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1

Nanotube Composite Anode Materials | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanotube Composite Anode Materials Technology available for licensng: A composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium-ion battery Reduces manufacturing costs....

2

Novel Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with a variety of loadings, morphologies, and thicknesses. - Develop synchrotron tomography tools to better understand how the active materials interact with their surroundings...

3

Nanostructured Materials as Anodes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2010 -- Washington D.C. es063whittingham2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-structured Materials as Anodes Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes...

4

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Anode Materials Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

5

New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries....

8

Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

10

GRAPHENE BASED ANODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Improvements of the anode performances in Li-ions batteries are in demand to satisfy applications in transportation. In comparison with graphitic carbons, transition metal oxides as… (more)

Cheekati, Sree Lakshmi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh...

12

Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG) on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

Gouri Radhakrishnan; Brendan Foran; Michael V. Quinzio; Miles J. Brodie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Graphene sheets decorated with ZnO nanoparticles as anode materials for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ZnO/graphene composites were synthesized using a facile solution- ... 4 nm were densely and homogeneously deposited on graphene sheets. As the anode material for the lithium ion batteries, the ZnO/graphene compos...

Ling-Li Xu; Shao-Wei Bian; Kang-Lin Song

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Cobalt oxide–graphene nanocomposite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites of Co3O4/graphene nanosheets are prepared and characterized by X- ... behavior as anode materials of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries is investigated by galvanostatic discharge/charge measurements...

Guiling Wang; Jincheng Liu; Sheng Tang…

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

TiO2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for high rate lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple strategy to prepare a hybrid of nanocomposites of anatase TiO2/graphene nanosheets (GNS) as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries was reported. The morphology and crystal structure...2/GNS electrode ...

Yi-ping Tang ???; Shi-ming Wang ???; Xiao-xu Tan ???…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The effect of graphene nanosheets as an additive for anode materials in lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small amount of graphene nanosheets was added to commercial graphite as an anode active material in lithium ion batteries and its effects were examined through a ... composite electrode containing 1 or 5 wt% graphene

Jae Hun Jeong; Dong-Won Jung; Byung-Sun Kong…

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode-Supported Cell Development - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Supported Cell Development- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

18

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

SciTech Connect

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

19

Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Battery Materials Manufacture Technology available for licensing: A unique method for anode and cathode manufacture A one-step, solvent-free reaction for producing unique...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery-cost, and environ- mentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on- graphene approach should offer

Cui, Yi

22

TiO2 nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anatase TiO2...nanoparticles in situ grown on nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been successfully synthesized ... as an anode material for the lithium ion battery. The nanosized TiO2 particles wer...

Dan Li; Dongqi Shi; Zongwen Liu; Huakun Liu…

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

In situ synthesis of SnO2 nanosheet/graphene composite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel SnO2/graphene composite has been synthesized via an in...2 nanosheets are uniformly grown on graphene support. The as-prepared products were characterized ... used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries

Hongdong Liu; Jiamu Huang; Chengjie Xiang…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Co3O4/Carbon Aerogel Hybrids as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co3O4/Carbon Aerogel Hybrids as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties ... A facile hydrothermal and sol–gel polymerization route was developed for large-scale fabrication of well-designed Co3O4 nanoparticles anchored carbon aerogel (CA) architecture hybrids as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with improved electrochemical properties. ... carbon aerogel; oxide; hybrid; mesoporous structure; lithium-ion battery ...

Fengbin Hao; Zhiwei Zhang; Longwei Yin

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

25

VSe2/graphene nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Unprecedented VSe2/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized through a hydrothermal route. A large number of hexagonal \\{VSe2\\} sheets anchored on the graphene sheets can be observed. The thicknesses and lengths of \\{VSe2\\} sheets are controlled by graphene sheets. VSe2/graphene nanocomposite prepared with 15 mg graphite oxide (VSe2/G-15) exhibits the best electrochemical lithium storage properties such as charge/discharge capacities, cycle stability and rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

Yaping Wang; Binbin Qian; Huanhuan Li; Liang Liu; Long Chen; Haobin Jiang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a cru-cial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed un derstanding of the kinetics of the cor-responding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in Ni- YSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and ther mal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid ox ide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice.

Basoli, Francesco [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy] [Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; Senesi, Roberto [ORNL] [ORNL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Licoccia, Silvia [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"] [NAST Center, University of Roma "Tor Vergata"

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE: MATERIALS IN ELECTRONICS 9 (1998) 309 --311 Critical oxygen content in porous anodes of solid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in porous anodes of solid tantalum capacitors YU. POZDEEV-FREEMAN Vishay Israel Electronics Company anodes of solid tantalum capacitors and the current-voltage (I9V) characteristics of Ta2O5 amorphous layers formed on the anode surface have been performed. A strong correlation between a sharp increase

Palevski, Alexander

28

Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

CuGeO3 nanowires covered with graphene as anode materials of lithium ion batteries with enhanced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CuGeO3 nanowires covered with graphene as anode materials of lithium ion batteries with enhanced one-step route was developed to synthesize crystalline CuGeO3 nanowire/graphene composites (CGCs). Crystalline CuGeO3 nanowires were tightly covered and anchored by graphene sheets, forming a layered structure

