National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for unit br jet

  1. br Owner br Facility br Type br Capacity br MW br Commercial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner br Facility br Type br Capacity br MW br Commercial br Online br Date br Geothermal br Area br Geothermal br Region Coordinates Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant LaGeo SA de...

  2. Jet-engine-based units for cleaning transport media and thawing frozen soil at mining, metallurgical, and transportation facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khechuev, Y.D.

    2008-01-15

    In recent years, it has become much more difficult to deal with the adhesion and freezing of moist overburden or soil during mining and transport operations due to the increase in the volume of the various materials being mined and transported - coal, ore, fluxes, structural materials, etc. The most productive and effective methods to deal with the sticking and freezing of soil and rock are gas dynamic methods. These methods employ high-speed jets of hot gases from jet engines and can be 15-30 times more productive than mechanical methods and machinery. Proceeding on the basis of calculations, completed studies, and field tests, the Gortekhtrans Department of Research Institute for Problems of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (NIIKMA) has developed several highly efficient units that employ this technology.

  3. Jatropha BR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BR Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jatropha BR Place: Brazil Product: Brazilian-based consortium of five leading Brazilian companies engaged in the integrated jatropha curcas...

  4. DICHOTOMY OF SOLAR CORONAL JETS: STANDARD JETS AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2010-09-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/X-Ray Telescope coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H{alpha} macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major coronal mass ejections. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 A snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T {approx} 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  5. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1,000 MBOE 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Basin Outline ID The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by subsurface structural

  6. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Basin Outline ID The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by subsurface

  7. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl 10,000.1 - 100,000 Mbbl Basin Outline ID The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by subsurface structural

  8. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cyrus, Jack D. (Corrales, NM); Kadlec, Emil G. (Albuquerque, NM); Klimas, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  9. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cyrus, J.D.; Kadlec, E.G.; Klimas, P.C.

    1983-09-15

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  10. Jets in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, M.H.

    1996-02-01

    Many analyses at the collider utilize the hadronic jets that are the footprints of QCD partons. These are used both to study the QCD processes themselves and increasingly as tools to study other physics, for example top mass reconstruction. However, jets are not fundamental degrees of freedom in the theory, so we need an {ital operational} {ital jet} {ital definition} and {ital reliable} {ital methods} {ital to} {ital calculate} {ital their} {ital properties}. This talk covers both of these important areas of jet physics. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  13. X-ray absorption studies of mixed salt polymer electrolytes: ZnBr{sub 2}/CaBr{sub 2}-PEO, ZnBr{sub 2}/LiBr-PEO, and ZnBr{sub 2}/RbBr-PEO complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1995-02-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt systems are an important new class of electrolytes that are being considered for many uses. X-ray absorption (XAS) studies of ZnBr{sub 2}-PEO complexes, at the Zn K edge, at temperatures between 25 and 120 C, indicate that additions of bromide salts of Li, Rb, or Ca result in the formation of ZnBr{sub 4}{sup {minus} 2} complexes with a Zn-Br bond length of 2.42 {angstrom}. XAS, at the Rb K edge, in mixed RbBr/ZnBr{sub 2}-PEO complexes with an excess of ZnBr{sub 2}, shows that the ZnBr{sub 2} causes the RbBr to dissolve in the polymer. The Rb{sup +} ions are weakly complexed with the PEO with an Rb-O bond distance of 2.93 {angstrom}.

  14. Impulsively started incompressible turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witze, P O

    1980-10-01

    Hot-film anemometer measurements are presented for the centerline velocity of a suddenly started jet of air. The tip penetration of the jet is shown to be proportional to the square-root of time. A theoretical model is developed that assumes the transient jet can be characterized as a spherical vortex interacting with a steady-state jet. The model demonstrates that the ratio of nozzle radius to jet velocity defines a time constant that uniquely characterizes the behavior and similarity of impulsively started incompressible turbulent jets.

  15. Bioenergy Impacts … Renewable Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the U.S. Navy are funding the construction of three biorefineries that will be able to produce renewable jet fuel for the commercial aviation industry and the military. FedEx, Southwest Airlines, United Airlines, and Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacific Airways signed agreements to purchase biofuel made from sorted landfill waste and woody biomass. Biofuel is becoming an option for commercial and military

  16. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  17. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  18. Jet Fuel from Microalgal Lipids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    A fact sheet on production of jet fuel or multi-purpose military fuel from lipids produced by microalgae.

  19. Vortex diode jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.

  20. Flow cytometer jet monitor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

  1. BIPOLAR JETS LAUNCHED FROM ACCRETION DISKS. II. THE FORMATION OF ASYMMETRIC JETS AND COUNTER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh E-mail: nezami@mpia.de

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the jet launching from accretion disks, in particular the formation of intrinsically asymmetric jet/counter jet systems. We perform axisymmetric MHD simulations of the disk-jet structure on a bipolar computational domain covering both hemispheres. We apply various models such as asymmetric disks with (initially) different scale heights in each hemisphere, symmetric disks into which a local disturbance is injected, and jets launched into an asymmetric disk corona. We consider both a standard global magnetic diffusivity distribution and a novel local diffusivity model. Typical disk evolution first shows substantial disk warping and then results in asymmetric outflows with a 10%-30% mass flux difference. We find that the magnetic diffusivity profile is essential for establishing a long-term outflow asymmetry. We conclude that bipolar asymmetry in protostellar and extragalactic jets can indeed be generated intrinsically and maintained over a long time by disk asymmetries and the standard jet launching mechanism.

  2. Improved production of Br atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, L. Z., E-mail: lzdeng@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Yin, J. P., E-mail: jpyin@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2014-10-28

    We theoretically investigated the improvement on the production rate of the decelerated bromine (Br) atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br{sub 2} precursors. Adiabatic alignment of Br{sub 2} precursors exposed to long laser pulses with duration on the order of nanoseconds was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation. The dynamical fragmentation of adiabatically aligned Br{sub 2} precursors was simulated and velocity distribution of the Br atoms produced was analyzed. Our study shows that the larger the degree of the precursor alignment, ?cos{sup 2}???, the higher the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed. For Br{sub 2} molecules with an initial rotational temperature of ?1 K, a ?cos{sup 2}??? value of ?0.88 can result in an improvement factor of over ?20 on the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed, requiring a laser intensity of only ?1 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} for alignment.

  3. Ram jet engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crispin, B.; Pohl, W.D.; Thomaier, D.; Voss, N.

    1983-11-29

    In a ram jet engine, a tubular combustion chamber is divided into a flame chamber followed by a mixing chamber. The ram air is supplied through intake diffusers located on the exterior of the combustion chamber. The intake diffusers supply combustion air directly into the flame chamber and secondary air is conveyed along the exterior of the combustion chambers and then supplied directly into the mixing chamber.

  4. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAfee, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and thermal properties of [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl)-A new compound with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peric, Berislav; Jozic, Drazan; Planinic, Pavica; Brnicevic, Nevenka; Giester, Gerald

    2009-09-15

    A new hexanuclear cluster compound, [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl) (1), with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster entity, was synthesized and characterized by elemental and TG/DTA analyses, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The presence of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} unit was confirmed also by the room-temperature magnetic and EPR measurements. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal I4{sub 1}/a space group, with a=14.299(5), c=21.241(5) A, Z=4, R{sub 1}(F)/wR{sub 2}(F{sup 2})=0.0296/0.0811. The structure contains discrete [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+} cations with an octahedron of metal atoms edge-bridged by bromine atoms and with water molecules occupying all six terminal positions. The cluster units are positioned in the vertices of the three-dimensional (pseudo)diamond lattice. The structure shows similarities with literature reported structures of cluster compounds crystallizing in the diamond (Fd3-barm) space group. - Graphical abstract: Two interpenetrating (pseudo)diamond nets formed by packing of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 3+} (octahedral) and diamagnetic [Et{sub 4}N]{sup +} (spheres) cations.

  6. Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Paul; Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Doty, F. Patrick; Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Josh; Yuan, Ding

    2014-01-21

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  7. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ?{sub j} ? 1/5?{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of ?{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ?{sub j,{sub max}} ? 1/5 ? 12 imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  8. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  9. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  10. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, S.P.

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser is disclosed for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 {micro}m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (ca. 200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments. 4 figs.

  11. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-03-02

    A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  13. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-09-28

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.

  14. Fragmentation inside an identified jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Procura, Massimiliano; Stewart, Iain W.

    2011-05-23

    Using Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive factorization formulae for semi-inclusive processes where a light hadron h fragments from a jet whose invariant mass is measured. Our analysis yields a novel 'fragmenting jet function' G{sub i}{sup h}(s,z) that depends on the jet invariant mass {radical}(s), and on the fraction z of the large light-cone momentum components of the hadron and the parent parton i. We show that G{sub i}{sup h}(s,z) can be computed in terms of perturbatively calculable coefficients, J{sub ij}(s,z/x), integrated against standard non-perturbative fragmentation functions, D{sub j}{sup h}(x). Our analysis yields a simple replacement rule that allows any factorization theorem depending on a jet function J{sub i} to be converted to a semi-inclusive process with a fragmenting hadron h.

  15. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  16. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  17. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS A protostellar jet and outflow...

  18. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noynaert, L.; Verstraeten, I.

    2007-07-01

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final decommissioning plan approved by ONDRAF/NIRAS, it was mentioned that the final goal of the BR3 decommissioning will be the 'green field' unless opportunities for reuse of the BR3 site will occur during decommissioning. A strategy of partial reuse of the BR3 facility is proposed and being discussed with the main stakeholders. The paper will give the present state of the discussion. (authors)

  19. Jet Energy Scale Studies and the Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in the Channel ZH -> nu anti-nu b anti-b at D�

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, Lydia Mary Isis; /Imperial Coll., London

    2006-11-01

    The D0 experiment is based at the Tevatron, which is currently the world's highest-energy accelerator. The detector comprises three major subsystems: the tracking system, the calorimeter and the muon detector. Jets, seen in the calorimeter, are the most common product of the proton-proton interactions at 2TeV. This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on jets and describes the derivation of a jet energy scale using p{bar p} {yields} (Z + jets) events as a cross-check of the official D0 jet energy scale (Versions 4.2 and 5.1) which is derived using p{bar p} {yields} {gamma} + jets events. Closure tests were also carried out on the jet energy calibration as a further verification. Jets from b-quarks are commonly produced at D0, readily identified and are a useful physics tool. These require a special correction in the case where the b-jet decays via a muon and a neutrino. Thus a semileptonic correction was also derived as an addition to the standard energy correction for jets. The search for the Higgs boson is one of the largest physics programs at D0. The second part of this thesis describes a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the ZH {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}b{bar b} channel in 52fb{sup -1} of data. The analysis is based on a sequence of event selection criteria optimized on Monte Carlo event samples that simulate four light Higgs boson masses between 105 GeV and 135 GeV and the main backgrounds. For the first time, the data for the analysis are selected using new acoplanarity triggers and the b-quark jets are selected using the D0 neural net b-jet tagging tool. A limit is set for {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} ZH) x Br(H {yields} b{bar b}).

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  1. A preliminary report on the photoionization efficiency spectrum, ionization energy and heat of formation of Br{sub 2}O; and the appearance energy of BrO{sup +} (Br{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorn, R.P. Jr.; Monks, P.S.; Stief, L.J.; Kuo, S.C.; Zhang, Z.; Klemm, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    We report experimental results for the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectrum of Br{sub 2}O along with the ionization energy (derived form the ionization threshold) and the appearance energy (AE) of BrO{sup +} (Br{sub 2}O). A value for the heat of formation of Br{sub 2}O is derived form the AE result. Experiments were performed by employing a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) apparatus coupled to beamline U-11 at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  2. BioJet Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    93940 Sector: Carbon Product: Monterey-based carbon credit developer and producer of bio-jet fuel derived from jatropha. References: BioJet Corporation1 This article is a...

  3. Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop Santa Fe Jets and Heavy Flavor Workshop WHEN: Jan 11, 2016 8:30 AM - Jan 13, 2016 5:30 PM WHERE: Inn and Spa at Loretto 211 Old Santa Fe...

  4. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  5. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 210?? torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  6. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, ...

  7. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP...

  8. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  10. Natural Organobromine in Marine Sediments: New Evidence of Biogeochemical Br Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Leri; J Hakala; M Marcus; A Lanzirotti; C Reddy; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Organobromine (Br{sub org}) compounds, commonly recognized as persistent, toxic anthropogenic pollutants, are also produced naturally in terrestrial and marine systems. Several enzymatic and abiotic bromination mechanisms have been identified, as well as an array of natural Br{sub org} molecules associated with various marine organisms. The fate of the carbon-bromine functionality in the marine environment, however, remains largely unexplored. Oceanographic studies have noted an association between bromine (Br) and organic carbon (C{sub org}) in marine sediments. Even so, there has been no direct chemical evidence that Br in the sediments exists in a stable form apart from inorganic bromide (Br{sub inorg}), which is widely presumed conservative in marine systems. To investigate the scope of natural Br{sub org} production and its fate in the environment, we probed Br distribution and speciation in estuarine and marine sediments using in situ X-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy. We show that Br{sub org} is ubiquitous throughout diverse sedimentary environments, occurring in correlation with C{sub org} and metals such as Fe, Ca, and Zn. Analysis of sinking particulate carbon from the seawater column links the Br{sub org} observed in sediments to biologically produced Br{sub org} compounds that persist through humification of natural organic matter (NOM). Br speciation varies with sediment depth, revealing biogeochemical cycling of Br between organic and inorganic forms as part of the burial and degradation of NOM. These findings illuminate the chemistry behind the association of Br with Corg in marine sediments and cast doubt on the paradigmatic classification of Br as a conservative element in seawater systems.

  11. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  12. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  13. Novel visible-light AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids photocatalysts with surface plasma resonance effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yunfang Li, Xiuli; Wang, Yawen; Fan, Caimei

    2013-06-01

    Three kinds of AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids were synthesised via an anion-exchange precipitation method and characterised by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and UVvis. The results showed that AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than single Ag?PO? or AgBr under visible light (?>420 nm), and OH and h? were the major active species during the degradation process. Considering interstitial ions Ag?? on lattice gap of AgBr are easy to become sliver particle, we deduced the possible photocatalytic mechanism could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the appropriate valence band position of Ag?PO? and AgBr, surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag?, reactive radical species Br?, and the Ag vacancy on the surface of catalysts. - Graphical abstract: The optical absorption and structural morphology of the as-prepared AgBr@Ag?PO? photocatalyst using an anion-exchange precipitation method are conductive to the photocatalytic degradation of organics in water. Highlights: Novel AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids are synthesised by a facile method. AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids show excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light. Interstitial ions are in favour of the formation of Ag particle. Surface plasmon resonance effect plays a key factor for light absorption. The photocatalytic mechanism for AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids is studied.

  14. Nonlinear compressions in merging plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messer, S.; Case, A.; Wu, L.; Brockington, S.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the dynamics of merging supersonic plasma jets using an analytic model. The merging structures exhibit supersonic, nonlinear compressions which may steepen into full shocks. We estimate the distance necessary to form such shocks and the resulting jump conditions. These theoretical models are compared to experimental observations and simulated dynamics. We also use those models to extrapolate behavior of the jet-merging compressions in a Plasma Jet Magneto-Inertial Fusion reactor.

  15. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.

    1994-08-16

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 11 figs.

  16. Increasing jet entrainment, mixing and spreading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Wheatridge, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A free jet of air is disturbed at a frequency that substantially matches natural turbulences in the free jet to increase the entrainment, mixing, and spreading of air by the free jet, for example in a room or other enclosure. The disturbances are created by pulsing the flow of air that creates the free jet at the desired frequency. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  17. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STANDARD AND BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-10-10

    The X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission revealed the occurrence, in polar coronal holes, of much more numerous jets than previously indicated by the Yohkoh/Soft X-ray Telescope. These plasma ejections can be of two types, depending on whether they fit the standard reconnection scenario for coronal jets or if they include a blowout-like eruption. In this work, we analyze two jets, one standard and one blowout, that have been observed by the Hinode and STEREO experiments. We aim to infer differences in the physical parameters that correspond to the different morphologies of the events. To this end, we adopt spectroscopic techniques and determine the profiles of the plasma temperature, density, and outflow speed versus time and position along the jets. The blowout jet has a higher outflow speed, a marginally higher temperature, and is rooted in a stronger magnetic field region than the standard event. Our data provide evidence for recursively occurring reconnection episodes within both the standard and the blowout jet, pointing either to bursty reconnection or to reconnection occurring at different locations over the jet lifetimes. We make a crude estimate of the energy budget of the two jets and show how energy is partitioned among different forms. Also, we show that the magnetic energy that feeds the blowout jet is a factor of 10 higher than the magnetic energy that fuels the standard event.

  18. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, MN); Balog, George (Los Alamos, MN); Seegmiller, Emma T. (Los Alamos, MN)

    1982-01-01

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2 into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  19. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, R.K.; Balog, G.; Seegmiller, E.T.

    1980-03-04

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/ into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region.

  20. X-ray photoemission analysis of chemically modified TlBr surfaces for improved radiation detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, A. J.; Voss, L. F.; Beck, P. R.; Graff, R. T.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J.; Payne, S. A.; Lee, J. -S.; Kim, H.; Cirignano, L.; et al

    2013-01-12

    We subjected device-grade TlBr to various chemical treatments used in room temperature radiation detector fabrication to determine the resulting surface composition and electronic structure. As-polished TlBr was treated separately with HCl, SOCl2, Br:MeOH and HF solutions. High-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Tl 4f, Br 3d, Cl 2p and S 2p core lines were used to evaluate surface chemistry and shallow heterojunction formation. Surface chemistry and valence band electronic structure were correlated with the goal of optimizing the long-term stability and radiation response.

  1. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  2. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Jim Hileman, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, presentation at the Industry Roundtable on Life-Cycle GHG Emissions Modeling PDF icon 9_hileman_roundtable.pdf More Documents & Publications An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis

  3. Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm{sup 2} using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications.

  4. Fragmentation, underlying event and jet shapes at the Tevatron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fragmentation, underlying event and jet shapes at the Tevatron Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fragmentation, underlying event and jet shapes at the Tevatron...

  5. Boron nitride ablation studies in arc jet facilities (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Boron nitride ablation studies in arc jet facilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Boron nitride ablation studies in arc jet facilities You are accessing a document...

  6. VLBA AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF JETS IN FRI RADIO GALAXIES: CONSTRAINTS ON JET EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharb, P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Tilak, A.; Baum, S. A.; Haynes, E.; Noel-Storr, J.; Fallon, C.; Christiansen, K.

    2012-07-20

    We present here the results from new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz of 19 galaxies of a complete sample of 21 Uppasala General Catalog (UGC) Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) radio galaxies. New Chandra data of two sources, viz., UGC 00408 and UGC 08433, are combined with the Chandra archival data of 13 sources. The 5 GHz observations of 10 'core-jet' sources are polarization-sensitive, while the 1.6 GHz observations constitute second-epoch total intensity observations of nine 'core-only' sources. Polarized emission is detected in the jets of seven sources at 5 GHz, but the cores are essentially unpolarized, except in M87. Polarization is detected at the jet edges in several sources, and the inferred magnetic field is primarily aligned with the jet direction. This could be indicative of magnetic field 'shearing' due to jet-medium interaction, or the presence of helical magnetic fields. The jet peak intensity I{sub {nu}} falls with distance d from the core, following the relation, I{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}d{sup a} , where a is typically {approx} - 1.5. Assuming that adiabatic expansion losses are primarily responsible for the jet intensity 'dimming,' two limiting cases are considered: (1) the jet has a constant speed on parsec scales and is expanding gradually such that the jet radius r{proportional_to}d 0{sup .4}; this expansion is, however, unobservable in the laterally unresolved jets at 5 GHz, and (2) the jet is cylindrical and is accelerating on parsec scales. Accelerating parsec-scale jets are consistent with the phenomenon of 'magnetic driving' in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. While slow jet expansion as predicted by case (1) is indeed observed in a few sources from the literature that are resolved laterally, on scales of tens or hundreds of parsecs, case (2) cannot be ruled out in the present data, provided the jets become conical on scales larger than those probed by VLBA. Chandra observations of 15 UGC FRIs detect X-ray jets in 9 of them. The high frequency of occurrence of X-ray jets in this complete sample suggests that they are a signature of a ubiquitous process in FRI jets. It appears that the FRI jets start out relativistically on parsec scales but decelerate on kiloparsec scales, with the X-ray emission revealing the sites of bulk deceleration and particle reacceleration.

  7. Microhole High-Pressure Jet Drill for Coiled Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Theimer; Jack Kolle

    2007-06-30

    Tempress Small Mechanically-Assisted High-Pressure Waterjet Drilling Tool project centered on the development of a downhole intensifier (DHI) to boost the hydraulic pressure available from conventional coiled tubing to the level required for high-pressure jet erosion of rock. We reviewed two techniques for implementing this technology (1) pure high-pressure jet drilling and (2) mechanically-assisted jet drilling. Due to the difficulties associated with modifying a downhole motor for mechanically-assisted jet drilling, it was determined that the pure high-pressure jet drilling tool was the best candidate for development and commercialization. It was also determined that this tool needs to run on commingled nitrogen and water to provide adequate downhole differential pressure and to facilitate controlled pressure drilling and descaling applications in low pressure wells. The resulting Microhole jet drilling bottomhole assembly (BHA) drills a 3.625-inch diameter hole with 2-inch coil tubing. The BHA consists of a self-rotating multi-nozzle drilling head, a high-pressure rotary seal/bearing section, an intensifier and a gas separator. Commingled nitrogen and water are separated into two streams in the gas separator. The water stream is pressurized to 3 times the inlet pressure by the downhole intensifier and discharged through nozzles in the drilling head. The energy in the gas-rich stream is used to power the intensifier. Gas-rich exhaust from the intensifier is conducted to the nozzle head where it is used to shroud the jets, increasing their effective range. The prototype BHA was tested at operational pressures and flows in a test chamber and on the end of conventional coiled tubing in a test well. During instrumented runs at downhole conditions, the BHA developed downhole differential pressures of 74 MPa (11,000 psi, median) and 90 MPa (13,000 psi, peaks). The median output differential pressure was nearly 3 times the input differential pressure available from the coiled tubing. In a chamber test, the BHA delivered up to 50 kW (67 hhp) hydraulic power. The tool drilled uncertified class-G cement samples cast into casing at a rate of 0.04 to 0.17 m/min (8 to 33 ft/hr), within the range projected for this tool but slower than a conventional PDM. While the tool met most of the performance goals, reliability requires further improvement. It will be difficult for this tool, as currently configured, to compete with conventional positive displacement downhole motors for most coil tubing drill applications. Mechanical cutters on the rotating nozzle head would improve cutting. This tool can be easily adapted for well descaling operations. A variant of the Microhole jet drilling gas separator was further developed for use with positive displacement downhole motors (PDM) operating on commingled nitrogen and water. A fit-for-purpose motor gas separator was designed and yard tested within the Microhole program. Four commercial units of that design are currently involved in a 10-well field demonstration with Baker Oil Tools in Wyoming. Initial results indicate that the motor gas separators provide significant benefit.

  8. Intra-jet shocks in two counter-streaming, weakly collisional plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Kugland, N. L.; Park, H.-S.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.

    2012-07-15

    Counterstreaming laser-generated plasma jets can serve as a test-bed for the studies of a variety of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock waves. In the latter problem, the jet's parameters have to be chosen in such a way as to make the collisions between the particles of one jet with the particles of the other jet very rare. This can be achieved by making the jet velocities high and the Coulomb cross-sections correspondingly low. On the other hand, the intra-jet collisions for high-Mach-number jets can still be very frequent, as they are determined by the much lower thermal velocities of the particles of each jet. This paper describes some peculiar properties of intra-jet hydrodynamics in such a setting: the steepening of smooth perturbations and shock formation affected by the presence of the 'stiff' opposite flow; the role of a rapid electron heating in shock formation; ion heating by the intrajet shock. The latter effect can cause rapid ion heating which is consistent with recent counterstreaming jet experiments by Ross et al.[Phys. Plasmas 19, 056501 (2012)].

  9. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  10. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr{sub 3} with Ca{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Paul; Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Patrick Doty, F.; Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Joshua; Yuan, Ding

    2014-01-21

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr{sub 3}) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca{sup 2+}) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr{sub 3} without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca{sup 2+} dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr{sub 3} molecules were replaced by CaBr{sub 2} molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr{sub 2} added to 222.14 g of CeBr{sub 3}. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca{sup 2+}-doped CeBr{sub 3} exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371?nm optical excitation for CeBr{sub 3}. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr{sub 3} crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr{sub 3}, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  11. THE RHIC HYDROGEN JET LUMINESCENCE MONITOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUSSO,T.; BELLAVIA, S.; GASSNER, D.; THIEBERGER, P.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; TSANG, T.

    2007-06-25

    A hydrogen jet polarimeter was developed for the RHIC accelerator to improve the process of measuring polarization. Particle beams intersecting with gas molecules can produce light by the process known as luminescence. This light can then be focused, collected, and processed giving important information such as size, position, emittance, motion, and other parameters. The RHIC hydrogen jet polarimeter was modified in 2005 with specialized optics, vacuum windows, light transport, and a new camera system making it possible to monitor the luminescence produced by polarized protons intersecting the hydrogen beam. This paper describes the configuration and preliminary measurements taken using the RHIC hydrogen jet polarimeter as a luminescence monitor.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE KINETIC POWER AND BOLOMETRIC LUMINOSITY OF JETS: LIMITATION FROM BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI, AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Renyi; Hou, Shujin; Xie, Fu-Guo E-mail: fgxie@shao.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the kinetic power P {sub jet} and intrinsic bolometric luminosity L {sub jet} of jets may reveal the underlying jet physics in various black hole systems. Based on the recent work by Nemmen etal., we re-investigate this correlation with additional sources of black hole X-ray binaries (BXBs) in hard/quiescent states and low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). The new sample includes 29 sets of data from 7 BXBs and 20 LLAGNs, with P {sub jet} and L {sub jet} being derived from spectral modeling of the quasi-simultaneous multi-band spectra under the accretion jet scenario. Compared to previous works, the range of luminosity is now enlarged to more than 20 decades, i.e., from ?10{sup 31} erg s{sup 1} to ?10{sup 52} erg s{sup 1}, which allows for better constraining of the correlation. One notable result is that the jets in BXBs and LLAGNs almost follow the same P {sub jet}-L {sub jet} correlation that was obtained from blazars and gamma-ray bursts. The slope indices we derived are 1.03 0.01 for the whole sample, 0.85 0.06 for the BXB subsample, 0.71 0.11 for the LLAGN subsample, and 1.01 0.05 for the LLAGN-blazar subsample, respectively. The correlation index around unit implies the independence of jet efficiency on the luminosity or kinetic power. Our results may further support the hypothesis that similar physical processes exist in the jets of various black hole systems.

  13. Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS{sub 2} couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment.

  14. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  15. Gap between jets at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royon, Christophe

    2013-04-15

    We describe a NLL BFKL calculation implemented in the HERWIG MC of the gap between jets cross section, that represent a test of BFKL dynamics. We compare the predictions with recent measurements at the Tevatron and present predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the interesting process of looking for gap between jets in diffractive events when protons are detected in the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) detectors.

  16. JET ROTATION DRIVEN BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendt, Christian

    2011-08-10

    In this paper, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the hypothesis that a rotation of astrophysical jets can be caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in a helical magnetic field. Shock compression of the helical magnetic field results in a toroidal Lorentz force component that will accelerate the jet material in the toroidal direction. This process transforms magnetic angular momentum (magnetic stress) carried along the jet into kinetic angular momentum (rotation). The mechanism proposed here only works in a helical magnetic field configuration. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism by axisymmetric MHD simulations in 1.5 and 2.5 dimensions using the PLUTO code. In our setup, the jet is injected into the ambient gas with zero kinetic angular momentum (no rotation). We apply different dynamical parameters for jet propagation such as the jet internal Alfven Mach number and fast magnetosonic Mach number, the density contrast of the jet to the ambient medium, and the external sonic Mach number of the jet. The mechanism we suggest should work for a variety of jet applications, e.g., protostellar or extragalactic jets, and internal jet shocks (jet knots) or external shocks between the jet and the ambient gas (entrainment). For typical parameter values for protostellar jets, the numerically derived rotation feature looks consistent with the observations, i.e., rotational velocities of 0.1%-1% of the jet bulk velocity.

  17. Structure and Dynamics of Colliding Plasma Jets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, C.; Ryutov, D.; Hu, S.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Manuel, M.; et al

    2013-12-01

    Monoenergetic-proton radiographs of laser-generated, high-Mach-number plasma jets colliding at various angles shed light on the structures and dynamics of these collisions. The observations compare favorably with results from 2D hydrodynamic simulations of multistream plasma jets, and also with results from an analytic treatment of electron flow and magnetic field advection. In collisions of two noncollinear jets, the observed flow structure is similar to the analytic model’s prediction of a characteristic feature with a narrow structure pointing in one direction and a much thicker one pointing in the opposite direction. Spontaneous magnetic fields, largely azimuthal around the colliding jets and generatedmore » by the well-known ∇Te ×∇ne Biermann battery effect near the periphery of the laser spots, are demonstrated to be “frozen in” the plasma (due to high magnetic Reynolds number RM ~5×10⁴) and advected along the jet streamlines of the electron flow. These studies provide novel insight into the interactions and dynamics of colliding plasma jets.« less

  18. Structure and Dynamics of Colliding Plasma Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.; Ryutov, D.; Hu, S.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Frenje, J.; Casey, D.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Manuel, M.; Rinderknecht, H.; Petrasso, R.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.; Remington, B.; Wilks, S.; Betti, R.; Froula, D.; Knauer, J.; Meyerhofer, D.; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Young, R.; Koenig, M.

    2013-12-01

    Monoenergetic-proton radiographs of laser-generated, high-Mach-number plasma jets colliding at various angles shed light on the structures and dynamics of these collisions. The observations compare favorably with results from 2D hydrodynamic simulations of multistream plasma jets, and also with results from an analytic treatment of electron flow and magnetic field advection. In collisions of two noncollinear jets, the observed flow structure is similar to the analytic models prediction of a characteristic feature with a narrow structure pointing in one direction and a much thicker one pointing in the opposite direction. Spontaneous magnetic fields, largely azimuthal around the colliding jets and generated by the well-known ?Te ?ne Biermann battery effect near the periphery of the laser spots, are demonstrated to be frozen in the plasma (due to high magnetic Reynolds number RM ~510?) and advected along the jet streamlines of the electron flow. These studies provide novel insight into the interactions and dynamics of colliding plasma jets.

  19. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Applications, April 2005 | Department of Energy Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 The objective of this paper is to summarize the development status of air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)-water absorption chillers to guide future efforts to develop chillers for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in light-commercial buildings. The key

  20. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  1. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for...

  2. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: OxidationReduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Authors: Nelson, A J ; Swanberg, E L ; Voss, L F ; Graff, R T ; ...

  3. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: OxidationReduction Reactions at...

  4. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Office of Research and EPA 600/R-941209 Environmental Protection Development January 1993 Agency Washington, DC 20460 Offsite Environmental 57,,7 Monitoring Report Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1992 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY-LAS VEGAS P.O. BOX 93478 LAS VEGAS. NEVADA 891 93-3478 702/798-2100 Dear Reader: Since 1954, the U.S. Environmental Protection

  5. THE PROPAGATION OF RELATIVISTIC JETS IN EXTERNAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em; Nakar, Ehud

    2011-10-20

    Relativistic jets are ubiquitous in astrophysical systems that contain compact objects. They transport large amounts of energy to large distances from the source and their interaction with the ambient medium has a crucial effect on the evolution of the system. The propagation of the jet is characterized by the formation of a shocked 'head' at the front of the jet which dissipates the jet's energy and a cocoon that surrounds the jet and potentially collimates it. We present here a self-consistent, analytic model that follows the evolution of the jet and its cocoon, and describes their interaction. We show that the critical parameter that determines the properties of the jet-cocoon system is the dimensionless ratio between the jet's energy density and the rest-mass energy density of the ambient medium. This parameter, together with the jet's injection angle, also determines whether the jet is collimated by the cocoon or not. The model is applicable to relativistic, unmagnetized jets on all scales and may be used to determine the conditions in active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets as well as in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or microquasars. It shows that AGN and microquasar jets are hydrodynamically collimated due to the interaction with the ambient medium, while GRB jets can be collimated only inside a star and become uncollimated once they break out.

  6. Evaporation of water with single and multiple impinging air jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabold, T.A.; Obot, N.T. )

    1991-08-01

    An experimental investigation of impingement water evaporation under a single jet and arrays of circular jets was made. The parametric study included the effects of jet Reynolds number and standoff spacing for both single and multiple jets, as well as surface-to-nozzle diameter ratio and fractional nozzle open area for single and multiple jets, respectively. The nozzle exit temperature of the air jet, about the same as that of the laboratory, was 3-6C higher than that of the evaporating water. Predictive equations are provided for mass transfer coefficient in terms of the flow and geometric conditions.

