgan County, Illinois, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Sullivan, E. C.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Kelley, Mark E.; White, Signe K.; Appriou, Delphine; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gerst, Jacqueline L.; Gupta, Neeraj; Horner, Jacob A.; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark A.; Rike, William M.; Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Zeller, Evan R.; Zhang, Z. F.; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth K.

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    FutureGen 2.0 site will be the first near-zero emission power plant with fully integrated long-term storage in a deep, non-potable saline aquifer in the United States. The proposed FutureGen 2.0 CO2 storage site is located in northeast Morgan County, Illinois, U.S.A., forty-eight kilometres from the Meredosia Energy Center where a large-scale oxy-combustion demonstration will be conducted. The demonstration will involve > 90% carbon capture, which will produce more than one million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 per year. The CO2 will be compressed at the power plant and transported via pipeline to the storage site. To examine CO2 storage potential of the site, a 1,467m characterization well (FGA#1) was completed in December 2011. The target reservoir for CO2 storage is the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Elmhurst Sandstone Member of the lower Eau Claire Formation for a combined thickness of 176 m. Confining beds of the overlying Lombard and Proviso Members (upper Eau Claire Formation) reach a thickness of 126 m. Characterization of the target injection zone and the overlying confining zone was based on wellbore data, cores, and geophysical logs, along with surface geophysical (2-D seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity), and structural data collected during the initial stage of the project . Based on this geological model, 3D simulations of CO2 injection and redistribution were conducted using STOMP-CO2, a multiphase flow and transport simulator. After this characterization stage, it appears that the injection site is a suitable geologic system for CO2 sequestration and that the injection zone is sufficient to receive up to 33 MMT of CO2 at a rate of 1.1 MMT/yr. GHGT-11 conference

  10. Diffusion of CO2 During Hydrate Formation and Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were performed to measure the rate of diffusion of CO2 through hydrate films. Hydrate films were created in a capillary tube, and the growth of the hydrate film was measured. Difficulties were encountered in creating hydrate repeatedly, and some non-uniform growth of the films was observed. Sufficient observations were obtained to demonstrate that hydrate growth occurs preferentially on the hydrate/water side of the interface, rather than at the hydrate/CO2 interface. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from observations of the rate of growth of the hydrate film along with estimates of the solubility of CO2 in water and of the concentration gradient across the hydrate layer. The experimental observations indicate that hydrate formation occurs much more rapidly at the hydrate water interface than at the hydrate/CO2 interface. Any growth of hydrate at the CO2/hydrate interface was too slow to be observed at the time scale of the experiments. That observation is consistent with the idea that CO2 can move more easily through the hydrate, presumably by hopping between hydrate cages, than water can move through the hydrate, presumably by lattice hopping. Estimated diffusion coefficients were in the range 1-3E-06 cm2/sec. Those values are about an order of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficient for CO2 in liquid water, but four orders of magnitude larger than the value for diffusion of CO2 in a solid. The rate of diffusion through the hydrate controls both the creation of new hydrate at the hydrate/water interface and the rate at which CO2 dissolves in the liquid water and diffuses away from the hydrate layer. Formation of a hydrate layer reduces the rate at which CO2 dissolves in liquid water.

  11. Odors that Modify CO2 Receptor Activity in Insects and Their Effect on Innate CO2-Mediated Behavior and Neuronal Plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Stephanie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intermediates in Insect CO2 Sensory Systems. Science Certel,2007). The molecular basis of CO2 reception in Drosophila.J. (2004). Floral CO2 Reveals Flower Profitability to Moths.

  12. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental targets and quality of the feed to other sections, wherever applicable, without violating the operating constraints, and without sacrificing the efficiency. However, it was found that the emission of acid gases may far exceed the environmental targets and the overshoot of some of the key variables may be unacceptable under transient operation while following the load. A number of operational strategies and control configurations is explored for achieving these stringent requirements. The transient response of the plant is also studied by perturbing a number of key inputs.

  13. GAS HYDRATE EQUILIBRIA FOR CO2-N2 AND CO2-CH4 GAS MIXTURES, EXPERIMENTS AND MODELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    steelmaking plants, gas or coal power plants, chemical plants or natural gas production plants. Facing are by definition localized at the plants, like e.g. steelmaking plants, gas or coal power plants, chemical plants be in the order of several cubic meters of CO2 per second. In power plants, the concentration of CO2 is generally

  14. Predicting PVT data for CO2brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Predicting PVT data for CO2­brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage efficiency of the black-oil approach promote application of black-oil simulation for large-scale geological into geological formations has been considered as a potential method to mitigate climate change. Accurate

  15. Measurements of fluxes of water vapour, CO2 and pCO2 are obtained from a coastal site in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurements of fluxes of water vapour, CO2 and pCO2 are obtained from a coastal site in Sweden study national reports UK The first eleven SOLAS projects supported by the Natural Environment Research the atmosphere, including biological interactions affecting DMS production and the role of upwelling in trace gas

  16. Gas Hydrate Equilibria for CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures Experimental studies and Thermodynamic Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gas Hydrate Equilibria for CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures ­ Experimental studies and Thermodynamic of experimental data on the phase equilibrium of gas hydrates in the presence of binary gas mixtures comprising CO of the gas phase as well as the hydrate phase without the need to sample the hydrate. The experimental

  17. PVTx properties of the CO2H2O and CO2H2ONaCl systems below 647 K: Assessment of experimental data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    PVTx properties of the CO2­H2O and CO2­H2O­NaCl systems below 647 K: Assessment of experimental-composition (PVTx) properties for the CO2­H2O and CO2­H2O­NaCl systems. This paper presents a comprehensive review. Keywords: CO2 sequestration; PVTx properties; Volume; Density; Thermodynamic modeling 1. Introduction CO2­H

  18. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  19. Et notat til "det elektriske CO2 projekt". Med udgangspunkt i de studerendes CO2 tips analyseres CO2 emissionen i de forskellige belysningssituationer. De forskellige tips ses p projektets hjemmeside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Et notat til "det elektriske CO2 projekt". Med udgangspunkt i de studerendes CO2 tips analyseres CO2 emissionen i de forskellige belysningssituationer. De forskellige tips ses på projektets hjemmeside www.co2tips.dk Indholdsfortegnelse EL-FORBRUG TIL BELYSNING I HUSHOLDNINGER

  20. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  1. Co2(CO)8 Mediated PausonKhand Reaction (PKR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    1 Co2(CO)8 Mediated Pauson­Khand Reaction (PKR) Nathan Bennett May 11, 2009 R1 R2 R5 R6R4 R3 + Co2(CO)8 Promoter / Solvent CO atmosphere O R1 R2 R6 R5 R3 R4 X n R R' (n = 1-3) X = O, NR'', CR''2 Co2(CO)8 Promoter / Solvent CO atmosphere X n R O R' Pauson-Khand Reaction (PKR) General Information R1 R

  2. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency: A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okwen, Roland; Frailey, Scott; Leetaru, Hannes; Moulton, Sandy

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to normalized baseline E ranges ranks fluvial deltaic and turbidite highest and shelf carbonate lowest. The estimated average normalized baseline E of turbidite, and shelf carbonate depositional environments are 42.5% and 13.1%, with corresponding standard deviations of 11.3%, and 3.10%, respectively. Simulations of different plume management techniques suggest that the horizontal well, multi-well injection with brine production from blanket vertical producers are the most efficient E enhancement strategies in seven of eight depositional environments; for the fluvial deltaic depositional environment, vertical well with blanket completions is the most efficient. This study estimates normalized baseline E ranges for eight depositional environments, which can be used to assess the CO2 storage resource of candidate formations. This study also improves the general understanding of depositional environment’s influence on E. The lessons learned and results obtained from this study can be extrapolated to formations in other US basins with formations of similar depositional environments, which should be used to further refine regional and national storage resource estimates in future editions of the Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas of the United States. Further study could consider the economic feasibility of the E enhancement strategies identified here.