Lin, Zhiqun

30

Graphene Oxides Dispersing and Hosting Graphene Sheets for Unique Nanocomposite Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene Oxides Dispersing and Hosting Graphene Sheets for Unique Nanocomposite Materials ... Graphene oxides (GOs), beyond their widely reported use as precursors for single-layer graphene sheets, are in fact excellent materials themselves (polymers in two-dimension, polyelectrolyte-like, aqueous solubility and biocompatibility, etc.). ... In this reported work we used aqueous GOs to effectively disperse few-layer graphene sheets (GNs) in suspension for facile wet-processing into nanocomposites of GNs embedded in GOs (as the polymeric matrix). ...

Leilei Tian; Parambath Anilkumar; Li Cao; Chang Yi Kong; Mohammed J. Meziani; Haijun Qian; L. Monica Veca; Tim J. Thorne; Kenneth N. Tackett; II; Travis Edwards; Ya-Ping Sun

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

31

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Subeutectic Growth of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanowires Grown on and Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets: High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery ... Yu, A.; Park, H. W.; Davies, A.; Higgins, D.; Chen, Z.; Xaio, X.Free-Standing Layer-by-Layer Hybrid Thin Film of Graphene-MnO2 Nanotube as Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries J. Phys. ...

Fathy M Hassan; Abdel Rahman Elsayed; Victor Chabot; Rasim Batmaz; Xingcheng Xiao; Zhongwei Chen

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy, rechargeable Li-ion battery based on carbon nanotubewith Sb and SnSb0.5 as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon, 2003.Li, A review of application of carbon nanotubes for lithium ion battery

Zhao, Lin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Laterally confined graphene nanosheets and graphene/SnO2 composites as high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are desirable for applications that require high ... demonstrate the advantageous rate capability of few-layered graphene nanosheets, with widths of 100–200 nm,...

Zhiyong Wang; Hao Zhang; Nan Li; Zujin Shi; Zhennan Gu; Gaoping Cao

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

In search of high performance anode materials for Mg batteries: computational studies of Mg in Ge, Si, and Sn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present ab initio studies of structures, energetics, and diffusion properties of Mg in Si, Ge, and Sn diamond structures to evaluate their potential as insertion type anode materials for Mg batteries. We show that Si could provide the highest specific capacities (3817 mAh g-1) and the lowest average insertion voltage (~0.15 eV vs. Mg) for Mg storage. Nevertheless, due to its significant percent lattice expansion (~216%) and slow Mg diffusion, Sn and Ge are more attractive; both anodes have lower lattice expansions (~120 % and ~178 %, respectively) and diffusion barriers (~0.50 and ~0.70 eV, respectively for single-Mg diffusion) than Si. We show that Mg-Mg interactions at different stages of charging can decrease significantly the diffusion barrier compared to the single atom diffusion, by up to 0.55 eV.

Malyi, Oleksandr I; Manzhos, Sergei; 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.114

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene composited as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A tin oxide-titanium oxide/graphene (SnO2-TiO2.../G) ternary nanocomposite as high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries was prepared via a simple reflux method. ... The graphite oxide (GO) was reduced to graphene

Shan-Shan Chen; Xue Qin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

CoOcarbon nanofiber networks prepared by electrospinning as binder-free anode materials for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for lithium-ion batteries with enhanced properties Ming Zhang,ab Evan Uchaker,a Shan Hu,a Qifeng Zhang(II) acetate and polyacrylonitrile by an electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. The XPS results with diameters of 200 nm. As binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the discharge capacities of such Co

Cao, Guozhong

39

High-performance tin oxide-nitrogen doped graphene aerogel hybrids as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Tin dioxide nanoparticles on nitrogen doped graphene aerogel (SnO2-NGA) hybrid are synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method and successfully applied in lithium-ion batteries as a free-standing anode. The electrochemical performance of SnO2-NGA hybrid is investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling, rate capability test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the SnO2-NGA hybrid with freestanding spongy-like structure exhibit remarkable lithium storage capacity (1100 mAh g?1 after 100 cycles), good cycling stability and high rate capability. The outstanding performance is attributed to the uniform SnO2 nanoparticles, unique spongy-like structure and N doping defect for Li+ diffusion.

Chunhui Tan; Jing Cao; Abdul Muqsit Khattak; Feipeng Cai; Bo Jiang; Gai Yang; Suqin Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

Stephen Everett Treimer

2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron Microscopy Study of Novel Ru Doped La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 as Anode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr. Evanston, IL 60208 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been the center of research activities with the goal of improving energy

Marks, Laurence D.

42

Anodes for alkaline electrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Three-dimensionally macroporous graphene-supported Fe3O4 composite as anode material for Li-ion batteries with long cycling life and ultrahigh rate capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe3O4 is an attractive conversion reaction-based anode material with high theoretical capacity (928 mA h g?1...). However, the poor cycling and rate performance hinder its applications in Li-ion batteries. In thi...