  7. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napora, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using (120 {+-} 7)pb{sup -1} of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}, where {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}, where J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The measurement yielded 23 {+-} 7 B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} events, and 406 {+-} 26 B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events. The fraction of B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events where the J/{psi} subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be f{sub {mu}{mu}} = 0.839 {+-} 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = N{sub {phi}K}/N{sub {psi}K} {center_dot}f{sub {mu}{mu}} BR(J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})/BR({phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) {epsilon}{sub {mu}{mu}}K/{epsilon}KKK R({epsilon}{sub iso}). The measurement finds BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = 0.0068 {+-} 0.0021(stat.) {+-} 0.0007(syst.). The B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} branching ratio is then found to be BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}) = [6.9 {+-} 2.1(stat.) {+-} 0.8(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  8. Singular behavior of jet substructure observables

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian

    2016-01-20

    Jet substructure observables play a central role at the Large Hadron Collider for identifying the boosted hadronic decay products of electroweak scale resonances. The complete description of these observables requires understanding both the limit in which hard substructure is resolved, as well as the limit of a jet with a single hard core. In this paper we study in detail the perturbative structure of two prominent jet substructure observables, N-subjettiness and the energy correlation functions, as measured on background QCD jets. In particular, we focus on the distinction between the limits in which two-prong structure is resolved or unresolved. Dependingmore » on the choice of subjet axes, we demonstrate that at fixed order, N-subjettiness can manifest myriad behaviors in the unresolved region: smooth tails, end-point singularities, or singularities in the physical region. The energy correlation functions, by contrast, only have non-singular perturbative tails extending to the end point. We discuss the effect of hadronization on the various observables with Monte Carlo simulation and demonstrate that the modeling of these effects with non-perturbative shape functions is highly dependent on the N-subjettiness axes definitions. Lastly, our study illustrates those regions of phase space that must be controlled for high-precision jet substructure calculations, and emphasizes how such calculations can be facilitated by designing substructure observables with simple singular structures.« less

  9. Mixing in SRS Closure Business Unit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POIRIER, MICHAELR.

    2004-06-23

    The following equipment is commonly used to mix fluids: mechanical agitators, jets (pumps), shrouded axial impeller mixers (Flygt mixers), spargers, pulsed jet mixers, boiling, static mixers, falling films, liquid sprays, and thermal convection. This discussion will focus on mechanical agitators, jets, shrouded axial impeller mixers, spargers, and pulsed jet mixers, as these devices are most likely to be employed in Savannah River Site (SRS) Closure Business applications. In addressing mixing problems in the SRS Tank Farm, one must distinguish between different mixing objectives. These objectives include sludge mixing (e.g., Extended Sludge Processing), sludge retrieval (e.g., sludge transfers between tanks), heel retrieval (e.g., Tanks 18F and 19F), chemical reactions (e.g., oxalic acid neutralization) and salt dissolution. For example, one should not apply sludge mixing guidelines to heel removal applications. Mixing effectiveness is a function of both the mixing device (e.g., slurry pump, agitator, air sparger) and the properties of the material to be mixed (e.g., yield stress, viscosity, density, and particle size). The objective of this document is to provide background mixing knowledge for the SRS Closure Business Unit personnel and to provide general recommendations for mixing in SRS applications.

  10. ON THE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY OF MAGNETIC TOWER JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E. G.; Ciardi, A.; Hartigan, P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.

    2012-09-20

    Modern theoretical models of astrophysical jets combine accretion, rotation, and magnetic fields to launch and collimate supersonic flows from a central source. Near the source, magnetic field strengths must be large enough to collimate the jet requiring that the Poynting flux exceeds the kinetic energy flux. The extent to which the Poynting flux dominates kinetic energy flux at large distances from the engine distinguishes two classes of models. In magneto-centrifugal launch models, magnetic fields dominate only at scales {approx}< 100 engine radii, after which the jets become hydrodynamically dominated (HD). By contrast, in Poynting flux dominated (PFD) magnetic tower models, the field dominates even out to much larger scales. To compare the large distance propagation differences of these two paradigms, we perform three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations of both HD and PFD stellar jets formed via the same energy flux. We also compare how thermal energy losses and rotation of the jet base affects the stability in these jets. For the conditions described, we show that PFD and HD exhibit observationally distinguishable features: PFD jets are lighter, slower, and less stable than HD jets. Unlike HD jets, PFD jets develop current-driven instabilities that are exacerbated as cooling and rotation increase, resulting in jets that are clumpier than those in the HD limit. Our PFD jet simulations also resemble the magnetic towers that have been recently created in laboratory astrophysical jet experiments.

  11. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ongrees;ional Record United States of America __._ -.. I. :- PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 9tth CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Washmcqton. Cl C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty Ior pwate use. $300 Congressmal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad U S Governme3n:jPnntmg OfIce SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER H.4578 ' June 28, 1983 -: I H.J. Res. 273: Mr. BOLAND, Mr. WA-. Mr. OBERSTAFC, M' r. BEDELL, Mr. BONER of Tennessee, Mr. OWENS. Mr.

  12. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    onp5fGonal Ruord United States of America . I. .' - PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 9t?lh CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Wash!ogtm. 0.C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty for pwate use. sco Congressmal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad I.) s ~lJ"er"ment Prlntlng OffIce 375 SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER -...~-- -~- -- --- H 45' 78 ' cCJ~GRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 28, 1983 H.J. Res. 213: Mr. BOLAND, Mr. WAXM.UG Mr. OBERSTAR.

  13. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    onSres;eional atecord United States of America :- PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 981h CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Washwtn. D C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty for plvate use. $300 Congressmnal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad U S Government Prtnttng Offlce 375 SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER H 45' 78 * C.QvGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE .-. June 28, 1983 H.J. Res. 273: Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Whxrdhr?. Mr. OBERsThx. Mi. BEDELL, Mr. BONER of

  14. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WASHINGTON, TUESDAY, JUNE 28, 1983 @nngmeional Ruord United States of America .__ -- . . ,- PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 9@ CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Washmgton, D C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty Ior pwate use. $xX Congresstonal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad U S Government Prlnhng 0ffv.X 375 SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER H.4578 ' C.QNGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 28, 1983 H.J. Res. 273: Mr. BOUND. Mr. W~.XMAN. Mr.

  15. Mixing enhancement by use of swirling jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, D.K.; Cutler, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that the mixing of fuel with air in the combustor of scramjet engines might be enhanced by the addition of swirl to the fuel jet prior to injection. This study investigated the effects of swirl on the mixing of a 30 deg wall jet into a Mach 2 flow. Cases with swirl and without swirl were investigated, with both helium and air simulating the fuel. Rayleigh scattering was used to visualize the flow, and seeding the fuel with water allowed it to be traced through the main flow. The results show that the addition of swirl to the fuel jet causes the fuel to mix more rapidly with the main flow, that larger amounts of swirl increase this effect, and that helium spreads better into the main flow than air. 12 refs.

  16. QCD at the Tevatron: Jets and fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Daniel Elvira

    2001-09-27

    At the Fermilab Tevatron energies, ({radical} s=1800 GeV and {radical} s = 630 GeV), jet production is the dominant process. During the period 1992-1996, the D0 and CDF experiments accumulated almost 100 pb{sup -1} of data and performed the most accurate jet production measurements up to this date. These measurements and the NLO-QCD theoretical predictions calculated during the last decade, have improved our understanding of QCD, our knowledge of the proton structure, and pushed the limit to the scale associated with quark compositeness to 2.4-2.7 TeV. In this paper, we present the most recent published and preliminary measurements on jet production and fragmentation by the D0 and CDF collaborations.

  17. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO)

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  18. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, S.D.; Farrington, R.B.

    1997-02-04

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct. 17 figs.

  19. Enhancement of wall jet transport properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claunch, Scott D. (Broomfield, CO); Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01

    By enhancing the natural instabilities in the boundary layer and in the free shear layer of a wall jet, the boundary is minimized thereby increasing the transport of heat and mass. Enhancing the natural instabilities is accomplished by pulsing the flow of air that creates the wall jet. Such pulsing of the flow of air can be accomplished by sequentially occluding and opening a duct that confines and directs the flow of air, such as by rotating a disk on an axis transverse to the flow of air in the duct.

  20. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  1. Jet Engine Cooling | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic Jets Help Keep Avionics Cool at Cruising Altitude Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Synthetic Jets Help Keep Avionics Cool at Cruising Altitude When you think of airplanes, one of the first objects that comes to mind is the combustion engine that allows it to fly high in the sky. And for decades,

  2. Relativistic MHD simulations of poynting flux-driven jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2014-01-20

    Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGNs. These jets are already assumed to be being launched from the vicinity (?10{sup 3} gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al., and we follow the propagation of these jets to ?parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When ?, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to nonaxisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability being convective and the fact that the jet magnetic fields are rapidly evolving on Alfvnic time scales. We present the detailed jet properties and show that far from the jet launching region, a substantial amount of magnetic energy has been transformed into kinetic energy and thermal energy, producing a jet magnetization number ? < 1. In addition, we have also studied the effects of a gas pressure supported 'disk' surrounding the injection region, and qualitatively similar global jet behaviors were observed. We stress that jet collimation, CDIs, and the subsequent energy transitions are intrinsic features of current-carrying jets.

  3. TRUPACT-I Unit 0 test data analysis. [Puncture bar impacts; free fall of package 12 inches onto unyielding surface; 30-foot free fall drop onto unyielding target; 40-inch drops onto 6-inch diagmeter puncture bar; engulfment in jet fuel fire for 35 minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesberg, L.E.; Hudson, M.L.; Osborne, D.M.

    1985-09-01

    TRUPACT-I was tested to evaluate the response of the design to the normal and hypothetical accident conditions specified in applicable regulations. The governing regulations are contained in DOE Order No. 5480.1, Chapter 3 and 10 CFR, Part 71, Refs. 1 and 2. Tests were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Normal condition tests included three 13-pound (1.25 in. diameter) puncture bar impacts onto the exterior surface and free fall of the package 12 inches onto an essentially unyielding surface. Hypothetical accident conditions included in the test sequence were two 30-foot free fall drops of the package onto an essentially unyielding target, four 40-inch drops onto a 6-inch-diameter puncture bar, and engulfment in a JP-4 jet fuel fire for 35 minutes. Instrumentation data traces will be published in Ref. 3 and are not reproduced herein. This report presents an analysis of the available data and an interpretation of the results. The results of the tests are compared to results from numerical analyses and scale model tests which are incorporated in the TRUPACT-I SARP, Ref. 4. 9 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CBR-1-H Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to Big Rivers Electric Corporation and includes the City of Henderson, Kentucky (hereinafter called the Customer). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all

  5. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTV-1-H Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the

  6. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTVI-1-A Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to customers (hereinafter called the Customer) who are or were formerly in the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA) service area. Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and

  7. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C.; Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K.; Matsakos, T.; Lima, J. J. G.

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  8. Online b-jets tagging at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casarsa, M.; Ristori, L.; Amerio, S.; Lucchesi, D.; Pagan Griso, S.; Torre, S.T.; Cortiana, G.; /Padua U., Astron. Dept.

    2007-04-01

    We propose a method to identify b-quark jets at trigger level which exploits recently increased CDF trigger system capabilities. b-quark jets identification is of central interest for the CDF high-P{sub T} physics program, and the possibility to select online b-jets enriched samples can extend the physics reaches especially for light Higgs boson searches where the H {yields} b{bar b} decay mode is dominant. Exploiting new trigger primitives provided by two recent trigger upgrades, the Level2 XFT stereo tracking and the improved Level2 cluster-finder, in conjunction with the existing Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), we design an online trigger algorithm aimed at selecting good purity b-jets samples useful for many physics measurements, the most important being inclusive H {yields} b{bar b} searches. We discuss the performances of the proposed b-tagging algorithm which must guarantee reasonable trigger rates at luminosity greater than 2 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and provide high efficiency on H {yields} b{bar b} events.

  9. Neutrino emission in the jet propagation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, D.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-07-20

    Relativistic jets are universal in long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. Before breaking out, they must propagate in the progenitor envelope along with a forward shock and a reverse shock forming at the jet head. Both electrons and protons will be accelerated by the shocks. High-energy neutrinos could be produced by these protons interacting with stellar materials and electron-radiating photons. The jet will probably be collimated, which may have a strong effect on the final neutrino flux. Under the assumption of a power-law stellar-envelope density profile ??r {sup ?} with index ?, we calculate the neutrino emission flux by these shocks for low-luminosity GRBs (LL-GRBs) and ultra-long GRBs (UL-GRBs) in different collimation regimes, using the jet propagation framework developed by Bromberg et al. We find that LL-GRBs and UL-GRBs are capable of producing detectable high-energy neutrinos up to ?PeV, from which the final neutrino spectrum can be obtained. Further, we conclude that a larger ? corresponds to greater neutrino flux at the high-energy end (?PeV) and to higher maximum neutrino energy as well. However, such differences are so small that it is not promising for us to be able to distinguish these in observations, given the energy resolution we have now.

  10. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nate Brown, Federal Aviation Administration, presentation at the Industry Roundtable on Update on ASTM Approval. PDF icon 10_brown_roundtable.pdf More Documents & Publications An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts CAAFI Progress Update Support to Biofuels in Latin America and the Caribbean

  11. HYPERSONIC BUCKSHOT: ASTROPHYSICAL JETS AS HETEROGENEOUS COLLIMATED PLASMOIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yirak, Kristopher; Frank, Adam; Cunningham, Andrew J.; Mitran, Sorin

    2009-04-20

    Herbig-Haro jets are commonly thought of as homogeneous beams of plasma traveling at hypersonic velocities. Structure within jet beams is often attributed to periodic or 'pulsed' variations of conditions at the jet source. Simulations based on this scenario result in knots extending across the jet diameter. Observations and recent high energy density laboratory experiments shed new light on structures below this scale and indicate they may be important for understanding the fundamentals of jet dynamics. In this paper, we offer an alternative to 'pulsed' models of protostellar jets. Using direct numerical simulations we explore the possibility that jets are chains of subradial clumps propagating through a moving interclump medium. Our models explore an idealization of this scenario by injecting small (r < r {sub jet}), dense ({rho}>{rho}{sub jet}) spheres embedded in an otherwise smooth interclump jet flow. The spheres are initialized with velocities differing from the jet velocity by {approx}15%. We find that the consequences of shifting from homogeneous to heterogeneous flows are significant as clumps interact with each other and with the interclump medium in a variety of ways. Structures which mimic what is expected from pulsed-jet models can form, as can be previously unseen, 'subradial' behaviors including backward facing bow shocks and off-axis working surfaces. While these small-scale structures have not been seen before in simulation studies, they are found in high-resolution jet observations. We discuss implications of our simulations for the interpretation of protostellar jets with regard to characterization of knots by a 'lifetime' or 'velocity history' approach as well as linking observed structures with central engines which produce the jets.

  12. ?Linear Gas Jet with Tailored Density Profile"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNAN, Mahadevan

    2012-12-10

    Supersonic, highly collimated gas jets and gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are two primary targets of choice for Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPA) . Present gas jets have lengths of only 2-4 mm at densities of 1-4E19 cm-3, sufficient for self trapping and electron acceleration to energies up to ~150 MeV. Capillary structures 3 cm long have been used to accelerate beams up to 1 GeV. Capillary discharges used in LPAs serve to guide the pump laser and optimize the energy gain. A wall-stabilized capillary discharge provides a transverse profile across the channel that helps guide the laser and combat diffraction. Gas injection via a fast nozzle at one end provides some longitudinal density control, to improve the coupling. Gas jets with uniform or controlled density profiles may be used to control electron bunch injection and are being integrated into capillary experiments to add tuning of density. The gas jet for electron injection has not yet been optimized. Our Ph-I results have provided the LPA community with an alternative path to realizing a 2-3GeV electron bunch using just a gas jet. For example, our slit/blade combination gives a 15-20mm long acceleration path with tunable density profile, serving as an alternative to a 20-mm long capillary discharge with gas injection at one end. In Ph-II, we will extend these results to longer nozzles, to see whether we can synthesize 30 or 40-mm long plasma channels for LPAs.

  13. Search for the Neutral Current Top Quark Decay t-->Zc Using Ratio of Z-Boson + 4 Jets to W-Boson + 4 Jets Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Akimoto, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, Dante E.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-05-01

    We have used the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II) to search for the flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) top quark decay t {yields} Zc using a technique employing ratios of W and Z production, measured in p{bar p} data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.52 fb{sup -1}. The analysis uses a comparison of two decay chains, p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t} {yields} WbWb {yields} {ell}{nu}bjjb and p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t} {yields} ZcWb {yields} {ell}{ell}cjjb, to cancel systematic uncertainties in acceptance, efficiency, and luminosity. We validate the modeling of acceptance and efficiency for lepton identification over the multi-year dataset using another ratio of W and Z production, in this case the observed ratio of inclusive production of W to Z bosons. To improve the discrimination against standard model backgrounds to top quark decays, we calculate the top quark mass for each event with two leptons and four jets assuming it is a t{bar t} event with one of the top quarks decaying to Zc. For additional background discrimination we require at least one jet to be identified as originating from a b-quark. No significant signal is found and we set an upper limit on the FCNC branching ratio Br(t {yields} Zc) using a likelihood constructed from the {ell}{ell}cjjb top quark mass distribution and the number of {ell}{nu}bjjb events. Limits are set as a function of the helicity of the Z boson produced in the FCNC decay. For 100% longitudinally polarized Z bosons we find limits of 8.3% and 9.3% (95% C.L.) depending on the assumptions regarding the theoretical top quark pair production cross-section.

  14. Very fast doped LaBr.sub.3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr.sub.3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr.sub.3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  15. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Authors: Nelson, A J ; Swanberg, E L ; Voss, L F ; Graff, R T ; Conway, A M ; Nikolic, R J ; Payne, S A ; Kim, H ; Cirignano, L ; Shah, K Publication Date:

  16. Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I , Br , Cl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I , Br , Cl Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I , Br , Cl Authors: Huang, Ling-yi ; Lambrecht, Walter R. L. Publication Date: 2014-11-05 OSTI Identifier: 1180124 Grant/Contract Number: ER 46874-SC0008933 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 90; Journal

  17. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    81 § ¨ ¦ 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 GLENWOOD PU LASKI PAVILION CON CORD COL LINS N ELM A ORC HARD PARK-H AMBU RG DANLEY CORNERS ST ILLWAT ER CHAFF EE-ARCAD E FAYETT E-WATERLOO LAKEVIEW JAVA SEN EC A W ELLER Y AU RORA E ZOAR BU FFALO TIOGA SILVER LAKE AKR ON ROM E RAT HBON E ALM A BET HANY WYOMING ULYSSES BR ANCH W SAN DY CREEK COL LINS BLOOMFIELD E LEBANON

  18. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E-T Global Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-381 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-381 June 10, 2011 I. BACKGROUND E-T Global Energy, LLC Order No. EA-381 Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department ofEnergy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7151(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) ofthe Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.824a(e))

  19. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tenaslta Power Services Co. OE Docket No. EA-243-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Canada Order No. EA-243-A March 1,2007 Tenaska Power Services Co. Order No. EA-243-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of elcctricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 30 I(b) and 402(f) of the Departrncnt of' Energy Organizatio~l Act (42 U, S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 7 1 72Cf)) and rcquirc authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act

  20. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TexMex Energy, LLC OE Docket No. EA-294-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-294-A February 22, 2007 TexMex Energy, LLC Order No. EA-294-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign count~y are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 71 72(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16

  1. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BP Energy Company OE Docket No. EA- 3 14 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-3 14 February 22,2007 BP Energy Company Order No. EA-314 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(Q of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 15 l(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.S24a(e)) .

  2. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSW Power Marketing OE Docket No. EA-3 1 8 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-3 18 February 22,2007 CSW Power Marketing Order No. EA-318 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 30l(b) and 402(f) of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 1 5 1 (b), 7 1 72(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16

  3. Magnetized and collimated millimeter scale plasma jets with astrophysical relevance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Parrish C.; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Valanju, Prashant M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, Todd

    2012-01-15

    Magnetized collimated plasma jets are created in the laboratory to extend our understanding of plasma jet acceleration and collimation mechanisms with particular connection to astrophysical jets. In this study, plasma collimated jets are formed from supersonic unmagnetized flows, mimicking a stellar wind, subject to currents and magnetohydrodynamic forces. It is found that an external poloidal magnetic field, like the ones found anchored to accretion disks, is essential to stabilize the jets against current-driven instabilities. The maximum jet length before instabilities develop is proportional to the field strength and the length threshold agrees well with Kruskal-Shafranov theory. The plasma evolution is modeled qualitatively using MHD theory of current-carrying flux tubes showing that jet acceleration and collimation arise as a result of electromagnetic forces.

  4. CALiPER Application Summary Report 16. LED BR30 and R30 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested performance of 13 LED products labeled as BR30 or R30 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR.

  5. Brønsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Brønsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Jiang, Juncong and Yaghi, Omar, M. Bronsted Acidity in Metal-Organic Frameworks. Chem. Rev., 115, 6966-6997 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00221 Bronsted Acidity in MOFs

  6. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  7. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  8. Merging of high speed argon plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, A.; Messer, S.; Brockington, S.; Wu, L.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Elton, R.

    2013-01-15

    Formation of an imploding plasma liner for the plasma liner experiment (PLX) requires individual plasma jets to merge into a quasi-spherical shell of plasma converging on the origin. Understanding dynamics of the merging process requires knowledge of the plasma phenomena involved. We present results from the study of the merging of three plasma jets in three dimensional geometry. The experiments were performed using HyperV Technologies Corp. 1 cm Minirailguns with a preionized argon plasma armature. The vacuum chamber partially reproduces the port geometry of the PLX chamber. Diagnostics include fast imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry, fast pressure probes, B-dot probes, and high speed spatially resolved photodiodes, permitting measurements of plasma density, temperature, velocity, stagnation pressure, magnetic field, and density gradients. These experimental results are compared with simulation results from the LSP 3D hybrid PIC code.

  9. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  10. Implications of Upwells as Hydrodynamic Jets in a Pulse Jet Mixed System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pease, Leonard F.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2015-08-01

    This report evaluates the physics of the upwell flow in pulse jet mixed systems in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Although the initial downward flow and radial flow from pulse jet mixers (PJMs) has been analyzed in some detail, the upwells have received considerably less attention despite having significant implications for vessel mixing. Do the upwells behave like jets? How do the upwells scale? When will the central upwell breakthrough? What proportion of the vessel is blended by the upwells themselves? Indeed, how the physics of the central upwell is affected by multiple PJMs (e.g., six in the proposed mixing vessels), non-Newtonian rheology, and significant multicomponent solids loadings remain unexplored. The central upwell must satisfy several criteria to be considered a free jet. First, it must travel for several diameters in a nearly constant direction. Second, its velocity must decay with the inverse of elevation. Third, it should have an approximately Gaussian profile. Fourth, the influence of surface or body forces must be negligible. A combination of historical data in a 12.75 ft test vessel, newly analyzed data from the 8 ft test vessel, and conservation of momentum arguments derived specifically for PJM operating conditions demonstrate that the central upwell satisfies these criteria where vigorous breakthrough is achieved. An essential feature of scaling from one vessel to the next is the requirement that the underlying physics does not change adversely. One may have confidence in scaling if (1) correlations and formulas capture the relevant physics; (2) the underlying physics does not change from the conditions under which it was developed to the conditions of interest; (3) all factors relevant to scaling have been incorporated, including flow, material, and geometric considerations; and (4) the uncertainty in the relationships is sufficiently narrow to meet required specifications. Although the central upwell satisfies these criteria when vigorous breakthrough is achieved, not all available data follow the free jet profile for the central upwell, particularly at lower nozzle velocities. Alternative flow regimes are considered and new models for cloud height, “cavern height,” and the rate of jet penetration (jet celerity) are benchmarked against data to anchor scaling analyses. This analytical modeling effort to provide a technical basis for scaling PJM mixed vessels has significant implications for vessel mixing, because jet physics underlies “cavern” height, cloud height, and the volume of mixing considerations. A new four-parameter cloud height model compares favorably to experimental results. This model is predictive of breakthrough in 8 ft vessel tests with the two-part simulant. Analysis of the upwell in the presence of yield stresses finds evidence of expanding turbulent jets, confined turbulent jets, and confined laminar flows. For each, the critical elevation at which jet momentum depletes is predicted, which compare favorably to experimental cavern height data. Partially coupled momentum and energy balances suggest that these are limiting cases of a gradual transition from a turbulent expanding flow to a confined laminar flow. This analysis of the central upwell alone lays essential groundwork for complete analysis of mode three mixing (i.e., breakthrough with slow peripheral mixing). Consideration of jet celerity shows that the rate of jet penetration is a governing consideration in breakthrough to the surface. Estimates of the volume of mixing are presented. This analysis shows that flow along the vessel wall is sluggish such that the central upwell governs the volume of mixing. This analysis of the central upwell alone lays essential groundwork for complete analysis of mode three mixing and estimates of hydrogen release rates from first principles.

  11. continuously jet-stirred tank reactor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    continuously jet-stirred tank reactor - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  12. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion Processes Advanced Bio-based Jet fuel Cost of Production Workshop Mary Biddy (NREL) November 27, 2012 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 2 * Techno-Economic Analysis Approach * Biochemical conversion to Ethanol * Biochemical conversion to Advanced Hydrocarbons Overview Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 3 Techno-Economic Analysis Approach * Collaborate with engineering & construction firm to enhance credibility, quality *

  13. An approximation technique for jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najafi, Mahmoud; Fincher, Donald; Rahni, Taeibi; Javadi, KH.; Massah, H.

    2015-03-10

    The analytical approximate solution of a non-linear jet impingement flow model will be demonstrated. We will show that this is an improvement over the series approximation obtained via the Adomian decomposition method, which is itself, a powerful method for analysing non-linear differential equations. The results of these approximations will be compared to the Runge-Kutta approximation in order to demonstrate their validity.

  14. Experimental study of elliptical jet from sub to supercritical conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2014-04-15

    The jet mixing at supercritical conditions involves fluid dynamics as well as thermodynamic phenomena. All the jet mixing studies at critical conditions to the present date have focused only on axisymmetric jets. When the liquid jet is injected into supercritical environment, the thermodynamic transition could be well understood by considering one of the important fluid properties such as surface tension since it decides the existence of distinct boundary between the liquid and gaseous phase. It is well known that an elliptical liquid jet undergoes axis-switching phenomena under atmospheric conditions due to the presence of surface tension. The experimental investigations were carried out with low speed elliptical jet under supercritical condition. Investigation of the binary component system with fluoroketone jet and N{sub 2} gas as environment shows that the surface tension force dominates for a large downstream distance, indicating delayed thermodynamic transition. The increase in pressure to critical state at supercritical temperature is found to expedite the thermodynamic transition. The ligament like structures has been observed rather than droplets for supercritical pressures. However, for the single component system with fluoroketone jet and fluoroketone environment shows that the jet disintegrates into droplets as it is subjected to the chamber conditions even for the subcritical pressures and no axis switching phenomenon is observed. For a single component system, as the pressure is increased to critical state, the liquid jet exhibits gas-gas like mixing behavior and that too without exhibiting axis-switching behavior.

  15. STEADY TWIN-JETS ORIENTATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR FORMATION MECHANISM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soker, Noam; Mcley, Liron E-mail: lironmc@tx.technion.ac.il

    2013-08-01

    We compare the structures of the jets of the pre-planetary nebulae (pre-PNe) CRL618 and the young stellar object (YSO) NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2 and propose that in both cases the jets are launched near periastron passages of a highly eccentric binary system. The pre-PN CRL618 has two ''twin-jets'' on each side, where by ''twin-jets'' we refer to a structure where one side is composed of two very close and narrow jets that were launched at the same time. We analyze the position-velocity diagram of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2, and find that it also has the twin-jet structure. In both systems, the orientation of the two twin-jets does not change with time. By comparing these two seemingly different objects, we speculate that the constant relative direction of the two twin-jets is fixed by the direction of a highly eccentric orbit of a binary star. For example, a double-arm spiral structure in the accretion disk induced by the companion might lead to the launching of the twin-jets. We predict the presence of a low-mass stellar companion in CRL618 that accretes mass and launches the jets, and a substellar (a planet of a brown dwarf) companion to the YSO NGC 1333 IRAS 4A2 that perturbed the accretion disk. In both cases the orbit has a high eccentricity.

  16. Disruption mitigation using high pressure gas jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis G. Whyte

    2007-10-11

    The goal of this research is to establish credible disruption mitigation scenarios based on the technique of massive gas injection. Disruption mitigation seeks to minimize or eliminate damage to internal components that can occur due to the rapid dissipation of thermal and magnetic energy during a tokamak disruption. In particular, the focus of present research is extrapolating mitigation techniques to burning plasma experiments such as ITER, where disruption-caused damage poses a serious threat to the lifetime of internal vessel components. A majority of effort has focused on national and international collaborative research with large tokamaks: DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, JET, and ASDEX Upgrade. The research was oriented towards empirical trials of gas-jet mitigation on several tokamaks, with the goal of developing and applying cohesive models to the data across devices. Disruption mitigation using gas jet injection has proven to be a viable candidate for avoiding or minimizing damage to internal components in burning plasma experiments like ITER. The physics understanding is progress towards a technological design for the required gas injection system in ITER.

  17. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upatnieks, Ansis (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a jet drilling an H I cloud: Shock induced formation of molecular clouds and jet breakup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahina, Yuta; Ogawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    The formation mechanism of the jet-aligned CO clouds found by NANTEN CO observations is studied by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations taking into account the cooling of the interstellar medium. Motivated by the association of the CO clouds with the enhancement of H I gas density, we carried out MHD simulations of the propagation of a supersonic jet injected into the dense H I gas. We found that the H I gas compressed by the bow shock ahead of the jet is cooled down by growth of the cooling instability triggered by the density enhancement. As a result, a cold dense sheath is formed around the interface between the jet and the H I gas. The radial speed of the cold, dense gas in the sheath is a few km s{sup 1} almost independent of the jet speed. Molecular clouds can be formed in this region. Since the dense sheath wrapping the jet reflects waves generated in the cocoon, the jet is strongly perturbed by the vortices of the warm gas in the cocoon, which breaks up the jet and forms a secondary shock in the H I-cavity drilled by the jet. The particle acceleration at the shock can be the origin of radio and X-ray filaments observed near the eastern edge of the W50 nebula surrounding the galactic jet source SS433.

  19. Termination unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  20. Towards an understanding of the correlations in jet substructure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adams, D.; Arce, A.; Asquith, L.; Backovic, M.; Barillari, T.; Berta, P.; Bertolini, D.; Buckley, A.; Butterworth, J.; Camacho Toro, R.  C.; et al

    2015-09-09

    Over the past decade, a large number of jet substructure observables have been proposed in the literature, and explored at the LHC experiments. Such observables attempt to utilize the internal structure of jets in order to distinguish those initiated by quarks, gluons, or by boosted heavy objects, such as top quarks and W bosons. This report, originating from and motivated by the BOOST2013 workshop, presents original particle-level studies that aim to improve our understanding of the relationships between jet substructure observables, their complementarity, and their dependence on the underlying jet properties, particularly the jet radius and jet transverse momentum. Thismore » is explored in the context of quark/gluon discrimination, boosted W boson tagging and boosted top quark tagging.« less

  1. The deterministic chaos and random noise in turbulent jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Tian-Liang; Liu, Hai-Feng Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2014-06-01

    A turbulent flow is usually treated as a superposition of coherent structure and incoherent turbulence. In this paper, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the random noise in the near field of round jet and plane jet are estimated with our previously proposed method of chaotic time series analysis [T. L. Yao, et al., Chaos 22, 033102 (2012)]. The results show that the largest Lyapunov exponents of the round jet and plane jet are in direct proportion to the reciprocal of the integral time scale of turbulence, which is in accordance with the results of the dimensional analysis, and the proportionality coefficients are equal. In addition, the random noise of the round jet and plane jet has the same linear relation with the Kolmogorov velocity scale of turbulence. As a result, the random noise may well be from the incoherent disturbance in turbulence, and the coherent structure in turbulence may well follow the rule of chaotic motion.

  2. SIMULATING PROTOSTELLAR JETS SIMULTANEOUSLY AT LAUNCHING AND OBSERVATIONAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Jon P.; Clarke, David A. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2011-02-10

    We present the first 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of protostellar jets that include both the region in which the jet is launched magnetocentrifugally at scale lengths <0.1 AU and where the propagating jet is observed at scale lengths >10{sup 3} AU. These simulations, performed with the new adaptive mesh refinement MHD code AZEuS, reveal interesting relationships between conditions at the disk surface, such as the magnetic field strength, and direct observables such as proper motion, jet rotation, jet radius, and mass flux. By comparing these quantities with observed values, we present direct numerical evidence that the magnetocentrifugal launching mechanism is capable, by itself, of launching realistic protostellar jets.

  3. A NUMERICAL MODEL OF STANDARD TO BLOWOUT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2013-06-01

    We report on three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of the formation of jets produced during the emergence and eruption of solar magnetic fields. The interaction between an emerging and an ambient magnetic field in the solar atmosphere leads to (external) reconnection and the formation of ''standard'' jets with an inverse Y-shaped configuration. Eventually, low-atmosphere (internal) reconnection of sheared fieldlines in the emerging flux region produces an erupting magnetic flux rope and a reconnection jet underneath it. The erupting plasma blows out the ambient field and, moreover, it unwinds as it is ejected into the outer solar atmosphere. The fast emission of the cool material that erupts together with the hot outflows due to external/internal reconnection form a wider ''blowout'' jet. We show the transition from ''standard'' to ''blowout'' jets and report on their 3D structure. The physical plasma properties of the jets are consistent with observational studies.

  4. Reconstructing $t\\bar{t}$ events with one lost jet

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demina, Regina; Harel, Amnon; Orbaker, Douglas

    2015-04-02

    We present a technique for reconstructing the kinematics of pair-produced top quarks that decay to a charged lepton, a neutrino and four final state quarks in the subset of events where only three jets are reconstructed. We present a figure of merit that allows for a fair comparison of reconstruction algorithms without requiring their calibration. As a result, the new reconstruction of events with only three jets is fully competitive with the full reconstruction typically used for four-jet events.

  5. Reconstructing top quark-antiquark events with one lost jet

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demina, Regina; Harel, Amnon; Orbaker, Douglas

    2015-04-02

    We present a technique for reconstructing the kinematics of pair-produced top quarks that decay to a charged lepton, a neutrino and four final state quarks in the subset of events where only three jets are reconstructed. We present a figure of merit that allows for a fair comparison of reconstruction algorithms without requiring their calibration. The new reconstruction of events with only three jets is fully competitive with the full reconstruction typically used for four-jet events.

  6. MEASURING THE JET POWER OF FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabala, S. S.; Santoso, J. S.; Godfrey, L. E. H.

    2012-09-10

    We use frequency-dependent position shifts of flat-spectrum radio cores to estimate the kinetic power of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. We find a correlation between the derived jet powers and AGN narrow-line luminosity, consistent with the well-known relation for radio galaxies and steep spectrum quasars. This technique can be applied to intrinsically weak jets even at high redshift.

  7. Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight Renewable Jet Fuel Is Taking Flight August 26, 2015 - 3:58pm Addthis Zia Haq Senior Analyst and Defense Production Act Coordinator, Bioenergy Technologies Office It's been one year since we at the Energy Department ramped up our efforts to develop renewable jet fuel for the military and commercial aviation industry. The Department's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) joined Farm to Fly 2.0-a partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the

  8. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael

    2010-05-15

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  9. Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Mary Biddy (NREL). PDF icon ...

  10. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  11. COLLIMATION AND CONFINEMENT OF MAGNETIC JETS BY EXTERNAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Amir; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2013-02-20

    We study the collimation of a highly magnetized jet by a surrounding cocoon that forms as a result of the interaction of the jet with the external medium. We show that in regions where the jet is well confined by the cocoon, current-driven instabilities should develop over timescales shorter than the expansion time of the jet's head. We speculate that these instabilities would give rise to complete magnetic field destruction, whereby the jet undergoes a transition from high to low sigma above the collimation zone. Using this assumption, we construct a self-consistent model for the evolution of the jet-cocoon system in an ambient medium of arbitrary density profile. We apply the model to jet breakout in long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and show that the jet is highly collimated inside the envelope of the progenitor star and is likely to remain confined well after breakout. We speculate that this strong confinement may provide a channel for magnetic field conversion in GRB outflows, whereby the hot, low-sigma jet section thereby produced is the source of the photospheric emission observed in many bursts.