  3. Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (EFRC) - Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manager (Energy Sciences Area, LBNL) An organization chart of the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 Research Teams: Thrust 1: Fractured Shale Ian Bourg, Thrust 1 Lead,...

  4. Canada’s Bitumen Industry Under CO2 Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.-H. Henry

    We investigate the effects of implementing CO2 emissions reduction policies on Canada’s oil sands industry, the largest of its kind in the world. The production of petroleum products from oils sands involves extraction of ...

  5. atmospheric co2 enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Soil carbon sequestration in a pine forest after 9 years of atmospheric CO2 enrichment...

  6. High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to estimate the total magmatic or metamorphic CO2 released from such areas. To assess the performance of accumulation chamber systems at fluxes one to three orders of magnitude...

  7. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  8. Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    etc.) to slowly convert stored CO2 into more useful products such as methane and methanol. Photocatalysis is the acceleration of a light-induced reaction in the presence of a...

  9. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quantitative models enables linking risk to the failure of a specific component, for ex- ample using sensitivity analysis.analysis of the Risks associated to well leakage: aquifer contamination and CO 2 release. Quantitative

  10. THERMOCATALYTIC CO2-FREE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM HYDROCARBON FUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the process efficiency. However these impurities may result in contamination of hydrogen by CO, CO2 and H2S which should be removed from the product gas using methanation and H2S scrubbing steps, respectively. 11

  11. Modeling the release of CO2 in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liro, Christopher R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of capturing and disposing of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants has recently received attention as a possible mitigation strategy to counteract potential global warming due ...

  12. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 escapes the reservoir through the abandoned well. Theof the abandoned well and the gas reservoir is calculated by4 reservoir 1.e-12 1.e-14 8.4e-4 Fracture or abandoned well

  13. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in depleted or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs; how- ever,abandoned wells represent a potentially direct route from reservoirabandoned in the 1930s with no barrier installed after it encountered a natural CO 2 reservoir

  14. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in depleted or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs; how- ever,oil well abandoned in the 1930s with no barrier installed after it encountered a natural CO 2 reservoir

  15. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unminable coaltakes place in depleted oil or gas reservoirs (IAE, 2003).of CO 2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. J Can Pet

  16. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN DEPLETED AND NEAR- DEPLETED OIL RESERVOIRS V. A. KuuskraaDEPLETED AND NEAR-DEPLETED OIL RESERVOIRS Vello A. Kuuskraaof CO 2 in a depleted oil reservoir: an overview,

  17. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transactions 105(2). Emmerich, S. J. and A. K. Persily (Fisk and de Almeida 1998; Emmerich and Persily 2001), CO 2Fisk and de Almeida 1998; Emmerich and Persily 2001; Apte

  18. Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel CO2 Monitoring Approach

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have discovered an innovative way to use bees, pollen, and helium-filled balloons to verify that no carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon sequestration sites.

  19. DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  1. Development of Molecular Electrocatalysts for CO2 Reduction and H2 Production/Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of solar energy to fuels in both natural and artificial photosynthesis requires components for both light harvesting and catalysis. The light-harvesting component generates the electrochemical potentials required to drive fuel-generating reactions that would otherwise be thermodynamically uphill. This review focuses on work from our laboratories on developing molecular electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction and for hydrogen production. A true analog of natural photosynthesis will require the ability to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and reduce it to a useful fuel. Work in our laboratories has focused on both aspects of this problem. Organic compounds such as quinones and inorganic metal complexes can serve as redox active CO2 carriers for concentrating CO2. Catalysts for CO2 reduction to form CO have also been developed based on a [Pd(triphosphine)(solvent)]2+ platform. A required feature for catalytic activity is the presence of a weakly coordinating solvent molecule that can dissociate during the catalytic cycle and provide a vacant coordination site for binding water and assisting C-O bond cleavage. Participation of a second metal in CO2 binding also appears to be required for achieving very active catalysts as suggested by structures of [NiFe] CO dehydrogenase enzymes and the results of studies on complexes containing two [Pd(triphosphine)(solvent)]2+ units. Molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production and oxidation based on [Ni(diphosphine)2]2+ complexes are also described. These catalysts require the optimization of both first and second coordination spheres similar to that of the palladium CO2 reduction catalysts. In this case, structural features of the first coordination sphere can be used to optimize the hydride acceptor ability of nickel needed to achieve heterolytic cleavage of H2. The second coordination sphere can be used to incorporate pendant bases that assist in a number of important functions including H2 binding, H2 cleavage, and the transfer of protons between nickel and solution. These pendant bases or proton relays are likely to be important in the design of catalysts for a wide range of fuel production and fuel utilization reactions involving multiple electron and proton transfer steps. The work described in this review has been supported by the Chemical Sciences program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Geologic controls influencing CO2 loss from a leaking well.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Polly L.; Martinez, Mario J.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Klise, Katherine A.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO2 into formations containing brine is proposed as a long-term sequestration solution. A significant obstacle to sequestration performance is the presence of existing wells providing a transport pathway out of the sequestration formation. To understand how heterogeneity impacts the leakage rate, we employ two dimensional models of the CO2 injection process into a sandstone aquifer with shale inclusions to examine the parameters controlling release through an existing well. This scenario is modeled as a constant-rate injection of super-critical CO2 into the existing formation where buoyancy effects, relative permeabilities, and capillary pressures are employed. Three geologic controls are considered: stratigraphic dip angle, shale inclusion size and shale fraction. In this study, we examine the impact of heterogeneity on the amount and timing of CO2 released through a leaky well. Sensitivity analysis is performed to classify how various geologic controls influence CO2 loss. A 'Design of Experiments' approach is used to identify the most important parameters and combinations of parameters to control CO2 migration while making efficient use of a limited number of computations. Results are used to construct a low-dimensional description of the transport scenario. The goal of this exploration is to develop a small set of parametric descriptors that can be generalized to similar scenarios. Results of this work will allow for estimation of the amount of CO2 that will be lost for a given scenario prior to commencing injection. Additionally, two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations are compared to quantify the influence that surrounding geologic media has on the CO2 leakage rate.

  3. CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Updated Analysis of Advanced/2003) #12;PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Analysis of Advanced Technology electricity 16.9 29.0 44.7 65.7 89.2 114.3 145.2 174.8 EJ/yr building trad biomass 23.5 29.9 32.1 27.9 22.9 17

  4. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in theUS $/GJ- saved) CO2 Emissions Reduction (Mt CO 2 ) CCF RankUS$/GJ- saved) CO2 Emissions Reduction (Mt CO 2 ) * The

  6. Development of Chemical Model to Predict the Interactions between Supercritical CO2and Fluid, and Rocks in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop a chemical model, based on existing models and databases, that is capable of simulating chemical reactions between supercritical (SC) CO2 and Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir rocks of various compositions in aqueous, non-aqueous and 2-phase environments.