Delong Ma; Shuang Yuan; Zhanyi Cao

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Anodic Behavior of SAM2X5 Material Applied as Amorphous Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Iron-based amorphous alloys are desirable industrial materials since they are highly resistant to corrosion and possess enhanced hardness for wear resistance. The amorphous materials can be produced from the melt as powder and later spray deposited as coatings on large engineering structures. As a laboratory experiment, SAM2X5 powder was coated on electrochemical specimens of 304SS for testing. Results show that the coated specimens did not perform satisfactorily during the laboratory testing. This is because of partial devitrification during the deposition of the powder on the small specimen substrates.

Hailey, P D; Farmer, J C; Day, S D; Rebak, R B

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

45

Effect of Anisotropic Volume Change in Tin Phosphate Nanoparticle Anode Material with Mesocellular Foam Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, PO = propylene oxide . This material has a mesocelluar foam structure. Experimental Pluronic P123 10 g, BASF were dissolved in 40 mL of distilled water into which 8.8 g of H3PO4 had been previously

Cho, Jaephil

46

Facile synthesis of MnO and nitrogen-doped carbon nanocomposites as anode material for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract MnO and nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by a facile thermal-decomposing method using the mixture of glycine and manganese acetate as precursor. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), electrochemical results show that the as-prepared MnO/N-C achieves a reversible capacity of 473 mAh g?1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g?1 and the capacities of 631.4, 547.7, 443.1, 294.7, and 161.8 mAh g?1 at the current densities of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mA g?1, respectively. The superior cycling and rate performances is attributed to the nanocomposite structure, in which nanosized MnO particles shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and the N-doped carbon cushions the volume change and improves the electronic conductivity of electrode.

Song Qiu; Xinzhen Wang; Guixia Lu; Jiurong Liu; Cuizhu He

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

Rubloff, Gary W.

48

Synthesis and electrochemical performances of amorphous carbon-coated Sn-Sb particles as anode material for lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

The amorphous carbon coating on the Sn-Sb particles was prepared from aqueous glucose solutions using a hydrothermal method. Because the outer layer carbon of composite materials is loose cotton-like and porous-like, it can accommodate the expansion and contraction of active materials to maintain the stability of the structure, and hinder effectively the aggregation of nano-sized alloy particles. The as-prepared composite materials show much improved electrochemical performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries compared with Sn-Sb alloy and carbon alone. This amorphous carbon-coated Sn-Sb particle is extremely promising anode materials for lithium secondary batteries and has a high potentiality in the future use. - Graphical abstract: The amorphous carbon coating on the Sn-Sb particles was prepared from aqueous glucose solutions using a hydrothermal method. Because the outer layer carbon of composite materials is loose cotton-like and porous-like, it can accommodate the expansion and contraction of active materials to maintain the stability of the structure, and hinder effectively the aggregation of nano-sized alloy particles.

Wang Zhong [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metal, Beijing 100088 (China); Tian Wenhuai [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu Xiaohe [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yang Rong [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li Xingguo [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: xgli@pku.edu.cn

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Anodic films  

SciTech Connect

Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution-precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation can be determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

Muller, R.H.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Novel Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* ECDECFEC 1M LiPF 6 ("BATT-FEC") ApproachStrategy * Characterization * X-Ray tomography studies of Si- based electrodes * EQCM studies to evaluate electrolyte stability and...

51

Novel Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

52

Rational Material Architecture Design for Better Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

weight of cathode and anode active materials). This devicetotal mass of cathode and anode active materials), giving antotal mass of cathode and anode active materials. power for

Chen, Zheng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes  

SciTech Connect

Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Huettig, F.R. (Ceramic Magnetics, Inc., Fairfield, NJ (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Novel Processing of Unique Ceramic-Based Nuclear Materials and Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These include refractory alloys base on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as those based on silicon carbide (SiCf-SiC); carbon-carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor componets is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the materials used in nuclear fuels and other temperature critical components can lower the center-line fuel temperature and thereby enhance durability and reduce the risk of premature failure.

Hui Zhang; Raman P. Singh

2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

Anode performance | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anode performance New hybrid anode design to improve long-term performance of batteries PNNL researchers have developed a hybrid anode made of graphite and lithium that...

56

REACTIVE FORCE FIELDS FOR Y-DOPED BaZrO3 ELECTROLYTE AND NI-ANODE. POTENTIAL CATHODE MATERIALS FOR APPLICATION IN PROTON CERAMIC FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Based on quantum mechanical data obtained for the Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} electrolyte and Ni-anode Reactive Force Field parameters have been developed for further molecular dynamics simulations of the proton diffusion and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. Electronic and atomic structures of different terminations of the (001) BaZrO{sub 3} surface have been studied using first-principles calculations. Several potential cathode materials for the Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} system were synthesized via glycine nitrate combustion method. Of the five potential cathode materials examined BaZr{sub 0.40}Pr{sub 0.40}Gd{sub 0.20}O{sub 3} and BaZr{sub 0.60}Y{sub 0.20}Co{sub 0.20}O{sub 3} appear to be the most promising for further applications in proton ceramic fuel cells. Fuel cell test of a Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3} thin film using platinum ink for both electrodes have been performed. The obtained results shows that a robust method for fabricating crack-free thin membranes, as well as methods for sealing anode and cathode chambers, have successfully been developed.