  12. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting

    2014-06-16

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  13. Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aluto Langano Geothermal Area Aluto Langano Geothermal Area East African Rift System Ethiopian Rift Valley Major Normal Fault Basalt MW K Amatitlan Geothermal Area Amatitlan...

  14. Development of a longwall water jet mining machine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The contract initial objective was to construct a prototype longwall water jet mining machine and evaluate its performance by field testing the unit in a strip mine coal panel. The design of the machine, Hydrominer I, was based on USBM Contract H0232064. The second objective was to design and construct an improved cutting head, Hydrominer II, which would be tested in an artificial coal heading. The testing of Hydrominer I in coal indicated significant beneficial features resulting from the application of water jet cutting to coal mining. These features were the elimination of dust, the reduction of the danger of gas and dust explosions from machine generated sparks, the ability to cut a wider web with a lower haulage force requirement than for a shearer, and the production of larger coal with fewer fines. However, the production rate was limited by inherent machine design problems which prevented Hydrominer I from achieving its full potential. The design generated for Hydrominer II was intended to correct the difficulties of the first generation machine and allow the full productive capability of the concept to be achieved while retaining the beneficial features clearly proven in the field tests of Hydrominer I. However, the artificial coal in which Hydrominer II was to be tested did not respond to the jet cutting in a manner similar to that of coal. Therefore, no conclusions can be drawn in regard to the performance of Hydrominer II based on the artificial coal tests.

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19...

  16. Jet mass and substructure of inclusive jets in root s=7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Khalek, S. Abdel; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamezyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; et al.

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential of jet substructure techniques to identify the hadronic decays of boosted heavy particles. These studies all rely upon the assumption that the internal substructure of jets generated by QCD radiation is well understood. In this article, this assumption is tested on an inclusive sample of jets recorded with the ATLAS detector in 2010, which corresponds to 35 pb{sup -1} of pp collisions delivered by the LHC at {radical}s = 7 TeV. In a subsample of events with single pp collisions, measurements corrected for detector efficiency and resolution are presented with full systematic uncertainties. Jet invariant mass, k{sub t} splitting scales and N-subjettiness variables are presented for anti-k{sub t} R = 1.0 jets and Cambridge-Aachen R = 1.2 jets. Jet invariant-mass spectra for Cambridge-Aachen R = 1.2 jets after a splitting and filtering procedure are also presented. Leading-order parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for these variables are found to be broadly in agreement with data. The dependence of mean jet mass on additional pp interactions is also explored.

  17. Jet and electromagnetic tomography (JET) of extreme phases of matter in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinz, Ulrich

    2015-08-31

    The Ohio State University (OSU) group contributed to the deliverables of the JET Collaboration three major products: 1. The code package iEBE-VISHNU for modeling the dynamical evolution of the soft medium created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, from its creation all the way to final freeze-out using a hybrid approach that interfaces a free-streaming partonic pre-equilbrium stage with a (2+1)-dimensional viscous relativistic fluid dynamical stage for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase and the microscopic hadron cascade UrQMD for the hadronic rescattering and freeze-out stage. Except for UrQMD, all dynamical evolution components and interfaces were developed at OSU and tested and implemented in collaboration with the Duke University group. 2. An electromagnetic radiation module for the calculation of thermal photon emission from the QGP and hadron resonance gas stages of a heavy-ion collision, with emission rates that have been corrected for viscous effects in the expanding medium consistent with the bulk evolution. The electromagnetic radiation module was developed under OSU leadership in collaboration with the McGill group and has been integrated in the iEBE-VISHNU code package. 3. An interface between the Monte Carlo jet shower evolution and hadronization codes developed by the Wayne State University (WSU), McGill and Texas A&M groups and the iEBE-VISHNU bulk evolution code, for performing jet quenching and jet shape modification studies in a realistically modeled evolving medium that was tuned to measured soft hadron data. Building on work performed at OSU for the theoretical framework used to describe the interaction of jets with the medium, initial work on the jet shower Monte Carlo was started at OSU and moved to WSU when OSU Visiting Assistant Professor Abhijit Majumder accepted a tenure track faculty position at WSU in September 2011. The jet-hydro interface was developed at OSU and WSU and tested and implemented in collaboration with the McGill, Texas A&M, and LBNL groups.

  18. Investigation into Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P., Guise, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Yuan, D.

    2011-06-22

    This slide-show presents work on radiation detection with nanostructured lanthanum halides and CeBr{sub 3}. The goal is to extend the gamma energy response on both low and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy x-rays and relatively high-energy activation prompt gamma rays simultaneously using the nano-structured lanthanum bromide, lanthanum fluoride, cerium bromide, or other nanocrystal material. Homogeneous and nano structure cases are compared.

  19. EFFECT OF INTERACTING RAREFACTION WAVES ON RELATIVISTICALLY HOT JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Jin; Shibata, Kazunari; Masada, Youhei

    2012-06-01

    The effect of rarefaction acceleration on the propagation dynamics and structure of relativistically hot jets is studied through relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. We emphasize the nonlinear interaction of rarefaction waves excited at the interface between a cylindrical jet and the surrounding medium. From simplified one-dimensional (1D) models with radial jet structure, we find that a decrease in the relativistic pressure due to the interacting rarefaction waves in the central zone of the jet transiently yields a more powerful boost of the bulk jet than that expected from single rarefaction acceleration. This leads to a cyclic in situ energy conversion between thermal and bulk kinetic energies, which induces radial oscillating motion of the jet. The oscillation timescale is characterized by the initial pressure ratio of the jet to the ambient medium and follows a simple scaling relation, {tau}{sub oscillation}{proportional_to}(P{sub jet,0}/P{sub amb,0}){sup 1/2}. Extended two-dimensional simulations confirm that this radial oscillating motion in the 1D system manifests as modulation of the structure of the jet in a more realistic situation where a relativistically hot jet propagates through an ambient medium. We find that when the ambient medium has a power-law pressure distribution, the size of the reconfinement region along the propagation direction of the jet in the modulation structure {lambda} evolves according to a self-similar relation {lambda}{proportional_to}t{sup {alpha}/2}, where {alpha} is the power-law index of the pressure distribution.

  20. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2014-10-17

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and () electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the () catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt () electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  1. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and () electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the () catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt () electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  2. A modified Stillinger-Weber potential for TlBr and its polymorphic extension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Foster, Michael E.; Jones, Reese E.; Doty, F. Patrick; Yang, Pin; Fan, Hongyou

    2015-04-30

    TlBr is promising for g- and x- radiation detection, but suffers from rapid performance degradation under the operating external electric fields. To enable molecular dynamics (MD) studies of this degradation, we have developed a Stillinger-Weber type of TlBr interatomic potential. During this process, we have also addressed two problems of wider interests. First, the conventional Stillinger-Weber potential format is only applicable for tetrahedral structures (e.g., diamond-cubic, zinc-blende, or wurtzite). Here we have modified the analytical functions of the Stillinger-Weber potential so that it can now be used for other crystal structures. Second, past modifications of interatomic potentials cannot always bemore » applied by a broad community because any new analytical functions of the potential would require corresponding changes in the molecular dynamics codes. Here we have developed a polymorphic potential model that simultaneously incorporates Stillinger-Weber, Tersoff, embedded-atom method, and any variations (i.e., modified functions) of these potentials. As a result, we have implemented this polymorphic model in MD code LAMMPS, and demonstrated that our TlBr potential enables stable MD simulations under external electric fields.« less

  3. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY; Nguyen, TV

    2014-10-17

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (-) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (-) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm(-2) and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm(-2). Maximum energy efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (-) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  4. SIMULATION AND MOCKUP OF SNS JET-FLOW TARGET WITH WALL JET FOR CAVITATION DAMAGE MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Felde, David K

    2014-01-01

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory induce cavitation damage on the stainless steel target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. Severe through-wall cavitation damage on an internal wall near the beam entrance window has been observed in spent-targets. Surprisingly though, there is very little damage on the walls that bound an annular mercury channel that wraps around the front and outside of the target. The mercury flow through this channel is characterized by smooth, attached streamlines. One theory to explain this lack of damage is that the uni-directional flow biases the direction of the collapsing cavitation bubble, reducing the impact pressure and subsequent damage. The theory has been reinforced by in-beam separate effects data. For this reason, a second-generation SNS mercury target has been designed with an internal wall jet configuration intended to protect the concave wall where damage has been observed. The wall jet mimics the annular flow channel streamlines, but since the jet is bounded on only one side, the momentum is gradually diffused by the bulk flow interactions as it progresses around the cicular path of the target nose. Numerical simulations of the flow through this jet-flow target have been completed, and a water loop has been assembled with a transparent test target in order to visualize and measure the flow field. This paper presents the wall jet simulation results, as well as early experimental data from the test loop.

  5. Response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators to 2.5 MeV fusion neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 ; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Villari, S.; Weller, A.; Petrizzi, L.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-12-15

    Measurements of the response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) to 2.5 MeV neutrons have been carried out at the Frascati Neutron Generator and at tokamak facilities with deuterium plasmas. The observed spectrum has been interpreted by means of a Monte Carlo model. It is found that the main contributor to the measured response is neutron inelastic scattering on {sup 79}Br, {sup 81}Br, and {sup 139}La. An extrapolation of the count rate response to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium plasmas is also presented. The results are of relevance for the design of ?-ray diagnostics of fusion burning plasmas.

  6. Characterization of low-melting electrolytes for potential geothermal borehole power supplies: The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-05-01

    The suitability of modified thermal-battery technology for use as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications is under investigation. As a first step, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/LiBr-KBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures of 350 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. Incorporation of a reference electrode allowed the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization to be determined. The results of single-cell tests are presented, along with preliminary data for cells based on a lower-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic salt.

  7. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  8. Stellar signatures of AGN-jet-triggered star formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Bryan, Sarah; Gaibler, Volker; Haas, Marcel

    2014-12-01

    To investigate feedback between relativistic jets emanating from active galactic nuclei and the stellar population of the host galaxy, we analyze the long-term evolution of the orbits of the stars formed in the galaxy-scale simulations by Gaibler et al. of jets in massive, gas-rich galaxies at z ? 2-3. We find strong, jet-induced differences in the resulting stellar populations of galaxies that host relativistic jets and galaxies that do not, including correlations in stellar locations, velocities, and ages. Jets are found to generate distributions of increased radial and vertical velocities that persist long enough to effectively augment the stellar structure of the host. The jets cause the formation of bow shocks that move out through the disk, generating rings of star formation within the disk. The bow shock often accelerates pockets of gas in which stars form, yielding populations of stars with significant radial and vertical velocities, some of which have large enough velocities to escape the galaxy. These stellar population signatures can serve to identify past jet activity as well as jet-induced star formation.

  9. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ? ni ~ 10? cm?, Te ? Ti ? 1.4 eV, Vjet ? 30100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}$ ? 1, sonic Mach number Ms ? Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ? 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.

  10. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ?270yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (?100 km s{sup 1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (? 10 km s{sup 1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR GAMMA-RAY JETS IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su Meng; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2012-07-01

    Although accretion onto supermassive black holes in other galaxies is seen to produce powerful jets in X-ray and radio, no convincing detection has ever been made of a kpc-scale jet in the Milky Way. The recently discovered pair of 10 kpc tall gamma-ray bubbles in our Galaxy may be signs of earlier jet activity from the central black hole. In this paper, we identify a gamma-ray cocoon feature in the southern bubble, a jet-like feature along the cocoon's axis of symmetry, and another directly opposite the Galactic center in the north. Both the cocoon and jet-like feature have a hard spectrum with spectral index {approx} - 2 from 1 to 100 GeV, with a cocoon total luminosity of (5.5 {+-} 0.45) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} and luminosity of the jet-like feature of (1.8 {+-} 0.35) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} at 1-100 GeV. If confirmed, these jets are the first resolved gamma-ray jets ever seen.

  12. W/Z + jets production at the tevatron {bar p}p collider (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: WZ + jets production at the tevatron bar pp collider Citation Details In-Document Search Title: WZ + jets production at the tevatron bar pp collider You are...

  13. Interaction between Supersonic Disintegrating Liquid Jets and Their Shock Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Kyoung-Su; Cheong, Seong-Kyun; Liu, X.; Wang Jin; Lai, M.-C.; Tate, Mark W.; Ercan, Alper; Renzi, Matthew J.; Schuette, Daniel R.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2009-02-20

    We used ultrafast x radiography and developed a novel multiphase numerical simulation to reveal the origin and the unique dynamics of the liquid-jet-generated shock waves and their interactions with the jets. Liquid-jet-generated shock waves are transiently correlated to the structural evolution of the disintegrating jets. The multiphase simulation revealed that the aerodynamic interaction between the liquid jet and the shock waves results in an intriguing ambient gas distribution in the vicinity of the shock front, as validated by the ultrafast x-radiography measurements. The excellent agreement between the data and the simulation suggests the combined experimental and computational approach should find broader applications in predicting and understanding dynamics of highly transient multiphase flows.

  14. Jet measurements at D0 using a KT algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.Daniel Elvira

    2002-10-03

    D0 has implemented and calibrated a k{perpendicular} jet algorithm for the first time in a p{bar p} collider. We present two results based on 1992-1996 data which were recently published: the subjet multiplicity in quark and gluon jets and the central inclusive jet cross section. The measured ratio between subjet multiplicities in gluon and quark jets is consistent with theoretical predictions and previous experimental values. NLO pQCD predictions of the k{perpendicular} inclusive jet cross section agree with the D0 measurement, although marginally in the low p{sub T} range. We also present a preliminary measurement of thrust cross sections, which indicates the need to include higher than {alpha}{sub s}{sup 3} terms and resumation in the theoretical calculations.

  15. Quasi-static model of collimated jets and radio lobes. I. Accretion disk and jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui; Fowler, T. Kenneth; Pino, Jesse

    2014-07-10

    This is the first of a series of papers showing that when an efficient dynamo can be maintained by accretion disks around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, it can lead to the formation of a powerful, magnetic helix that could explain both the observed radio jet/lobe structures on very large scales and ultimately the enormous power inferred from the observed ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. In this work, we solve a set of one-dimensional equations similar to the steady-state standard accretion disk model, but now including the large-scale magnetic fields giving rises to jets. We find that the frequently made assumption that large-scale fields are frozen into the disk is fundamentally incorrect, due to the necessity for current and the accreting mass to flow perpendicular to magnetic flux surfaces. A correct treatment greatly simplifies the calculations, yielding fields that leave the disk nearly vertically with magnetic profiles uniquely determined by disk angular momentum conservation. Representative solutions of the magnetic fields in different radial regions of the disk surface are given, and they determine the overall key features in the jet structure and its dissipation, which will be the subjects of later papers.

  16. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  17. Flame and flow characteristics of double concentric jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, J.T.; Lee, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic flame and flow modes of a double concentric type of combustor possessing a central air jet and an annular propane gas are experimentally studied. Subject to the effects of the gravitational, inertial, and pressure forces, the cold flow is classified into three primary patterns: annular fountain, unstable fountain, and recirculation bubble flows. Using direct and schlieren photography techniques, the flames in the velocity domain of annulus and central jets are systematically classified into several characteristic modes. At low central jet velocity, a central flame enclosed in a annular diffusion flame might exist. At high central jet velocity, only the annular flames exist. The existence of the central flame dominates the flame and flow behaviors at low central jet velocity. The interaction between the central jet and the recirculation bubble in the near wake region dominates the flame characteristics at high central jet velocity. The interaction between the flame behavior and the flow patterns in each characteristic mode is comprehensively discussed. The temperature profiles are probed by a fine-wire thermocouple. The radial temperature profiles for each characteristic flame mode at various levels are presented to show the thermal structures.

  18. High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.

  19. Heat Transfer in GE Jet Engines | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transfer in GE Jet Engines Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Heat Transfer in GE Jet Engines Todd Wetzel 2012.10.19 Greetings from 31,000 feet. Less than 20 feet to my right is a CFM-56 jet engine, slung under the wing of a 737 taking me to Albuquerque, NM. The 737 is hands-down the most popular

  20. Probing New Physics with Jets at the LHC

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Harris, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN has the potential to make a major discovery as early as 2008 from simple measurements of events with two high energy jets. This talk will present the jet trigger and analysis plans of the CMS collaboration, which were produced at the LHC Physics Center at Fermilab. Plans to search the two jet channel for generic signals of new particles and forces will be discussed. I will present the anticipated sensitivity of the CMS experiment to a variety of models of new physics, including quark compositeness, technicolor, superstrings, extra dimensions and grand unification.

  1. Interaction between jets during laser-induced forward transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrascioiu, A.; Florian, C.; Fernndez-Pradas, J. M.; Morenza, J. L.; Serra, P.; Hennig, G.; Delaporte, P.

    2014-07-07

    Simultaneous two-beam laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) was carried out for various inter-beam separations, analyzing both the resulting printing outcomes and the corresponding liquid transfer dynamics. In a first experiment, droplets of an aqueous solution were printed onto a substrate at different inter-beam distances, which proved that a significant departure from the single-beam LIFT dynamics takes places at specific separations. In the second experiment, time-resolved imaging analysis revealed the existence of significant jet-jet interactions at those separations; such interactions proceed through a dynamics that results in remarkable jet deflection for which a possible onset mechanism is proposed.

  2. Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    disruption on Alcator C-Mod (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated disruption on Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated disruption on Alcator C-Mod Measurements of the radiation dynamics during an Alcator C-Mod disruption induced by a high pressure He/Ar gas jet are presented. Data are analysed from four 22-channel Absolute eXtreme UltraViolet

  3. Panchromatic Views of Large-Scale Extragalactic Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, C.C.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-01

    Highlights of recent observations of extended jets in AGN are presented. Specifically, we discuss new spectral constraints enabled by Spitzer, studies of the highest-redshift (z{approx}4) radio/X-ray quasar jets, and a new VLBA detection of superluminal motion in the M87 jet associated with a recent dramatic X-ray outburst. Expanding on the title, inverse Compton emission from extended radio lobes is considered and a testable prediction for the gamma-ray emission in one exemplary example is presented. Prospects for future studies with ALMA and low-frequency radio interferometers are briefly described.

  4. ePLAS Development for Jet Modeling and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Rodney J. Mason

    2011-09-07

    Plasma jets provide an alternate approach to the creation of high energy density laboratory plasmas (HEDLP). For the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX), typically 30 partially ionized argon jets, produced with mini-rail guns, will be focused into a central volume for subsequent magnetic compression into high density plasma liners that can reach high (0.1 Mbar) peak pressures upon stagnation. The jets are typically 2.5 cm in radius traveling at Mach number 30. Ultimate success will require optimized tuning of the rail configurations, the nozzles injecting the gases, and the careful implementation of pre-ionization. The modeling of plasma jet transport is particularly challenging, due the large space (100 sq cm) and time scales (microseconds) involved. Even traditional implicit methods are insufficient, due to the usual need to track electrons explicitly on the mesh. Wall emission and chemistry must be managed, as must ionization of the jet plasma. Ions in the jets are best followed as particles to account properly for collisions upon jet merger. This Phase I Project developed the code ePLAS to attack and successfully surmount many of these challenges. It invented a new 'super implicit' electromagnetic scheme, using implicit electron moment currents that allowed for modeling of jets over multi-cm and multi-picoseconds on standard, single processor 2 GHz PCs. It enabled merger studies of two jets, in preparation for the multi-jet merger problem. The Project explored particle modeling for the ions, and prepared for the future addition of a grid-base jet ion collision model. Access was added to tabular equations of state for the study of ionization effects in merging jets. The improved code was discussed at the primary plasma meetings (IEEE and APS) during the Project period. Collaborations with National Laboratory and industrial partners were nurtured. Code improvements were made to facilitate code use. See: http://www.researchapplicationscorp.com. The ePLAS code enjoys EAR99 export control treatment, permitting distribution to most foreign countries without a license.

  5. Tuning laser produced electron-positron jets for lab-astrophysics experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui; Fiuza, F.; Hazi, A.; Kemp, A.; Link, A.; Pollock, B.; Marley, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M.; Shepherd, R.; Tommasini, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Williams, G. J.; Barnak, D.; Chang, P-Y.; Fiksel, G.; Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Stoeckel, C.; Nakai, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Azechi, H.; Fujioka, S.; Hosoda, H.; Kojima, S.; Miyanga, N.; Morita, T.; Moritaka, T.; Nagai, T.; Namimoto, T.; Nishimura, H.; Ozaki, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-02-23

    This paper reviews the experiments on the laser produced electron-positron jets using large laser facilities worldwide. The goal of the experiments was to optimize the parameter of the pair jets for their potential applications in laboratory-astrophysical experiment. Results on tuning the pair jets energy, number, emittance and magnetic collimation will be presented.

  6. Search for massive resonances in dijet systems containing jets...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    massive resonances in dijet systems containing jets tagged as W or Z boson decays in pp collisions at ?s 8 TeV Re-direct Destination: Search for massive resonances in dijet...

  7. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  8. Method and apparatus for water jet drilling of rock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, David A.; Mazurkiewicz, Marian; Bushnell, Dwight J.; Blaine, James

    1978-01-01

    Rock drilling method and apparatus utilizing high pressure water jets for drilling holes of relatively small diameter at speeds significantly greater than that attainable with existing drilling tools. Greatly increased drilling rates are attained due to jet nozzle geometry and speed of rotation. The jet nozzle design has two orifices, one pointing axially ahead in the direction of travel and the second inclined at an angle of approximately 30.degree. from the axis. The two orifices have diameters in the ratio of approximately 1:2. Liquid jet velocities in excess of 1,000 ft/sec are used, and the nozzle is rotated at speeds up to 1,000 rpm and higher.

  9. Calculation of Personalized Argonne Anti-Jet-Lag Diet Plan

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-07-30

    The software lets a traveler or the traveler''s agent enter key information about a specific travel itinerary and then computes and displays an Argonne Anti-Jet-Lag Diet plan tailored to the individual itinerary. The Argonne Ant-Jet-Lag Diet helps people who travel across three or more time zones avoid or minimize jet lag by greatly speeding their adjustment to a new time zone. The software displays precise date and time information about when to start and endmore » the Argonne Anti-Jet-Lag Diet plan, when to eat meals, and what to eat. It also displays tips and answers common questions about the diet plan and how best to implement it.« less

  10. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two performance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

  11. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by nanosecond- and microsecond-pulse generators in helium Power source is an important parameter that can affect the

  12. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federrath, Christoph; Schrn, Martin; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ?1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ?1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ? three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  13. Jets reveal cerium's shocked strength | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jets reveal cerium's shocked strength By Vic Comello * January 27, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Recent synchrotron advances and the development of dynamic compression platforms have created the ability to investigate extreme states of matter on short timescales at X-ray beamlines using shockwaves generated by impact systems. That's how scientists learned that surface protrusions called "jets," formed after shockwaves passed through cerium metal, could provide insight into the yield stress of

  14. Microtextural characterization of copper shaped charge jet fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.I.; Bingert, J.F.; Zernow, L.

    1995-09-01

    The microstructures of two soft-caught copper shaped charge jet particles were investigated. In particular, the spatial distributions of crystallographic texture within the particles were characterized using point specific measurements of crystallographic orientation. Significant variations in preferred orientation were observed. These results are discussed in fight of previous computer simulations of the jetting process which showed significant radial gradients in both strain and strain rate.

  15. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  16. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  17. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  18. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 10¹⁶ cm⁻³, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean chargemore » $$\\bar{Z}$$ ≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈ 20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.« less

  19. Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, W.; Ko, C. M.; Zhang, B. W.

    2007-05-15

    Quark and gluon jets traversing through a quark-gluon plasma not only lose their energies but also can undergo flavor conversions. The conversion rates via the elastic q(q)g{yields}gq(q) and the inelastic qq{r_reversible}gg scatterings are evaluated in the lowest order in QCD. Including both jet energy loss and conversions in the expanding quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, we have found a net of quark jets to gluon jets. This reduces the difference between the nuclear modification factors for quark and gluon jets in central heavy ion collisions and thus enhances the p/{pi}{sup +} and p/{pi}{sup -} ratios at high transverse momentum. However, a much larger net quark-to-gluon jet conversion rate than the one given by the lowest order QCD is needed to account for the observed similar ratios in central Au+Au and p+p collisions at the same energy. Implications of our results are discussed.

  20. Neutron emission profiles and energy spectra measurements at JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Conroy, S.; Belli, F.; Riva, M.; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lerche, E.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2014-08-21

    The Joint European Toras (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world. It is devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D) or Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. JET has been upgraded over the years and recently it has also become a test facility of the components designed for ITER, the next step fusion machine under construction in Cadarache (France). JET makes use of many different diagnostics to measure the physical quantities of interest in plasma experiments. Concerning D or DT plasmas neutron production, various types of detectors are implemented to provide information upon the neutron total yield, emission profile and energy spectrum. The neutron emission profile emitted from the JET plasma poloidal section is reconstructed using the neutron camera (KN3). In 2010 KN3 was equipped with a new digital data acquisition system capable of high rate neutron measurements (<0.5 MCps). A similar instrument will be implemented on ITER and it is currently in its design phase. Various types of neutron spectrometers with different view lines are also operational on JET. One of them is a new compact spectrometer (KM12) based on organic liquid scintillating material which was installed in 2010 and implements a similar digital data acquisition system as for KN3. This article illustrates the measurement results of KN3 neutron emission profiles and KM 12 neutron energy spectra from the latest JET D experimental campaign C31.

  1. COUNTERROTATION IN MAGNETOCENTRIFUGALLY DRIVEN JETS AND OTHER WINDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauty, C.; Cayatte, V.; Lima, J. J. G.; Matsakos, T.; Tsinganos, K.

    2012-11-01

    Rotation measurement in jets from T Tauri stars is a rather difficult task. Some jets seem to be rotating in a direction opposite to that of the underlying disk, although it is not yet clear if this affects the totality or part of the outflows. On the other hand, Ulysses data also suggest that the solar wind may rotate in two opposite ways between the northern and southern hemispheres. We show that this result is not as surprising as it may seem and that it emerges naturally from the ideal MHD equations. Specifically, counterrotating jets neither contradict the magnetocentrifugal driving of the flow nor prevent extraction of angular momentum from the disk. The demonstration of this result is shown by combining the ideal MHD equations for steady axisymmetric flows. Provided that the jet is decelerated below some given threshold beyond the Alfven surface, the flow will change its direction of rotation locally or globally. Counterrotation is also possible for only some layers of the outflow at specific altitudes along the jet axis. We conclude that the counterrotation of winds or jets with respect to the source, star or disk, is not in contradiction with the magnetocentrifugal driving paradigm. This phenomenon may affect part of the outflow, either in one hemisphere, or only in some of the outflow layers. From a time-dependent simulation, we illustrate this effect and show that it may not be permanent.

  2. Atmospheric gradients and the stability of expanding jets. [Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardee, P.E.; Koupelis, T.; Norman, M.L.; Clarke, D.A. Illinois, University, Urbana )

    1991-05-01

    Numerical simulations of adiabatically expanding slab jets in initial static pressure balance with an external atmosphere have been performed and compared to predictions made by a linear analysis of the stability of expanding jets. It is found that jets are stabilized by jet expansion as predicted by the linear analysis. It is also found that an expanding jet can be destabilized by a positive temperature gradient or temperature jump in the surrounding medium which lowers the Mach number defined by the external sound speed. A temperature gradient or jump is more destabilizing than would be predicted by a linear stability analysis. The enhanced instability compared to an isothermal atmosphere with identical pressure gradient is a result of the reduced external Mach number and a result of a higher jet density relative to the density in the external medium and higher ram speed. Other differences between predictions made by the linear theory and the simulations can be understood qualitatively as a result of a change in wave speed as the wave amplitude increases. 12 refs.

  3. High temperature crystal structures and superionic properties of SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Stephen; Norberg, Stefan T.; Ahmed, Istaq; Eriksson, Sten G.; Mohn, Chris E.

    2011-11-15

    The structural properties of the binary alkaline-earth halides SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} have been investigated from ambient temperature up to close to their melting points, using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Fluorite-structured SrCl{sub 2} undergoes a gradual transition to a superionic phase at 900-1100 K, characterised by an increasing concentration of anion Frenkel defects. At a temperature of 920(3) K, the tetragonal phase of SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order transition to a cubic fluorite phase. This high temperature phase shows the presence of extensive disorder within the anion sublattice, which differs from that found in superionic SrCl{sub 2}. BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} both adopt the cotunnite crystal structure under ambient conditions. BaCl{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition at 917(5) K to a disordered fluorite-structured phase. The relationship between the (disordered) crystal structures and the ionic conductivity behaviour is discussed and the influence of the size of the mobile anion on the superionic behaviour is explored. - Graphical abstract: Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} at temperatures of {approx}1000 K is associated with the gradual transition to a superionic phase, whilst SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition ({beta}{yields}{alpha}) to a fluorite-structured superionic phase at 920(3) K. Highlights: > Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} occurs at temperatures {approx}1000 K. > Crystal structure of {beta}-SrBr{sub 2} is described in detail. > On heating, SrBr{sub 2} and BaCl{sub 2} transform to a fluorite-structured superionic phase. > Temperature dependence of the BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} structures is presented. > Nature of the superionic phases within the alkaline-earth halides is discussed.

  4. FAN-SHAPED JETS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION SIMULATION AS A MODEL OF UBIQUITOUS SOLAR JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Ronglin; Fang Cheng; Shibata, Kazunari; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2011-01-10

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in space and astrophysical plasmas in which the oppositely directed magnetic field changes its connectivity and eventually converts its energy into kinetic and thermal energy of the plasma. Recently, ubiquitous jets (for example, chromospheric anemone jets, penumbral microjets, umbral light bridge jets) have been observed by the Solar Optical Telescope on board the satellite Hinode. These tiny and frequently occurring jets are considered to be a possible evidence of small-scale ubiquitous reconnection in the solar atmosphere. However, the details of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic configuration are still not very clear. Here, we propose a new model based on 3D simulations of magnetic reconnection using a typical current sheet magnetic configuration with a strong guide field. The most interesting feature is that the jets produced by the reconnection eventually move along the guide field lines. This model provides a fresh understanding of newly discovered ubiquitous jets and moreover a new observational basis for the theory of astrophysical magnetic reconnection.

  5. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  6. Summary Max Total Units

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  7. X-ray-absorption study of CuBr at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tranquada, J.M.; Ingalls, R.

    1986-09-15

    The x-ray-absorption spectrum of cuprous bromide has been measured as a function of pressure. The x-ray-absorption near-edge structure proved to be an excellent indicator of high-pressure phase transitions in this material. The normalized ''white-line'' peak heights at both the Cu and Br K-italic edges decreased on entering the tetragonal phase and increased in going to the NaCl structure. The zinc-blende to tetragonal phase transition took place over a very narrow pressure range centered at 46 +- 5 kbar. The transformation from the tetragonal to the NaCl structure, on the other hand, showed a broad mixed-phase region, suggesting a nucleation-and-growth mechanism for the transition. The mixed-phase region was centered at 75 +- 6 kbar. No evidence of a phase between the zinc-blende and tetragonal phases was observed, presumably because it does not exist. Analysis of the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) clearly showed that there is no change in coordination in going from the zinc-blende to the tetragonal phase although the nearest-neighbor distance increases slightly. A much larger increase in R-italic/sub 1/ occurs at the transition to the NaCl structure, where the coordination increases from 4 to 6. The mean-square deviation in the nearest-neighbor bond length, sigma/sub 1//sup 2/, appears to be a fairly smooth function of nearest-neighbor distance, decreasing (or increasing) as R-italic/sub 1/ decreases (or increases) more or less independent of structure. Evidence from the literature was presented to suggest that the zinc-blende to tetragonal transition in CuBr (and also CuCl) should occur by shear deformation.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon (BrC) Chromophores in Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated From Photo-Oxidation of Toluene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365nm = 0.78 m2 g-1) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene < 1/300). Fifteen compounds, most of which are nitrophenols, are identified as major BrC chromophores responsible for the enhanced light absorption of Tol-SOA material produced in the presence of NOx. The integrated absorbance of these fifteen chromophores accounts for 40-60% of the total light absorbance by Tol-SOA at wavelengths between 300 nm and 500 nm. The combination of tandem LC-UV/Vis-ESI/HRMS measurements provides an analytical platform for predictive understanding of light absorption properties by BrC and their relationship to the structure of individual chromophores. General trends in the UV/vis absorption by plausible isomers of the BrC chromophores were evaluated using theoretical chemistry calculations. The molecular-level understanding of BrC chemistry is helpful for better understanding the evolution and behavior of light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  9. Sooting characteristics of surrogates for jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mensch, Amy; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, modeling the combustion of aviation fuels, such as JP-8 and JetA, is not feasible due to the complexity and compositional variation of these practical fuels. Surrogate fuel mixtures, composed of a few pure hydrocarbon compounds, are a key step toward modeling the combustion of practical aviation fuels. For the surrogate to simulate the practical fuel, the composition must be designed to reproduce certain pre-designated chemical parameters such as sooting tendency, H/C ratio, autoignition, as well as physical parameters such as boiling range and density. In this study, we focused only on the sooting characteristics based on the Threshold Soot Index (TSI). New measurements of TSI values derived from the smoke point along with other sooting tendency data from the literature have been combined to develop a set of recommended TSI values for pure compounds used to make surrogate mixtures. When formulating the surrogate fuel mixtures, the TSI values of the components are used to predict the TSI of the mixture. To verify the empirical mixture rule for TSI, the TSI values of several binary mixtures of candidate surrogate components were measured. Binary mixtures were also used to derive a TSI for iso-cetane, which had not previously been measured, and to verify the TSI for 1-methylnaphthalene, which had a low smoke point and large relative uncertainty as a pure compound. Lastly, surrogate mixtures containing three components were tested to see how well the measured TSI values matched the predicted values, and to demonstrate that a target value for TSI can be maintained using various components, while also holding the H/C ratio constant. (author)

  10. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  11. Numerical Study on GRB-Jet Formation in Collapsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagataki, Shigehiro; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Takahashi, Rohta; /Tokyo U.; Mizuta, Akira; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Takiwaki, Tomoya; /Tokyo U.