  7. Photosynthetic responses of 13 grassland species across 11 years of free-air CO2 enrichment is modest, consistent and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    treatment, is much less than the average across other longer-term studies, and represents strong acclimation stimulation of photosynthesis (e.g.425%) for all of Earth's terrestrial ecosystems should be viewed given that elevated CO2- induced enhancement of productivity is considered likely to slow down climate

  8. Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of numerical and analytical models to the problem of storage, sequestration and migration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is discussed. A review of numerical and analytical models that have been applied to CO2 sequestration are presented, as well as a description of frameworks for risk analysis. Application of models to various issues related to carbon sequestration are discussed, including trapping mechanisms, density convection mixing, impurities in the CO2 stream, changes in formation porosity and permeability, the risk of vertical leakage, and the impacts on groundwater resources if leakage does occur. A discussion of the development and application of site-specific models first addresses the estimation of model parameters and the use of natural analogues to inform the development of CO2 sequestration models, and then surveys modeling that has been done at two commercial-scale CO2 sequestration sites, Sleipner and In Salah, along with a pilot-scale injection sites used to study CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers (Frio) and an experimental site designed to test monitoring of CO2 leakage in the vadose zone (ZERT Release Facility).

  9. Methane Oxidation to Methanol without CO2 Emission: Catalysis by Atomic Negative Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfamichael, Aron; Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activities of the atomic Y-, Ru-, At-, In-, Pd-, Ag-, Pt-, and Os- ions have been investigated theoretically using the atomic Au- ion as the benchmark for the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. Dispersion-corrected density-functional theory has been used for the investigation. From the energy barrier calculations and the thermodynamics of the reactions, we conclude that the catalytic effect of the atomic Ag-, At-, Ru-, and Os- ions is higher than that of the atomic Au- ion catalysis of CH4 conversion to methanol. By controlling the temperature around 290K (Os-), 300K (Ag-), 310K (At-), 320K (Ru-) and 325K (Au-) methane can be completely oxidized to methanol without the emission of CO2. We conclude by recommending the investigation of the catalytic activities of combinations of the above negative ions for significant enhancement of the selective partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  10. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  11. CO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water-rock interaction assessment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water repository requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakage back into fresh groundwater, particularly sensitive monitoring techniques in order to detect potential CO2 leaks and their magnitude as well

  12. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Intracranial Pressure Variation Associated with Changes in End-Tidal CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intracranial Pressure Variation Associated with Changes in End-Tidal CO2 Sunghan Kim, James Mc that the partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) can affect cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and therefore ICP. The end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) is usually monitored by clinicians as a proxy for PaCO2. We show

  14. Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to increase from 36 to 70 Pa CO2 before the end of the 21st century. High pCO2 often increases the growth and repro- duction of C3 annuals, whereas low pCO2 decreases growth and may reduce or prevent

  15. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Measurement of radon in springs has improved significantly since the field program first began; however, in situ measurement of 222Rn and particularly 220Rn in springs is problematic. Future refinements include simultaneous salinity measurements and systematic corrections, or adjustments to the partition coefficient as needed for more accurate radon concentration determination. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; he is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Both graduate students are poised to begin work in a CCS technology area. Laboratory experiments evaluated important process-level fundamentals that effect measurements of radon and CO2. Laboratory tests established that fine-grained source minerals yield higher radon emissivity compared to coarser-sized source minerals; subtleties in the dataset suggest that grain size alone is not fully representative of all the processes controlling the ability of radon to escape its mineral host. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn increases linearly with temperature due to reaction of rocks with water, consistent with faster diffusion and enhanced mineral dissolution at higher temperatures. The presence of CO2 changes the relative importance of the factors that control release of radon. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn in CO2-bearing experiments is greater at all temperatures compared to the experiments without CO2, but emissivity does not increase as a simple function of temperature. Governing processes may include a balance between enhanced dissolution versus carbonate mineral formation in CO2-rich waters.

  16. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s 2008 Thermal Electricity Sector CO 2 Emissions byheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissionsheat. Share of thermal electricity sector’s CO 2 emissions

  17. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondary accumulation at shallow depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs,S.T. Nelson. Natural Leaking CO2-charged Systems as AnalogsY. Sano, and H.U. Schmincke. CO2-rich Gases from Lakes Nyos

  18. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from a Geologic Storage Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 - 16, 1987. Skinner, L. CO2 Blowouts: An Emerging Problem,Assessment for Underground CO2 Storage, paper 234, presentedReservoir Performance Risk in CO2 Storage Projects, paper

  19. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Philippe Quirion. Co2 abatement, competitiveness andDaniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theA short-run case analysis of co2 leakage and nox and so2

  20. A Theoretical Study of CO2 Anions on Anatase (101) Surface. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications A Theoretical Study of CO2 Anions on Anatase (101) Surface. A Theoretical Study of CO2 Anions on Anatase (101) Surface. Abstract: Binding configurations of CO2 and...

  1. Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based...

  2. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

  3. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000032 The Immobility of CO2 in Marine Sediments Beneath 1500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    to capture CO2 produced at indus- trial facilities and approaches to inject the CO2 into geologic of buoyant CO2 in terrestrial reservoirs that often contain fractures, faults, and abandoned wells and may

  4. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Implications. J. ofcommitment to reduce CO2 emissions from new passenger carsACEA’s Commitment on CO2 Emission Reductions from Passenger

  5. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theRasmussen. Allocation of co2 emissions permits: A generalthe aggregate annual CO2 emissions for each of the key

  6. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report. Science Press,Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s Cement

  7. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of unadjusted energy-related CO2 emissions is attributed toEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 TOTAL Energy EmissionsEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 Coal Coke and Other

  8. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report (CEACER). Beijing:Oil consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s road transport:Growth, Oil Demand and CO2 Emissions through 2050. Report

  9. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon dioxide (NEU-CO2) emissions, represent a signi?cantSimply described, NEU-CO2 emissions are generated via twoData permitting, NEU-CO2 emissions arising from energy

  10. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s Cementenergy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are

  11. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine, Christopher [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Hankin, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Koyuk, H [Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington; Bakker, D C E [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Pfeil, B [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen; Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway; Olsen, A [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Metzl, N [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Fassbender, A [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Manke, A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Malczyk, J [Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University; Akl, J [CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Alin, S R [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Bellerby, R G J [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Borges, A [University of Liege, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liege, Belgium; Boutin, J [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Brown, P J [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Cai, W-J [Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia; Chavez, F P [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA; Chen, A [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Cosa, C [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Feely, R A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Gonzalez-Davila, M [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,; Goyet, C [Institut de Modélisation et d'Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Université de Perpignan; Hardman-Mountford, N [CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia; Heinze, C [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hoppema, M [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Hunt, C W [Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire; Hydes, D [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK; Ishii, M [Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; Johannessen, T [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Key, R M [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Kortzinger, A [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany; Landschutzer, P [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Lauvset, S K [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Lefevre, N [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Lenton, A [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Lourantou, A [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Merlivat, L [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Midorikawa, T [Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan; Mintrop, L [MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany; Miyazaki, C [Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan; Murata, A [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakadate, A [Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan; Nakano, Y [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakaoka, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan; Nojiri, Y [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; et al.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

  12. Weeks Island gravity stable CO2 pilot: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, J.R.; Perry, G.E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Weeks Island ''S'' sand Reservoir B (''S'' RB) gravity-stable CO2 field test was completed during February 1988. Injection started in October 1978 and production began in January 1981 in this high-permeability, steeply-dipping sandstone reservoir. About 264,000 barrels of oil or 65 percent of the starting volume has been recovered. A 24-percent pore-volume slug of CO2 mixed with about six mole percent of natural gas (mostly methane) was injected at the start of the pilot. Since 1983, produced CO2 plus hydrocarbon gases have been recycled. CO2 usage statistics are 9.34 MCF/BO with recycle and 3.24 MCF/BO based on purchased CO2. Previous annual reports document the pilot design, implementation, and early results for the 1977 to June 1981 time period. This report is a review of early pilot history and a more detailed account of the post June 1981 results and overall interpretation. A reservoir-simulation history match of pilot performance plus core and log data from a 1983 swept-zone evaluation well are described in this report. A brief description of the production facility and an account of the corrosion control program are also included. 11 refs., 34 figs.