Boris Merinov; Adri van Duin; Sossina Haile; William A. Goddard III

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic reaction kinetics Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Al should be severely retarded. Because of this retarded kinetics of anodization process... The Formation of Porous Anodic ... Source: Kim, Ki-Bum - School of Materials...

58

A ternary phased SnO2-Fe2O3/SWCNTs nanocomposite as a high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A new SnO2-Fe2O3/SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) ternary nanocomposite was first synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach. SnO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were homogeneously located on the surface of SWCNTs, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Due to the synergistic effect of different components, the as synthesized SnO2-Fe2O3/SWCNTs composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a high capacity of 692 mAh·g?1 which could be maintained after 50 cycles at 200 mA·g?1. Even at a high rate of 2000 mA·g?1, the capacity was still remained at 656 mAh·g?1.

Wangliang Wu; Yi Zhao; Jiaxin Li; Chuxin Wu; Lunhui Guan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Anode and Cathode Arcs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... we call an anode arc, produces a circular pit on the anode and a general roughening of the opposed cathode. Photomicrographs of single anode-type arcs were published1 before the ... arcs\tCathode arcs

L. H. GERMER; W. S. BOYLE

1955-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

Embedding nano-silicon in graphene nanosheets by plasma assisted milling for high capacity anode materials in lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The lithium storage performance of silicon (Si) is improved substantially by forming composite of nano-Si particles embedded homogeneously in graphene nanosheets (GNs) using a simple discharge plasma assisted milling (P-milling) method. The synergistic effect of the rapid heating of the plasma and the mechanical ball mill grinding with nano-Si as nanomiller converted the graphite powder to \\{GNs\\} with the integration of nano-Si particles in the in-situ formed GNs. This composite structure inhibits the agglomeration of nano-Si and improves electronic conductivity. The cycling stability and rate capability are enhanced, with a stable reversible capacity of 976 mAhg?1 at 50 mAg?1 for the P-milled 20 h nano-Si/GNs composite. A full cell containing a commercial LiMn2O4 cathode is assembled and demonstrated a satisfying utilization of the P-milled nano-Si/GNs composite anode with stable working potential. This composite shows promise for application in lithium ion batteries.

Wei Sun; Renzong Hu; Hui Liu; Meiqin Zeng; Lichun Yang; Haihui Wang; Min Zhu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Template-Free Electrochemical Synthesis of Sn Nanofibers as High-Performance Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea ... sciences and engineering. ...

Do-Hwan Nam; Tae-Hee Kim; Kyung-Sik Hong; Hyuk-Sang Kwon

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

62

Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

3D hollow Sn@carbon-graphene hybrid material as promising anode for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG) with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the ...

Xiaoyu Zheng, Wei Lv, Yan-Bing He, Chen Zhang, Wei Wei, Ying Tao, Baohua Li, Quan-Hong Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Light-Weight Free-Standing Carbon Nanotube-Silicon Films for Anodes of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- prove energy densities for both anode and cathode. Silicon as an anode material has at- tracted to over- come this issue, including the use of nano- sized active materials,1 6 active/inactive composite in weight than Si active material. In a commercial lithium ion cell, the anode material is usually coated

Cui, Yi

65

An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

Ferdman, Alla

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

66

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

67

Cell Analysis ? High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Investigate the relationships of structure, morphology and performance of cathode and anode materials. * Explore kinetic barriers and utilize the knowledge gained to design and...

68

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke Uribarri and E (MPDTs) operating with three anode materials, and an anode spot model is presented which provides below and above onset with anodes of cop- per, graphite, and lead are analyzed using the statistical

Choueiri, Edgar

69

Search for New Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

70

Carbonate fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

71

First Principles Calculations of Electrode Materials | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cell Analysis High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries...

72

Nano-sized Li-Fe composite oxide prepared by a self-catalytic reverse atom transfer radical polymerization approach as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A novel Self-catalytic Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (RATRP) approach that can provide the radical initiator and the catalyst by the system itself is used to synthesize a nano-sized Li-Fe composite oxide powder in large scale. Its crystalline structure and morphology have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that the composite is composed of nano-sized LiFeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Its electrochemical properties are evaluated by charge/discharge measurements. The results show that the Li-Fe composite oxide is an excellent anode material for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance (1249 mAh g{sup -1} at 100th cycle) and outstanding rate capability (967 mAh g{sup -1} at 5 C). Such a self-catalytic RATRP approach provides a way to synthesize nano-sized iron oxide-based anode materials industrially with preferable electrochemical performance and can also be applied in other polymer-related area.

Yue, G.Q.; Liu, C.; Wang, D.Z. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Y.; Yuan, Q.F.; Xu, R.; Zhao, F.G. [Amperex Technology Ltd, Guanggong Dongguan 523080 (China)] [Amperex Technology Ltd, Guanggong Dongguan 523080 (China); Chen, C.H., E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversions, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Characterization of anodic bonding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic bonding is a common process used in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) device fabrication and packaging. Polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) is emerging as a new MEMS device and ...