    2006-08-22

    Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are performed using the ZEUS-2D code to investigate the dynamics of a collapsar that generates a GRB jet, taking account of realistic equation of state, neutrino cooling and heating processes, magnetic fields, and gravitational force from the central black hole and self gravity. It is found that neutrino heating processes are not so efficient to launch a jet in this study. It is also found that a jet is launched mainly by B{sub {phi}} fields that are amplified by the winding-up effect. However, since the ratio of total energy relative to the rest mass energy in the jet is not so high as several hundred, we conclude that the jets seen in this study are not be a GRB jet. This result suggests that general relativistic effects, which are not included in this study, will be important to generate a GRB jet. Also, the accretion disk with magnetic fields may still play an important role to launch a GRB jet, although a simulation for much longer physical time {approx} 10-100 s is required to confirm this effect. It is shown that considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized in the accretion disk. Thus there will be a possibility for the accretion disk to supply sufficient amount of {sup 56}Ni required to explain the luminosity of a hypernova. Also, it is shown that neutron-rich matter due to electron captures with high entropy per baryon is ejected along the polar axis. Moreover, it is found that the electron fraction becomes larger than 0.5 around the polar axis near the black hole by {nu}{sub e} capture at the region. Thus there will be a possibility that r-process and r/p-process nucleosynthesis occur at these regions. Finally, much neutrons will be ejected from the jet, which suggests that signals from the neutron decays may be observed as the delayed bump of the light curve of the afterglow or gamma-rays.

  12. Ultrafast dynamics of strong-field dissociative ionization ofCH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorptionspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-01-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-order harmonic generation source is used to investigate the dissociative ionization of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} induced by 800 nm strong-field irradiation. At moderate peak intensities (2.0 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), strong-field ionization is accompanied by ultrafast C-Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br* ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms together with the CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion. The measured rise times for Br and Br* are 130 {+-} 22 fs and 74 {+-} 10 fs, respectively. The atomic bromine quantum state distribution shows that the Br/Br* population ratio is 8.1 {+-} 3.8 and that the Br {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state is not aligned. The observed product distribution and the timescales of the photofragment appearances suggest that multiple field-dressed potential energy surfaces are involved in the dissociative ionization process. In addition, the transient absorption spectrum of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} suggests that the alignment of the molecule relative to the polarization axis of the strong-field ionizing pulse determines the electronic symmetry of the resulting ion; alignment of the Br-Br, H-H, and C{sub 2} axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the production of the ion {tilde X}({sup 2}B{sub 2}), {tilde B}({sup 2}B{sub 1}) and {tilde C}({sup 2}A{sub 1}) states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} undergoes sequential ionization to form the metastable CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup 2+} dication. These results demonstrate the potential of core-level probing with high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy for studying ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  13. Electrodeposition of zinc on glassy carbon from ZnCl/sub 2/ and ZnBr/sub 2/ electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

    1983-08-01

    The initial stages of the electrocrystallization of zinc from 3M ZnCl/sub 2/ and 3M ZnBr/sub 2/ on glassy carbon has been investigated using cyclic voltametry, the potential step method, and scanning electron microscopy. Particular care was taken to ensure electrolyte purity and to eliminate resistance effects in the measurements. The nucleation overvoltage in 3M ZnCl/sub 2/ was about 17 and about 12 mV in 3M ZnBr/sub 2/. In 3M ZnCl/sub 2/, the current transients from the potential step measurements could be fitted to a simple model that assumes instantaneous nucleation followed by growth of three dimensional centers under kinetic control. A similar mechanism is operative for 3M ZnBr/sub 2/ at low overvoltages. At higher overvoltages, the current transient is governed by mixed kinetic and diffusion control and cannot be fitted to a simple model. The lower nucleation overvoltage and the faster kinetics in 3M ZnBr/sub 2/ is correlated with the lower stability constants for the zinc bromide complexes. Erroneous results are obtained when resistance effects are not accounted for.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JET SIMULATIONS AND NUMERICAL LIGHT CURVE CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eerten, Hendrik J.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss jet dynamics for narrow and wide gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow jets and the observational implications of numerical simulations of relativistic jets in two dimensions. We confirm earlier numerical results that sideways expansion of relativistic jets during the bulk of the afterglow emission phase is logarithmic in time and find that this also applies to narrow jets with half opening angle of 0.05 rad. As a result, afterglow jets remain highly nonspherical until after they have become nonrelativistic. Although sideways expansion steepens the afterglow light curve after the jet break, the jet edges becoming visible dominates the jet break, which means that the jet break is sensitive to the observer angle even for narrow jets. Failure to take the observer angle into account can lead to an overestimation of the jet energy by up to a factor of four. This weakens the challenge posed to the magneter energy limit by extreme events such as GRB090926A. Late-time radio calorimetry based on a spherical nonrelativistic outflow model remains relevant when the observer is approximately on-axis and where differences of a few in flux level between the model and the simulation are acceptable. However, this does not imply sphericity of the outflow and therefore does not translate to high observer angles relevant to orphan afterglows. For more accurate calorimetry and in order to model significant late-time features such as the rise of the counterjet, detailed jet simulations remain indispensable.

  15. USING TWISTED FILAMENTS TO MODEL THE INNER JET IN M 87

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardee, P. E.; Eilek, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    Radio and optical images of the M 87 jet show bright filaments, twisted into an apparent double helix, extending from HST-1 to knot A. Proper motions within the jet suggest a decelerating jet flow passing through a slower, accelerating wave pattern. We use these observations to develop a mass and energy flux-conserving model describing the jet flow and conditions along the jet. Our model requires the jet to be an internally hot, but subrelativistic plasma, from HST-1 to knot A. Subsequently, we assume that the jet is in pressure balance with an external cocoon and we determine the cocoon conditions required if the twisted filaments are the result of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) unstable elliptical mode. We find that the cocoon must be cooler than the jet at HST-1 but must be about as hot as the jet at knot A. Under these conditions, we find that the observed filament wavelength is near the elliptical mode maximum growth rate and growth is rapid enough for the filaments to develop and saturate well before HST-1. We generate a pseudo-synchrotron image of a model jet carrying a combination of normal modes of the KH instability. The pseudo-synchrotron image of the jet reveals that (1) a slow decline in the model jet's surface brightness is still about five times faster than the real jet, (2) KH-produced dual helically twisted filaments can appear qualitatively similar to those on the real jet if any helical perturbation to the jet is very small or nonexistent inside knot A, and (3) the knots in the real jet cannot be associated with the twisted filamentary features and are unlikely to be the result of a KH instability. The existence of the knots in the real jet, the limb brightening of the real jet in the radio, and the slower decline of the surface brightness of the real jet indicate that additional processes-such as unsteady jet flow and internal particle acceleration-are occurring within the jet. Disruption of the real jet beyond knot A by KH instability is consistent with the jet and cocoon conditions we find at knot A.

  16. Precise Predictions for Z + 4 Jets at Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ita, H.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.

    2011-12-09

    We present the cross section for production of a Z boson in association with four jets at the Large Hadron Collider, at next-to-leading order in the QCD coupling. When the Z decays to neutrinos, this process is a key irreducible background to many searches for new physics. Its computation has been made feasible through the development of the on-shell approach to perturbative quantum field theory. We present the total cross section for pp collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV, after folding in the decay of the Z boson, or virtual photon, to a charged-lepton pair. We also provide distributions of the transverse momenta of the four jets, and we compare cross sections and distributions to the corresponding ones for the production of a W boson with accompanying jets.

  17. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  18. Studies of the effects of curvature on dilution jet mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdeman, J.D.; Srinivasan, Ram: Reynolds, R.S.; White, C.D. Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Phoenix, AZ )

    1992-02-01

    An analytical program was conducted using both three-dimensional numerical and empirical models to investigate the effects of transition liner curvature on the mixing of jets injected into a confined crossflow. The numerical code is of the TEACH type with hybrid numerics; it uses the power-law and SIMPLER algorithms, an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, and an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model. From the results of the numerical calculations, an existing empirical model for the temperature field downstream of single and multiple rows of jets injected into a straight rectangular duct was extended to model the effects of curvature. Temperature distributions, calculated with both the numerical and empirical models, are presented to show the effects of radius of curvature and inner and outer wall injection for single and opposed rows of cool dilution jets injected into a hot mainstream flow. 27 refs.

  19. Exploring Avionics Using Dual Cool Jets | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exploring Next Generation Avionics Using Dual Cool Jets Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Exploring Next Generation Avionics Using Dual Cool Jets Ankit Kalani 2015.08.12 Heat is a byproduct of operating electronics. If not managed properly, it can severely affect the reliability and performance of the

  20. CMS Jet and Missing $E_T$ Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvira, V.Daniel; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    We describe how jets and E{sub T} are defined, reconstructed, and calibrated in CMS, as well as how the CMS detector performs in measuring these physics objects. Performance results are derived from the CMS simulation application, based on Geant4, and also from noise and cosmic commissioning data taken before the first collision event was recorded by CMS in November 2009. A jet and E{sub T} startup plan is in place which includes a data quality monitoring and prompt analysis task force to identify and fix problems as they arise.

  1. NLO QCD corrections to ZZ jet production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binoth, T.; Gleisberg, T.; Karg, S.; Kauer, N.; Sanguinetti, G.

    2010-05-26

    A fully differential calculation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the production of Z-boson pairs in association with a hard jet at the Tevatron and LHC is presented. This process is an important background for Higgs particle and new physics searches at hadron colliders. We find sizable corrections for cross sections and differential distributions, particularly at the LHC. Residual scale uncertainties are typically at the 10% level and can be further reduced by applying a veto against the emission of a second hard jet. Our results confirm that NLO corrections do not simply rescale LO predictions.

  2. Experimental study on confined two-phase jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Y.; Albagli, D. )

    1991-09-01

    The basic mixing phenomena in confined, coaxial, particle-laden turbulent flows are studied within the scope of ram combustor research activities. Cold-flow experiments in a relatively simple configuration of confined, coaxial two-phase jets provided both qualitative and quantitative insight on the multiphase mixing process. Pressure, tracer gas concentration, and two-phase velocity measurements revealed that unacceptably long ram combustors are needed for complete confined jet mixing. Comparison of the experimental results with a previous numerical simulation displayed a very good agreement, indicating the potential of the experimental facility for validation of computational parametric studies. 38 refs.

  3. Measurement of the Top Pair Production Cross Section in the Lepton + Jets Channel Using a Jet Flavor Discriminant

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-08-01

    We present a new method to measure the top quark pair production cross section and the background rates with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb-1 from p p̄ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II Detector. We select events with a single electron or muon candidate, missing transverse energy, and at least one b-tagged jet. We perform a simultaneous fit to a jet flavor discriminant across nine samples defined by the number of jets and b-tags. An advantage of this approach is that many systematic uncertainties are measured in situ and inversely scalemore » with integrated luminosity. We measure a top cross section of σtt¯ = 7.64 ± 0.57 (stat + syst) ± 0.45 (luminosity) pb.« less

  4. Measurement of the Top Pair Production Cross Section in the Lepton + Jets Channel Using a Jet Flavor Discriminant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T; Aaltonen, T; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A

    2011-08-01

    We present a new method to measure the top quark pair production cross section and the background rates with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb-1 from p p? collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II Detector. We select events with a single electron or muon candidate, missing transverse energy, and at least one b-tagged jet. We perform a simultaneous fit to a jet flavor discriminant across nine samples defined by the number of jets and b-tags. An advantage of this approach is that many systematic uncertainties are measured in situ and inversely scale with integrated luminosity. We measure a top cross section of ?tt? = 7.64 0.57 (stat + syst) 0.45 (luminosity) pb.

  5. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}: A highly efficient and stable composite photocatalyst for degradation of organic contaminants under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activities on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light. The improved photocatalytic performance and stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} originated from the synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. O{sub 2}?, one of the reactive species, was responsible for the photodegradation of MO compared to H+ and OH. - Highlights: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalyst was reported. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} had novel energy band combination between AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. Electron trapping role of metallic Ag dominated the stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts were constructed via depositionprecipitation method and extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (? > 420 nm), Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than those of Ag/AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for degradation of methyl orange (MO). 50% Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} presented the best photocatalytic performance, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and the in situ metallic Ag nanoparticles for efficiently separating electronhole pairs. Furthermore, Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} remained good photocatalytic activity through 5 times of cycle experiments. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that O{sub 2}{sup ?} was the main reactive species for the MO degradation under visible light.

  6. CENTIMETER CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE NORTHERN HEAD OF THE HH 80/81/80N JET: REVISING THE ACTUAL DIMENSIONS OF A PARSEC-SCALE JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masque, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert; Girart, Josep M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Beltran, Maria T.

    2012-10-10

    We present 6 and 20 cm Jansky Very Large Array/Very Large Array observations of the northern head of the HH 80/81/80N jet, one of the largest collimated jet systems known so far, aimed to look for knots farther than HH 80N, the northern head of the jet. Aligned with the jet and 10' northeast of HH 80N, we found a radio source not reported before, with a negative spectral index similar to that of HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N. The fit of a precessing jet model to the knots of the HH 80/81/80N jet, including the new source, shows that the position of this source is close to the jet path resulting from the modeling. If the new source belongs to the HH 80/81/80N jet, its derived size and dynamical age are 18.4 pc and >9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr, respectively. If the jet is symmetric, its southern lobe would expand beyond the cloud edge resulting in an asymmetric appearance of the jet. Based on the updated dynamical age, we speculate on the possibility that the HH 80/81/80N jet triggered the star formation observed in a dense core found ahead of HH 80N, which shows signposts of interaction with the jet. These results indicate that parsec-scale radio jets can play a role in the stability of dense clumps and the regulation of star formation in the molecular cloud.

  7. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  8. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2015-11-24

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  9. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Jr., Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2014-04-15

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  10. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling | Department of Energy Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling A new approach, called Adaptive-Jet-Cooling, leverages two distinct spray patters of hollow conical sprays and conventional multiple jets, eliminating key sources of NOx and PM. PDF icon p-12_hou.pdf More Documents & Publications A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature

  11. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  12. Direct molecular diffusion and micro-mixing for rapid dewatering of LiBr solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, S; Isfahani, RN; Moghaddam, S

    2014-03-01

    A slow molecular diffusion rate often limits the desorption process of an absorbate molecule from a liquid absorbent. To enhance the desorption rate, the absorbent is often boiled to increase the liquid vapor interfacial area. However, the growth of bubbles generated during the nucleate boiling process still remains mass-diffusion limited. Here, it is shown that a desorption rate higher than that of boiling can be achieved, if the vapor absorbent interface is continuously replenished with the absorbate-rich solution to limit the concentration boundary layer growth. The study is conducted in a LiBr-water-solution, in which the water molecules' diffusion rate is quite slow. The manipulation of the vapor solution interface concentration distribution is enabled by the mechanical confinement of the solution flow within microchannels, using a hydrophobic vapor-venting membrane and the implementation of microstructures on the flow channel's bottom wall. The microstructures stretch and fold the laminar streamlines within the solution film and produce vortices. The vortices continuously replace the concentrated solution at the vapor solution interface with the water-rich solution brought from the bottom and middle of the flow channel. The physics of the process is described using a combination of experimental and numerical studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Photoluminescence characteristics of polariton condensation in a CuBr microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakayama, Masaaki Murakami, Katsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Kim, DaeGwi

    2014-07-14

    We have investigated the photoluminescence (PL) properties of a CuBr microcavity at 10?K, including the temporal profiles, from the viewpoint of cavity-polariton condensation. The excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity (band width) of the lower polariton branch at an in-plane wave vector of k{sub //}?=?0 exhibits a threshold-like increase (decrease). A large blueshift in the PL energy of ?10?meV caused by the cavity-polariton renormalization is correlated with the excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity. The estimated density of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the threshold is two orders lower than the Mott transition density. These results consistently demonstrate the occurrence of cavity-polariton condensation. In addition, we found that the PL rise and decay times are shortened dramatically by the cavity-polariton condensation, which reflects the bosonic final state stimulation in the relaxation process and the intrinsic cavity-polariton lifetime in the decay process.

  14. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of an efficient Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalyst under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Yinghua; Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: The plasmatic Ag@AgBr sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts. Ag@AgBr greatly increased visible light absorption for K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The plamonic photocatalysts exhibited enhanced activity for the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: Ag@AgBr nanoparticle-sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts (Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}) were prepared by a facile precipitationphotoreduction method. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanocomposites were evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The composites exhibited excellent visible light absorption, which was attributable to the surface plasmon effect of Ag nanoparticles. The Ag@AgBr was uniformly scattered on the surface of K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} and possessed sizes in the range of 2050 nm. The loading amount of Ag@AgBr was also studied, and was found to influence the absorption spectra of the resulting composites. Approximately 95.9% of RhB was degraded by Ag@AgBr (20 wt.%)/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} after irradiation for 1 h. The stability of the material was also investigated by performing consecutive runs. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that O{sub 2}{sup ?} and Br{sup 0} acted as the main reactive species. Based on the experimental results, a photocatalytic mechanism for organics degradation over Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} photocatalysts was proposed.

  15. Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas–Emitting Jet Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On behalf of the Department of Defense and the U.S. Air Force, the Energy Department is seeking research projects that would lead to the commercial production of coal-derived jet fuel. Creating jet fuels from coal capitalizes on an abundant domestic energy resource and lessens our dependence on foreign oil for jet fuel production.

  16. OPTICAL PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENTS OF THE M87 JET: NEW RESULTS FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Sparks, W. B.; Biretta, J. A.; Anderson, Jay; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Norman, Colin; Nakamura, Masanori

    2013-09-10

    We report new results from a Hubble Space Telescope archival program to study proper motions in the optical jet of the nearby radio galaxy M87. Using over 13 yr of archival imaging, we reach accuracies below 0.1c in measuring the apparent velocities of individual knots in the jet. We confirm previous findings of speeds up to 4.5c in the inner 6'' of the jet, and report new speeds for optical components in the outer part of the jet. We find evidence of significant motion transverse to the jet axis on the order of 0.6c in the inner jet features, and superluminal velocities parallel and transverse to the jet in the outer knot components, with an apparent ordering of velocity vectors possibly consistent with a helical jet pattern. Previous results suggested a global deceleration over the length of the jet in the form of decreasing maximum speeds of knot components from HST-1 outward, but our results suggest that superluminal speeds persist out to knot C, with large differentials in very nearby features all along the jet. We find significant apparent accelerations in directions parallel and transverse to the jet axis, along with evidence for stationary features in knots D, E, and I. These results are expected to place important constraints on detailed models of kiloparsec-scale relativistic jets.

  17. Advanced Rooftop Unit Control

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced-Rooftop-Unit-Control Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  18. SCALED EXPERIMENTS EVALUATING PULSE JET MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Minette, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2009-11-13

    Pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The test data will be used to develop mixing models. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate, the concentration of solids near the vessel floor and the minimum velocity predicted to lift solids can be calculated. The test objective was to observe the influence of vertically downward-directed jets on noncohesive solids in a series of scaled tanks with several bottom shapes. The test tanks and bottom shapes included small-and large-scale tanks with elliptical bottoms, a mid-scale tank with a spherical bottom, and a large-scale tank with an F&D bottom. During testing, the downward-directed jets were operated in either a steady flow condition or a pulsed (periodic) flow condition. The mobilization of the solids resulting from the jets was evaluated based on: the motion/agitation of the particulate on the tank floor and the elevation the solids reach within the tank; the height the solids material reaches in the tank is referred to as the cloud height (HC).

  19. Max Data Report Jet Stability versus Inlet Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomperski, S.; Bremer, N.

    2015-09-01

    This document describes experiments investigating the effect of inlet geometry on the flow field within a glass tank where two jets mix and impinge upon the lid. The setup mimics the outlet plenum of a fast reactor where core exit flows of different temperatures can mix in ways that induce thermal cycling in neighboring structures.

  20. Diagnostic of fusion neutrons on JET tokamak using diamond detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Marchenko, N.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R.; Popovichev, S.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Conbributors

    2014-08-21

    In 2011-2012, an experimental campaign with a significant yield of fusion neutrons was carried out on the JET tokamak. During this campaign the facility was equipped with two diamond detectors based on natural and artificial CVD diamond. These detectors were designed and manufactured in State Research Center of Russian Federation TRINITI. The detectors measure the flux of fast neutrons with energies above 0.2 MeV. They have been installed in the torus hall and the distance from the center of plasma was about 3 m. For some of the JET pulses in this experiment, the neutron flux density corresponded to the operational conditions in collimator channels of ITER Vertical Neutron Camera. The main objective of diamond monitors was the measurement of total fast neutron flux at the detector location and the estimation of the JET total neutron yield. The detectors operate as threshold counters. Additionally a spectrometric measurement channel has been configured that allowed us to distinguish various energy components of the neutron spectrum. In this paper we describe the neutron signal measuring and calibration procedure of the diamond detector. Fluxes of DD and DT neutrons at the detector location were measured. It is shown that the signals of total neutron yield measured by the diamond detector correlate with signals measured by the main JET neutron diagnostic based on fission chambers with high accuracy. This experiment can be considered as a successful test of diamond detectors in ITER-like conditions.

  1. BARYON LOADING OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS MEDIATED BY NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toma, K.; Takahara, F.

    2012-08-01

    Plasmas of geometrically thick, black hole (BH) accretion flows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generally collisionless for protons, and involve magnetic field turbulence. Under such conditions a fraction of protons can be accelerated stochastically and create relativistic neutrons via nuclear collisions. These neutrons can freely escape from the accretion flow and decay into protons in the dilute polar region above the rotating BH to form relativistic jets. We calculate geometric efficiencies of the neutron energy and mass injections into the polar region, and show that this process can deposit luminosity as high as L{sub j}{approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M-dot c{sup 2} and mass loading M-dot{sub j}{approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M-dot for the case of the BH mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate. The terminal Lorentz factors of the jets are {Gamma} {approx} 3, and they may explain the AGN jets having low luminosities. For higher luminosity jets, which can be produced by additional energy inputs such as Poynting flux, the neutron decay still can be a dominant mass loading process, leading to, e.g., {Gamma} {approx} 50 for L{sub j,tot}{approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M-dot c{sup 2}.

  2. Viscosity and density of aqueous solutions of LiBr, LiCl, ZnBr[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2], and LiNO[sub 3]; 1: Single salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimby, J.M.; Berntsson, T.S. . Dept. of Heat and Power Technology)

    1994-01-01

    New experimental data for the viscosity and density of the binary systems lithium chloride + water, lithium bromide + water, calcium chloride + water, lithium nitrate + water, and zinc bromide + water are presented. Densities are presented in tabular form and as 10-parameter correlations, while kinematic and dynamic viscosities are presented in tabular form. Data are presented in the concentration range from intermediate dilution to close to room temperature crystallization concentration. The temperature ranges are 20--70 C for density and 25--90 C for viscosity. When available, literature data are compared with the new data, and some disagreement is found. New thermogravimetric curves are presented for the dehydration of CaCl[sub 2], ZnBr[sub 2], and LiBr in order to enable evaluation of drying as a composition determination technique.

  3. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections ?(pp??Z+b jet)/?(pp??Z+jet) in pp? collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besanon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Prez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Dliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garca-Gonzlez, J. A.; Garca-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grnendahl, S.; Grnewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffr, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Magaa-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martnez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Ptroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Snchez-Hernndez, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Sldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, ?(pp??Z+b jet)/?(pp??Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilabs Tevatron pp? Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb?. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculations and various Monte Carlo event generators.

  4. Evidence of parsec-scale jets in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezcua, M.; Prieto, M. A.

    2014-05-20

    The nuclear radio emission of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) is often associated with unresolved cores. In this paper we show that most LLAGNs present extended jet radio emission when observed with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity. They are thus able to power, at least, parsec-scale radio jets. To increase the detection rate of jets in LLAGNs, we analyze subarcsecond resolution data of three low-ionization nuclear emission regions. This yields the detection of extended jet-like radio structures in NGC 1097 and NGC 2911 and the first resolved parsec-scale jet of NGC 4594 (Sombrero). The three sources belong to a sample of nearby LLAGNs for which high-spatial-resolution spectral energy distribution of their core emission is available. This allows us to study their accretion rate and jet power (Q {sub jet}) without drawing on (most) of the ad hoc assumptions usually considered in large statistical surveys. We find that those LLAGNs with large-scale radio jets (>100 pc) have Q {sub jet} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup 1}, while the lowest Q {sub jet} correspond to those LLAGNs with parsec-scale (?100 pc) jets. The Q {sub jet} is at least as large as the radiated bolometric luminosity for all LLAGN, in agreement with previous statistical studies. Our detection of parsec-scale jets in individual objects further shows that the kinematic jet contribution is equally important in large- or parsec-scale objects. We also find that the Eddington-scaled accretion rate is still highly sub-Eddingtonian (<10{sup 4}) when adding the Q {sub jet} to the total emitted luminosity (radiated plus kinetic). This indicates that LLAGNs are not only inefficient radiators but that they also accrete inefficiently or are very efficient advectors.

  5. Jet-wall interaction effects on diesel combustion and soot formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickett, Lyle M.; Lopez, J. Javier

    2004-09-01

    The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and 'confined' wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.

  6. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  7. Structure of hydrogen-rich transverse jets in a vitiated

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lyra, Sgouria; Wilde, Benjamin; Kolla, Hemanth; Seitzman, Jerry M.; Lieuwen, Timothy C.; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2014-11-24

    Our paper reports the results of a joint experimental and numerical study of the flow characteristics and flame structure of a hydrogen rich jet injected normal to a turbulent, vitiated crossflow of lean methane combustion products. Simultaneous high-speed stereoscopic PIV and OH PLIF measurements were obtained and analyzed alongside three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of inert and reacting JICF with detailed H2/COH2/CO chemistry. Both the experiment and the simulation reveal that, contrary to most previous studies of reacting JICF stabilized in low-to-moderate temperature air crossflow, the present conditions lead to a burner-attached flame that initiates uniformly around the burner edge. Significantmoreasymmetry is observed, however, between the reaction zones located on the windward and leeward sides of the jet, due to the substantially different scalar dissipation rates. The windward reaction zone is much thinner in the near field, while also exhibiting significantly higher local and global heat release than the much broader reaction zone found on the leeward side of the jet. The unsteady dynamics of the windward shear layer, which largely control the important jet/crossflow mixing processes in that region, are explored in order to elucidate the important flow stability implications arising in the inert and reacting JICF. The paper concludes with an analysis of the ignition, flame characteristics, and global structure of the burner-attached flame. FurthermoreChemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) shows that the entire windward shear layer, and a large region on the leeward side of the jet, are highly explosive prior to ignition and are dominated by non-premixed flame structures after ignition. The predominantly mixing limited nature of the flow after ignition is examined by computing the Takeno flame index, which shows that ~70% of the heat release occurs in non-premixed regions.less

  8. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  9. Relativistic jet properties of GeV-TeV blazars and possible implications for the jet formation, composition, and cavity kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jin; Lu, Ye; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Sun, Xiao-Na; Liang, En-Wei; Lu, Rui-Jing E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn

    2014-06-20

    We fit the spectral energy distributions of a GeV-TeV flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) sample with the leptonic model. Their ?{sub min} of the relativistic electron distributions, which significantly affect the estimate of the jet properties, are constrained, with a typical value of ?48. Their jet power, magnetized parameter, radiation efficiency, and jet production and radiation rates per central black hole (BH) mass are derived and compared with those of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. We show that the FSRQ jets may be dominated by the Poynting flux and have a high radiation efficiency, whereas the BL Lac object jets are likely dominated by particles and have a lower radiation efficiency than FSRQs. Being different from BL Lac objects, the jet powers of FSRQs are proportional to their central BH masses. The jet production and radiation rates of the FSRQs distribute in narrow ranges and are correlated with each other, whereas no similar feature is found for the BL Lac objects. We also show that the jet power is correlated with the cavity kinetic power: the magnetic field energy in the jets may provide the cavity kinetic energy of FSRQs, and the kinetic energy of cold protons in the jets may be crucial for the cavity kinetic energy of BL Lac objects. We suggest that the dominating formation mechanism of FSRQ jets may be the Blandford-Znajek process, but BL Lac object jets may be produced via the Blandford-Payne and/or Blandford-Znajek processes, depending on the structures and accretion rates of accretion disks.

  10. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  11. Comparison of CsBr and KBr coated Cu photocathodes: Effects of laser irradiation and work function changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weidong; VilayurGanapathy, Subramanian; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Maldonado, Juan R.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-02-20

    Thin films (7 nm layers) of CsBr and KBr were deposited on Cu(100) to investigate photoemission properties of these potential photocathode materials. After thin film deposition and prolonged laser ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (266 nm picosecond laser) photoemission quantum efficiency increases by factors of 26 and 77 for KBr/Cu(100) and CsBr/Cu(100) photocathodes, respectively. Immediately following thin film deposition, a decrease in work function is observed, compared to bare Cu, in both cases. Quantum efficiency enhancements are attributed to the decrease in photocathode work function, due to the deposition of alkali halide thin films, and photo-induced processes, that introduce defect states into the alkali halide bandgap, induced by UV laser irradiation. It is possible that alkali metal formation occurs during UV irradiation and that this further contributes to photoemission enhancement. Our results suggest that KBr, a relatively stable alkali-halide, has potential for photocathode applications.

  12. Cs{sub 3}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 15}Z (Z = C, B): A stuffed rhombohedral perovskite structure of linked clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Ru-Yi; Corbett, J.D.

    1995-03-29

    The isostructural title compounds are synthesized in good yields form reactions of Zr, ZrBr{sub 4}, CsBr, and Z in sealed Ta tubing for {approximately}3 weeks at 850 {degrees}C. Their single-crystal data refinements established the products as Cs{sub 3.02(7)-}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 14}C and Cs{sub 3.39(5)}Zr{sub 6}br{sub 15}B (R3c, Z = 6, a = 13.1031 (6), 13.116(1) {angstrom}, c = 35.800(3), 35.980(6) {angstrom}, R(F)/R{sub w} = 5.4/5.9, 5.4/4.4%, respectively). The structure is derived form a three-dimensional [Zr{sub 6}(Z)Br{sub 12}]Br{sub 6/2} network of four-rings (as in ReO{sub 6/2}) twisted into a rhombohedral perovskite analogous to VF{sub 3}. The three necessary Cs{sup +} cations are fractionally distributed over five sites that are far from optimal or common, with either eight asymmetric or only three close bromide neighbors. Refinement of a third Cs{sub 3.18(5)}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 15}C structure at {minus}50 {degrees}C gave the same result with somewhat smaller positional distributions of the atoms.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed Br/D exchange of arenes: Selective deuterium incorporation with versatile functional group tolerance and high efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Honghai -Hai; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2015-07-13

    There is a facile method for introducing one or more deuterium atoms onto an aromatic nucleus via Br/D exchange with high functional group tolerance and high incorporation efficiency is disclosed. Deuterium-labeled aryl chlorides and aryl borates which could be used as substrates in cross-coupling reactions to construct more complicated deuterium-labeled compounds can also be synthesized by this method.

  14. Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the Caltech plasma jet experiment: first results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M.; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai E-mail: pbellan@caltech.edu E-mail: sli@lanl.gov

    2014-08-10

    Magnetic fields are believed to play an essential role in astrophysical jets with observations suggesting the presence of helical magnetic fields. Here, we present three-dimensional (3D) ideal MHD simulations of the Caltech plasma jet experiment using a magnetic tower scenario as the baseline model. Magnetic fields consist of an initially localized dipole-like poloidal component and a toroidal component that is continuously being injected into the domain. This flux injection mimics the poloidal currents driven by the anode-cathode voltage drop in the experiment. The injected toroidal field stretches the poloidal fields to large distances, while forming a collimated jet along with several other key features. Detailed comparisons between 3D MHD simulations and experimental measurements provide a comprehensive description of the interplay among magnetic force, pressure, and flow effects. In particular, we delineate both the jet structure and the transition process that converts the injected magnetic energy to other forms. With suitably chosen parameters that are derived from experiments, the jet in the simulation agrees quantitatively with the experimental jet in terms of magnetic/kinetic/inertial energy, total poloidal current, voltage, jet radius, and jet propagation velocity. Specifically, the jet velocity in the simulation is proportional to the poloidal current divided by the square root of the jet density, in agreement with both the experiment and analytical theory. This work provides a new and quantitative method for relating experiments, numerical simulations, and astrophysical observation, and demonstrates the possibility of using terrestrial laboratory experiments to study astrophysical jets.

  15. Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; et al

    2015-11-27

    We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamicsmore » in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.« less

  16. CONFRONTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TIME-DEPENDENT JET SIMULATIONS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staff, Jan E.; Niebergal, Brian P.; Ouyed, Rachid; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Cai, Kai

    2010-10-20

    We perform state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of magnetized disk winds, carried out to simulation scales of 60 AU, in order to confront optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of protostellar jets. We 'observe' the optical forbidden line emission produced by shocks within our simulated jets and compare these with actual observations. Our simulations reproduce the rich structure of time-varying jets, including jet rotation far from the source, an inner (up to 400 km s{sup -1}) and outer (less than 100 km s{sup -1}) component of the jet, and jet widths of up to 20 AU in agreement with observed jets. These simulations when compared with the data are able to constrain disk wind models. In particular, models featuring a disk magnetic field with a modest radial spatial variation across the disk are favored.

  17. Role of metastable atoms in the propagation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Qing; Zhu Ximing; Li Jiangtao; Pu Yikang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    In the experiment of plasma jets generated in a tube dielectric barrier discharge configuration, three distinguishable modes, namely, laminar, transition, and turbulent jet modes, have been identified. Flows of helium, neon, and argon gases shared the hydrodynamic law when their plasma jets spraying into ambient air of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Aiming to reveal the basic processes, we propose that plasma jet length is mainly determined by reactions involving metastable atoms. These processes are responsible for the variation in plasma jet length versus gas flow rate and working gas species. To investigate this proposal in detail, we have obtained three significant experimental results, i.e., (1) the plasma jet lengths of helium, neon, and argon are different; (2) the plasma jet length of krypton slightly changes with gas flow rate, with three modes indistinguishable; and (3) there are large differences between optical emission spectra of helium, neon, argon, and krypton flow gases. These observations are in good agreement with our proposal.

  18. STATISTICAL STUDY OF CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS OBSERVED WITH HINODE/SOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishizuka, N.; Nakamura, T.; Kawate, T.; Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K.