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of CO2 Formation in Interstellar Ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasa, Carina; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 ice is one of the most abundant components in ice-coated interstellar ices besides H2O and CO, but the most favorable path to CO2 ice is still unclear. Molecular dynamics calculations on the ultraviolet photodissociation of different kinds of CO-H2O ice systems have been performed at 10 K in order to demonstrate that the reaction between CO and an OH molecule resulting from H2O photodissociation through the first excited state is a possible route to form CO2 ice. However, our calculations, which take into account different ice surface models, suggest that there is another product with a higher formation probability ((3.00+-0.07)x10-2), which is the HOCO complex, whereas the formation of CO2 has a probability of only (3.6+-0.7)x10-4. The initial location of the CO is key to obtain reaction and form CO2: the CO needs to be located deep into the ice. The HOCO complex becomes trapped in the cold ice surface in the trans-HOCO minimum because it quickly loses its internal energy to the surrounding ice, preventi...

  14. CATALYST CATALYSTADSORBENT ADSORBENT HCS + H2O H2 + CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    - CO2 Adsorbent Effect of Membrane Properties On HAMR performance 3.190.3883--H2O --54.30.0248Ar --67 CATALYST CATALYSTADSORBENT ADSORBENT C O 2CO2 CO2 CO2 HCS + H2O H2 + CO2 Mork Family Department of Chemical using hydrotalcite-type CO2 adsorbents and nanoporous H2-selective carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMS

  15. A Mechanistic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Tiffany Coal Bed Methane Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenn-Tai Liang; Kevin T. Raterman; Eric P. Robertson

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop mechanistic models specific to CO2 sequestration in BP’s Tiffany coal bed methane (CBM) field. In this study, the original field model was modified to match the field performance of a 5-spot pattern in the northern part of the Tiffany Field where BP plans to perform a micro-pilot test. The modified model consists of one high-permeability fast layer sandwiched between two low-permeability slow layers. In this mechanistic model, the fast layer represents well-cleated and fractured coal from all geological layers while the slow layers represent coal with little or no fracture development from the same geological layers. The model successfully matched the performance of the 5-spot pattern during the enhanced recovery period (N2 injection). However, in order to match nitrogen breakthrough times and nitrogen cut the vertical transmissibility between layers had to be set to zero. During gas injection, nitrogen was allowed to enter all three layers, not just the high-permeability fast layer. However, because the permeabilities of the slow layers were low and there is no communication between the fast and the slow layers, most of the injected nitrogen entered the high-permeability fast layer. This suggests that the future gas injection and CO2 sequestration may be restricted to only one third of the total available pay. For future gas injections, the modified model predicted early CO2 breakthrough with high CO2 cut. This suggests that the actual CO2 sequestration capability of the Tiffany Field might not be as high as originally expected. This is a direct consequence of the reduced available pay in the modified model. The modified model also predicted early inert gas (N2 plus CO2) breakthrough and high inert gas cut during future gas injections. If this is confirmed in the pilot test, the high volume of inert gas produced could overwhelm the reprocessing capability resulting in early termination of the project.

  16. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  17. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  18. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Luna; C. Millan; M. Domingo; M. A. Satorre

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  19. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna, R; Domingo, M; Satorre, M A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  20. air-sea co2 flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s... Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia,...

  1. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy5. Regional Results for the CO2 Pricing Scheme no-invest

  2. New Directions: Potential Climate and Productivity Benefits from CO2 Capture in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air capture technologies. Although the carbon in metaboliccarbon footprint of commercial build- ings through active CO 2 capture. For dilute CO 2 levels, adsorption technologies

  3. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions...

  4. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO2 emissions from external production of electricityCO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as well as the consumption of large amount of electricity,

  5. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as wellCO2 emissions (including cement process and fossil fuel combustion

  6. Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. Experience curves for power plant emission controlassessments of fossil fuel power plants with CO 2 capturethe future cost of power plants with CO 2 capture Edward S.

  7. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondary accumulation at shallow depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    adiabatic (= no external heat supply) expansion of CO 2 toCO 2 without external heat supply will cause temperatures toenables more sustained heat supply from the surroundings,

  8. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s Commitment on CO2 Emission Reductions from Passenger Cars.is a small extra reduction in CO2 emissions per km due to a

  9. A quantitative comparison of the cost of employing EOR-coupled CSS supplemented with secondary DSF storage for two large CO2 point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the impact of the temporally dynamic demand for CO2 for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery with CO2 storage. Previous evaluations of economy-wide CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS) deployment have typically applied a simplifying assumption that 100% of the potential storage capacity for a given formation is available on the first day of the analysis, and that the injection rate impacts only the number of wells required to inject a given volume of fluid per year, making it a cost driver rather than a technical one. However, as discussed by Dahowski and Bachu [1], storing CO2 in a field undergoing CO2 flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is subject to a set of constraints to which storage in DSFs is not, and these constraints combined with variable demand for CO2 may strongly influence the ability of an EOR field to serve as a baseload storage formation for commercial scale CCS projects undertaken as a means of addressing climate change mitigation targets. This analysis assumes that CCS is being undertaken in order to reduce CO2 emissions from the industrial sources evaluated and that there is enough of a disincentive associated with venting CO2 to the atmosphere that any CO2 not used within the EOR field will be stored in a suitable nearby deep saline formation (DSF). The authors have applied a CO2 demand profile to two cases chosen to illustrate the differences in cost impacts of employing EOR-based CCS as a part of a given source’s CCS portfolio. The first scenario is a less-than-ideal case in which a single EOR field is used for storage and all CO2 not demanded by the EOR project is stored in a DSF; the second scenario is designed to optimize costs by minimizing storage in the DSF and maximizing lower-cost EOR-based storage. Both scenarios are evaluated for two facilities emitting 3 and 6 MtCO2/y, corresponding to a natural gas processing facility and an IGCC electric power plant, respectively. Annual and lifetime average CO2 transport and storage costs are presented, and the impact of added capture and compression costs on overall project economics is examined.