Tudryn, Carissa Debra, 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Effect of Sn and Ca doping on the corrosion of Pb anodes in lead acid batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Sn and Ca doping on the corrosion of Pb anodes in lead acid batteries Dragan Slavkova of lead anodes used in lead acid batteries. However, one drawback of these materials is their increased corrosion rate as compared to pure lead anodes. In the present investigation, the dissolution of Pb

Popov, Branko N.

75

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Creation of Onset Voltage Hash by Anode Spots in a Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Luke Uribarri flow rate) of onset voltage fluctuations in a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster operating with three anode materials, and an anode spot model is presented which provides a physical explanation for the properties

Choueiri, Edgar

76

Relationship Between Anode Spots and Onset Voltage Hash in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationship Between Anode Spots and Onset Voltage Hash in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters operating above onset and the time-resolved appearance of destructively released anode material in the thruster plume. Such a relationship gives support to previously discussed anode spotting

Choueiri, Edgar

77

Definition: Anode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anode Anode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anode The positive electrode in an electrochemical cell, or battery.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device. The direction of electric current is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow. In other words, the electrons flow from the anode into, for example, an electrical circuit. Mnemonic: ACID (Anode Current into Device). A widespread misconception is that anode polarity is always positive (+). This is often incorrectly inferred from the correct fact that in all electrochemical devices, negatively charged anions move towards the anode (hence their name) and positively charged cations move away from it. In fact anode polarity

78

Graphene-Based Composite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene has emerged as a novel, highly promising ... . As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it was shown that it cannot be ... cycling that leads to the failure of the batteries. To resolve this probl...

Nathalie Lavoie; Fabrice M. Courtel…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Long-term behaviour of solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials in contact with Ni-mesh during exposure in simulated anode gas at 700 and 800 °C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the present study the long-term behaviour of two ferritic steels, Crofer 22 APU and Crofer 22H, in contact with a Ni-mesh during exposure in simulated anode gas, Ar–4%H2–2%H2O, at 700 and 800 °C for exposure times up to 3000 h was investigated. Ni diffusion from the Ni-mesh into the steel resulted in the formation of an austenitic zone whereas diffusion of iron and chromium from the steel into the Ni-mesh resulted in the formation of chromia base oxides in the Ni-mesh. Depending on the chemical composition of the steel, the temperature and the exposure time, interdiffusion processes between ferritic steel and Ni-mesh also resulted in ?-phase formation at the austenite–ferrite interface and in Laves-phase dissolution in the austenitic zone. The extent and morphology of the ?-phase formation are discussed on the basis of thermodynamic considerations, including reaction paths in the ternary alloy system Fe–Ni–Cr.

L. Garcia-Fresnillo; V. Shemet; A. Chyrkin; L.G.J. de Haart; W.J. Quadakkers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replace graphite anode with an alternative material that meets the requirement for low cost and high energy. Continue development of binders for the cathode and alternative anode...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Abnormal Cyclibility in Ni@Graphene Core–Shell and Yolk–Shell Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abnormal Cyclibility in Ni@Graphene Core–Shell and Yolk–Shell Nanostructures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes ... A new graphene-based hybrid nanostructure is designed for anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. ...

Huawei Song; Hao Cui; Chengxin Wang

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

82

Anode initiated surface flashover switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

83

Influence of heat-treatment on lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Mesoporous carbons possess unique nanosheet-like pore walls which can be changed by heat treatment. ? Lithium ion anode properties of mesoporous carbons could be influenced by the nanosheet-like walls. ? Mesoporous carbons with nanosheet-like walls exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties LIBs. -- Abstract: Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with nanosheet-like walls have been prepared as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries by a simple one-step infiltrating method under the action of capillary flow. The influence of heat treatment temperature on the surface topography, pore/phase structure and anode performances of as-prepared materials has been investigated. The results reveal that melted liquid-crystal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be anchored on liquid/silica interfaces by molecule engineering. After carbonization, the nanosheets are formed as the pore walls of MCs and are perpendicular to the long axis of pores. The anode properties demonstrate that C-1200 displays higher reversible capacitance than those treated in higher temperature. The rate performances of C-1200 and C-1800 are similar and more excellent than that of C-2400. These improved lithium ion anode properties could be attributed to the nanosheet-like walls of MCs which can be influenced by the heat treatment temperature.

Zeng, Fanyan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hou, Zhaohui, E-mail: zhqh96@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); He, Binhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Ge, Chongyong; Cao, Jianguo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Kuang, Yafei, E-mail: yafeik@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina films Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrodeposition as anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

85

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodized titanium discs Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: As a specimen material, we chose sintered titanium. Chemically pure titanium powder was prepared by a rotating-anode... Internal Friction and Elastic Constants of...