    2011-04-10

    The Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode has revealed numerous tiny jets in all regions of the chromosphere outside of sunspots. A typical chromospheric anemone jet has a cusp-shaped structure and bright footpoint, similar to the shape of an X-ray anemone jet observed previously with the Soft X-ray Telescope on board Yohkoh. The similarity in the shapes of chromospheric and X-ray anemone jets suggests that chromospheric anemone jets are produced as a result of the magnetic reconnection between a small bipole (perhaps a tiny emerging flux) and a pre-existing uniform magnetic field in the lower chromosphere. We examine various chromospheric anemone jets in the solar active region near the solar limb and study the typical features (e.g., length, width, lifetime, and velocity) of the chromospheric anemone jets. Statistical studies show that chromospheric anemone jets have: (1) a typical length {approx}1.0-4.0 Mm, (2) a width {approx}100-400 km, (3) a lifetime {approx}100-500 s, and (4) a velocity {approx}5-20 km s{sup -1}. The velocity of the chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfven speed in the lower solar chromosphere ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}). The histograms of chromospheric anemone jets near the limb and near the disk center show similar averages and shapes of distributions, suggesting that the characteristic behavior of chromospheric anemone jets is independent of whether they are observed on the disk or at the limb. The observed relationship between the velocity and length of chromospheric anemone jets shows that the jets do not follow ballistic motion but are more likely accelerated by some other mechanism. This is consistent with numerical simulations of chromospheric anemone jets.

  19. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  20. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, ...","Own","Rent","Own","Rent","Own","Rent" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,76.5,37.1,63....

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water ...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry" "Water Heating",,"Cold",,"Hot-Dry","Hot-Humid","M...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ... to 119,999","120,000 or More" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,23.7,27.5,21....

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, ... to 1989","1990 to 1999","2000 to 2009" "Water Heating" "Total Homes",113.6,14.4,5.2,13.5...

  6. United States Government

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    cr--ceut w.:3 i-Kun: TO:202 586 1660 P.002006 DOE F 1325. EFG (07.PO) United States Government Department of Energy memorandum DATE: September 24, 2004 Audit Report Number:...

  7. United States Nuclear Tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Two nuclear weapons that the United States exploded over Japan ending World War II are not listed. These detonations were not "tests" in the sense that they were conducted to prove ...

  8. Second United Nations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nations . DISCLAIMER This report was prepared a s an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither t h e United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

  9. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.

  10. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  11. Classifier based on support vector machine for JET plasma configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H.

    2008-10-15

    The last flux surface can be used to identify the plasma configuration of discharges. For automated recognition of JET configurations, a learning system based on support vector machines has been developed. Each configuration is described by 12 geometrical parameters. A multiclass system has been developed by means of the one-versus-the-rest approach. Results with eight simultaneous classes (plasma configurations) show a success rate close to 100%.

  12. Shooting string holography of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ficnar, Andrej; Gubser, Steven S.; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2014-10-13

    We derive a new formula for jet energy loss using finite endpoint momentum shooting strings initial conditions in SYM plasmas to overcome the difficulties of previous falling string holographic scenarios. We apply the new formula to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow parameter v2 of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC. We show furthermore that GaussBonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry improve the agreement with the recent data.

  13. Inclusive jet cross-section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2007-05-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  14. Pulsed jet combustion generator for premixed charge engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Stewart, H. E.; Hom, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method and device for generating pulsed jets which will form plumes comprising eddie structures, which will entrain a fuel/air mixture from the head space of an internal combustion engine, and mixing this fuel/air mixture with a pre-ignited fuel/air mixture of the plumes thereby causing combustion of the reactants to occur within the interior of the eddie structures.

  15. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  16. Methods and system for subsurface stabilization using jet grouting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Farnsworth, Richard K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jessmore, James J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and systems are provided for stabilizing a subsurface area such as a buried waste pit for either long term storage, or interim storage and retrieval. A plurality of holes are drilled into the subsurface area with a high pressure drilling system provided with a drill stem having jet grouting nozzles. A grouting material is injected at high pressure through the jet grouting nozzles into a formed hole while the drill stem is withdrawn from the hole at a predetermined rate of rotation and translation. A grout-filled column is thereby formed with minimal grout returns, which when overlapped with other adjacent grout-filled columns encapsulates and binds the entire waste pit area to form a subsurface agglomeration or monolith of grout, soil, and waste. The formed monolith stabilizes the buried waste site against subsidence while simultaneously providing a barrier against contaminate migration. The stabilized monolith can be left permanently in place or can be retrieved if desired by using appropriate excavation equipment. The jet grouting technique can also be utilized in a pretreatment approach prior to in situ vitrification of a buried waste site. The waste encapsulation methods and systems are applicable to buried waste materials such as mixed waste, hazardous waste, or radioactive waste.

  17. Spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emission from stratified jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Jin; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Tolstov, Alexey; Mao, Jirong; Dainotti, Maria; Mizuta, Akira

    2014-07-10

    We explore the spectral and polarization properties of photospheric emissions from stratified jets in which multiple components, separated by sharp velocity shear regions, are distributed in lateral directions. Propagation of thermal photons injected at a high optical depth region are calculated until they escape from the photosphere. It is found that the presence of the lateral structure within the jet leads to the nonthermal feature of the spectra and significant polarization signal in the resulting emission. The deviation from thermal spectra, as well as the polarization degree, tends to be enhanced as the velocity gradient in the shear region increases. In particular, we show that emissions from multicomponent jet can reproduce the typical observed spectra of gamma-ray bursts irrespective of the position of the observer when a velocity shear region is closely spaced in various lateral (?) positions. The degree of polarization associated with the emission is significant (>few percent) at a wide range of observer angles and can be higher than 30%.

  18. Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo

    2014-06-15

    We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion diskstogether with the disk-source-jet coupling problemare discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities.

  19. UNIFYING THE ZOO OF JET-DRIVEN STELLAR EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzati, Davide; Blackwell, Christopher H.; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a set of numerical simulations of stellar explosions induced by relativistic jets emanating from a central engine sitting at the center of compact, dying stars. We explore a wide range of durations of the central engine activity, two candidate stellar progenitors, and two possible values of the total energy release. We find that even if the jets are narrowly collimated, their interaction with the star unbinds the stellar material, producing a stellar explosion. We also find that the outcome of the explosion can be very different depending on the duration of the engine activity. Only the longest-lasting engines result in successful gamma-ray bursts. Engines that power jets only for a short time result in relativistic supernova (SN) explosions, akin to observed engine-driven SNe such as SN2009bb. Engines with intermediate durations produce weak gamma-ray bursts, with properties similar to nearby bursts such as GRB 980425. Finally, we find that the engines with the shortest durations, if they exist in nature, produce stellar explosions that lack sizable amounts of relativistic ejecta and are therefore dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary core-collapse SNe.

  20. MULTIPLE PLASMA EJECTIONS AND INTERMITTENT NATURE OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.; Nishizuka, N. E-mail: nishida@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: isobe@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of {approx}4 km s{sup -1}. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of {approx}35 km s{sup -1} was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  1. Comparison of the Z$$/\\gamma^{*}$$ + jets to $$\\gamma$$ + jets cross sections in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-20

    In this study, a comparison of the differential cross sections for the processes Z/γ * + jets and photon (γ)+jets is presented. The measurements are based on data collected with the CMS detector at √s = 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb–1. The differential cross sections and their ratios are presented as functions of pT. The measurements are also shown as functions of the jet multiplicity. Differential cross sections are obtained as functions of the ratio of the Z/γ* pT to the sum of all jet transverse momenta and of the ratio of the Z/γ* pTmore » to the leading jet transverse momentum. The data are corrected for detector effects and are compared to simulations based on several QCD calculations.« less

  2. Comparison of the Z$/\\gamma^{*}$ + jets to $\\gamma$ + jets cross sections in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-20

    In this study, a comparison of the differential cross sections for the processes Z/γ * + jets and photon (γ)+jets is presented. The measurements are based on data collected with the CMS detector at √s = 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb–1. The differential cross sections and their ratios are presented as functions of pT. The measurements are also shown as functions of the jet multiplicity. Differential cross sections are obtained as functions of the ratio of the Z/γ* pT to the sum of all jet transverse momenta and of the ratio of the Z/γ* pT to the leading jet transverse momentum. The data are corrected for detector effects and are compared to simulations based on several QCD calculations.

  3. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaojuan Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan; Zhu, Yunyan; He, Changfa; Liu, Minghua Lin, Chunxiang; Liu, Yifan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a depositionprecipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.

  4. An arc control and protection system for the JET lower hybrid antenna based on an imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueiredo, J.

    2014-11-15

    Arcs are the potentially most dangerous events related to Lower Hybrid (LH) antenna operation. If left uncontrolled they can produce damage and cause plasma disruption by impurity influx. To address this issue an arc real time control and protection imaging system for the Joint European Torus (JET) LH antenna has been implemented. The LH system is one of the additional heating systems at JET. It comprises 24 microwave generators (klystrons, operating at 3.7 GHz) providing up to 5 MW of heating and current drive to the JET plasma. This is done through an antenna composed of an array of waveguides facing the plasma. The protection system presented here is based primarily on an imaging arc detection and real time control system. It has adapted the ITER like wall hotspot protection system using an identical CCD camera and real time image processing unit. A filter has been installed to avoid saturation and spurious system triggers caused by ionization light. The antenna is divided in 24 Regions Of Interest (ROIs) each one corresponding to one klystron. If an arc precursor is detected in a ROI, power is reduced locally with subsequent potential damage and plasma disruption avoided. The power is subsequently reinstated if, during a defined interval of time, arcing is confirmed not to be present by image analysis. This system was successfully commissioned during the restart phase and beginning of the 2013 scientific campaign. Since its installation and commissioning, arcs and related phenomena have been prevented. In this contribution we briefly describe the camera, image processing, and real time control systems. Most importantly, we demonstrate that an LH antenna arc protection system based on CCD camera imaging systems works. Examples of both controlled and uncontrolled LH arc events and their consequences are shown.

  5. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  6. Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr3 for Nuclear Radiation and Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Guss, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ron Guise, Ding Yuan

    2010-06-09

    Scintillator materials are used to detect, and in some cases identify, gamma rays. Higher performance scintillators are expensive, hard to manufacture, fragile, and sometimes require liquid nitrogen or cooling engines. But whereas lower-quality scintillators are cheap, easy to manufacture, and more rugged, their performance is lower. At issue: can the desirable qualities of high-and low-performance scintillators be combined to achieve better performance at lower cost? Preliminary experiments show that a LaF{sub 3}:Ce oleic acid-based nanocomposite exhibits a photopeak when exposed to {sup 137}Cs source gamma-radiation. The chemical synthesis of the cerium-doped lanthanum halide nanoparticles are scalable and large quantities of material can be produced at a time, unlike typical crystal growth processes such as the Bridgeman process. Using a polymer composite (Figure 1), produced by LANL, initial measurements of the unloaded and 8% LaF{sub 3}:Ce-loaded sample have been made using {sup 137}Cs sources. Figure 2 shows an energy spectrum acquired for CeF{sub 3}. The lighter plot is the measured polymer-only spectrum and the black plot is the spectrum from the nanocomposite scintillator. As the development of this material continues, the energy resolution is expected to improve and the photopeak-to-Compton ratio will become greater at higher loadings. These measurements show the expected Compton edge in the polymer-only sample, and the Compton edge and photo-peak expected in the nanophosphor composites that LANL has produced. Using a porous VYCORR with CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, Letant has demonstrated that he has obtained signatures of the 241Am photopeak with energy resolution as good at NaI (Figure 3). We begin with the fact that CeBr{sub 3} crystals do not have a self-activity component as strong as the lanthanum halides. The radioactive 0.090% {sup 138}La component of lanthanum leads to significant self-activity, which will be a problem for very large detector volumes. Yet a significant strength of the nanostructure detector concept is the ability to create extremely large detector volumes by mixing nanoparticles into a transparent matrix. This would argue for use of nanoparticles other than lanthanum halides. Nanocomposites are easy to prepare; it is much less costly to use nanocomposites than to grow large whole crystals of these materials. The material can be fabricated at an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This material potentially offers the performance of $300/cc material (e.g., lanthanum bromide) at a cost of $1/cc. Because the material acts as a plastic, it is rugged and flexible, and can be made in large sheets, increasing the sensitivity of a detector using it. It would operate at ambient temperatures. Very large volumes of detector may be produced at greatly reduced cost, enhancing the non-proliferation posture of the nation for the same dollar value.

  7. United States Environmental Monitoring

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EPA 60014-91/030 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory DOE/DP00539-063 Agency P.O. Box 93478 Las Vegas NV 891 93-3478 Research and Development Offsite Environmental Monitoring Report: 1 - 3 5 Radiation Monitorina Around * / (- P 7 1 United States ~ u c l g a r Test Areas Calendar Year 1990 This page intentionally left blank EPN60014-90 DOWDP Offsite Environmental Monitoring Report: Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1990 Contributors: D.J. Chaloud,

  8. Image analysis of jet structure on electrospinning from free liquid surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kula, Jiri Linka, Ales Tunak, Maros; Lukas, David

    2014-06-16

    The work analyses intra-jet distances during electrospinning from a free surface of water based poly(vinyl alcohol) solution confined by two thin metallic plates employed as a spinning electrode. A unique computer vision system and digital image processing were designed in order to track position of every polymer jet. Here, we show that jet position data are in good compliance with theoretically predicted intra-jet distances by linear stability analysis. Jet density is a critical parameter of electrospinning technology, since it determines the process efficiency and homogeneity of produced nanofibrous layer. Achievements made in this research could be used as essential approach to study jetting from two-dimensional spinning electrodes, or as fundamentals for further development of control system related to Nanospider{sup } technology.

  9. SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco; Poletto, Giannina; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-02-15

    We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

  10. Confronting X-Ray Emission Models with theHighest-Redshift Kiloparsec-Scale Jets: The z = 3.89 Jet in Quasar 1745+624

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, C.C.; Stawarz, L.; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2006-06-28

    A newly identified kiloparsec-scale X-ray jet in the high-redshift z=3.89 quasar 1745+624 is studied with multi-frequency Very Large Array, Hubble Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray imaging data. This is only the third large-scale X-ray jet beyond z > 3 known and is further distinguished as being the most luminous relativistic jet observed at any redshift, exceeding 10{sup 45} erg/s in both the radio and X-ray bands. Apart from the jet's extreme redshift, luminosity, and high inferred equipartition magnetic field (in comparison to local analogues), its basic properties such as X-ray/radio morphology and radio polarization are similar to lower-redshift examples. Its resolved linear structure and the convex broad-band spectral energy distributions of three distinct knots are also a common feature among known powerful X-ray jets at lower-redshift. Relativistically beamed inverse Compton and ''non-standard'' synchrotron models have been considered to account for such excess X-ray emission in other jets; both models are applicable to this high-redshift example but with differing requirements for the underlying jet physical properties, such as velocity, energetics, and electron acceleration processes. One potentially very important distinguishing characteristic between the two models is their strongly diverging predictions for the X-ray/radio emission with increasing redshift. This is considered, though with the limited sample of three z > 3 jets it is apparent that future studies targeted at very high-redshift jets are required for further elucidation of this issue. Finally, from the broad-band jet emission we estimate the jet kinetic power to be no less than 10{sup 46} erg/s, which is about 10% of the Eddington luminosity corresponding to this galaxy's central supermassive black hole mass M{sub BH} {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub {circle_dot}} estimated here via the virial relation. The optical luminosity of the quasar core is about ten times over Eddington, hence the inferred jet power seems to be much less than that available from mass accretion. The apparent super-Eddington accretion rate may however suggest contribution of the unresolved jet emission to the observed optical flux of the nucleus.

  11. United Nations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW)...

  12. Waveform dependence on signal amplitude in the RHIC H-Jet polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poblaguev, A. A.

    2014-02-25

    A simulation of the signal waveform in the H-Jet polarimeter is discussed. The simulation includes a model of charge collection in the silicon detector and a response functions of the H-Jet front end electronics. Results of the simulation are compared with experimental data. It is shown that an analysis of the signal shape may help to suppress background in the H-Jet polarization measurements.

  13. An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts An Update on FAA Alternative Jet Fuel Efforts Session 1-B: Advancing Alternative Fuels for the Military and Aviation Sector Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Nate Brown, Alternative Fuels Project Manager, Office of the Environment and Energy, Federal Aviation Administration PDF icon b13_brown_2-b.pdf More Documents & Publications Federal Activities in the Bioeconomy Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels Webinar: Bioproducts in the

  14. JET ROTATION INVESTIGATED IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, Deirdre; Ray, Thomas P.; Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Bacciotti, Francesca; Eisloeffel, Jochen

    2012-04-20

    We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magnetocentrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau, and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio to allow for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km s{sup -1} in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements for the receding jet. The near-ultraviolet difference is not found six months later, nor is it found in the fainter receding jet. Overall, in the case of RW Aur, differences are not consistent with a simple jet rotation interpretation. Indeed, given the renowned complexity and variability of this system, it now seems likely that any rotation signature is confused by other influences, with the inevitable conclusion that RW Aur is not suited to a jet rotation study.

  15. PERIODIC STRUCTURE IN THE MEGAPARSEC-SCALE JET OF PKS 0637-752

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Ekers, R.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Bicknell, G. V.; Jauncey, D. L.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Schwartz, D. A.; Marshall, H. L.; Gelbord, J.; Perlman, E. S.; Georganopoulos, M.

    2012-10-20

    We present 18 GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging of the megaparsec-scale quasar jet PKS 0637-752 with angular resolution {approx}0.''58. We draw attention to a spectacular train of quasi-periodic knots along the inner 11'' of the jet, with average separation {approx}1.1 arcsec (7.6 kpc projected). We consider two classes of model to explain the periodic knots: those that involve a static pattern through which the jet plasma travels (e.g., stationary shocks) and those that involve modulation of the jet engine. Interpreting the knots as re-confinement shocks implies the jet kinetic power Q{sub jet} {approx} 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, but the constant knot separation along the jet is not expected in a realistic external density profile. For models involving modulation of the jet engine, we find that the required modulation period is 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr < {tau} < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} yr. The lower end of this range is applicable if the jet remains highly relativistic on kiloparsec scales, as implied by the IC/CMB model of jet X-ray emission. We suggest that the periodic jet structure in PKS 0637-752 may be analogous to the quasi-periodic jet modulation seen in the microquasar GRS 1915+105, believed to result from limit cycle behavior in an unstable accretion disk. If variations in the accretion rate are driven by a binary black hole, the predicted orbital radius is 0.7 pc {approx}< a {approx}< 30 pc, which corresponds to a maximum angular separation of {approx}0.1-5 mas.

  16. Measurements of $W/Z$ Production in Association with Jets at D0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the associated production of jets and vector bosons is of paramount importance for the top quark physics, for the Higgs boson and for many new physics searches. In this contribution, recent measurements of W/Z+jets and Z+b-jets processes by the D0 experiment are presented. The measurements are compared to theoretical predictions from next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations where available, and to several Monte Carlo model predictions.

  17. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. V-210: HP LaserJet Pro Printer Bug Lets Remote Users Access Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A potential security vulnerability has been identified with certain HP LaserJet Pro printers. The vulnerability could be exploited remotely to gain unauthorized access to data.

  19. GE Uses 3D Printers to Make Jet Parts | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies, was interviewed on Bloomberg Television's "Bloomberg West" by Emily Chang. The discussion centered around using 3D print technology for making jet engine parts....

  20. Project W320 heel jet secondary catch mechanism lateral load test - test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellomy, J.R.

    1994-12-01

    This test report summarizes testing activities and documents the results of the lateral load test performed on the Heel Jet Secondary Catch Mechanism.

  1. Inclusive b-jet production in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-04-01

    The inclusive b-jet production cross section in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is measured using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The cross section is presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum in the range 18 < pT < 200 GeV for several rapidity intervals. The results are also given as the ratio of the b-jet production cross section to the inclusive jet production cross section. The measurement is performed with two different analyses, which differ in their trigger selection and b-jet identification: a jet analysis that selects events with a b jet using a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 34 inverse picobarns, and a muon analysis requiring a b jet with a muon based on an integrated luminosity of 3 inverse picobarns. In both approaches the b jets are identified by requiring a secondary vertex. The results from the two methods are in agreement with each other and with next-to-leading order calculations, as well as with predictions based on the PYTHIA event generator.

  2. A precise in situ calibration of the RHIC H-Jet polarimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poblaguev, A. A.

    2014-03-05

    Two new methods of calibration of the hydrogen jet target polarimeter (H-Jet) at RHIC are discussed. First method is based on the measurement of low amplitude signal time of fast particles penetrating through detector. The second, geometry based, method employs correlation between z-coordinate of the recoil proton and its kinetic energy. Both methods can be used for in situ calibration of the H-Jet polarimeter. These two methods are compared with a traditional calibration of the H-Jet which uses ?-sources.

  3. K (transverse) jet algorithms in hadron colliders: The D0 experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Daniel Elvira

    2002-12-05

    D0 has implemented and studied a k{sub {perpendicular}} jet algorithm for the first time in a hadron collider. The authors have submitted two physics results for publication: the subjet multiplicity in quark and gluon jets and the central inclusive jet cross section measurements. A third result, a measurement of thrust distributions in jet events, is underway. A combination of measurements using several types of algorithms and samples taken at different center-of-mass energies is desirable to understand and distinguish with higher accuracy between instrumentation and physics effects.

  4. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

  5. Dark Matter Jets at the LHC (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of missing energy, the dark matter particles produce jets. We propose a new search strategy for such strongly interacting particles by looking for a signal of two trackless...

  6. Preliminary design report: Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information on burnup credit as applied to the preliminary design of the BR-100 shipping cask. There is a brief description of the preliminary basket design and the features used to maintain a critically safe system. Following the basket description is a discussion of various criticality analyses used to evaluate burnup credit. The results from these analyses are then reviewed in the perspective of fuel burnups expected to be shipped to either the final repository or a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The hurdles to employing burnup credit in the certification of any cask are then outlines and reviewed. the last section gives conclusions reached as to burnup credit for the BR-100 cask, based on our analyses and experience. All information in this study refers to the cask configured to transport PWR fuel. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel satisfies the criticality requirements so that burnup credit is not needed. All calculations generated in the preparation of this report were based upon the preliminary design which will be optimized during the final design. 8 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Weak and compact radio emission in early massive star formation regions: an ionized jet toward G11.110.12P1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P.; McCoy, M.; Kurtz, S.; Loinard, L.; Carrasco-Gonzlez, C.; Rodrguez, L. F.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Araya, E. D.; Cesaroni, R.; Ellingsen, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    We report 1.3 cm and 6 cm continuum observations toward the massive proto-stellar candidate G11.110.12P1 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We detect a string of four unresolved radio continuum sources coincident with the mid-infrared source in G11P1. The continuum sources have positive spectral indices consistent with a thermal (free-free) ionized jet. The most likely origins of the ionized gas are shocks due to the interaction of a stellar wind with the surrounding high-density material. We also present NIR United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) archival data that show an extended structure detected only at K band (2.2 ?m), which is oriented perpendicular to the jet, and that may be scattered light from a circumstellar disk around the massive protostar. Our observations plus the UKIRT archival data thus provide new evidence that a disk/jet system is present in the massive proto-stellar candidate located in the G11.110.12P1 core.

  8. The Composition of GRB Jets and the ICMART Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bing; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-16

    Models of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are drawn from observations of light curves, spectra, and spectral evolution. The ICMART (Internal Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection & Turbulence) model and some of its features are presented. Increasing evidence points towards Poynting-flux-dominated jets in at least some (even a good fraction of) GRBs. The main emission component (Band) is of a synchrotron emission origin, produced by electrons accelerated in the emission region. The data seem to require that magnetic reconnection in the moderately-high sigma regime is the mechanism to accelerate particles. Extensive numerical simulations are needed to verify physical details of such a model, and some encouraging results have been obtained.

  9. Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell

    2000-09-19

    For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel. Large increases in Reynolds stress occur due to onset of the small-scale concentrations of vorticity immediately downstream of separation; substantial increases at locations further downstream arise from development of the large-scale vorticity concentrations.

  10. JETS OF NUCLEAR MATTER FROM HIGH ENERGY HEAVY ION COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stocker, H.; Csernai, L.P.; Graebner, G.; Buchwald, G.; Kruse, H.; Cusson, R.Y.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W.

    1980-11-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  11. ATOMIC BEAM STUDIES IN THE RHIC H-JET POLARIMETER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAKDISI,Y.; ZELENSKI,A.; GRAHAM,D.; KOKHANOVSKI,S.; MAHLER,G.; NASS,A.; RITTER,J.; ZUBETS,V.; ET AL.

    2005-01-28

    The results of atomic beam production studies are presented. Improved cooling of the atoms before jet formation in the dissociator cold nozzle apparently reduces the atomic beam velocity spread and improves beam focusing conditions. A carefully designed sextupole separating (and focusing) magnet system takes advantage of the high brightness source. As a result a record beam intensity of a 12.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 16} atoms/s was obtained within 10 mm acceptance at the collision point. The results of the polarization dilution factor measurements (by the hydrogen molecules at the collision point) are also presented.

  12. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  13. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  14. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  15. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  16. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovatta, Talvikki; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas; Homan, Daniel C.; Lister, Matthew L.

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of 1.04 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about 0.001 to 0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean 1.09 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean 0.80 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ?0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of 0.81 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ?2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall steepening of the spectra with distance can be explained with radiative losses if the jets are collimating or with the evolution of the high-energy cutoff in the electron spectrum if the jets are conical. This interpretation is supported by a significant correlation with the age of the component and the spectral index, with older components having steeper spectra.

  17. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-11-10

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Koenigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R {sub S} (R {sub S} = 2GM/c {sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  18. Phasor Measurement Units

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phasor Measurement Units - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  19. stochastic unit commitment engine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unit commitment engine - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL DATE: November 9, 2005 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-34 (A05TG036) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-06-01 SUBJECT: Report on Audit of "The Department of Energy's Radio Communications Systems" TO: Chief Information Officer, IM-1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy's (Department) complex-wide radio systems infrastructure supports and facilitates activities such as site emergency response,

  1. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    '.... '|le , * f C. Office Memorandum * UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT .-- J TO ' Leo Graup, Chief, DATE: September 29, 1958 Property Management Branch rFi0 : M. S. Weinstein Industrial Hygiene Branch, HASL SUBJBT: SURVEY AT HAIST PROPETIY SYMBOL: HSH:MSW. Thisl property was purchased during MED operation and used as a dumping ground for refinery residues generated by Linde Air Products during their period of participation in the refinery operations program. \It 2 consists of 10 acres in addition to a

  2. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    D;F&g,8 C-r-I 3-3 .*. United States Government . memorandum DATE: JUNZO 1994 -... REPLY TO A?TN OF: EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 903-8149) Authority Determination -- Combustion Engineering Site, Windsor, SUBJECT: Connecticut To' The File The attached review, documents the basis for determining whether the Department of Energy (DOE) has authority for taking remedial action at the Combustion Engineering (CE) Site in Windsor, Connecticut, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CE

  3. The high-efficiency jets magnetically accelerated from a thin disk in powerful lobe-dominated FRII radio galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuang-Liang

    2014-06-10

    A maximum jet efficiency line R ? 25 (R = L {sub jet}/L {sub bol}), found in FRII radio galaxies by Fernandes et al., was extended to cover the full range of jet power by Punsly. Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of jet formation have mainly focused on the enhancement of jet power. In this work, we suggest that the jet efficiency could be very high even for conventional jet power if the radiative efficiency of disks was much smaller. We adopt the model of a thin disk with magnetically driven winds to investigate the observational high-efficiency jets in FRII radio galaxies. It is found that the structure of a thin disk can be significantly altered by the feedback of winds. The temperature of a disk gradually decreases with increasing magnetic field; the disk density, surface density, and pressure also change enormously. The lower temperature and higher surface density in the inner disk result in the rapid decrease of radiative efficiency. Thus, the jet efficiency is greatly improved even if the jet power is conventional. Our results can explain the observations quite well. The theoretical maximum jet efficiency of R ? 1000 suggested by our calculations is large enough to explain all of the high jet efficiency in observations, even considering the episodic activity of jets.

  4. Dissociative adsorption of CH{sub 3}X (X = Br and Cl) on a silicon(100) surface revisited by density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chen-Guang; Huang, Kai E-mail: wji@ruc.edu.cn; Ji, Wei E-mail: wji@ruc.edu.cn

    2014-11-07

    During the dissociative adsorption on a solid surface, the substrate usually participates in a passive manner to accommodate fragments produced upon the cleavage of the internal bond(s) of a (transient) molecular adsorbate. This simple picture, however, neglects the flexibility of surface atoms. Here, we report a Density Functional Theory study to revisit our early studies of the dissociative adsorption of CH{sub 3}X (X = Br and Cl) on Si(100). We have identified a new reaction pathway, which involves a flip of a silicon dimer; this new pathway agrees better with experiments. For our main exemplar of CH{sub 3}Br, insights have been gained using a simple model that involves a three-atom reactive center, Br-C-Si. When the silicon dimer flips, the interaction between C and Si in the Br-C-Si center is enhanced, evident in the increased energy-split of the frontier orbitals. We also examine how the dissociation dynamics of CH{sub 3}Br is altered on a heterodimer (Si-Al, Si-P, and Si-Ge) in a Si(100) surface. In each case, we conclude, on the basis of computed reaction pathways, that no heterodimer flipping is involved before the system transverses the transition state to dissociative adsorption.

  5. Good Energies (United Kingdom) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energies (United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Good Energies (United Kingdom) Name: Good Energies (United Kingdom) Address: 2-5 Old Bond Street Place: London, United...

  6. ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT MIXING JETS IN LARGE SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R; Robert Leishear, R; David Stefanko, D

    2007-03-28

    Flow evolution models were developed to evaluate the performance of the new advanced design mixer pump for sludge mixing and removal operations with high-velocity liquid jets in one of the large-scale Savannah River Site waste tanks, Tank 18. This paper describes the computational model, the flow measurements used to provide validation data in the region far from the jet nozzle, the extension of the computational results to real tank conditions through the use of existing sludge suspension data, and finally, the sludge removal results from actual Tank 18 operations. A computational fluid dynamics approach was used to simulate the sludge removal operations. The models employed a three-dimensional representation of the tank with a two-equation turbulence model. Both the computational approach and the models were validated with onsite test data reported here and literature data. The model was then extended to actual conditions in Tank 18 through a velocity criterion to predict the ability of the new pump design to suspend settled sludge. A qualitative comparison with sludge removal operations in Tank 18 showed a reasonably good comparison with final results subject to significant uncertainties in actual sludge properties.

  7. The scientific case for a JET D-T experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisen, H.; Sips, A. C. C.; Horton, L. D.; Challis, C. D.; Sharapov, S. E.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Batistoni, P. [EURATOM Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2014-08-21

    After the first high power D-T experiment in JET in 1997 (DTE1), when JET was equipped with Carbon PFC's, a proposed second high power (up to ?40MW) D-T campaign (DTE2) in the current Be/W vessel will address essential operational, technical, diagnostics and scientific issues in support of ITER. These experiments are proposed to minimize the risks to ITER by testing strategies for the management of the in-vessel tritium content, by providing the basis for transferring operational scenarios from non-active operation to D-T mixtures and by addressing the issue of the neutron measurement accuracy. Dedicated campaigns with operation in Deuterium, Hydrogen and Tritium before the D-T campaign proper will allow the investigation of isotope scaling of the H-mode transition, pedestal physics, heat, particle, momentum and impurity transport in much greater detail than was possible in DTE1. The D-T campaign proper will include validations of the baseline ELMy H-Mode scenario, of the hybrid H-mode and advanced tokamak scenarios, as well as the investigation of alpha particle physics and the qualification of ICRH scenarios suitable for D-T operation. This paper reviews the scientific goals of DTE2 together with a summary of the results of DTE1.

  8. The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Li, Q.

    2014-01-29

    Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming. The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject. Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers. This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators.

  9. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e}???10{sup 19}?cm{sup ?3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (?1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15 angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10?T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  10. MHD SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS IN A DYNAMIC GALAXY CLUSTER MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendygral, P. J.; Jones, T. W.; Dolag, K.

    2012-05-10

    We present a pair of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of intermittent jets from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a galaxy cluster extracted from a high-resolution cosmological simulation. The selected cluster was chosen as an apparently relatively relaxed system, not having undergone a major merger in almost 7 Gyr. Despite this characterization and history, the intracluster medium (ICM) contains quite active 'weather'. We explore the effects of this ICM weather on the morphological evolution of the AGN jets and lobes. The orientation of the jets is different in the two simulations so that they probe different aspects of the ICM structure and dynamics. We find that even for this cluster, which can be characterized as relaxed by an observational standard, the large-scale, bulk ICM motions can significantly distort the jets and lobes. Synthetic X-ray observations of the simulations show that the jets produce complex cavity systems, while synthetic radio observations reveal bending of the jets and lobes similar to wide-angle tail radio sources. The jets are cycled on and off with a 26 Myr period using a 50% duty cycle. This leads to morphological features similar to those in 'double-double' radio galaxies. While the jet and ICM magnetic fields are generally too weak in the simulations to play a major role in the dynamics, Maxwell stresses can still become locally significant.

  11. Simulation of streamers propagating along helium jets in ambient air: Polarity-induced effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naidis, G. V.

    2011-04-04

    Results of modeling of streamer propagation along helium jets for both positive and negative polarities of applied voltage are presented. Obtained patterns of streamer dynamics and structure in these two cases are similar to those observed in experiments with plasma jets.

  12. PLIF measurement of fuel concentration distribution in transient hydrogen jet flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomita, Eiji; Hamamoto, Yoshisuke; Yoshiyama, Sadami; Toda, Hitoshi

    1999-07-01

    To know the concentration field of fuel spray or jet is very important because the following combustion process strongly depends on it. Recently, planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurement is often used to clarify two-dimensional concentration field of fuel and other species. In this study, PLIF measurement was applied to investigate the concentration distribution of a transient hydrogen jet with combustion. The jet penetrates with entraining ambient air and hydrogen is mixed with the air. Each experimental run of the jet shows different configuration and concentration distribution although averaged jet shows axisymmetric ones. Normalized concentration in radial direction presents Gaussian distribution and normalized concentration in axial direction is expressed by the relation inverse to the axial direction. The mixture was ignited near the nozzle exit after some delay time (t = 3.6ms) during injection ({approximately}11ms). For example, the fuel concentration in the transient jet at t = 1.0 and 1.4ms after the spark ignition (t = 4.6 and 5.0 ms respectively) was obtained as shown in a figure. The behavior of the flame development was measured in the transient flame jet by analyzing these images. The velocities of the jet and flame tips were also determined.

  13. Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Auna L. Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-05-15

    We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.