  10. A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission- reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies The

  11. THERMOCATALYTIC CO2-FREE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    remain limited .... until some cost effective carbon sequestration option for distributed production production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbon fuels with minimal CO2 emissions. Relevance. It is significantly more challenging to cost effectively sequester these [distributed] smaller volume carbon emissions

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS Pascal Clain , Anthony storage and distribution in refrigeration applications. Previous studies show that these hydrates are able.s] INTRODUCTION Secondary refrigeration is a method using a neutral fluid for cold distribution in order

  13. Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration Tarun R Naik1 and Rakesh sequestration. Most of the studies related to the carbonation are limited to its effects on corrosion. The possibility of using carbonation process as a direct means for carbon dioxide sequestration is yet

  14. SecuestrodeCO2enestructurasgeolgicas Modelacin numrica de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Kioto Responsables del 55% de las emisiones se comprometen reducir en 5% el total de emisiones respecto forma diferente A España le corresponde no aumentar en mas de 15% sus emisiones respecto a 1990 En 2006enestructurasgeológicas Una forma de disminuir emisiones: Almacenamiento de CO2 en estructuras geológicas Yacimientos de

  15. Challenges in elevated CO2 experiments on forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Bangor, UK 8 Queens College, City University of New York, NY, USA 9 Lund University, Lund, Sweden 10 concentrations in future experiments to better predict the effects of climate change? Plantations and natural. Forest ecosystems under climate change Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas emitted

  16. CO2 as a raw material for chemistry : an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    to chemical products capable of being energy vectors (CH3OH, CH3OCH3, EtOH, ... ) · Access to chemical intermediates from biomass · CO2 accelerates production of biomass · Ex microalgae biofuel, chemicals, .. · Ex energy: 803 kJ/mol ( 192 kcal/mol) #12;Paris, 09/07/20139 Chemical valorisations : an industrial

  17. Reduction of CO2 emissions and utilization of slag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    emissions is 314 #12;CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. Con- crete and steel manufacturers produce from carbonate-free slag products (Slag2PCC Plus) Hiilidioksidipäästöjen vähentäminen ja Email: ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Abstract By producing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from a carbonate

  18. ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

  19. High Fidelity Computational Analysis of CO2 Trapping at Pore Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Vinod

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    With an alarming rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from anthropogenic sources, CO2 sequestration has become an attractive choice to mitigate the emission. Some popular storage media for CO{sub 2} are oil reservoirs, deep coal-bed, and deep oceanic-beds. These have been used for the long term CO{sub 2} storage. Due to special lowering viscosity and surface tension property of CO{sub 2}, it has been widely used for enhanced oil recovery. The sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration or enhanced oil recovery mostly consist of porous rocks. Lack of knowledge of molecular mobility under confinement and molecule-surface interactions between CO2 and natural porous media results in generally governed by unpredictable absorption kinetics and total absorption capacity for injected fluids, and therefore, constitutes barriers to the deployment of this technology. Therefore, it is important to understand the flow dynamics of CO{sub 2} through the porous microstructures at the finest scale (pore-scale) to accurately predict the storage potential and long-term dynamics of the sequestered CO{sub 2}. This report discusses about pore-network flow modeling approach using variational method and analyzes simulated results this method simulations at pore-scales for idealized network and using Berea Sandstone CT scanned images. Variational method provides a promising way to study the kinetic behavior and storage potential at the pore scale in the presence of other phases. The current study validates variational solutions for single and two-phase Newtonian and single phase non-Newtonian flow through angular pores for special geometries whose analytical and/or empirical solutions are known. The hydraulic conductance for single phase flow through a triangular duct was also validated against empirical results derived from lubricant theory.

  20. Rechargeable Li/CO2O2 (2 : 1) battery and Li/CO2 Yali Liu, Rui Wang, Yingchun Lyu, Hong Li* and Liquan Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Rechargeable Li/CO2­O2 (2 : 1) battery and Li/CO2 battery Yali Liu, Rui Wang, Yingchun Lyu, Hong Li* and Liquan Chen A Li/CO2­O2 (2 : 1, volume ratio) battery and a Li/CO2 battery with discharging specific capacities of 1808 mA h gÀ1 and 1032 mA h gÀ1 , respectively, are reported. Li2CO3 is the main discharge

  1. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  2. The Anthropogenic Perturbation of Atmospheric CO2 and the Climate System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    of carbon dioxide (CO2), a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG), are redistributed within the climate system

  3. Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada David Risk the climatic controls on soil respiration. We use subsurface CO2 concentrations, surface CO2 flux and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface regime to examine physical controls on soil CO2 production. Results

  4. Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2 Jih] Synoptic events may play an important role in determining the CO2 spatial distribution and temporal 2001, which had the most significant CO2 concentration variation in our case pool. The CO2

  5. Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic measurements during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Click Here for Full Article Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last glacialinterglacial climatic transition remain debated. We analyzed the parallel evolution of CO2 and its stable carbon isotopic ratio (d13 CO2

  6. CO2 efflux from Amazonian headwater streams represents a significant fate for deep soil respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    CO2 efflux from Amazonian headwater streams represents a significant fate for deep soil respiration amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, while the magnitude of CO2 degassing from small streams remains a major was as terrestrially-respired CO2 dissolved within soils, over 90% of which evaded to the atmosphere within headwater

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer Can seasonal and interannual variation in landscape CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Can seasonal and interannual variation in landscape CO2 fluxes be detected by atmospheric observations of CO2 concentrations made at a tall tower? Citation for published in landscape CO2 fluxes be detected by atmospheric observations of CO2 concentrations made at a tall tower

  8. Physical controls on the isotopic composition of soil-respired CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical controls on the isotopic composition of soil-respired CO2 Nick Nickerson1 and Dave Risk1] Measurement of the isotopic composition of soil and soil-respired CO2 (d13 CO2) has become an invaluable tool in understanding the effects of diffusive transport on soil CO2 isotopic composition, it is crucial

  9. Large CO2 disequilibria in tropical lakes Humberto Marotta,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Large CO2 disequilibria in tropical lakes Humberto Marotta,1,2 Carlos M. Duarte,2 Sebastian Sobek,3 November 2009. [1] On the basis of a broad compilation of data on pCO2 in surface waters, we show tropical lakes to be, on average, far more supersaturated and variable in CO2 (geometric mean ± SE pCO2 = 1804

  10. Quantum Leaps in CO2 Detection Robert Byrne, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Quantum Leaps in CO2 Detection Robert Byrne, Ph.D. USF chemical oceanographers are making quantum. #12;Quantum Leaps in CO2 Detection Robert Byrne, Ph.D. When deployed on shipboard our shipboard leaps in measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) in the oceans and measuring the interactions of CO2 between

  11. A numerical procedure to model and monitor CO2 sequestration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    sequestration over very long periods of time. · The analysis of CO2 underground storage safety in the long term procedure to model and monitor CO2 sequestration in aquifers ­ p. #12;Introduction. I · Storage of CO2 (31.6C, 7.38 MPa). · First industrial scale CO2 injection project: Sleipner gas field (North Sea

  12. A numerical procedure to model and monitor CO2 sequestration in aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    sequestration over very long periods of time. The analysis of CO2 underground storage safety in the long term procedure to model and monitor CO2 sequestration in aquifers ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2 (31.6C, 7.38 MPa). First industrial scale CO2 injection project: Sleipner gas field (North Sea

  13. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reservoirs, with large capacity for CO 2 storage (Bradshaw and Dance, 2004; Bachu, 2008). Improperly abandoned

  14. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Generation/CHP Residential Commercial Industrial Agricultural Transportation Percent of county CO2 emissions

  15. Production of Hydrogen and Electricity from Coal with CO2 Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Production of Hydrogen and Electricity from Coal with CO2 Capture Princeton University: Tom use (transportation and heating) responsible for ~2/3 of global CO2 emissions · CO2 capture energy carriers are needed: electricity and hydrogen. · If CO2 sequestration is viable, fossil fuel

  16. Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact · Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater · Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

  17. Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma J. R. The expanding plume was then reheated by a 35 ns CO2 laser operating at 10.6 m. The role of prepulse wavelength, Tanaka et al.11 demonstrated the advantages of using a CO2 laser for generating higher CE. The CO2 LPP

  18. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  19. Adsorption Kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their Equimolar Mixture on Coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Naney, Michael {Mike} T [ORNL; Blencoe, James {Jim} G [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Pashin, Jack C. [Geological Survey of Alabama; Carroll, Richard E. [Geological Survey of Alabama

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150 m, 1-2 mm, and 5-10 mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40 C and 35 C over a pressure range of 1.4 6.9 MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150 m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions.