86

Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

87

Sidewall Materials for Hall-Hroult Mr Reiza Mukhlis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Hall-Heroult prebaked anode electrolysis cell* Hall-Héroult Process Carbon anode need to be replaced ~ Total Cell Voltage Frac. Current Efficiency Voltage distribution chart of carbon anode cell* *Grjotheim Sidewall materials directly exposed to bath #12;Inert Anode Application Anode Type/Scenario Carbon* Inert/1

Liley, David

88

Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic stack test fixture, part III: Stability and microstructure of Ce-(Mn,Co)-spinel coating, AISI441 interconnect, alumina coating, cathode and anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing under realistic conditions. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell's degradation. After 6000 h test, the spinel coating showed densification with some diffusion of Cr. At the metal interface, segregation of Si and Ti was observed, however, no continuous layer formed. The alumina coating for perimeter sealing areas appeared more dense and thick at the air side than the fuel side. Both the spinel and alumina coatings remained bonded. EDS analysis of Cr within the metal showed small decrease in concentration near the coating interface and would expect to cause no issue of Cr depletion. Inter-diffusion of Ni, Fe, and Cr between spot-welded Ni wire and AISI441 interconnect was observed and Cr-oxide scale formed along the circumference of the weld. The microstructure of the anode and cathode was discussed relating to degradation of the top and middle cells. Overall, the Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, alumina coating, and AISI441 steel showed the desired long-term stability and the developed generic stack fixture proved to be a useful tool to validate candidate materials for SOFC.

Yeong-Shyung Chou; Jeffry W. Stevenson; Jung-Pyung Choi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Applications - Daiwon Choi, PNNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Unique Li-ion Batteries for Utility Applications Daiwon Choi, Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, Wei Wang, Vincent L. Sprenkle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd., P. O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA DOE Energy Storage Program Review, Washington, DC Sept. 26-28, 2012 Acknowledgment: Dr. Imre Gyuk - Energy Storage Program Manager, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability  Investigate the Li-ion battery for stationary energy storage unit in ~kWh level.  Fabrication and optimization of LiFePO 4 / Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 18650 cell.  Li-ion battery energy storage with effective thermal management.  Improve rate and cycle life of Li-ion battery.  Screen possible new cathode/anode electrode materials and its combinations

90

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Anodic oxidation of zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic polarization of zircaloy-2 in different electrolytic baths has been investigated in order to obtain thick oxide films with properties suitable for wear applications.

A. Conte; A. Borello; A. Cabrini

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with multilayered graphene anode  

SciTech Connect

As an innovative anode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), we have investigated graphene films. Graphene has importance due to its huge potential in flexible OLED applications. In this work, graphene films have been catalytically grown and transferred to the glass substrate for OLED fabrications. We have successfully fabricated 2 mm × 2 mm device area blue fluorescent OLEDs with graphene anodes which showed 2.1% of external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. This is the highest value reported among fluorescent OLEDs using graphene anodes. Oxygen plasma treatment on graphene has been found to improve hole injections in low voltage regime, which has been interpreted as oxygen plasma induced work function modification. However, plasma treatment also increases the sheet resistance of graphene, limiting the maximum luminance. In summary, our works demonstrate the practical possibility of graphene as an anode material for OLEDs and suggest a processing route which can be applied to various graphene related devices.

Hwang, Joohyun [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Kyw [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jaehyun; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Doo-Hee; Huh, Jin Woo [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Yool [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Ik, E-mail: jiklee@etri.re.kr [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Hye Yong [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

94

Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon-Graphene Anodes Technology available for licensing: Provides low-cost production process. Advanced gas phase deposition process yields anodes with five times the specific...

95

Granular materials such as sand, rice and coffee beans are so common that we hardly ever realize how unique their properties are. Who marvels at the fact one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

molecules flying around, yet its properties are well understood, for more than a century already. Substances and solids, which always fly, bounce, tumble and vibrate around, the grains in a heap of granular material, it is a container with a small rotating disk at the bottom; hence the name

Hille, Sander

96

Multi-anode ionization chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

97

New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

98

New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

99

Nano-structured Materials as Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

100

Graphene–Nanotube–Iron Hierarchical Nanostructure as Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene–Nanotube–Iron Hierarchical Nanostructure as Lithium Ion Battery Anode ... In this study, we report a novel route via microwave irradiation to synthesize a bio-inspired hierarchical graphene–nanotube–iron three-dimensional nanostructure as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. ...

Si-Hwa Lee; Vadahanambi Sridhar; Jung-Hwan Jung; Kaliyappan Karthikeyan; Yun-Sung Lee; Rahul Mukherjee; Nikhil Koratkar; Il-Kwon Oh

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Development of an inert ceramic anode to reduce energy consumption in magnesium production. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop a dimensionally stable ceramic anode for production of magnesium metal in electrolytic cells, replacing the graphite anodes currently used by The Dow Chemical Company magnesium business. The work is based on compositional and design technology for a ceramic anode developed in the former Central Research Inorganic Laboratory. The approach selected is to use a ceramic semiconductor tube as the material to interface with the bath and gaseous atmosphere in the cell. The testing goal was to demonstrate six anodes surviving a 30 day test lifetime with acceptable wear rates and electrical performance in a laboratory scale magnesium cell test. State of the art slip casting techniques were used and advanced in the pursuit of a virtually flaw free ceramic anode shell. Novel core materials were also invented to allow for the complete, crack free fabrication of the laboratory scale anode. Two successive anodes were tested and exceeded the 30 day cell lifetime goal with excellent wear characteristics. More aggressive testing of the ceramic anode revealed that the anode had a rather narrow operating region.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Cobalt Carbonate/ and Cobalt Oxide/Graphene Aerogel Composite Anodes for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cobalt Carbonate/ and Cobalt Oxide/Graphene Aerogel Composite Anodes for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries ... (1, 2) Commercial LIBs use graphite as the anode material with a low theoretical specific capacity of 372 mAh g–1, necessitating extensive research to develop substitute anode materials with higher energy/power densities for high performance LIBs to satisfy demanding applications like electric vehicles. ...