  14. Numerical simulations of the bending of narrow-angle-tail radio jets by ram pressure or pressure gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soker, N.; Sarazin, C.L.; O'Dea, C.P.

    1988-04-01

    Three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations are used to study the bending of radio jets. The simulations are compared with observations of jets in narrow-angle-tail radio sources. Two mechanisms for the observed bending are considered: direct bending of quasi-continuous jets by ram pressure from intergalactic gas and bending by pressure gradients in the interstellar gas of the host galaxy, the pressure gradients themselves being the result of ram pressure by intergalactic gas. It is shown that the pressure gradients are much less effective in bending jets, implying that the jets have roughly 30 times lower momentum fluxes if they are bent by this mechanism. Ram-pressure bending produces jets with kidney-shaped cross sections; when observed from the side, these jets appear to have diffuse extensions on the downstream side. On the other hand, pressure-gradient bending causes the jets to be densest near their upstream side. 31 references.

  15. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  16. Precise measurement of the top-quark mass from lepton+jets events at D0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2011-08-09

    We report a measurement of the mass of the top quark in lepton+jets final states of pp&3772; → tt̄ data corresponding to 2.6 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected at the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using a matrix element method, we combine an in situ jet energy calibration with the standard jet energy scale derived in studies of Γ + jet and dijet events and employ a novel flavor-dependent jet response correction to measure a top-quark mass of mt = 176.01 ± 1.64 GeV. Combining this result with a previous result obtained on an independent data set, wemore »measure a top-quark mass of mt = 174.94 ± 1.49 GeV for a total integrated luminosity of 3.6 fb-1.« less

  17. Precise measurement of the top-quark mass from lepton+jets events at D0

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2011-08-09

    We report a measurement of the mass of the top quark in lepton+jets final states of pp&3772; → tt̄ data corresponding to 2.6 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected at the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Using a matrix element method, we combine an in situ jet energy calibration with the standard jet energy scale derived in studies of Γ + jet and dijet events and employ a novel flavor-dependent jet response correction to measure a top-quark mass of mt = 176.01 ± 1.64 GeV. Combining this result with a previous result obtained on an independent data set, wemore » measure a top-quark mass of mt = 174.94 ± 1.49 GeV for a total integrated luminosity of 3.6 fb-1.« less

  18. Jet energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma by stream instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Manuel, Cristina; Gonzalez-Solis, Sergi; Strickland, Michael

    2010-04-01

    We study the evolution of the plasma instabilities induced by two jets of particles propagating in opposite directions and crossing a thermally equilibrated non-Abelian plasma. In order to simplify the analysis we assume that the two jets of partons can be described with uniform distribution functions in coordinate space and by Gaussian distribution functions in momentum space. We find that while crossing the quark-gluon plasma, the jets of particles excite unstable chromomagnetic and chromoelectric modes. These fields interact with the particles (or hard modes) of the plasma inducing the production of currents; thus, the energy lost by the jets is absorbed by both the gauge fields and the hard modes of the plasma. We compare the outcome of the numerical simulations with the analytical calculation performed assuming that the jets of particles can be described by a tsunamilike distribution function. We find qualitative and semiquantitative agreement between the results obtained with the two methods.

  19. Mechanistic Based DEM Simulation of Particle Attrition in a Jet Cup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wei; DeCroix, David; Sun, Xin

    2014-02-01

    The attrition of particles is a major industrial concern in many fluidization systems as it can have undesired effects on the product quality and on the reliable operation of process equipment. Therefore, to accomodate the screening and selection of catalysts for a specific process in fluidized beds, risers, or cyclone applications, their attrition propensity is usually estimated through jet cup attrition testing, where the test material is subjected to high gas velocities in a jet cup. However, this method is far from perfect despite its popularity, largely due to its inconsistency in different testing set-ups. In order to better understand the jet cup testing results as well as their sensitivity to different operating conditions, a coupled computational fluid dynamic (CFD) - discrete element method (DEM) model has been developed in the current study to investigate the particle attrition in a jet cup and its dependence on various factors, e.g. jet velocity, initial particle size, particle density, and apparatus geometry.

  20. Study of jet shapes in inclusive jet production in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; et al

    2011-03-08

    Jet shapes have been measured in inclusive jet production in proton-proton collisions at s√=7  TeV using 3  pb⁻¹ of data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-kt algorithm with transverse momentum 30  GeVT<600  GeV and rapidity in the region |y|<2.8. The data are corrected for detector effects and compared to several leading-order QCD matrix elements plus parton shower Monte Carlo predictions, including different sets of parameters tuned to model fragmentation processes and underlying event contributions in the final state. The measured jets become narrower with increasing jet transverse momentum and the jet shapes present a moderate jetmore » rapidity dependence. Within QCD, the data test a variety of perturbative and nonperturbative effects. In particular, the data show sensitivity to the details of the parton shower, fragmentation, and underlying event models in the Monte Carlo generators. For an appropriate choice of the parameters used in these models, the data are well described.« less

  1. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  2. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  3. United States Patent: 7896053

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patent: 7896053 http://patft.uspto.gov/...p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=7,896,053.PN.&OS=PN/7,896,053&RS=PN[6/20/2011 12:30:03 PM] ( 1 of 1 ) United States Patent 7,896,053 Simandl , et al. March 1, 2011 Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy Abstract A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component.

  4. United States Government

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (12-84) , United States Government E e - ' i 3 - Department of Energy memorandum DATE: JUL 0 1 1988 ER-30 REPLY TO ATTN OF: S U B J E C T : Accomplishmepts o f Long-Terin Research and Development J>P's jQ . Executive D irector, O ffice o f Energy Research, ER-1 I Per your request, attached is a summary o f the accomplishments in long-term -4-^ research and development during the current Administration. Materials were provided by a ll o f the Associate Directors o f E R and the Offices o f

  5. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    30/02 WED 09:58 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -.- +-+ HQ ]002 rFG (07-;1) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: October 29, 2002 REPLY TO 1G-36 (A02DN028) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-03-01 ATTN OF; SUBJECT: Audit of Procurement at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site TO: Eugene Schmitt, Manager, Rocky Flats Field Office ' INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy (Department) and its site contractor, Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC (Kaiser-Hill), contracted in January

  6. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    12.'6/0.2 ...... 13:27 FAX 301 903 4656 CAPITAL REGION 1]003 OE F f325.8 EFG (07.-0) United States Government Deparment of Energy memorandum DATE: 05 2002 REPLY TO: IG-34 (A02AT015) Audit Report Numbser: OAS-L-03-04 SUBJECT: Follow-Up Audit on Internet Privacy TO: Chief Information Officer, IM-1 The purpose of this report is to inform you of the results of our follow-up review of the Department of Energy's Internet Privacy initiatives. This review was performed from June 2002 to October 2002 at

  7. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    03/02 TUE 08:59 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG *-* HQ 00o2 DOE F 132,.8 W.I: ((07.9u) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: December 2, 2002 REPLY TO REPLY TO -36 (A02SR013) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-03-07 ATTN OF: SUBJECT: Audit of Subcontracting Practices at the Savannah River Site TO: Jeffrey M. Allison, Acting Manager, Savannah River Operations Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy (Department) has contracted with Westinghouse Savannah River Company, LLC

  8. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7/03 FRI 08:50 FAX 865 576 3213 OAK RIDGE AUDIT -+44 AIGA o001 10/16/03. THU 15:52 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -- * ELMORE I001 United States Government Department of Eney memorandum DATE: October 1.6, 2003 b REPLY TO ATTNTO: IG-36 (A030R013) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-04-02 SUBJECT: Waste Pits and Silos Remediation at the Femald Closure Project To: Robert Wazther, Manager, Ohio Field Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVF In November 2000, the Ohio Field Office awarded a contract to Fluor Fernald Inc.,

  9. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    .. a . r-z . "*& ., . .. uoi UA o. --.- flI gj UUX DOE F 1325.8 (08.93) United States Government Department of Ene memorandum DATE: August 19, 2004 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-04-18 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-36 (A03IF009) SUBJECT: Audit of the "Revised Pit 9 Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory" TO: Paul Golan, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of Environmental Management INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Idaho National Engineering and

  10. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: October 30,2008 Audit Report Nuniber: OAS-L-09-01 REPLY TO AITN OF: IG-30 (A08GT053) SUBJECT: Audit Report on "Review of the Department of Energy's Contract with AHTNA Government Services Corporation Contract No: DE-AC52-04NA25282" TO: Director, Office of Field Financial Management, NNSA INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) awarded a general construction contract to

  11. United States Government Departmen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7/05 TUE 07:58 FAX 423 241 3897 OIG -** HQ @]002 DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Departmen of Energy memorandum DATE: December 20, 2005 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-06-03 REPLY TO A1TN OF; IG-36 (A05SR025) SUBJECT: Audit of "Defense Waste Processing Facility Operations at the Savannah River Site" TO: Jeffrey M. Allison, Manager, Savannah River Operations Office INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Department of Energy's (Department) Savannah River Site stores approximately 36

  12. United States Government Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B.89) EFO (07-90) United States Government Department of Energ Memorandum SEP 24 20t DATE: REPLY TO: IG-34 (A04TG032) Audit Report No.: OAS-L-04-21 SUBJECT: Evaluation of "The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Cyber Security Program - 2004" TO: Chairman, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The purpose of this report is to inform you of the results of our annual evaluation of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's unclassified cyber security program. This evaluation was

  13. United States Government Memorandum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy United States Government Memorandum DATE: January 26, 2007 Audit Report Number: OAS-L-07-05 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-34 (A06GT035) SUBJECT: Report on "The Department of Energy's Implementation of Revised OMB Circular No. A-123" TO: Acting Chief Financial Officer, CF-1 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE The Office of Management arid Budget's (OMB) revised Circular No. A-123 (Circular) requires Federal agencies to assess the adequacy of their internal controls. Beginning in

  14. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    81278 United States Government Department of Energy memorandum - ?71 S.EP 23 F; i: 54 DATE: SEP 1 8 1991 REPLY TO ATTNOF: EM-421 (P. Blom, 3-8148) SUBJECT: Approved Categorical Exclusion for Removal Actions at Elza Gate, Tennessee TO: Lester K. Price, OR Attached is a copy of the approved Categorical Exclusion (CX) for removal of contaminated material at the Elza Gate site in Tennessee. The removal action involves the removal of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete as well as the removal

  15. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    "- ~ .-A*" (MQ) EfG (07-W) United States Government rrla.g-a Department of Energy memorandum DATE: tlEC 1 F: l!??? REPLYTo EM-421 (W. A. W illiams , 903-8149) AJTN OF: SUBJECT: .Authorization for Remedial Action at the Former Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company fac ility , Indian Orchard, Massachusetts To' L. Price, O R The former Chapman Valve Manufacturing Comapany fac ility at 203 Hampshire Street, Indian Orchard, Massachusetts, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly

  16. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . v-w. ' ;H; (07.901 United States Government 0' ; Td 2, <.<~ Department of Energy ' m e m o randum DATE: REPLY TO Al-TN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at Alba Craft Laboratory in Oxford, Ohio L. Price, OR TO: The former Alba Craft Laboratory site at lo-14 West Rose Avenue, Oxford, Ohio, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Dr. and M rs. Gilbert Pacey, of Oxford, Ohio, own

  17. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .8 - EFgzk3) United States Government tiemorandum 0 wt;? -J Department of Energy DATE: SEP 2 5 1992 REPLY TO Al-TN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at Diamond Magnesium Site in Painesville, Ohio TO: L. Price, OR The former Diamond Magnesium Company site located at 720 Fairport-Nursery Road in Painesville, Ohio, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The site is owned by Uniroyal

  18. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    UOEF 1325.8 (5831 , - a.. L . . L. . c ,, . . . t ,' <, .* -,. .--1^ a "-2 (J 7 , pe-;L, United States Government memorandum Departmen: of Energy DATEAUG 1 0 1984 REPLY TO Al-fN OF: NE-20 SUBJECT: Action Description Memorandum (ADM) Review: Wayne, New Jersey Proposed 1984 Remedial Actions at TO: File After reviewing all of the pertinent facts including the attached Action Description Memorandum (ADM), I have determined that the remedial action described in the subject ADM is an action

  19. United States Government DATE:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5oE(E;,8 ' 0 H .2+ L-1 United States Government DATE: MAR 0 8 1994 REPLY TO AlTN OF: EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authority Determination -- Former Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Co., Hamilton, Ohio TO: The File The attached review documents the basis for determining whether the Department of Energy (DOE) has authority for taking remedial action at the former Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Co. facility in Hamilton, Ohio, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The

  20. Uniter+ States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EFG (07-90) Uniter+ States Government ~L.aQ-i; Department of Energy inemorandum DATE: SEP 2 5 1992 REPLY TO Al-fN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Authorization for Remedial Action at the Former Dow Chemical Company Facility in M a d ison, Illinois TO: L. Price, OR The site of the Former Dow Chemical Company in M a d ison, Illinois, which is currently owned and operated by the Spectrulite Consortium, is designated for inclusion in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action

  1. United States Goveinment *

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    wx l ,320.o -. yt!$L, . : I __ United States Goveinment * -memorandum @95861 Department of Energy **J-E: OCT 0 8 19% REPLY TO ATfFd OF: EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 903-8149) [YfZ f;T ! i Fi.1 y: 29 - susJlEcr: Authorization for Remedial Action at Granite City Steel Site, Granite City, Illinois lo: Manager, DOE Oak Ridge Field Office This is to notify you that the Granite City Steel site in Granite City, Illinois, is designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action

  2. * United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -- DE;$r,e /q f-j * I3 - I * United States Government memorandum MAY 21 I991 DATE: REPLY TO Al-fN OF: 4ih55YhL Department of Energy JT:,i 5, f&A 0 ' - j4.~, ' -/ jl.a' \ A t -3 __..-_-. EM-421 SUBJECT: Elimination of the American Potash and Chemical Site The File TO: I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the American Potash and Chemical Company Site in West Hanover, Massachusetts. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive

  3. - United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    8 my EFG (07.90) . - United States Government . * Department of. Energy * inemorandum DATE: DEC :! ;j 1993 REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-421 (W.'A. W illiams, 903-8149) : NY 41 I .' 41 G I? SUBJECT: Elimination of the T itanium Alloy Manufacturing Co., Niagara Falls, New York TO: The F ile I have reviewed the attached site. summary and elimination recommendation for the T itanium Alloy Manufacturing Company. I have determined that the potential for radiological contamination is low because of the lim

  4. . United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,:n5.5.8 ,849, EfG pw, . United States Government DATE: AUG 2 i994 y#J;; EM-421 (W. A. Williams, 427-1719) sUBJECT: -Elimination of the Robbins & Myers Site, Springfield, Ohio 11179 I The File TO: I have reviewed the attached elimination recommendation and the original historical records for the Myers & Robbins facility in Springfield, Ohio. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at these sites. The only record of activity at this site by

  5. ; United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Don F 1328.8 . . .449J ' Em wm ; United States Government , % - memorandum L c*m Al.)G 2 9 a34 yz;; EM-421 (If. A. Willlams, 427-1719) lq,iMAL Department of Energy m5 MA, \i& SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utllized Sites Remedial A&Ion Prograa ' a The File In 1990, with the assistance of Hr. Doug Tonkay and Ms. Htchelle L&is, I reviewed a number of sites that had fomerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald faclllty as subcontractors. For 24 of.these

  6. UNITED STATES GOVERKMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ojice Memornndz~nz 0 UNITED STATES GOVERKMENT By application dated ;!ay 11, 1959, as a~zen:ii:d Hay 25, 1959, the a--T+- I-r-- cant requests that its license SW-33 be amend,ed to authorizt? proced- ures for t>e CCLl-ect conversion of LT6 to '3$ and by applicaticn datzci June 29, 1959, a.3 n:odifizd July 15, 1059, the shipment of uranium rdioxide pellets. Based on our rexiew of the information finished by the applicant, it is hereby determined that the applicant is qualified, by training and

  7. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Menxmmhmz 9 1 / UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT i TO : ThcFFles . mx.f I A. B. Piccct, +3lation section : DATE: .@.eti 16, 1949 SUBJECT: VISIT To HAVY OFfDHAlfCE DEPOT, EARIZ, B.J. FmmlTo ,sYmOL: DH:ARP . . : OnJuly 8,&g the uriterattendedameeting at the Navy Oxdnce Depot at Farle, Ii. J. for the purpose of advising the navy on i-adlatlon hazards involved In the dmping of contadnated AEC wastes at /?ea. " Presint were: J. Cook - Traffic & Transportation, AEC ~J.Moren- Utilifation, AEC ..J.

  8. Unite2 States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    +39J t% (3740~ - Unite2 States Government m e m o randuin L3 DATE: AU6 3, 9 %g4 REPLY TO All-N OF: m -421 (U. A. W illiams, 427-1719) -. - >' SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of Hr. Doug Toukay and Ms. M ichelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites, recouwndations were made to

  9. United States Goveinment

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,325.B jO8.93) United States Goveinment ~~~rntir-andu~rvi Depr?rtnient of Energy \L, IO' " 1' !ATE:' MAY i o 1995 ,' Kzb9. ":cz$ EM-421 (W.,A. Williams, 301-903-8149) SUBJECT: Records for the West Chicago Site .The File TO: After review.of the available r&rds concerning the former 'Lindsay Light and Chemical.Corhpany site in West Chicago, Illinois. I have determined that it is not necessary to transmit Department of Energy (DOE) records to the municipa,llty to inform public

  10. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOE F t325.8 (s8s) Dl? l 36-z EFG (07-90) United States Government m e m o randum Department of Energy DATE: LUG 2 ' 3 1394 ",cl,'," EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 427-1719) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of M r. Doug Tonkay and Ms. M ichelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of these sites,

  11. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ocy F 1325.8 rcro1 . 6Fo0?-001 w 2 3-q United States Government Department of Energ) ~mc DATE: AUG 3,9 1994 y$Jf EH-421 (W. A. Yllliams, 427-1719) MA. \tQ SUBJECT: _ Elirinrtion of the Sites froa the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program TQ The File In 1990, with the assistance of Hr. Doug Tonkay and Hr. Nlchelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had fomerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites, recomendations were made

  12. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ooc F r325.8 imo, EFO ,ww United States Government memorandum Department of Energy -fw?w 81ua DATE: FEB 1 5 1991 l+Ks6 sUsJECT: Elimination of the Buflovak Company Site from FUSRAP ho: The File I have reiiewed the attached preliminary site summary and recommendation for the Buflovak Company site in Buffalo, New York. I have determined that there is little likelihood of contamination at this site. Based on the above, the Buflovak Company site is hereby eliminated from further consideration under

  13. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOE F 1325.8 E&M&& +\A .wz United States Government Department of Energy DATE: RUG 3, 9 %g4 y;;;; EM-421 (W. A. W illiaas, 427-1719) "; :+ 1 SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of M r. Doug Tohkay and Ms. M ichelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites, recomendations were

  14. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    # Xx i' !325 8 I c&egJw, i&l d, 4 -1 United States Government Department of Energy DATE; AUG 3, 9 !gg4 I REPLYTo m-421 (W. A. Williams, 427-1719) sy I AlTN OF: SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of Mr. Doug Tonkay and Ms. Nichelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods a&/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of these sites,

  15. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EFS (07-W United States Government memorandukn Department of Energy j ; I.-- ' -i;: /J DATE: j.gjG 2 9 1994 REPLY TO En-421 (W. A. Williams, 427-1719) AlTN OF: h p)\;--/ ;,;' J ( SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of Ur. Doug Tonkay and Us. Michelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites,

  16. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    I8 891 EFG (07.90) United States Government m e m o randum bepartrne% of Energy -P ' ; N. A *I Pi id : DATE: AUG 3, 9 1994 REPLY TO Al-iN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 427-1719) r, )' \, ! c ' d, ' t ' 3 ' 2 -L SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of M r. Doug Tonlsay and Ms. M ichelle Landis, I reviewed a nmber of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as

  17. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Z&Et,? y-p . c' )7q/ I cuq,~ United States Government Department of Energy memoranduin I " . : I ;/ ,I DATE: hufi 2 9 1594 \ ' - y:oTFq M-421 (W. A. Ylllius, 427-1719) ' ii Y - SIJWECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilfzed Sites Remedial Actjon Progru TO The File In 1990, with the assistance of Mr. reviewed a number of sites that had services to the Fernald facility as sites, recommendations were made to ___ _- _ consideration under Formerly Utiltzed Sites Remedial Action

  18. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    D;il$;,8 p! A . I I& - ' z United States Government &mtrne&' of Energy DATE: &uG 3, 9 394 REPLY TO AITN OF: EH-421 (W. A. Williams, 427-1719) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program To' The File In 1990, with the assistance of Mr. Doug Toukay and Ms. Michelle Landis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites, recommdations were

  19. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    73258 18.89, /J" c. j _- /;I_ EFG (07.90) United States Government Department of Energy I memorandum W Y fir ,"1 ti2,ej ? r-l DATE: CE' .' 2 :12; REPLY TO AlTN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) b/fad; 0' \/A a5 SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites ReGbbial Action Program TO: The F ile I have reviewed the attached site summar recommendations for the following sites: ies and elimination '4B : M itts & Merrel Co., Saginaw, M ichigan North Carolina

  20. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    COE F r31ffs (S-89) EFG (37-90) United States Government memorandum f;' "* 5 P ,A ~4&t&y Department o F7 q;' 3 j-1 - ("J 1 [--A Q ' f ' -\' ( --_-_ -- DATE: MAY 29 l%H R' ;J$ EM-421 SUBJECT: Elimination of the Radiation Applications Incorporated Site Tc: The File I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the Radiation Applications Incorporated Site in New York City. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination

  1. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOEF1325.8 P4 0 * 1 - 1 - Iq \ b- United States Government memorandum pJ .T\ \b Department of Energy DATE: OCT 9 1984 REPLY TO NE-20 All-N OF: .- Authorizations for Actions Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action SUBJECT: Program (FUSRAP) at the St. Louis Airport Storage Site, St. Louis, MO. and the W. R. Grace Site at Curtis Bay, Md. To: J. LaGrone, Manager Oak Ridge Operations Office St. Louis Airport Storage Site, MO The House and Senate Reports for the Energy and Water Development

  2. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    f&E F 1325.8 J ;rgy!w, United States Government m e m o randum 7-L 0 cI - 2, Department of Energy I~27 DATE: !-jEC -2 3 1293 REPLY TO ATTN OF: EM-421 (W. A. W illiams, 903-8149) SUBJECT: Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program TO: The F ile I have reviewed the attached site summaries and elimination recommendations for the following sites: f' l M itts & Merrel Co., Saginaw, M ichigan l North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina l

  3. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    69-39) EFG IO74oJ . United States Government $, ; , 2 ,*, ., y;;;; EM-421 (U. A. W illiams, 427-1719) Elimination of the Sites from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial At! tion SUBJECT: Program To The File In 1990, with the assistance of Ur. Doug Tonkay and Ms. M ichelle Ladis, I reviewed a number of sites that had formerly provided goods and/or services to the Fernald facility as subcontractors. For 24 of.these sites, recomendations were made to eliminate them from further consideration under

  4. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,. .1 ! 8-L EFi 107 39, 3 United States Government Department of Energy m e m o randum q es. F;,;4 p JAN 3 1 I991 DATE 16% 1 c N W /- e [ q$ ';;','," EM-421 2 & t, SUBJECT Elimination of the Wash-Rite Company Site from FUSRAP T O The F ile I have reviewed the attached preliminary site summary and recommendation for the Wash-Rite Company site in Indianapolis, Indiana. I have determined that there is little likelihood of contamination at this site. Based on the above, the Wash-Rite

  5. l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -_ ._ i,;PA.il--l-( ---.~ .-.---.-- .-.-_ L.. ,' 3:. /,y. ; .' ( * ' . bABDFUWW.64 iii4 ! .' - , _ ., - \ *Q@e Menwmzdzkm /-5*-i .-, ? r' / .j CJ ' 7, l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT TO : FROM : SUBJECT: Reautor Materiala Brash, Bew York DATE : Au-t 2 % 1950 B.S. Pearson, Chief, Admbidratios Serviwr/ w ' Branch, Pittsburgh W fJ3lUAL~FBR~lFICATES MATDl!ALS,-3 @ * l . - -- E&red ia Copy lo. laf &8tewial Tramfor Cerfiiioatu Nor, 303-Z 353-2, 71bds 958-2 and %pZ eoverhg 6hipnsnt6 of sirc~ni\rp~

  6. l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT lb 15 SUBJECT: THORFJM PROCURENENT PMF'N:TBU Jesse C. Johnson, Gtnager of IRaw Materials Operations3s.Office 3 R. W. Cook, Director of Production ~',LL:::+ I--- DATE: MAR ! 9 1951 The following list of suppliers of thorium and the amounts of materials procured from them by the Mew York Operations Office during calendar year 1950 is being supplied in accordance with Mr. Spelmanls telephone request of March 19. Thorium Lannett Bleachery iinde Air Products Co. Lindsey Light

  7. Toroidally resolved radiation dynamics during a gas jet mitigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nuclear Fusion; Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 12 Publisher: IOP Science Research Org: Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United ...

  8. Environmental effects on noble-gas hydrides: HXeBr, HXeCCH, and HXeH in noble-gas and molecular matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuge, Masashi E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi; Lignell, Antti; Rsnen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-28

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group) are sensitive probes of local environment due to their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments. We experimentally studied HXeBr in Ar, Kr, and N{sub 2} matrices, HXeCCH in Ne and N{sub 2} matrices, and HXeH in an N{sub 2} matrix. These are the first observations of noble-gas hydrides in an N{sub 2} matrix. An N{sub 2} matrix strongly increases the HXe stretching frequency of HXeBr and HXeCCH with respect to a Ne matrix, which is presumably due to a strong interaction between the HNgY dipole moment and quadrupole moments of the surrounding lattice N{sub 2} molecules. The spectral shift of HXeBr in an N{sub 2} matrix is similar to that in a CO{sub 2} matrix, which is a rather unexpected result because the quadrupole moment of CO{sub 2} is about three times as large as that of N{sub 2}. The HXe stretching frequencies of HXeBr and HXeCCH in noble-gas matrices show a trend of ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constants of the noble-gas solids. The MP2(full) calculations of HXeBr and HXeCCH with the polarizable continuum model as well as the CCSD(T) calculations of the HXeBrNg and HXeCCHNg (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes cannot fully explain the experimental observations. It is concluded that more sophisticated computational models should be used to describe these experimental findings.

  9. Stabilized wide bandgap MAPbBrxI3-x perovskite by enhanced grain size and improved crystallinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Miao; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Bai, Yang; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-12-07

    In this study, the light instability of CH3NH3PbIxBr3x has been raised one of the biggest challenges for its application in tandem solar cells. Here we show that an improved crystallinity and grain size of CH3NH3PbIxBr3x films could stabilize these materials under one sun illumination, improving both the efficiency and stability of the wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells.

  10. Energy Exchange Continuing Education Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET) continuing education units (CEUs) will be available for designated training sessions.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR HIGHLY RELATIVISTIC VELOCITIES IN THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE JET OF THE QUASAR 3C 345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, David H.; Wardle, John F. C.

    2012-11-10

    In this paper we use radio polarimetric observations of the jet of the nearby bright quasar 3C 345 to estimate the fluid velocity on kiloparsec scales. The jet is highly polarized, and surprisingly, the electric vector position angles in the jet are 'twisted' with respect to the jet axis. Simple models of magnetized jets are investigated in order to study various possible origins of the electric vector distribution. In a cylindrically symmetric transparent jet a helical magnetic field will appear either transverse or longitudinal due to partial cancellations of Stokes parameters between the front and back of the jet. Synchrotron opacity can break the symmetry, but it leads to fractional polarization less than that observed and to strong frequency dependence that is not seen. Modeling shows that differential Doppler boosting in a diverging jet can break the symmetry, allowing a helical magnetic field to produce a twisted electric vector pattern. Constraints on the jet inclination, magnetic field properties, intrinsic opening angle, and fluid velocities are obtained and show that highly relativistic speeds ({beta} {approx}> 0.95) are required. This is consistent with the observed jet opening angle, with the absence of a counter-jet, with the polarization of the knots at the end of the jet, and with some inverse-Compton models for the X-ray emission from the 3C 345 jet. This model can also apply on parsec scales and may help explain those sources where the electric vector position angles in the jet are neither parallel nor transverse to the jet axis.

  12. Second United Nations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    i' Second United Nations t Jnternational Conference 1 , of Atomic Energy on the Peaceful Uses 4 i \ Confidential until official release during Conference ORIGINAL: ENGLISH METHODS O F PARTICLE DETECTION FOR HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS t * H. B r a d n e r and D. A. Glaser - INTRODUCTION J 1 % c Recent advances in our knowledge of t h e phenomena of high-energy physics and o'f the e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m rapid advances in the technology of p a r t i

  13. United States Government

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11/07/03 13:UU FAA 301 903 4t00 UAI'I'AL REGION -+ tUK rlvrEA I(JUUZ DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL DATE: November 7, 2003 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-34 (A03SC050) Audit Report Number: OAS-L-04-04 SUBJECT: Audit of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider Program TO: Director, Office of Science, SC-1 The purpose of this report is to inform you of the results of our audit of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Program. The audit was

  14. Next-to-leading order predictions for WW + jet production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, John M.; Miller, David J.; Robens, Tania

    2015-07-28

    In this study we report on a next-to-leading order calculation of WW + jet production at hadron colliders, with subsequent leptonic decays of the W bosons included. The calculation of the one-loop contributions is performed using generalized unitarity methods in order to derive analytic expressions for the relevant amplitudes. These amplitudes have been implemented in the parton-level Monte Carlo generator mcfm, which we use to provide a complete next-to-leading order calculation. Predictions for total cross sections, as well as differential distributions for several key observables, are computed both for the LHC operating at 14 TeV as well as for amore » possible future 100 TeV proton-proton collider.« less

  15. New coiled tubing jet cleaning system reduces costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, C.C.; Zublin, C.W.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes Chevron's water blsting system, called Hyperclean, which uses N80 tubing with a special high-pressure power swivel to supply rotation connected via jointed tubing to a replaceable jet stack. One licensee was able to develop the system into a more practical field form and has had good success in in situ liner perforation and slot cleaning. The Hyperclean system is effective, but limited to wells where the production tubing's ID is large enough to allow the collars on the system's 1 1/4-in. tubing easy and safe passage. If smaller tubing is in the well, the tubing must be removed before the Hyperclean tools are lowered into the well.

  16. Soft evolution of multi-jet final states

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerwick, Erik; Schumann, Steffen; Höche, Stefan; Marzani, Simone

    2015-02-16

    We present a new framework for computing resummed and matched distributions in processes with many hard QCD jets. The intricate color structure of soft gluon emission at large angles renders resummed calculations highly non-trivial in this case. We automate all ingredients necessary for the color evolution of the soft function at next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy, namely the selection of the color bases and the projections of color operators and Born amplitudes onto those bases. Explicit results for all QCD processes with up to 2 → 5 partons are given. We also devise a new tree-level matching scheme for resummed calculations which exploitsmore » a quasi-local subtraction based on the Catani-Seymour dipole formalism. We implement both resummation and matching in the Sherpa event generator. As a proof of concept, we compute the resummed and matched transverse-thrust distribution for hadronic collisions.« less

  17. Combustion measurements of an array of radial jet reattachment flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1999-07-01

    Radial Jet Reattachment Combustion (RJRC) nozzle provides improved fuel/air mixing for use in impingement flame heating. The RJRC nozzle produces a very stable flame with a circumferentially symmetric surface temperature profile and low coefficients of pressure on the impingement surface. The RJRC also produces very little soot. To characterize the performance of an array of RJRC nozzles from combustion point of view, exhaust gas analyses are presented through CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} measurements. The results are also compared to the single RJRC nozzle combustion characteristics. In the array configuration, the highly, moderately, and weakly interactive RJRC nozzles are considered. The interaction among nozzles is highly dependent upon the between-nozzle spacing.

  18. Soft evolution of multi-jet final states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerwick, Erik; Schumann, Steffen; Hche, Stefan; Marzani, Simone

    2015-02-16

    We present a new framework for computing resummed and matched distributions in processes with many hard QCD jets. The intricate color structure of soft gluon emission at large angles renders resummed calculations highly non-trivial in this case. We automate all ingredients necessary for the color evolution of the soft function at next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy, namely the selection of the color bases and the projections of color operators and Born amplitudes onto those bases. Explicit results for all QCD processes with up to 2 ? 5 partons are given. We also devise a new tree-level matching scheme for resummed calculations which exploits a quasi-local subtraction based on the Catani-Seymour dipole formalism. We implement both resummation and matching in the Sherpa event generator. As a proof of concept, we compute the resummed and matched transverse-thrust distribution for hadronic collisions.

  19. Scaling and dimensional analysis of acoustic streaming jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Ben Hadid, H.

    2014-09-15

    This paper focuses on acoustic streaming free jets. This is to say that progressive acoustic waves are used to generate a steady flow far from any wall. The derivation of the governing equations under the form of a nonlinear hydrodynamics problem coupled with an acoustic propagation problem is made on the basis of a time scale discrimination approach. This approach is preferred to the usually invoked amplitude perturbations expansion since it is consistent with experimental observations of acoustic streaming flows featuring hydrodynamic nonlinearities and turbulence. Experimental results obtained with a plane transducer in water are also presented together with a review of the former experimental investigations using similar configurations. A comparison of the shape of the acoustic field with the shape of the velocity field shows that diffraction is a key ingredient in the problem though it is rarely accounted for in the literature. A scaling analysis is made and leads to two scaling laws for the typical velocity level in acoustic streaming free jets; these are both observed in our setup and in former studies by other teams. We also perform a dimensional analysis of this problem: a set of seven dimensionless groups is required to describe a typical acoustic experiment. We find that a full similarity is usually not possible between two acoustic streaming experiments featuring different fluids. We then choose to relax the similarity with respect to sound attenuation and to focus on the case of a scaled water experiment representing an acoustic streaming application in liquid metals, in particular, in liquid silicon and in liquid sodium. We show that small acoustic powers can yield relatively high Reynolds numbers and velocity levels; this could be a virtue for heat and mass transfer applications, but a drawback for ultrasonic velocimetry.