  20. 3D modelling of the early Martian Climate under a denser CO2 atmosphere: Temperatures and CO2 ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forget, Francois; Millour, Ehouarn; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Kerber, Laura; Leconte, Jeremy; Marcq, Emmanuel; Haberle, Robert M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of geological evidence, it is often stated that the early martian climate was warm enough for liquid water to flow on the surface thanks to the greenhouse effect of a thick atmosphere. We present 3D global climate simulations of the early martian climate performed assuming a faint young sun and a CO2 atmosphere with pressure between 0.1 and 7 bars. The model includes a detailed radiative transfer model using revised CO2 gas collision induced absorption properties, and a parameterisation of the CO2 ice cloud microphysical and radiative properties. A wide range of possible climates is explored by using various values of obliquities, orbital parameters, cloud microphysic parameters, atmospheric dust loading, and surface properties. Unlike on present day Mars, for pressures higher than a fraction of a bar, surface temperatures vary with altitude because of the adiabatic cooling and warming of the atmosphere when it moves vertically. In most simulations, CO2 ice clouds cover a major part of the planet...

  1. Stomatal proxy record of CO2 concentrations from the last termination suggests an important role for CO2 at climate change transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    Stomatal proxy record of CO2 concentrations from the last termination suggests an important role for CO2 at climate change transitions Margret Steinthorsdottir a,*, Barbara Wohlfarth a , Malin E2 reconstruction Betula nana Sweden a b s t r a c t A new stomatal proxy-based record of CO2

  2. 1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances Mehdi Panahi Sigurd Skogestad 18.10.2011 AIChE Annual Meeting #12;2M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2

  3. Experimental assessment of CO2-mineral-toxic ion interactions in a1 simplified freshwater aquifer: Implications for CO2 leakage from deep2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Experimental assessment of CO2-mineral-toxic ion interactions in a1 simplified freshwater aquifer: Implications for CO2 leakage from deep2 geological storage3 4 German Montes-Hernandez*a , François Renarda, b : 10.1021/es3053448 #12;2 Abstract1 The possible intrusion of CO2 into a given freshwater aquifer due

  4. Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate Arnaud Réveillère, Jérémy Rohmer, Frédéric Wertz / contact the leak, and of CO2,g as a first approach. Compared to the state of the art, it adds the possibility

  5. Experimental Assessment of CO2Mineral-Toxic Ion Interactions in a Simplified Freshwater Aquifer: Implications for CO2 Leakage from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that remobilization of trace elements by CO2 intrusion is not a universal physicochemical effect. In fact goethite, a decrease in pH resulting from CO2 intrusion could reactivate the adsorption of Se(IV) and As(V) if goethite, arsenite As(III) is significantly adsorbed on goethite, but is partially remobilized by CO2 intrusion

  6. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery Energy Conserv.the use of CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, where the use ofand potential for enhanced oil recovery. The public living

  7. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction PotentialsModel Inputs Emissions Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity (tonne CO2/MWh)  CO2 Emission factor for fuel (

  8. Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of CO2 taxes (or CO2 emission limits) 10 . b) Taxesrefinery process areas CO2 emissions from the control of COfertilizer use. CH4 and CO2 emissions from soil (parameters

  9. In Situ Study of CO2 and H2O Partitioning Between Na-Montmorillonite and Variably Wet Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loring, John S.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Chen, Jeffrey; Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Benezeth, Pascale; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Shale formations play fundamental roles in large-scale geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) aimed primarily to mitigate climate change, and in smaller-scale GCS targeted mainly for CO2-enhanced gas recovery operations. In both technologies, CO2 is injected underground as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), where interactions with shale minerals could influence successful GCS implementation. Reactive components of shales include expandable clays, such as montmorillonites and mixed-layer illite/smectite clays. In this work, we used in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopy to investigate the swelling/shrinkage and water/CO2 sorption of a pure montmorillonite, Na-SWy-2, when the clay is exposed to variably hydrated scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Measured interlayer spacings and sorbed water concentrations at varying levels of scCO2 hydration are similar to previously reported values measured in air at ambient pressure over a range of relative humidities. IR spectra show evidence of both water and CO2 intercalation, and variations in peak shapes and positions suggest multiple sorbed types with distinct chemical environments. Based on the intensity of the asymmetric CO stretching band of the CO2 associated with the Na-SWy-2, we observed a significant increase in sorbed CO2 as the clay expands from a 0W to a 1W state, suggesting that water props open the interlayer so that CO2 can enter. However, as the clay transitions from a 1W to a 2W state, CO2 desorbs sharply. These observations were placed in the context of two conceptual models concerning hydration mechanisms for expandable clays and were also discussed in light of recent theoretical studies on CO2-H2O-clay interactions. The swelling/shrinkage of expandable clays could affect solid volume, porosity, and permeability of shales. Consequently, the results from this work could aid predictions of shale caprock integrity in large-scale GCS, as well as methane transmissivity in enhanced gas recovery operations.

  10. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  11. A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closed and semi-closed saline formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    buoyancy effects, residual water saturation, etc. (Bachu and1 ) Residual CO 2 saturation Residual water saturation CO 2

  12. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors CO2 Emission factor for grid electricity (tonnePotential for Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction

  13. Economically Efficient Operation of CO2 Capturing Process Part I: Self-optimizing Procedure for Selecting the Best Controlled Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    the greenhouse gas CO2 that causes global warming. Due to the effect of CO2 emissions on global warming

  14. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in theElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

  15. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  16. Photodesorption of ices I: CO, N2 and CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin I. Oberg; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Harold Linnartz

    2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A longstanding problem in astrochemistry is how molecules can be maintained in the gas phase in dense inter- and circumstellar regions. Photodesorption is a non-thermal desorption mechanism, which may explain the small amounts of observed cold gas in cloud cores and disk mid-planes. This paper aims to determine the UV photodesorption yields and to constrain the photodesorption mechanisms of three astrochemically relevant ices: CO, N2 and CO2. In addition, the possibility of co-desorption in mixed and layered CO:N2 ices is explored. The ice photodesorption is studied experimentally under ultra high vacuum conditions and at 15-60 K using a hydrogen discharge lamp (7-10.5 eV). The ice desorption during irradiation is monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy of the ice and simultaneous mass spectrometry of the desorbed molecules. Both the UV photodesorption yields per incident photon and the photodesorption mechanisms are molecule specific. CO photodesorbs without dissociation from the surface layer of the ice. N2, which lacks an electronic transition in this wavelength range, has a photodesorption yield that is more than an order of magnitude lower. This yield increases significantly due to co-desorption when N2 is mixed in with or layered on top of CO ice. CO2 photodesorbs through dissociation and subsequent recombination from the top 10 layers of the ice. At low temperatures (15-18 K) the derived photodesorption yields are 2.7x10^-3 and CO2 photodesorption yield is 1.2x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/2.9)) + 1.1x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/4.6)) molecules photon-1, where X is the ice thickness in monolayers and the two parts of the expression represent a CO2 and CO photodesorption pathway.