Mohammad Akbari Garakani; Sara Abouali; Biao Zhang; Curtis Alton Takagi; Zheng-Long Xu; Jian-qiu Huang; Jiaqiang Huang; Jang-Kyo Kim

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

EMSL: Science: Energy Materials and Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Materials & Processes Energy Materials & Processes Energy Materials logo TEM image In situ transmission electron microscopy at EMSL was used to study structural changes in the team’s new anode system. Real-time measurements show silicon nanoparticles inside carbon shells before (left) and after (right) lithiation. Energy Materials and Processes focuses on the dynamic transformation mechanisms and physical and chemical properties at critical interfaces in catalysts and energy materials needed to design new materials and systems for sustainable energy applications. By facilitating the development and rapid dissemination of critical molecular-level information along with predictive modeling of interfaces and their unique properties EMSL helps enable the design and development of practical, efficient, environmentally

104

Short communication Compositional control of continuously graded anode functional layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 2012 Available online 17 May 2012 Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell Anode Spray deposition Compositional gradation SOFC a b s t r a c t In this work, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) are fabricated improvements in solid oxide fuel cell performance have come about through various strategies. Materials

Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.

105

Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Marins, Sean Parris, and Caleb Ellefson Introduction to Multiscale Engineering School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program Introduction in fuels such as biodiesel or jet fuel, SOFC anodes are poisoned, rendering them useless. Research

Collins, Gary S.

106

p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

107

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material By Angela Hardin * February 25, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

109

Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Return to Search Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material Argonne National Laboratory CalBattery has worked with Argonne for...

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode solid oxide Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) exhibit a number of attractive features... of anode and cathode materials for propane oxidation was tested in both flow- through and half... but not...

111

Silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers for use in lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this report, we introduce electrospun silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers (SCNFs) as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The one-dimensional structure of electrospun nanofibers provides porosity for the anode material. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the electrospun fibers reduce the volume expansion of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and improve mechanical stability of the electrode. Both \\{CNTs\\} and carbon nanofibers enhance electronic conduction by connecting SiNPs in \\{SCNFs\\} for electrode reactions. These contribute to improved electrochemical performance of SCNF anode-based \\{LIBs\\} resulting in the enhancement of capacity and cycling ability.

Nguyen Trung Hieu; Jungdon Suk; Dong Wook Kim; Ok Hee Chung; Jun Seo Park; Yongku Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Argonne CNM News: Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Tijana Rajh Argonne nanoscientist Tijana Rajh holds a strip of material created from titanium dioxide nanotubes. A team of researchers led by Tijana Rajh (Group Leader, Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials NanoBio Interfaces Group), and Christopher Johnson (Argonne's Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division), working under a CNM user science project, discovered that nanotubes composed of titanium dioxide can switch their phase as a battery is cycled, gradually boosting their operational capacity. New batteries produced with this material can be recharged up to half of their original capacity in less than 30 seconds. By switching out conventional graphite anodes with titanium nanotube anodes, a surprising phenomenon occurs. As the battery cycles through

113

Retrofitting sacrificial anodes in the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

Cathodic protection (CP) systems of 15 fixed offshore platforms were analyzed. These steel template structures, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, are in water depths between 125 and 185 ft (115 and 170 m). A systematic survey program exists to monitor the CP systems including assessment of sacrificial anode depletion, and measurement of anode and platform potentials. These data are used to design new anode retrofits for older structures to extend CP system life. An analysis of field survey measurements, the method used to evaluate new anode needs, and locations for retrofit anodes are described.

Kiefer, J.H.; Thomason, W.H.; Alansari, N.G.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Graphite coated with manganese oxide/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites as anodes in marine benthic microbial fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving anode performance is of great significance to scale up benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFCs) for its marine application to drive oceanography instruments. In this study, manganese oxide (MnO2)/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are prepared to be as novel anodes in the \\{BMFCs\\} via a direct redox reaction between permanganate ions (MnO4?) and MWCNTs. The results indicate that the MnO2/MWCNTs anode has a better wettability, greater kinetic activity and higher power density than that of the plain graphite (PG) anode. It is noted that the MnO2 (50% weight percent)/MWCNTs anode shows the highest electrochemical performance among them and will be a promising material for improving bioelectricity production of the BMFCs. Finally, a synergistic mechanism of electron transfer shuttle of Mn ions and their redox reactions in the interface between modified anode and bacteria biofilm are proposed to explain its excellent electrochemical performance.