  20. Measurement of the tt¯ production cross-section as a function of jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2015-01-08

    Tmore » he tt¯ production cross-section dependence on jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum is reported for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 eV in the single-lepton channel. his data was collected with the ALAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and comprise the full 2011 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb–1. Differential cross-sections are presented as a function of the jet multiplicity for up to eight jets using jet transverse momentum thresholds of 25, 40, 60, and 80 GeV, and as a function of jet transverse momentum up to the fifth jet. he results are shown after background subtraction and corrections for all known detector effects, within a kinematic range closely matched to the experimental acceptance. Several QCD-based Monte Carlo models are compared with the results. Sensitivity to the parton shower modelling is found at the higher jet multiplicities, at high transverse momentum of the leading jet and in the transverse momentum spectrum of the fifth leading jet. As a result, the MC@NLO+HERWIG MC is found to predict too few events at higher jet multiplicities.« less

  1. Measurement of the tt¯ production cross-section as a function of jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.

    2015-01-08

    The tt¯ production cross-section dependence on jet multiplicity and jet transverse momentum is reported for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in the single-lepton channel. This data was collected with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and comprise the full 2011 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb–1. Differential cross-sections are presented as a function of the jet multiplicity for up to eight jets using jet transverse momentum thresholds of 25, 40, 60, and 80 GeV, and as a function of jet transverse momentum up to the fifth jet. The results are shown after background subtraction and corrections for all known detector effects, within a kinematic range closely matched to the experimental acceptance. Several QCD-based Monte Carlo models are compared with the results. Sensitivity to the parton shower modelling is found at the higher jet multiplicities, at high transverse momentum of the leading jet and in the transverse momentum spectrum of the fifth leading jet. As a result, the MC@NLO+HERWIG MC is found to predict too few events at higher jet multiplicities.

  2. Experimental study of elliptical jet from supercritical to subcritical conditions using planar laser induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2015-03-15

    The study of fluid jet dynamics at supercritical conditions involves strong coupling between fluid dynamic and thermodynamic phenomena. Beyond the critical point, the liquid-vapor coexistence ceases to exist, and the fluid exists as a single phase known as supercritical fluid with its properties that are entirely different from liquids and gases. At the critical point, the liquids do not possess surface tension and latent heat of evaporation. Around the critical point, the fluid undergoes large changes in density and possesses thermodynamic anomaly like enhancement in thermal conductivity and specific heat. In the present work, the transition of the supercritical and near-critical elliptical jet into subcritical as well as supercritical environment is investigated experimentally with nitrogen and helium as the surrounding environment. Under atmospheric condition, a liquid jet injected from the elliptical orifice exhibits axis switching phenomena. As the injection temperature increases, the axis switching length also increases. Beyond the critical temperature, the axis switching is not observed. The investigation also revealed that pressure plays a major role in determining the thermodynamic transition of the elliptical jet only for the case of supercritical jet injected into subcritical chamber conditions. At larger pressures, the supercritical jet undergoes disintegration and formation of droplets in the subcritical environment is observed. However, for supercritical jet injection into supercritical environment, the gas-gas like mixing behavior is observed.

  3. DISCOVERY OF AN EXTENDED X-RAY JET IN AP LIBRAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufmann, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Tibolla, O.

    2013-10-20

    Chandra observations of the low-energy-peaked BL Lac object (LBL) AP Librae (AP Lib) revealed the clear discovery of a non-thermal X-ray jet. AP Lib is the first LBL with an extended non-thermal X-ray jet that shows emission into the very high energy range. The X-ray jet has an extension of ?15''(? 14 kpc). The X-ray jet morphology is similar to the radio jet observed with Very Large Array at 1.36 GHz emerging in the southeast direction and bends by 50 at a distance of 12'' toward the northeast. The intensity profiles of the X-ray emission studied are consistent with those found in the radio range. The spectral analysis reveals that the X-ray spectra of the core and jet region are both inverse-Compton-(IC)-dominated. This adds to a still small sample of BL Lac objects whose X-ray jets are IC-dominated and thus more similar to the high-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley II sources than to the low-luminosity Fanaroff-Riley I objects, which are usually considered to be the parent population of BL Lac objects.

  4. RECURRENT TWO-SIDED LOOP-TYPE JETS DUE TO A BIPOLE EMERGING BELOW TRANSEQUATORIAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yunchun; Bi, Yi; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Ruisheng

    2013-10-01

    We report four successive two-sided loop-type jets centered around a small bipole emerging below transequatorial interconnecting loops (TILs). They occurred at the very first emerging stage of the bipole in a short recurrent period of only 12 minutes. During this term, the emerging flux consisted of a main bipole, but showed a mixed-polarity field morphology with the appearance and then disappearance of a small magnetic feature in its interior. However, no associated cancellation of the bipole with the nearby flux was observed in this process. In multi-wavelength EUV images, the jets started nearly simultaneously and were similar in appearance. Each jet consisted of a pair of components that connected to two bright footpoints around the bipole and were ejected from the emergence location to opposite directions. While the two bright footpoints were separated by a gap and had consistent evolution with that of the bipole, the jet base region covering them accordingly showed four episodes of emission enhancement that peaked approximately at the jet start times. Compatible with the magnetic-reconnection jet mechanism, the recurrent two-sided loop-type jets are explained as a result of reconnection between the emerging bipole and the overlying TILs.

  5. Investigations of radio jets in M87, 3C273, and 3C345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biretta, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Observational studies of extra-galactic radio jets in M87, 3C273, and 3C345 are presented. Observations of the M87 jet were made at 15 GHz with 0.12'' resolution. All of the knots are clearly resolved both along and across the jet. Most of the knots are found to be smooth in appearance with no evidence of shocklike discontinuities. The brightest knot and the innermost knot are exceptions to this. The brightest knot (knot A) seems consistent with a shock caused by unsteady flow in the jet. Models for this feature are discussed. Combining these data with x-ray data suggests that the jet is neither freely expanding, thermally confined, nor ram-pressure confined. The jet may, however, be magnetically confined. The author presents 10.7 GHz VLBI observations of 3C273 with high north-south resolution. A strong, nonmonotonic curvature is found in the jet at projected radii less than or equal to 5 pc. It is unlikely that this curvature can be caused by precession. Measurements of the core size show that bulk relativistic motion in the core is not required for consistency with the observed x-ray flux.

  6. Numerical simulation of jet mixing concepts in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent, D.S.; Michener, T.E.

    1993-03-01

    The episodic gas release events (GRES) that have characterized the behavior of Tank 241-SY-101 for the past several years are thought to result from gases generated by the waste material in it that become trapped in the layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank. Several concepts for mitigating the GREs have been proposed. One concept involves mobilizing the solid particles with mixing jets. The rationale behind this idea is to prevent formation of a consolidated layer of settled solids at the bottom of the tank, thus inhibiting the accumulation of gas bubbles in this layer. Numerical simulations were conducted using the TEMPEST computer code to assess the viability and effectiveness of the proposed jet discharge concepts and operating parameters. Before these parametric studies were commenced, a series of turbulent jet studies were conducted that established the adequacy of the TEMPEST code for this application. Configurations studied for Tank 241-SY-101 include centrally located downward discharging jets, draft tubes, and horizontal jets that are either stationary or rotating. Parameter studies included varying the jet discharge velocity, jet diameter, discharge elevation, and material properties. A total of 18 simulations were conducted and are reported in this document. The effect of gas bubbles on the mixing dynamics was not included within the scope of this study.

  7. Numerical Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Jet Formation in Collapsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagataki, S.; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Takahashi, R.; /Tokyo U.; Mizuta, A.; Takiwaki, T.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /Tokyo U.

    2007-06-08

    Two-dimensional MHD simulations are performed using the ZEUS-2D code to investigate the dynamics of a collapsar that generates a GRB jet, taking account of realistic equation of state, neutrino cooling and heating processes, magnetic fields, and gravitational force from the central black hole and self-gravity. It is found that neutrino heating processes are not efficient enough to launch a jet in this study. It is also found that a jet is launched mainly by B{sub {phi}} fields that are amplified by the winding-up effect. However, since the ratio of total energy relative to the rest-mass energy in the jet is not as high as several hundred, we conclude that the jets seen in this study are not GRB jets. This result suggests that general relativistic effects will be important to generating a GRB jet. Also, the accretion disk with magnetic fields may still play an important role in launching a GRB jet, although a simulation for much longer physical time ({approx}10-100 s) is required to confirm this effect. It is shown that a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized in the accretion disk. Thus, there will be a possibility for the accretion disk to supply the sufficient amount of {sup 56}Ni required to explain the luminosity of a hypernova. Also, it is shown that neutron-rich matter due to electron captures with high entropy per baryon is ejected along the polar axis. Thus, there will be a possibility that r-process nucleosynthesis occurs at such a region. Finally, many neutrons will be ejected from the jet, which suggests that signals from the neutron decays may be observed as the delayed bump of the light curve of the afterglow or gamma rays.

  8. THE PARABOLIC JET STRUCTURE IN M87 AS A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC NOZZLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Asada, Keiichi E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2013-10-01

    The structure and dynamics of the M87 jet from sub-milliarcsec to arcsecond scales are continuously examined. We analyzed the Very Long Baseline Array archival data taken at 43 and 86 GHz to measure the size of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) cores. Millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI cores are considered as innermost jet emissions, which has been originally suggested by Blandford and Knigl. Those components fairly follow an extrapolated parabolic streamline in our previous study so that the jet has a single power-law structure with nearly 5 orders of magnitude in the distance starting from the vicinity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH), less than 10 Schwarzschild radius (r{sub s}). We further inspect the jet parabolic structure as a counterpart of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nozzle in order to identify the property of a bulk acceleration. We interpret that the parabolic jet consists of Poynting-flux dominated flows, powered by large-amplitude, nonlinear torsional Alfvn waves. We examine the non-relativistic MHD nozzle equation in a parabolic shape. The nature of trans-fast magnetosonic flow is similar to the one of transonic solution of Parker's hydrodynamic solar wind; the jet becomes super-escape as well as super-fast magnetosonic at around ?10{sup 3} r{sub s}, while the upstream trans-Alfvnic flow speed increases linearly as a function of the distance at ?10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} r{sub s}. We here point out that this is the first evidence to identify these features in astrophysical jets. We propose that the M87 jet is magnetically accelerated, but thermally confined by the stratified interstellar medium inside the sphere of gravitational influence of the SMBH potential, which may be a norm in active galactic nucleus jets.

  9. When and how does a prominence-like jet gain kinetic energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Kai; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, S.; Wang, Yuming

    2014-02-20

    A jet is a considerable amount of plasma being ejected from the chromosphere or lower corona into the higher corona and is a common phenomenon. Usually, a jet is triggered by a brightening or a flare, which provides the first driving force to push plasma upward. In this process, magnetic reconnection is thought to be the mechanism to convert magnetic energy into thermal, nonthermal, and kinetic energies. However, most jets could reach an unusual high altitude and end much later than the end of its associated flare. This fact implies that there is another way to continuously transfer magnetic energy into kinetic energy even after the reconnection. The picture described above is well known in the community, but how and how much magnetic energy is released through a way other than reconnection is still unclear. By studying a prominence-like jet observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO-A/EUVI, we find that the continuous relaxation of the post-reconnection magnetic field structure is an important process for a jet to climb up higher than it could through only reconnection. The kinetic energy of the jet gained through the relaxation is 1.6 times that gained from the reconnection. The resultant energy flux is hundreds of times larger than the flux required for the local coronal heating, suggesting that such jets are a possible source to keep the corona hot. Furthermore, rotational motions appear all the time during the jet. Our analysis suggests that torsional Alfvn waves induced during reconnection could not be the only mechanism to release magnetic energy and drive jets.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS ASSOCIATED WITH MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Liping; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Zhang, Lei; Peter, Hardi; Feng, Xueshang; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-11-01

    Observations with the space-based solar observatory Hinode show that small-scale magnetic structures in the photosphere are found to be associated with a particular class of jets of plasma in the chromosphere called anemone jets. The goal of our study is to conduct a numerical experiment of such chromospheric anemone jets related to the moving magnetic features (MMFs). We construct a 2.5 dimensional numerical MHD model to describe the process of magnetic reconnection between the MMFs and the pre-existing ambient magnetic field, which is driven by the horizontal motion of the magnetic structure in the photosphere. We include thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field and optically thin radiative losses in the corona to account for a self-consistent description of the evaporation process during the heating of the plasma due to the reconnection process. The motion of the MMFs leads to the expected jet and our numerical results can reproduce many observed characteristics of chromospheric anemone jets, topologically and quantitatively. As a result of the tearing instability, plasmoids are generated in the reconnection process that are consistent with the observed bright moving blobs in the anemone jets. An increase in the thermal pressure at the base of the jet is also driven by the reconnection, which induces a train of slow-mode shocks propagating upward. These shocks are a secondary effect, and only modulate the outflow of the anemone jet. The jet itself is driven by the energy input due to the reconnection of the MMFs and the ambient magnetic field.

  11. Traction Drive Inverter Cooling with Submerged Liquid Jet Impingement on Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Narumanchi, S.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Jet impingement is one means to improve thermal management for power electronics in electric-drive traction vehicles. Jet impingement on microfin-enhanced surfaces further augments heat transfer and thermal performance. A channel flow heat exchanger from a commercial inverter was characterized as a baseline system for comparison with two new prototype designs using liquid jet impingement on plain and microfinned enhanced surfaces. The submerged jets can target areas with the highest heat flux to provide local cooling, such as areas under insulated-gate bipolar transistors and diode devices. Low power experiments, where four diodes were powered, dissipated 105 W of heat and were used to validate computational fluid dynamics modeling of the baseline and prototype designs. Experiments and modeling used typical automotive flow rates using water-ethylene glycol as a coolant (50%-50% by volume). The computational fluid dynamics model was used to predict full inverter power heat dissipation. The channel flow and jet impingement configurations were tested at full inverter power of 40 to 100 kW (output power) on a dynamometer, translating to an approximate heat dissipation of 1 to 2 kW. With jet impingement, the cold plate material is not critical for the thermal pathway. A high-temperature plastic was used that could eventually be injection molded or formed, with the jets formed from a basic aluminum plate with orifices acting as nozzles. Long-term reliability of the jet nozzles and impingement on enhanced surfaces was examined. For jet impingement on microfinned surfaces, thermal performance increased 17%. Along with a weight reduction of approximately 3 kg, the specific power (kW/kg) increased by 36%, with an increase in power density (kW/L) of 12% compared with the baseline channel flow configuration.

  12. CROSSED MOLECULAR BEAM STUDIES OF CHEMILUMINESCENT REACTIONS: F{sub 2} + I{sub 2}, Br{sub 2} and ICl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahler, C.C.; Lee, Y.T.

    1980-05-01

    The chemiluminescent bimolecular halogen-halogen reactions, F{sub 2} + I{sub 2}, Br{sub 2} and ICl, have been studied by the crossed molecular beam technique. Undispersed chemiluminescence was measured as a function of collision energy and, for I{sub 2} + F{sub 2}, as a function of the two beam pressures. Although no spectra were obtained to positively identify the emitters as IF*, ClF* and BrF*, arguments are given to support this identification. The observed reaction thresholds of 4.2 and 5.9 kcal/mole for I{sub 2} + F{sub 2} and ICl + F{sub 2} , respectively, are the same as the threshold energies for production of the stable trihalogens I{sub 2}F and ClF. This coincidence of threshold energies, as well as similar high collision energy behavior, implies that the chemiluminescent reaction proceeds via a stable trihalogen intermediate. This mechanism can explain our results and the results of other workers without resorting to a symmetry forbidden four center reaction mechanism. A threshold of 11.3 kcal/mole was found for Br{sub 2} + F{sub 2} , no threshold for Br{sub 2}F has been previously reported. Laser enhancement of the I{sub 2} + F{sub 2} reaction was attempted, but no enhancement was seen.

  13. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: A Guide to Developing Air-Cooled LiBr Absorption for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Developing Air- Cooled LiBr Absorption for Combined Heat and Power Applications April 2005 By Robert A. Zogg Michael Y. Feng Detlef Westphalen TIAX LLC Re: D0281 Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND .................................................................................................1 2.0 LIBR ABSORPTION OVERVIEW...................................................................................................3 3.0 KEY TECHNOLOGY BARRIERS

  14. Magnetic Probe to Study Plasma Jets for Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, Daniel; Hsu, Scott C.

    2012-08-16

    A probe has been constructed to measure the magnetic field of a plasma jet generated by a pulsed plasma rail-gun. The probe consists of two sets of three orthogonally-oriented commercial chip inductors to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector at two separate positions in order to give information about the magnetic field evolution within the jet. The strength and evolution of the magnetic field is one of many factors important in evaluating the use of supersonic plasma jets for forming imploding spherical plasma liners as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion.

  15. HELICAL BLOWOUT JETS IN THE SUN: UNTWISTING AND PROPAGATION OF WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E. J.; Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a numerical experiment of the recurrent onset of helical ''blowout'' jets in an emerging flux region. We find that these jets are running with velocities of ?100-250 km s{sup 1} and they transfer a vast amount of heavy plasma into the outer solar atmosphere. During their emission, they undergo an untwisting motion as a result of reconnection between the twisted emerging and the non-twisted pre-existing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. For the first time in the context of blowout jets, we provide direct evidence that their untwisting motion is associated with the propagation of torsional Alfvn waves in the corona.

  16. The importance of jet bending in gamma-ray AGNsrevisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, P. J.; Tingay, S. J.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that ?-ray-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have a greater tendency for jet bending than ?-ray-loud AGNs, revisiting the analysis of Tingay et al. We perform a statistical analysis using a large sample of 351 radio-loud AGNs along with ?-ray identifications from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our results show no statistically significant differences in jet-bending properties between ?-ray-loud and ?-ray-quiet populations, indicating that jet bending is not a significant factor for ?-ray detection in AGNs.

  17. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao Liu, Lin; Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10??m. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  18. Measurement of the top quark mass in lepton+jets events with secondary vertex tagging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Robert Duane; /Northeastern U.

    2007-02-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass with the matrix element method in the lepton + jets final state in D0 Run II is presented. Events with single isolated energetic charged lepton (electron or muon), exactly four calorimeter jets, and significant missing transverse energy are selected. Probabilities used to discriminate between signal and background are assumed to be proportional to differential cross-sections, calculated using event kinematics and folding in object resolutions and parton distribution functions. The event likelihoods constructed using these probabilities are varied with the top quark mass, m{sub t}, and the jet energy scale, JES, to give the smallest possible combined statistical + JES uncertainty.

  19. Experimental evidence for collisional shock formation via two obliquely merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merritt, Elizabeth C. Adams, Colin S.; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 ; Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C. Dunn, John P.; Miguel Holgado, A.; Gilmore, Mark A.

    2014-05-15

    We report spatially resolved measurements of the oblique merging of two supersonic laboratory plasma jets. The jets are formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns using injected argon, and have electron density ?10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}, electron temperature ?1.4?eV, ionization fraction near unity, and velocity ?40?km/s just prior to merging. The jet merging produces a few-cm-thick stagnation layer, as observed in both fast-framing camera images and multi-chord interferometer data, consistent with collisional shock formation [E. C. Merritt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 085003 (2013)].

  20. TWO-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL STUDY FOR RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR AND RICHTMYER-MESHKOV INSTABILITIES IN RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Jin; Masada, Youhei

    2013-07-20

    We study the stability of a non-rotating single-component jet using two-dimensional special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. By assuming translational invariance along the jet axis, we exclude the destabilization effect by Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. The nonlinear evolution of the transverse structure of the jet with a normal jet velocity is highlighted. An intriguing finding in our study is that Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov type instabilities can destroy cylindrical jet configuration as a result of spontaneously induced radial oscillating motion. This is powered by in situ energy conversion between the thermal and bulk kinetic energies. The effective inertia ratio of the jet to the surrounding medium {eta} determines a threshold for the onset of instabilities. The condition {eta} < 1 should be satisfied for the transverse structure of the jet being persisted.

  1. Top Quark Mass Measurement in the Lepton + Jets Channel Using a Matrix Element Method and \\textit{in situ} Jet Energy Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-10-01

    A precision measurement of the top quark mass m{sub t} is obtained using a sample of t{bar t} events from p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with the CDF II detector. Selected events require an electron or muon, large missing transverse energy, and exactly four high-energy jets, at least one of which is tagged as coming from a b quark. A likelihood is calculated using a matrix element method with quasi-Monte Carlo integration taking into account finite detector resolution and jet mass effects. The event likelihood is a function of m{sub t} and a parameter {Delta}{sub JES} used to calibrate the jet energy scale in situ. Using a total of 1087 events, a value of m{sub t} = 173.0 {+-} 1.2 GeV/c{sup 2} is measured.

  2. Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association (USEA), August 2011 Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association (USEA), August 2011 The United ...

  3. Conversion of crop seed oils to jet fuel and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Thompson, David N.

    2010-05-18

    Aspects of the invention include methods to produce jet fuel from biological oil sources. The method may be comprised of two steps: hydrocracking and reforming. The process may be self-sufficient in heat and hydrogen.

  4. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu, Dongping [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China) [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China) [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Yue [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)] [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  5. Identification of a jet-driven supernova remnant in the Small...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This result may suggest jet-driven SNe occur frequently in the low-metallicity environment of the SMC, consistent with the observational and theoretical work on broad-line Type Ic ...

  6. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  7. 2014 SAME Mid-Atlantic Regional Joint Engineer Training Symposium (JETS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) presents its Mid-Atlantic Regional Joint Engineer Training Symposium (JETS) with the topic Navigating the New Normal: Partnerships for the Future.

  8. Bio-Imaging With Liquid-Metal-Jet X-ray Sources | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bio-Imaging With Liquid-Metal-Jet X-ray Sources Wednesday, September 9, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Daniel Larsson, Stanford Program Description...

  9. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure microplasma jet: An approach to endoscopic therapies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Xiao; Wei, Yu; Wei Chen, Long; Dong Meng, Yue; Collaboration: Plasma Medicine Team

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric pressure microplasma jet generated in a long hollow core optical fiber is studied to verify the potential feasibility of endoscopic therapies. Thermal damage and electric shock to the human body were suppressed by two technical methods, i.e., the high-voltage resistant flexible tube wrapped on the optical fiber and a power resistor of 100 k? connected between the power supply and the copper foil electrode. Optical emission spectra analysis indicated that many kinds of active radicals like excited atomic O and OH, were generated in the microplasma jet. In addition, the applications of the microplasma jet on sterilization and lung cancer cell apoptosis were presented. After 5 min of exposures to the microplasma jet, the cell viability and the bacillus subtilis replication decreased to about 3% and zero, respectively. More investigations are needed to improve the plasma-aided endoscopic therapies.

  10. Exhaust-gas measurements from NASAs HYMETS arc jet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Paul Albert

    2010-11-01

    Arc-jet wind tunnels produce conditions simulating high-altitude hypersonic flight such as occurs upon entry of space craft into planetary atmospheres. They have traditionally been used to study flight in Earth's atmosphere, which consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. NASA is presently using arc jets to study entry into Mars' atmosphere, which consists of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In both cases, a wide variety of chemical reactions take place among the gas constituents and with test articles placed in the flow. In support of those studies, we made measurements using a residual gas analyzer (RGA) that sampled the exhaust stream of a NASA arc jet. The experiments were conducted at the HYMETS arc jet (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) located at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA. This report describes our RGA measurements, which are intended to be used for model validation in combination with similar measurements on other systems.

  11. MOJAVE. X. PARSEC-SCALE JET ORIENTATION VARIATIONS AND SUPERLUMINAL MOTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Homan, D. C.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10 to 150 on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ?0.5 to ?2. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr{sup 1}), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying that the features have a range of Lorentz factor and/or pattern speed. Very slow pattern speed features are rare, comprising only 4% of the sample, and are more prevalent in radio galaxy and BL Lac jets. We confirm a previously reported upper envelope to the distribution of speed versus beamed luminosity for moving jet features. Below 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup 1} there is a fall-off in maximum speed with decreasing 15 GHz radio luminosity. The general shape of the envelope implies that the most intrinsically powerful AGN jets have a wide range of Lorentz factors up to ?40, while intrinsically weak jets are only mildly relativistic.

  12. A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gassolid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gassolid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gassolid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gassolid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

  13. Measurement of the production of neighbouring jets in lead-lead...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of the production of neighbouring jets in lead-lead collisions at sNN2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of the...

  14. United Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Biofuels Place: York, Pennsylvania Product: Waste and animal fats to biofuel producer, switched to animal fats from soy in fall of...

  15. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | DOE PAGES Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions « Prev Next » Title: Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions Authors: Schenke, Björn ; Jeon, Sangyong ; Gale, Charles Publication Date: 2011-04-18 OSTI Identifier: 1100252 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical review C. Nuclear physics Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 83; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0556-2813 Publisher: American

  16. Identification of a jet-driven supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud: Possible evidence for the enhancement of bipolar explosions at low metallicity (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Identification of a jet-driven supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Possible evidence for the enhancement of bipolar explosions at low metallicity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of a jet-driven supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Possible evidence for the enhancement of bipolar explosions at low metallicity Recent

  17. Comparison of jet quenching formalisms for a quark-gluon plasma "brick"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Comparison of jet quenching formalisms for a quark-gluon plasma "brick" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of jet quenching formalisms for a quark-gluon plasma "brick" Authors: Armesto, Nestor ; Cole, Brian ; Gale, Charles ; Horowitz, William A. ; Jacobs, Peter ; Jeon, Sangyong ; van Leeuwen, Marco ; Majumder, Abhijit ; Müller, Berndt ; Qin, Guang-You ; Salgado, Carlos A. ; Schenke, Björn ; Verweij, Marta ; Wang,

  18. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions Authors: Schenke, Björn ; Jeon, Sangyong ; Gale, Charles Publication Date: 2011-04-18 OSTI Identifier: 1100252 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical review C. Nuclear physics Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 83; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0556-2813

  19. A study of multi-jet production in association with an electroweak vector

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    boson (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A study of multi-jet production in association with an electroweak vector boson Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study of multi-jet production in association with an electroweak vector boson Authors: Frederix, R. ; /Munich, Tech U. ; Frixione, S. ; /INFN, Genoa ; Papaefstathiou, A. ; /CERN ; Prestel, S. ; /SLAC ; Torrielli, P. ; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin Publication Date: 2016-01-29 OSTI Identifier: 1236417 Report Number(s):

  20. Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep

    2013-12-10

    Lighting system having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.

  1. Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begum, Asma; Laroussi, Mounir; Pervez, Mohammad Rasel

    2013-06-15

    In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and it reaches to the maximum of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}.

  2. Seeing Quarks and Gluons Through Jets and Silhouettes | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Seeing Quarks and Gluons Through Jets and Silhouettes News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Science Highlights Presentations & Testimony News Archives Communications and Public Affairs Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 09.22.15 Seeing Quarks and Gluons Through Jets and Silhouettes Second in a series of

  3. Jetting into the Moments after the Big Bang | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Jetting into the Moments after the Big Bang Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 06.01.15 Jetting into the Moments after the Big Bang Upgraded

  4. On the spatial stability of a liquid jet in the presence of vapor cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L, Ming; Ning, Zhi Lu, Mei; Yan, Kai; Fu, Juan; Sun, Chunhua

    2013-11-15

    A dispersion equation describing the effect of temperature differences on the stability of three-dimensional cylindrical liquid jets in the presence of vapor cavities is presented by the use of linear stability analysis. The mathematical model and its solving method are verified by comparing them with the data in the literature, and then the effect of temperature differences between jet and surrounding gas on the spatial stability of liquid jet is investigated. Some conclusions can be drawn from the results of this investigation: (1) the temperature difference destabilizes the liquid jet when the jet liquid is cooler than the surrounding gas, (2) the smallest atomized droplet without taking into account the effect of temperature differences is significantly larger than that when the effect of temperature differences is taken into account, (3) the effect of temperature differences on the stability of liquid jet has little relationship with azimuthal wave modes, (4) cavitation destabilizes the liquid jet when the value of the bubble volume fraction is not greater than 0.1 (0 ? ? ? 0.1), and the temperature difference can weaken this effect of cavitation on the stability of liquid jet, and (5) cavitation is responsible for generating smaller droplets, the effect of cavitation on the critical wave number with and without taking into account the effect of temperature differences is quite different, and temperature difference is likely to fully restrain the effect of cavitation on the critical wave number; however, cavitation is again responsible for generating smaller droplets despite the effect of temperature differences when the bubble volume fraction ? = 0.1. These findings may explain some observations of practical atomizer performance.

  5. THE INNERMOST COLLIMATION STRUCTURE OF THE M87 JET DOWN TO ?10 SCHWARZSCHILD RADII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Kino, Motoki; Doi, Akihiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2013-09-20

    We investigated the detailed inner jet structure of M87 using Very Long Baseline Array data at 2, 5, 8.4, 15, 23.8, 43, and 86 GHz, especially focusing on the multi-frequency properties of the radio core at the jet base. First, we measured the size of the core region transverse to the jet axis, defined as W{sub c}, at each frequency ?, and found a relation between W{sub c} and ?: W{sub c}(?)??{sup 0.710.05}. Then, by combining W{sub c}(?) and the frequency dependence of the core position r{sub c}(?), which was obtained in our previous study, we constructed a collimation profile of the innermost jet W{sub c}(r) down to ?10 Schwarzschild radii (R{sub s}) from the central black hole. We found that W{sub c}(r) smoothly connects with the width profile of the outer edge-brightened, parabolic jet and then follows a similar radial dependence down to several tens of R{sub s}. Closer to the black hole, the measured radial profile suggests a possible change in the jet collimation shape from the outer parabolic one, where the jet shape tends to become more radially oriented. This result could be related to a magnetic collimation process or/and interactions with surrounding materials at the jet base. The present results shed light on the importance of higher-sensitivity/resolution imaging studies of M87 at 86, 43, and 22 GHz; these studies should be examined more rigorously.

  6. A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2012-03-14

    Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r {approx} 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14}cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor ({gamma} {approx} 100-1000), has a luminosity of L{sub j} {approx} 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg s{sup -1}, has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves {gamma}{theta}{sub j} {approx} 10-20 (for opening half-angle {theta}{sub j}) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the development of self-consistent radiative compressible relativistic reconnection models.

  7. Advanced Liquid Cooling for a Traction Drive Inverter Using Jet Impingement and Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S. K.; Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Moreno, G.; Bennion, K.; Jeffers, J.

    2014-08-01

    Jet impingement on plain and micro-finned enhanced surfaces was compared to a traditional channel flow configuration. The jets provide localized cooling to areas heated by the insulated-gate bipolar transistor and diode devices. Enhanced microfinned surfaces increase surface area and thermal performance. Using lighter materials and designing the fluid path to manage pressure losses increases overall performance while reducing weight, volume, and cost. Powering four diodes in the center power module of the inverter and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to characterize the baseline as well as jet-impingement-based heat exchangers. CFD modeling showed the thermal performance improvements should hold for a fully powered inverter. Increased thermal performance was observed for the jet-impingement configurations when tested at full inverter power (40 to 100 kW output power) on a dynamometer. The reliability of the jets and enhanced surfaces over time was also investigated. Experimentally, the junction-to- coolant thermal resistance was reduced by up to 12.5% for jet impingement on enhanced surfaces s compared to the baseline channel flow configuration. Base plate-to-coolant (convective) resistance was reduced by up to 37.0% for the jet-based configuration compared to the baseline, suggesting that while improvements to the cooling side reduce overall resistance, reducing the passive stack resistance may contribute to lowering overall junction-to-coolant resistance. Full inverter power testing showed reduced thermal resistance from the middle of the module baseplate to coolant of up to 16.5%. Between the improvement in thermal performance and pumping power, the coefficient of performance improved by up to 13% for the jet-based configuration.

  8. Control of a high Reynolds number Mach 0.9 heated jet using plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney-Fischer, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Samimy, M.

    2009-09-15

    The results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a high subsonic, heated, jet forced using localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) show that LAFPAs can consistently produce significant mixing enhancement over a wide range of temperatures. These actuators have been used successfully in high Reynolds number, high-speed unheated jets. The facility consists of an axisymmetric jet with different nozzle blocks of exit diameter of 2.54 cm and variable jet temperature in an anechoic chamber. The focus of this paper is on a high subsonic (M{sub j}=0.9) jet. Twelve experiments with various forcing azimuthal modes (m=0, 1, and {+-}1) and temperatures (T{sub o}/T{sub a}=1.0, 1.4, and 2.0) at a fixed forcing Strouhal number (St{sub DF}=0.3) have been conducted and PIV results compared with the baseline results to characterize the effectiveness of LAFPAs for mixing enhancement. Centerline velocity and turbulent kinetic energy as well as jet width are used for determining the LAFPAs' effectiveness. The characteristics of large-scale structures are analyzed through the use of Galilean streamlines and swirling strength. Across the range of temperatures collected, the effectiveness of LAFPAs improves as temperature increases. Possible reasons for the increase in effectiveness are discussed.

  9. Flow instabilities in non-uniformly heated helium jet arrays used for divertor PFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.

    2015-07-30

    In this study, due to a lack of prototypical experimental data, little is known about the off-normal behavior of recently proposed divertor jet cooling concepts. This article describes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study on two jet array designs to investigate their susceptibility to parallel flow instabilities induced by non-uniform heating and large increases in the helium outlet temperature. The study compared a single 25-jet helium-cooled modular divertor (HEMJ) thimble and a micro-jet array with 116 jets. Both have pure tungsten armor and a total mass flow rate of 10 g/s at a 600 C inlet temperature. We investigated flow perturbations caused by a 30 MW/m2 off-normal heat flux applied over a 25 mm2 area in addition to the nominal 5 MW/m2 applied over a 75 mm2 portion of the face. The micro-jet array exhibited lower temperatures and a more uniform surface temperature distribution than the HEMJ thimble. We also investigated the response of a manifolded nine-finger HEMJ assembly using the nominal heat flux and a 274 mm2 heated area.

  10. Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2014-08-15

    We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re{sub D} = 18?100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data.

  11. ON THE ROLE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ON JET EMISSION IN X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, P.; Pe'er, A.

    2009-09-20

    Radio and X-ray fluxes of accreting black holes in their hard state are known to correlate over several orders of magnitude. This correlation, however, shows a large scatter: black hole candidates with very similar X-ray luminosity, spectral energy distribution, and variability show rather different radio luminosities. This challenges theoretical models that aim at describing both the radio and the X-ray fluxes in terms of radiative emission from a relativistic jet. More generally, it opens important questions on how similar accretion flows can produce substantially different outflows. Here we present a possible explanation for this phenomenon based on the strong dependence of the jet spectral energy distribution on the magnetic field strength and on the idea that the strength of the jet magnetic field varies from source to source. Because of the effect of radiative losses, sources with stronger jet magnetic field values would have lower radio emission. We discuss the implications of this scenario, the main one being that the radio flux does not necessarily provide a direct measure of the jet power. We further discuss how a variable jet magnetic field, reaching a critical value, can qualitatively explain the observed spectral transition out of the hard state.