  17. Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

  18. IMPLEMENTING A NOVEL CYCLIC CO2 FLOOD IN PALEOZOIC REEFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; W. Quinlan; A. Wylie

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycled CO2 will be used in this demonstration project to produce bypassed oil from the Silurian Dover 35 pinnacle reef (Otsego County) in the Michigan Basin. Contract negotiations by our industry partner to gain access to the CO2 supply have been completed and the State of Michigan has issued an order to allow operation of the project. Injection of CO2 is scheduled to begin in February, 2004. Subsurface characterization is being completed using well log tomography animations and 3D visualizations to map facies distributions and reservoir properties in two reefs, the Belle River Mills and Chester 18 Fields. The Belle River Mills and Chester18 fields are being used as type-fields because they have excellent log and/or core data coverage. Amplitude slicing of the normalized gamma ray and core permeability and core porosity curves is showing trends that indicate significant heterogeneity and compartmentalization in these reservoirs associated with the original depositional fabric of the rocks. Digital and hard copy data continues to be compiled for the Niagaran reefs in the Michigan Basin. Technology transfer took place through technical presentations regarding visualization of the heterogeneity of the Niagaran reefs. An oral presentation was given at the AAPG Eastern Section Meeting and a booth at the same meeting was used to meet one-on-one with operators.

  19. Inexpensive CO2 Thickening Agents for Improved Mobility Control of CO2 Floods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Enick; Eric Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, non-fluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to design a CO{sub 2}-thickener based on these CO{sub 2}-philic polymers. Two types of thickeners were considered. The first was a copolymer in which the CO{sub 2}-philic monomer was combined with a small proportion of CO{sub 2}-phobic associating groups that could cause viscosity-enhancing intermolecular interactions to occur. The second was a small hydrogen-bonding compound with urea groups in the core to promote intermolecular interactions that would cause the molecules to 'stack' in solution while the arms were composed of the CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers. Although we were not able to develop a viable thickener that exhibited high enough CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions to induce a viscosity increase, we made significant progress in our understanding of CO{sub 2}-soluble compounds that can be used in subsequent studies to design CO{sub 2}-soluble thickeners or CO{sub 2}-soluble surfactant-based foaming agents. These findings are detailed in this final report. In summary, we assessed many polymers and verified that the most CO{sub 2}-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon polymer is poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc. This is primarily due to the presence of both ether and carbonyl oxygens associated with acetate-rich compounds. In addition to polymers, we also made small acetate-rich molecules that were also capable of associating in solution via the inclusion of hydrogen-bonding groups in hopes of forming viscosity-enhancing macromolecules. Despite the presence of multiple acetate groups in these compounds, which can impart incredible CO{sub 2}-solubility to many compounds, our attempts to make acetate-rich high molecular weight polymers and small hydrogen-bonding compounds did not yield a highly CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer or hydrogen-bonding associative thickener. The conclusions of our molecular modeling calculations confirmed that although acetates are indeed 'CO{sub 2}-philic', nitrogen-containing amines also interact favorably with CO{sub 2} and should also be examined. Therefore we obtained and synthesized many N-rich (e.g. amine-containing) polymers. Unfortunately, we found that the intermolecular polymer-polymer interactions between the amines were so strong that the polymers were essentially insoluble in CO{sub 2}. For the convenience of the reader, a table of all of the polymers evaluated during this research is provided.

  20. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Reservoirs for Carbon Sequestration and Enhanced Gasfrom geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zonethe feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  1. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR). At the North-SPE 10685- MS, SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symp, 4-7 April

  2. Conversion of CO2 into Commercial Materials Using Carbon Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jian-Ping; Peters, Jonathan; Lail, Marty; Mobley, Paul; Turk, Brian

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, our research focused on developing reaction chemistry that would support using carbon as a reductant for CO2 utilization that would permit CO2 consumption on a scale that would match or exceed anthropomorphic CO2 generation for energy production from fossil fuels. Armed with the knowledge that reactions attempting to produce compounds with an energy content greater than CO2 would be thermodynamically challenged and/or require significant amounts of energy, we developed a potential process that utilized a solid carbon source and recycled the carbon to effectively provide infinite time for the carbon to react. During testing of different carbon sources, we found a wide range of reaction rates. Biomass-derived samples had the most reactivity and coals and petcoke had the lowest. Because we had anticipated this challenge, we recognized that a catalyst would be necessary to improve reaction rates and conversion. From the data analysis of carbon samples, we recognized that alkali metals improved the reaction rate. Through parametric testing of catalyst formulations we were able to increase the reaction rate with petcoke by a factor of >70. Our efforts to identify the reaction mechanism to assist in improving the catalyst formulation demonstrated that the catalyst was catalyzing the extraction of oxygen from CO2 and using this extracted oxygen to oxidize carbon. This was a significant discovery in that if we could modify the catalyst formulation to permit controlled the oxidation, we would have a very power selective oxidation process. With selective oxidation, CO2 utilization could be effective used as one of the process steps in making many of the large volume commodity chemicals that support our modern lifestyles. The key challenges for incorporating these functionalities into the catalyst formulation were to make the oxidation selective and lower the temperature required for catalytic activity. We identified four catalyst families that had the potential to meet these challenges. Initial screening of the catalyst families did show that the reduction/oxidation activity did occur at lower temperatures and that these catalysts were able to cause carbon chain growth as well as C—C cleavage. A preliminary techno-economic feasibility of using petcoke/catalyst to produce a CO-rich syngas product was completed and showed significant economic promise. Testing of the different catalyst families demonstrated that Catalyst A was able to stably produce 5 sccm of ethylene/gram of catalyst at 900°C for one hour. For dry methane reforming, our Catalyst 4 was able to achieve production rates of > 10 sccm of CO and > 3 sccm of H2 per gram of catalyst at 600°C and 350 psig. Based on these developments, the potential for CO2 utilization in the production of large volume commodity chemicals is very promising.

  3. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, Andrew E.; Lauvaux, Thomas; West, Tristram O.; Denning, A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Uliasz, Marek; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Cooley, Dan; Andrews, Arlyn; Ogle, Stephen

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intensive regional research campaign was conducted by the North American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2005 to study the carbon cycle of the highly productive agricultural regions of the Midwestern United States. Forty-_ve di_erent associated projects were spawned across _ve U.S. agencies over the course of nearly a decade involving hundreds of researchers. The primary objective of the project was to investigate the ability of atmospheric inversion techniques to use highly calibrated CO2 mixing ratio data to estimate CO2 exchange over the major croplands of the U.S. Statistics from densely monitored crop production, consisting primarily corn and soybeans, provided the backbone of a well-studied\\bottom up"flux estimate that was used to evaluate the atmospheric inversion results. Three different inversion systems, representing spatial scales varying from high resolution mesoscale, to continental, to global, coupled to different transport models and optimization techniques were compared to the bottom up" inventory estimates. The mean annual CO2-C sink for 2007 from the inversion systems ranged from 120 TgC to 170 TgC, when viewed across a wide variety of inversion setups, with the best" point estimates ranging from 145 TgC to 155 TgC. Inversion-based mean C sink estimates were generally slightly stronger, but statistically indistinguishable,from the inventory estimate whose mean C sink was 135 TgC. The inversion results showed temporal correlations at seasonal lengths while week to week correlations remained low. Comparisons were made between atmospheric transport yields of the two regional inversion systems, which despite having different influence footprints in space and time due to differences in underlying transport models and external forcings, showed similarity when aggregated in space and time.

  4. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B. Peter; Watson, David J.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) guide document describes the theory, use, and application of the STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e operational modes. These operational modes of the STOMP simulator are configured to solve problems involving the sequestration of CO2 in geologic saline reservoirs. STOMP-CO2 is the isothermal version and STOMP-CO2e is the nonisothermal version. These core operational modes solve the governing conservation equations for component flow and transport through geologic media; where, the STOMP-CO2 components are water, CO2 and salt and the STOMP-CO2e operational mode also includes an energy conservation equation. Geochemistry can be included in the problem solution via the ECKEChem (Equilibrium-Conservation-Kinetic-Equation Chemistry) module, and geomechanics via the EPRMech (Elastic-Plastic-Rock Mechanics) module. This addendum is designed to provide the new user with a full guide for the core capabilities of the STOMP-CO2 and -CO2e simulators, and to provide the experienced user with a quick reference on implementing features. Several benchmark problems are provided in this addendum, which serve as starting points for developing inputs for more complex problems and as demonstrations of the simulator’s capabilities.

  5. Effects of CO2 on H2O band profiles and band strengths in mixed H2O:CO2 ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin I. Oberg; Helen J. Fraser; A. C. Adwin Boogert; Suzanne E. Bisschop; Guido W. Fuchs; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Harold Linnartz

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    H2O is the most abundant component of astrophysical ices. In most lines of sight it is not possible to fit both the H2O 3 um stretching, the 6 um bending and the 13 um libration band intensities with a single pure H2O spectrum. Recent Spitzer observations have revealed CO2 ice in high abundances and it has been suggested that CO2 mixed into H2O ice can affect relative strengths of the 3 um and 6 um bands. We used laboratory infrared transmission spectroscopy of H2O:CO2 ice mixtures to investigate the effects of CO2 on H2O ice spectral features at 15-135 K. We find that the H2O peak profiles and band strengths are significantly different in H2O:CO2 ice mixtures compared to pure H2O ice. In all H2O:CO2 mixtures, a strong free-OH stretching band appears around 2.73 um, which can be used to put an upper limit on the CO2 concentration in the H2O ice. The H2O bending mode profile also changes drastically with CO2 concentration; the broad pure H2O band gives way to two narrow bands as the CO2 concentration is increased. This makes it crucial to constrain the environment of H2O ice to enable correct assignments of other species contributing to the interstellar 6 um absorption band. The amount of CO2 present in the H2O ice of B5:IRS1 is estimated by simultaneously comparing the H2O stretching and bending regions and the CO2 bending mode to laboratory spectra of H2O, CO2, H2O:CO2 and HCOOH.

  6. A Mechanistic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Tiffany Coal Bed Methane Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, J.; Raterman, K.T.; Robertson, E.P.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop mechanistic models specific to CO2 sequestration in BP's Tiffany coal bed methane (CBM) field. In this study, the original field model was modified to match the field performance of a 5-spot pattern in the northern part of the Tiffany Field where BP plans to perform a micro-pilot test. The modified model consists of one high-permeability fast layer sandwiched between two low-permeability slow layers. In this mechanistic model, the fast layer represents well-cleated and fractured coal from all geological layers while the slow layers represent coal with little or no fracture development from the same geological layers. The model successfully matched the performance of the 5-spot pattern during the enhanced recovery period. However, in order to match nitrogen breakthrough times and nitrogen cut the vertical transmissibility between layers had to be set to zero. During gas injection, nitrogen was allowed to enter all three layers, not just the high-permeability fast layer. However, because the permeabilities of the slow layers were low and there is no communication between the fast and the slow layers, most of the injected nitrogen entered the high-permeability fast layer. This suggests that the future gas injection and CO2 sequestration may be restricted to only one third of the total available pay.

  7. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  8. An investigation of reaction parameters on geochemical storage of non-pure CO2 streams in iron oxides-bearing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Susana; Liu, Q.; Bacon, Diana H.; Maroto-Valer, M. M.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Hematite deposit that is the main FeIII-bearing mineral in sedimentary red beds was proposed as a potential host repository for converting CO2 into carbonate minerals such as siderite (FeCO3), when CO2–SO2 gas mixtures are co-injected. This work investigated CO2 mineral trapping using hematite and sensitivity of the reactive systems to different parameters, including particle size, gas composition, temperature, pressure, and solid-to-liquid ratio. Experimental and modelling studies of hydrothermal experiments were conducted, which emulated a CO2 sequestration scenario by injecting CO2-SO2 gas streams into a NaCl-NaOH brine hosted in iron oxide-containing aquifer. This study provides novel information on the mineralogical changes and fluid chemistry derived from the co-injection of CO2-SO2 gas mixtures in hematite deposit. It can be concluded that the amount of siderite precipitate depends primarily on the SO2 content of the gas stream. Increasing SO2 content in the system could promote the reduction of Fe3+ from the hematite sample to Fe2+, which will be further available for its precipitation as siderite. Moreover, siderite precipitation is enhanced at low temperatures and high pressures. The influence of the solid to liquid ratio on the overall carbonation reaction suggests that the conversion increases if the system becomes more diluted.

  9. CHEMICAL FIXATION OF CO2 IN COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND RECYCLING THROUGH BIOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; Paul Enlow; Richard Strickland; David Behel

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented. Algal growth can be limited by several factors, including the level of bicarbonate available for photosynthesis, the pH of the growth solution, nutrient levels, and the size of the cell population, which determines the available space for additional growth. In order to supply additional CO2 to increase photosynthesis and algal biomass production, fly ash reactor has been demonstrated to increase the available CO2 in solution above the limits that are achievable with dissolved gas alone. The amount of dissolved CO2 can be used to control pH for optimum growth. Periodic harvesting of algae can be used to maintain algae in the exponential, rapid growth phase. An 800 liter scale up demonstrated that larger scale production is possible. The larger experiment demonstrated that indirect addition of CO2 is feasible and produces significantly less stress on the algal system. With better harvesting methods, nutrient management, and carbon dioxide management, an annual biomass harvest of about 9,000 metric tons per square kilometer (36 MT per acre) appears to be feasible. To sequester carbon, the algal biomass needs to be placed in a permanent location. If drying is undesirable, the biomass will eventually begin to aerobically decompose. It was demonstrated that algal biomass is a suitable feed to an anaerobic digester to produce methane. The remaining carbonaceous material is essentially bio-inactive and is permanently sequestered. The feasibility of using algae to convert carbon dioxide to a biomass has been demonstrated. This biomass provides a sustainable means to produce methane, ethanol, and/or bio diesel. The first application of concept demonstrated by the project could be to use algal biomass production to capture carbon dioxide associated with ethanol production.

  10. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The BigSidingState6Report, March003MEAM,ofCO2 Heat Pump

  11. CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The BigSidingState6Report, March003MEAM,ofCO2 Heat

  12. CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The BigSidingState6Report, March003MEAM,ofCO2

  13. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding Removal OngoingCERCLA SitesCHICAGOof Energy CNG in OKC:CO2

  14. Pre-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  15. Shell Future Fuels and CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPower Partners Wind FarmSheep Valleyand CO2

  16. 2015 CO2 Capture Technology Meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, 2014 2014February 2015June5 CO2 Capture

  17. co2 capture meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology

  18. co2-saline-storage | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2 Capture

  19. co2-use-reuse | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2 CaptureTransport

  20. co2_ch4exchange | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2 CaptureTransport12