  12. Neutral atomic jet generation by laser ablation of copper targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matos, J. B. de; Rodrigues, N. A. S.

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed the obtainment of a neutral atomic jet departing from a plume generated by laser ablation of copper targets. A pair of electrodes together with a transducer pressure sensor was used to study the ablated plume charge composition and also to measure the ion extraction from the plasma plume. The neutral beam was produced with this setup and the relative abundance of neutrals in the plasma was measured, it decreases from 30% to 8% when the laser fluence is varied from 20 J/cm{sup 2} to 32 J/cm{sup 2}. The necessary voltage to completely remove the ions from the plume varied from 10 V to 230 V in the same fluence range. TOF analysis resulted in center of mass velocities between 3.4 and 4.6 km/s, longitudinal temperature in the range from 1 10{sup 4} K to 2.4 10{sup 4} K and a Mach number of M = 2.36, calculated using purely hydrodynamic expansion approximation.

  13. Relativistic high harmonic generation in gas jet targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others

    2012-07-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a new regime of high-order harmonic generation by relativistic-irradiance lasers in gas jet targets. Bright harmonics with both odd and even orders, generated by linearly as well as circularly polarized pulses, are emitted in the forward direction, while the base harmonic frequency is downshifted. A 9 TW laser generates harmonics up to 360 eV, within the 'water window' spectral region. With a 120 TW laser producing 40 uJ/sr per harmonic at 120 eV, we demonstrate the photon number scalability. The observed harmonics cannot be explained by previously suggested scenarios. A novel high-order harmonics generation mechanism [T. Zh. Esirkepov et al., AIP Proceedings, this volume], which explains our experimental findings, is based on the phenomena inherent in the relativistic laser - underdense plasma interactions (self-focusing, cavity evacuation, and bow wave generation), mathematical catastrophe theory which explains formation of electron density singularities (cusps), and collective radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a compact charge.

  14. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J. D.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; Airila, M.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Esser, H. G.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.

    2008-10-15

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of {sup 13}C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to {sup 13}C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions.

  15. Enlisting CFD to fight hammer shock in jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.N.; Hamstra, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes how computational fluid dynamics can predict inlet hammer-shock loads for advanced tactical aircraft, a complex and costly task that has left existing methods grounded. The current strategy for tactical-aircraft development is directed toward reducing life-cycle cost with little or no compromise to aircraft performance. This strategy may be extended down to the component level, where the goal of future engine-inlet designs is to maintain aeroperformance and survivability while structural weight is reduced, thereby lowering costs. To address these goals, new design methods must evolve to minimize weight yet maintain necessary margins of structural safety. The ultimate loads for inlet structures are set by the peak pressures associated with hammer shocks induced by engine surge. Existing techniques for predicting peak pressure load are based on an empirical approach using flight-test data from F-111 jets, and have proven adequate for the F-016 normal-shock inlet (NSI). Current inlet designs differ significantly, however, featuring serpentine inlet ducts, swept aperture shapes, and composite structural materials. Consequently, a new approach is required to predict inlet hammer-shock loads for advanced inlets.

  16. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; et al

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculationsmore »and various Monte Carlo event generators.« less

  17. Measurement of the ratio of differential cross sections σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet) in pp̄ collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; et al

    2013-05-28

    We measure the ratio of cross sections, σ(pp̄→Z+b jet)/σ(pp̄→Z+jet), for associated production of a Z boson with at least one jet. The ratio is also measured as a function of the Z boson transverse momentum, jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and the azimuthal angle between the Z boson with respect to the highest pT b tagged jet. These measurements use data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of Fermilab’s Tevatron pp̄ Collider at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb⁻¹. The results are compared to predictions from next-to-leading order calculationsmore » and various Monte Carlo event generators.« less

  18. Million U.S. Housing Units Total............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Attached 2 to 4 Units Table HC2.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Type of Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Home Electronics Usage Indicators Detached Energy Information Administration: 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing Units Attached 2 to 4 Units Table HC2.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Type of

  19. Flow instabilities in non-uniformly heated helium jet arrays used for divertor PFCs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Youchison, Dennis L.

    2015-07-30

    In this study, due to a lack of prototypical experimental data, little is known about the off-normal behavior of recently proposed divertor jet cooling concepts. This article describes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study on two jet array designs to investigate their susceptibility to parallel flow instabilities induced by non-uniform heating and large increases in the helium outlet temperature. The study compared a single 25-jet helium-cooled modular divertor (HEMJ) thimble and a micro-jet array with 116 jets. Both have pure tungsten armor and a total mass flow rate of 10 g/s at a 600 °C inlet temperature. We investigated flowmore » perturbations caused by a 30 MW/m2 off-normal heat flux applied over a 25 mm2 area in addition to the nominal 5 MW/m2 applied over a 75 mm2 portion of the face. The micro-jet array exhibited lower temperatures and a more uniform surface temperature distribution than the HEMJ thimble. We also investigated the response of a manifolded nine-finger HEMJ assembly using the nominal heat flux and a 274 mm2 heated area. For the 30 MW/m2 case, the micro-jet array absorbed 750 W in the helium with a maximum armor surface temperature of 1280 °C and a fluid/solid interface temperature of 801 °C. The HEMJ absorbed 750 W with a maximum armor surface temperature of 1411 °C and a fluid/solid interface temperature of 844 °C. For comparison, both the single HEMJ finger and the micro-jet array used 5-mm-thick tungsten armor. The ratio of maximum to average temperature and variations in the local heat transfer coefficient were lower for the micro-jet array compared to the HEMJ device. Although high heat flux testing is required to validate the results obtained in these simulations, the results provide important guidance in jet design and manifolding to increase heat removal while providing more even temperature distribution and minimizing non-uniformity in the gas flow and thermal stresses at the armor joint.« less

  20. JET COLLIMATION IN THE EJECTA OF DOUBLE NEUTRON STAR MERGERS: A NEW CANONICAL PICTURE OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Ioka, Kunihito

    2014-04-01

    The observations of jet breaks in the afterglows of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) indicate that the jet has a small opening angle of ? 10. The collimation mechanism of the jet is a longstanding theoretical problem. We numerically analyze the jet propagation in the material ejected by a double neutron star (NS) merger, and demonstrate that if the ejecta mass is ? 10{sup 2} M {sub ?}, the jet is well confined by the cocoon and emerges from the ejecta with the required collimation angle. Our results also suggest that there are some populations of choked (failed) SGRBs or new types of events with low luminosity. By constructing a model for SGRB 130603B, which is associated with the first kilonova/macronova candidate, we infer that the equation of state of NSs would be soft enough to provide sufficient ejecta to collimate the jet, if this event is associated with a double NS merger.

  1. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  2. ISOTROPIC HEATING OF GALAXY CLUSTER CORES VIA RAPIDLY REORIENTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P{sub jet} = 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  3. Chromospheric anemone jets and magnetic reconnection in partially ionized solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Shibata, K.; Nishizuka, N.; Isobe, H.

    2011-11-15

    The solar optical telescope onboard Hinode with temporal resolution of less than 5 s and spatial resolution of 150 km has observed the lower solar atmosphere with an unprecedented detail. This has led to many important findings, one of them is the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets in the solar chromosphere. The chromospheric anemone jets are ubiquitous in solar chromosphere and statistical studies show that the typical length, life time and energy of the chromospheric anemone jets are much smaller than the coronal events (e.g., jets/flares/CMEs). Among various observational parameters, the apparent length and maximum velocity shows good correlation. The velocity of chromospheric anemone jets is comparable to the local Alfven speed in the lower solar chromosphere. Since the discovery of chromospheric anemone jets by Hinode, several evidences of magnetic reconnection in chromospheric anemone jets have been found and these observations are summarized in this paper. These observations clearly suggest that reconnection occurs quite rapidly as well as intermittently in the solar chromosphere. In the solar corona ({lambda}{sub i} > {delta}{sub SP}), anomalous resistivity arises due to various collisionless processes. Previous MHD simulations show that reconnection becomes fast as well as strongly time-dependent due to anomalous resistivity. Such processes would not arise in the solar chromosphere which is fully collisional and partially-ionized. So, it is unclear how the rapid and strongly time-dependent reconnection would occur in the solar chromosphere. It is quite likely that the Hall and ambipolar diffusion are present in the solar chromosphere and they could play an important role in driving such rapid, strongly time-dependent reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  4. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass Simultaneously in Dilepton and Lepton + Jets Decay Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorko, Wojciech T.; /Chicago U.

    2008-09-01

    The authors present the first measurement of the top quark mass using simultaneously data from two decay channels. They use a data sample of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collisions with integrated luminosity of 1.9 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector. They select dilepton and lepton + jets channel decays of t{bar t} pairs and reconstruct two observables in each topology. They use non-parametric techniques to derive probability density functions from simulated signal and background samples. The observables are the reconstructed top quark mass and the scalar sum of transverse energy of the event in the dilepton topology and the reconstructed top quark mass and the invariant mass of jets from the W boson decay in lepton + jets channel. They perform a simultaneous fit for the top quark mass and the jet energy scale which is constrained in situ by the hadronic W boson resonance from the lepton + jets channel. Using 144 dilepton candidate events and 332 lepton + jets candidate events they measure: M{sub top} = 171.9 {+-} 1.7 (stat. + JES) {+-} 1.1 (other sys.) GeV/c{sup 2} = 171.9 {+-} 2.0 GeV/c{sup 2}. The measurement features a robust treatment of the systematic uncertainties, correlated between the two channels and develops techniques for a future top quark mass measurement simultaneously in all decay channels. Measurements of the W boson mass and the top quark mass provide a constraint on the mass of the yet unobserved Higgs boson. The Higgs boson mass implied by measurement presented here is higher than Higgs boson mass implied by previously published, most precise CDF measurements of the top quark mass in lepton + jets and dilepton channels separately.

  5. United States Environmental Protection Agency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    t United States Environmental Protection Agency knwronmenrar iwonrrormg Systems Laboratory P.O. 80x 93478 Las Vegas NV 89193-3478 kt'h/ D\)ci/ 4-t i / b I, DOE/DP/DD539/058 May 1987 Research and Development Off-Site Environmental Monitoring Report: 191 qbO Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1986 prepared for the United States Department of Energy under Interagency Agreement Number DE-AI08-76DP00539 EPA-600/4-87-017 DOE/DP/00539-058 May 1987 OFF-SITE

  6. Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

    2015-11-27

    We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamics in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.

  7. TiO{sub 2} Film Deposition by Atmospheric Thermal Plasma CVD Using Laminar and Turbulence Plasma Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Yasutaka; Tobe, Shogo [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Omae, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Tahara, Hirokazu [Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-Ku, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan)

    2008-02-21

    In this study, to provide continuous plasma atmosphere on the substrate surface in the case of atmospheric thermal plasma CVD, TiO{sub 2} film deposition by thermal plasma CVD using laminar plasma jet was carried out. For comparison, the film deposition using turbulence plasma jet was conducted as well. Consequently, transition of the plasma jet from laminar to turbulent occurred on the condition of over 3.5 1/min in Ar working gas flow rate and the plasma jet became turbulent on the condition of over 10 1/min. In the case of the turbulent plasma jet use, anatase rich titanium oxide film could be obtained though plasma jet could not contact with the surface of the substrate continuously even on the condition that feedstock material was injected into the plasma jet. On the other hand,, in the case of laminar gas flow rate, the plasma jet could contact with the substrate continuously without melt down of the substrate during film deposition. Besides, titanium oxide film could be obtained even in the case of the laminar plasma jet use. From these results, this technique was thought to have high potential for atmospheric thermal plasma CVD.

  8. HYPERACCRETING BLACK HOLE AS GAMMA-RAY BURST CENTRAL ENGINE. I. BARYON LOADING IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Weihua; Zhang Bing; Liang Enwei E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2013-03-10

    A hyperaccreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate for the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon-loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by {nu} {nu}-bar -annihilation or by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We consider baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind launched from a neutrino-cooling-dominated accretion flow. For a magnetically dominated BZ jet, we consider neutron drifting from the magnetic wall surrounding the jet and subsequent positron capture and proton-neutron inelastic collisions. The minimum baryon loads in both types of jet are calculated. We find that in both cases a more luminous jet tends to be more baryon poor. A neutrino-driven ''fireball'' is typically ''dirtier'' than a magnetically dominated jet, while a magnetically dominated jet can be much cleaner. Both models have the right scaling to interpret the empirical {Gamma}-L{sub iso} relation discovered recently. Since some neutrino-driven jets have too much baryon loading as compared with the data, we suggest that at least a good fraction of GRBs should have a magnetically dominated central engine.

  9. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REGION 6 14,15 ROSS AVENUE, SUITE 1200 DALLAS, TX 752A2-n33 JAt 5 20ll cERTrrmD rytAlr- RETIIRN RECETPT REOITESIEn COPY Edward ...

  10. United States Electricity Industry Primer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States Electricity Industry Primer provides a high-level overview of the U.S. electricity supply chain, including generation, transmission, and distribution; markets and ownership structures, including utilities and regulatory agencies; and system reliability and vulnerabilities.

  11. United Cooperative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    which agreed to purchase a former VeraSun Energy ethanol plant in Iowa from AgStar Financial Services in August 2009. References: United Cooperative1 This article is a...

  12. New Mexico grape growers unite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Mexico grape growers unite, increase production Grape Growers Association enlivens agriculture Growers association unites small parcels of land, enlivens production, protects water rights for Northern New Mexico agriculturists. August 6, 2012 Northern New Mexico Micro Grape Growers Association The NMSBA Entrepreneurial Networking program is helping Lucia Sanchez (C) Tim Martinez (R) and Robert Naranjo, the Northern New Mexico Micro Grape Growers Association, put small parcels of land back

  13. United States Environmental Monitoring EPA

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    United States Environmental Monitoring EPA 600/R-93/141 Environmental Protection Systems Laboratory January 1992 Agency P.O. Box 93478 Las Vegas NV 89193-3478 Research and Development _EPA Offsite Environmental Monitoring Report: Radiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1991 Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientificand Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak ridge,TN 39831; pricesavailablefrom (615) 576-8401 Availableto the publicfrom

  14. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Micro Jets - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Propp, Adrienne

    2015-08-25

    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for this type of interaction, capable of producing the highest proton energies possible with today’s laser technologies. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis and investigate new, potentially more efficient mechanisms of ion acceleration, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we acheived a pure proton beam with an indiciation of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic jets into droplet streams. This type of target should solve our problems with the jet as it will prevent the flow of exocurrent into the nozzle. It is also highly effective as it is even more mass-limited than standard cryogenic jets. Furthermore, jets break up spontaneously anyway. If we can control the breakup, we can synchronize the droplet emission with the laser pulses. In order to assist the team prepare for an experiment later this year, I familiarized myself with the physics and theory of droplet formation, calculated values for the required parameters, and ordered the required materials for modification of the jet. Future experiments will test these droplet streams and continue towards the goal of ion acceleration using cryogenic targets.

  15. The Relation Between Accretion Rate And Jet Power in X-Ray Luminous Elliptical Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Steven W.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; Taylor, G.B.; Reynolds, C.S.; /Maryland U.

    2006-03-10

    Using Chandra X-ray observations of nine nearby, X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies with good optical velocity dispersion measurements, we show that a tight correlation exists between the Bondi accretion rates calculated from the observed gas temperature and density profiles and estimated black hole masses, and the power emerging from these systems in relativistic jets. The jet powers, which are inferred from the energies and timescales required to inflate cavities observed in the surrounding X-ray emitting gas, can be related to the accretion rates using a power law model of the form log (P{sub Bondi}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) = A + B log (P{sub jet}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), with A = 0.62 {+-} 0.15 and B = 0.77 {+-} 0.18. Our results show that a significant fraction of the energy associated with the rest mass of material entering the Bondi accretion radius (2.4{sub -0.7}{sup +1.0} per cent, for P{sub jet} = 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) eventually emerges in the relativistic jets. Our results have significant implications for studies of accretion, jet formation and galaxy formation. The observed tight correlation suggests that the Bondi formulae provide a reasonable description of the accretion process in these systems, despite the likely presence of magnetic pressure and angular momentum in the accreting gas. The similarity of the P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} values argues that a significant fraction of the matter entering the accretion radius flows down to regions close to the black holes, where the jets are presumably formed. The tight correlation between P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} also suggests that the accretion flows are approximately stable over timescales of a few million years. Our results show that the black hole ''engines'' at the hearts of large elliptical galaxies and groups feed back sufficient energy to stem cooling and star formation, leading naturally to the observed exponential cut off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function.

  16. Relativistic electrons and magnetic fields of the M87 jet on the ?10 Schwarzschild radii scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kino, M.; Takahara, F.; Hada, K.; Doi, A.

    2014-05-01

    We explore energy densities of the magnetic fields and relativistic electrons in the M87 jet. Since the radio core at the jet base is identical to the optically thick surface against synchrotron self-absorption (SSA), the observing frequency is identical to the SSA turnover frequency. As a first step, we assume the radio core has a simple uniform sphere geometry. Using the observed angular size of the radio core measured by the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, we estimate the energy densities of magnetic fields (U{sub B} ) and relativistic electrons (U{sub e} ) on the basis of the standard SSA formula. Imposing the condition that the Poynting power and kinetic power of relativistic electrons should be smaller than the total power of the jet, we find that (1) the allowed range of the magnetic field strength (B {sub tot}) is 1 G ? B {sub tot} ? 15 G and that (2) 1 10{sup 5} ? U{sub e} /U{sub B} ? 6 10{sup 2} holds. The uncertainty of U{sub e} /U{sub B} comes from the strong dependence on the angular size of the radio core and the minimum Lorentz factor of non-thermal electrons (? {sub e,min}) in the core. It is still unsettled whether resultant energetics are consistent with either the magnetohydrodynamic jet or the kinetic power dominated jet even on the ?10 Schwarzschild radii scale.

  17. ROTATING SOLAR JETS IN SIMULATIONS OF FLUX EMERGENCE WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Fang; Fan, Yuhong; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2014-07-01

    We study the formation of coronal jets through numerical simulation of the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux rope into a pre-existing open magnetic field. Reconnection inside the emerging flux rope in addition to that between the emerging and pre-existing fields give rise to the violent eruption studied. The simulated event closely resembles the coronal jets ubiquitously observed by the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode and demonstrates that heated plasma is driven into the extended atmosphere above. Thermal conduction implemented in the model allows us to qualitatively compare simulated and observed emission from such events. We find that untwisting field lines after the reconnection drive spinning outflows of plasma in the jet column. The Poynting flux in the simulated jet is dominated by the untwisting motions of the magnetic fields loaded with high-density plasma. The simulated jet is comprised of ''spires'' of untwisting field that are loaded with a mixture of cold and hot plasma and exhibit rotational motion of order 20 km s{sup –1} and match contemporary observations.

  18. HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

  19. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  20. Method for microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A thin film is formed on a substrate positioned in a vacuum chamber by use of a gas jet apparatus affixed to a vacuum chamber port and having an outer nozzle with an interior cavity into which carrier gas is fed, an inner nozzle located within the outer nozzle interior cavity into which reactant gas is introduced, a tip of the inner nozzle being recessed from the vacuum chamber port within the outer nozzle interior cavity, and a microwave discharge device configured about the apparatus for generating a discharge in the carrier gas and reactant gas only in a portion of the outer nozzle interior cavity extending from approximately the inner nozzle tip towards the vacuum chamber. A supersonic free jet of carrier gas transports vapor species generated in the microwave discharge to the surface of the substrate to form a thin film on the substrate. The substrate can be translated from the supersonic jet to a second supersonic jet in less time than needed to complete film formation so that the film is chemically composed of chemical reaction products of vapor species in the jets. 5 figs.

  1. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  2. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

  3. Phenomenological analysis of Higgs boson production through gluon fusion in association with jets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greiner, Nicolas; Höche, Stefan; Luisoni, Gionata; Schönherr, Marek; Winter, Jan -Christopher; Yundin, Valery

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we present a detailed phenomenological analysis of the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in association with up to three jets. We consider the gluon fusion channel using an effective theory in the large top-quark mass limit. Higgs boson production in gluon fusion constitutes an irreducible background to the vector boson fusion (VBF) process; hence the precise knowledge of its characteristics is a prerequisite for any measurement in the VBF channel. The calculation is carried out at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD in a fully automated way by combining the two programs GoSam and Sherpa. Wemore » present numerical results for a large variety of observables for both standard cuts and VBF selection cuts. We find that for all jet multiplicities the NLO corrections are sizeable. This is particularly true in the presence of kinematic selections enhancing the VBF topology, which are based on vetoing additional jet activity. In this case, precise predictions for the background can be made using our calculation by taking the difference between the inclusive H+2 jets and the inclusive H+3 jets result.« less

  4. Spatial growth of the current-driven instability in relativistic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Hardee, Philip E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the influence of velocity shear and a radial density profile on the spatial development of the current-driven (CD) kink instability along helically magnetized relativistic jets via three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In this study, we use a nonperiodic computational box, the jet flow is initially established across the computational grid, and a precessional perturbation at the inlet triggers growth of the kink instability. If the velocity shear radius is located inside the characteristic radius of the helical magnetic field, a static nonpropagating CD kink is excited as the perturbation propagates down the jet. Temporal growth disrupts the initial flow across the computational grid not too far from the inlet. On the other hand, if the velocity shear radius is outside the characteristic radius of the helical magnetic field, the kink is advected with the flow and grows spatially down the jet. In this case, flow is maintained to much larger distances from the inlet. The effect of different radial density profiles is more subtle. When the density increases with radius, the kink appears to saturate by the end of the simulation without apparent disruption of the helical twist. This behavior suggests that relativistic jets consisting of a tenuous spine surrounded by a denser medium with a velocity shear radius outside the radius of the maximum toroidal magnetic field have a relatively stable configuration.

  5. Recollimation boundary layers as X-ray sources in young stellar jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnther, Hans Moritz; Li, Zhi-Yun; Schneider, P. C.

    2014-11-01

    Young stars accrete mass from circumstellar disks and, in many cases, the accretion coincides with a phase of massive outflows, which can be highly collimated. Those jets emit predominantly in the optical and IR wavelength range. However, in several cases, X-ray and UV observations reveal a weak but highly energetic component in those jets. X-rays are observed both from stationary regions close to the star and from knots in the jet several hundred AU from the star. In this article, we show semianalytically that a fast stellar wind that is recollimated by the pressure from a slower, more massive disk wind can have the right properties to power stationary X-ray emission. The size of the shocked regions is compatible with observational constraints. Our calculations support a wind-wind interaction scenario for the high-energy emission near the base of young stellar object jets. For the specific case of DG Tau, a stellar wind with a mass-loss rate of 5 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} and a wind speed of 800 km s{sup 1} reproduces the observed X-ray spectrum. We conclude that a stellar wind recollimation shock is a viable scenario to power stationary X-ray emission close to the jet launching point.

  6. Experimental investigation on structures and velocity of liquid jets in a supersonic crossflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhen-guo Wu, Liyin; Li, Qinglian; Li, Chun

    2014-09-29

    Particle image velocimetry was applied in the study focusing on the structure and velocity of water jets injected into a Ma?=?2.1 crossflow. The instantaneous structures of the jet, including surface waves in the near-injector region and vortices in the far-field, were visualized clearly. Spray velocity increases rapidly to 66% of the mainstream velocity in the region of x/d?jet in a supersonic crossflow serves as a foundation of scramjet combustion process, by affecting the combustion efficiency and some other performances. With various forces acting on the liquid jet (Mashayek et al. [AIAA J. 46, 26742686 (2008)] and Wang et al. [AIAA J. 50, 13601366 (2012)]), the atomization process involves very complex flow physics. These physical processes include strong vortical structures, small-scale wave formation, stripping of small droplets from the jet surface, formations of ligaments, and droplets with a wide range of sizes.

  7. Method for microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film is formed on a substrate positioned in a vacuum chamber by use of a gas jet apparatus affixed to a vacuum chamber port and having an outer nozzle with an interior cavity into which carrier gas is fed, an inner nozzle located within the outer nozzle interior cavity into which reactant gas is introduced, a tip of the inner nozzle being recessed from the vacuum chamber port within the outer nozzle interior cavity, and a microwave discharge device configured about the apparatus for generating a discharge in the carrier gas and reactant gas only in a portion of the outer nozzle interior cavity extending from approximately the inner nozzle tip towards the vacuum chamber. A supersonic free jet of carrier gas transports vapor species generated in the microwave discharge to the surface of the substrate to form a thin film on the substrate. The substrate can be translated from the supersonic jet to a second supersonic jet in less time than needed to complete film formation so that the film is chemically composed of chemical reaction products of vapor species in the jets.

  8. Present Limits on the Precision of SM Predictions for Jet Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paramonov, A.A.; Canelli, F.; D'Onofrio, M.; Frisch, H.J.; Mrenna, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    We investigate the impact of theoretical uncertainties on the accuracy of measurements involving hadronic jets. The analysis is performed using events with a Z boson and a single jet observed in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in 4.6 fb{sup -1} of data from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The transverse momenta (p{sub T}) of the jet and the boson should balance each other due to momentum conservation in the plane transverse to the direction of the p and {bar p} beams. We evaluate the dependence of the measured p{sub T}-balance on theoretical uncertainties associated with initial and final state radiation, choice of renormalization and factorization scales, parton distribution functions, jet-parton matching, calculations of matrix elements, and parton showering. We find that the uncertainty caused by parton showering at large angles is the largest amongst the listed uncertainties. The proposed method can be re-applied at the LHC experiments to investigate and evaluate the uncertainties on the predicted jet energies. The distributions produced at the CDF environment are intended for comparison to those from modern event generators and new tunes of parton showering.

  9. Using an energized oxygen micro-jet for improved graphene etching by focused electron beam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-12-07

    We report on an improved Focused Electron Beam Induced Etching (FEBIE) process, which exploits heated oxygen delivery via a continuous supersonic micro-jet resulting in faster graphene patterning and better etch feature definition. Positioning a micro-jet in close proximity to a graphene surface with minimal jet spreading due to a continuous regime of gas flow at the exit of the 10 micrometer inner diameter capillary allows for focused exposure of the surface to reactive oxygen at high mass flux and impingement energy of a supersonic gas stream localized to a small etching area exposed to electron beam. These unique benefits ofmore » focused supersonic oxygen delivery to the surface enable a dramatic increase in the etch rate of graphene with no parasitic carbon ‘halo’ deposition due to secondary electrons (SE) from backscattered electrons (BSE) in the area surrounding the etched regions. Increase of jet temperature via local nozzle heating provides means for enhancing kinetic energy of impinging oxygen molecules, which further speed up the etch, thus minimizing the beam exposure time and required electron dose, before parasitic carbon film deposition due to BSE mediated decomposition of adsorbed hydrocarbon contaminants has a measurable impact on quality of graphene etched features. Interplay of different physical mechanisms underlying an oxygen micro-jet assisted FEBIE process is discussed with support from experimental observations.« less

  10. Property:Incentive/Amt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    19-211unit > LED or Induction HE Garage: 43-483unit > LED Traffic (Red, Yellow, Green): 19unit > LED Traffic (Pedestrian): 7unit > Occupancy...

  11. A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, Stephen; Won, Sang Hee; Chaos, Marcos; Heyne, Joshua; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L.; Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen; Wang, Haowei; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A.; Santoro, Robert J.; Litzinger, Thomas A.

    2010-12-15

    An implicit methodology based on chemical group theory to formulate a jet aviation fuel surrogate by the measurements of several combustion related fuel properties is tested. The empirical formula and derived cetane number of an actual aviation fuel, POSF 4658, have been determined. A three component surrogate fuel for POSF 4658 has been formulated by constraining a mixture of n-decane, iso-octane and toluene to reproduce the hydrogen/carbon ratio and derived cetane number of the target fuel. The validity of the proposed surrogate is evaluated by experimental measurement of select combustion properties of POSF 4658, and the POSF 4658 surrogate. (1)A variable pressure flow reactor has been used to chart the chemical reactivity of stoichiometric mixtures of POSF 4658/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and POSF 4658 surrogate/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} at 12.5 atm and 500-1000 K, fixing the carbon content at 0.3% for both mixtures. (2)The high temperature chemical reactivity and chemical kinetic-molecular diffusion coupling of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate have been evaluated by measurement of the strained extinction limit of diffusion flames. (3)The autoignition behavior of POSF 4658 and POSF 4658 surrogate has been measured with a shock tube at 674-1222 K and with a rapid compression machine at 645-714 K for stoichiometric mixtures of fuel in air at pressures close to 20 atm. The flow reactor study shows that the character and extent of chemical reactivity of both fuels at low temperature (500-675 K) and high temperature (900 K+) are extremely similar. Slight differences in the transition from the end of the negative temperature coefficient regime to hot ignition are observed. The diffusion flame strained extinction limits of the fuels are observed to be indistinguishable when compared on a molar basis. Ignition delay measurements also show that POSF 4658 exhibits NTC behavior. Moreover, the ignition delays of both fuels are also extremely similar over the temperature range studied in both shock tube and rapid compression machine experiments. A chemical kinetic model is constructed and utilized to interpret the experimental observations and provides a rationale as to why the real fuel and surrogate fuel exhibit such similar reactivity. (author)

  12. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-13

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,?+?- and e??). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-b and tt-bb- cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  13. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Edwards, John; Robey, Harry; Spears, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  14. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN THE FLATTENED ENVELOPE AND JET IN THE YOUNG PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM HH 211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Rao, Ramprasad; Hirano, Naomi; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hwang, Hsiang-Chih; Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping

    2014-12-10

    HH 211 is a young Class 0 protostellar system with a flattened envelope, a possible rotating disk, and a collimated jet. We have mapped it with the Submillimeter Array in the 341.6 GHz continuum and SiO J = 8-7 at ∼0.''6 resolution. The continuum traces the thermal dust emission in the flattened envelope and the possible disk. Linear polarization is detected in the continuum in the flattened envelope. The field lines implied from the polarization have different orientations, but they are not incompatible with current gravitational collapse models, which predict a different orientation depending on the region/distance. Also, we might have detected for the first time polarized SiO line emission in the jet due to the Goldreich-Kylafis effect. Observations at higher sensitivity are needed to determine the field morphology in the jet.

  15. EPISODIC JETS AS THE CENTRAL ENGINE OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Feng [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang Bing, E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have erratic light curves, which demand that the GRB central engine launches an episodic outflow. Recent Fermi observations of some GRBs indicate a lack of the thermal photosphere component as predicted by the baryonic fireball model, which suggests a magnetic origin of GRBs. Given that powerful episodic jets have been observed along with continuous jets in other astrophysical black hole systems, here we propose an intrinsically episodic, magnetically dominated jet model for the GRB central engine. Accumulation and eruption of free magnetic energy in the corona of a differentially rotating, turbulent accretion flow around a hyperaccreting black hole lead to ejections of episodic, magnetically dominated plasma blobs. These blobs are accelerated magnetically, collide with each other at large radii, trigger rapid magnetic reconnection and turbulence, efficient particle acceleration, and radiation, and power the observed episodic prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs.

  16. Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10, 40) for producing high-velocity material jets provided. An electric current pulse generator (14, 42) is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line (16, 44) having an outer cylindrical conductor (18), an inner cylindrical conductor (20), and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator (21) therebetween. A coxial, thin-walled metal structure (22, 30) is conductively joined to the two conductors (18, 20) of the transmission line (16, 44). An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure (22), thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure (22), together with the material that comprises any covering layers (32, 34) disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety (42) may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention.

  17. Deuterium density profile determination at JET using a neutron camera and a neutron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, J. Castegnetti, G.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hellesen, C.; Giacomelli, L.

    2014-11-15

    In this work we estimate the fuel ion density profile in deuterium plasmas at JET, using the JET neutron camera, the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR, and fusion reactivities modeled by the transport code TRANSP. The framework has been tested using synthetic data, which showed that the density profile could be reconstructed with an average accuracy of the order of 10 %. The method has also been applied to neutron measurements from a neutral beam heated JET discharge, which gave n{sub d}/n{sub e} ? 0.6 0.3 in the plasma core and n{sub d}/n{sub e} ? 0.4 0.3 towards the edge. Correction factors for detector efficiencies, neutron attenuation, and back-scattering are not yet included in the analysis; future work will aim at refining the estimated density.

  18. 32.8-nm X-ray laser produced in a krypton cluster jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanova, E P; Vinokhodov, A Yu

    2013-12-31

    We have interpreted the well-known experimental quantum yield data for a 32.8-nm X-ray laser operating at the 3d{sup 9}4d (J = 0) 3d{sup 9}4p (J = 1) transition of Kr{sup 8+} with the use of gaseous krypton or a krypton cluster jet. Proceeding from our model we propose a novel scheme for the 32.8-nm laser produced in a krypton cluster jet. The quantum yield is shown to saturate for a plasma length of ?300 ?m, a krypton ion density n{sub Kr} ? (4 9) 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and an electron temperature Te ? 5000 eV. In this case, the energy conversion coefficient amounts to ?5 10{sup -3} of the pump pulse energy. We propose the experimental setup for producing a highefficiency subpicosecond X-ray laser in a krypton cluster jet. (lasers)

  19. EVIDENCE FOR POLAR X-RAY JETS AS SOURCES OF MICROSTREAM PEAKS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neugebauer, Marcia

    2012-05-01

    It is proposed that the interplanetary manifestations of X-ray jets observed in solar polar coronal holes during periods of low solar activity are the peaks of the so-called microstreams observed in the fast polar solar wind. These microstreams exhibit velocity fluctuations of {+-}35 km s{sup -1}, higher kinetic temperatures, slightly higher proton fluxes, and slightly higher abundances of the low-first-ionization-potential element iron relative to oxygen ions than the average polar wind. Those properties can all be explained if the fast microstreams result from the magnetic reconnection of bright-point loops, which leads to X-ray jets which, in turn, result in solar polar plumes. Because most of the microstream peaks are bounded by discontinuities of solar origin, jets are favored over plumes for the majority of the microstream peaks.

  20. Precise Predictions for W 4 Jet Production at the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, Lance J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.

    2010-09-14

    We present the first next-to-leading order QCD results for W + 4-jet production at hadron colliders. Total cross sections, as well as distributions in the jet transverse momenta and in the total transverse energy HT, are provided for the initial LHC energy of {radical}s = 7 TeV. We use a leading-color approximation, known to be accurate to 3% for W production with fewer jets. The virtual matrix elements and the most complicated real-emission matrix elements are handled by the BlackHat library, based on on-shell methods. The remaining parts of the calculation, including the integration over phase space, are performed by the SHERPA package.