Yubin Fu; Jian Yu; Yelong Zhang; Yao Meng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Novel Pyrolyzed Polyaniline-Grafted Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphene Sheets As Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Novel Pyrolyzed Polyaniline-Grafted Silicon Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphene Sheets As Li-Ion Battery Anodes ... The composite materials exhibit better cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency as anodes in lithium ion batteries, as compared to pure Si nanoparticles and physically mixed graphene/Si composites. ...

Zhe-Fei Li; Hangyu Zhang; Qi Liu; Yadong Liu; Lia Stanciu; Jian Xie

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

Low Cost SiOx-Graphite and Olivine Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sotowa (Showa-Denko) Objective Synthesize and evaluate doped manganese phosphate as low cost cathode material Replace graphite anode with an alternative material that meets the...

117

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

118

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

119

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

120

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Title Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, A. F. Bello, Xiangyun Song, Shidi Xun, Jin Chong, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 5 Pagination A520 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00134651 Abstract Battery grade graphite products from major suppliers to the battery industry were evaluated in 2325 coin cells with lithium counter electrodes. First and ongoing cycle efficiency, total and reversible capacity, cycle life and discharge rate performance were measured to compare these anode materials. We then ranked the graphites using a formula which incorporates these performance measures to estimate the cost of the overall system, relative to the cost of a system using MCMB. This analysis indicates that replacing MCMB with CCP-G8 (Conoco Phillips) would add little to no cost, whereas each of the other graphites would lead to a more costly system. Therefore we chose CCP-G8 as the new baseline graphite for the BATT program.

123

Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma  

SciTech Connect

The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

124

Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

long life and improved Safety for PHEV and EV applications. Objectives Develop a low cost synthesis methods to prepare high energy anodes Full structural and...

125

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 MAG LAB REPORTS Volume 18 No. 1 CONDENSED MATTER SCIENCE Technique development, graphene, magnetism & magnetic materials, topological insulators, quantum fl uids & solids,...

126

Three-Dimensional Metal Scaffold Supported Bicontinuous Silicon Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Metal Scaffold Supported Bicontinuous Silicon Battery Anodes Huigang Zhang Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes are attracting significant during cycling generally leads to anode pulverization unless the silicon is dispersed throughout a matrix

Braun, Paul

127

Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous SnO2 composites as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous metal oxides such as SnO2...exhibit a superior electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their large surface areas and ... collapse during the charge–discharge pro...

Shuhua Jiang; Wenbo Yue; Ziqi Gao; Yu Ren; Hui Ma…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system  

SciTech Connect

An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NICKEL/YTTRIA-STABILISED ZIRCONIA CERMET ANODES FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Søren Primdahl #12;ii Primdahl, Søren Nickel/yttria-stabilised zirconia cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells Thesis FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit Twente

130

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

132

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

133

Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

134

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50 full charge-discharge cycles in the laboratory scale Li-S cells. Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Project Objectives * Develop a unique...

135

The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials and methods are available as supplementary materials on Science Online. 16. W. Benz, A. G. W. Cameron, H. J. Melosh, Icarus 81, 113 (1989). 17. S. L. Thompson, H. S. Lauson, Technical Rep. SC-RR-710714, Sandia Nat. Labs (1972). 18. H. J. Melosh, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 42, 2079 (2007). 19. S. Ida, R. M. Canup, G. R. Stewart, Nature 389, 353 (1997). 20. E. Kokubo, J. Makino, S. Ida, Icarus 148, 419 (2000). 21. M. M. M. Meier, A. Reufer, W. Benz, R. Wieler, Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society LXXIV, abstr. 5039 (2011). 22. C. B. Agnor, R. M. Canup, H. F. Levison, Icarus 142, 219 (1999). 23. D. P. O'Brien, A. Morbidelli, H. F. Levison, Icarus 184, 39 (2006). 24. R. M. Canup, Science 307, 546 (2005). 25. J. J. Salmon, R. M. Canup, Lunar Planet. Sci. XLIII, 2540 (2012). Acknowledgments: SPH simulation data are contained in tables S2 to S5 of the supplementary materials. Financial support

137

Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components  

SciTech Connect

Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Energy Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries Angstron - Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Highlight - Fabricated...

139

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

142

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Fe3O4 Lithium Battery Anodes with Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability ... Ge Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries ...

Jingshan Luo; Jilei Liu; Zhiyuan Zeng; Chi Fan Ng; Lingjie Ma; Hua Zhang; Jianyi Lin; Zexiang Shen; Hong Jin Fan

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Hollow-Anode Plasma  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

36240 36240 Plasma Sources Science and Technology 4 (1995) 571-575. Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through the anode hole and forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity (Mach number 1.2). The plasma stream can be used, for instance, in plasma-assisted deposition of thin films

144

ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Aluminum is one of the most versatile materials available today that can meet the demanding requirements of tomorrow's products.

145

Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes  

SciTech Connect

The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Noise and Uniqueness of Motion by Mean Curvature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications in materials science and image processing. We refer to [1,25–27] for surveys ... In this work we explore the use of noise to select a unique solution.

2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

147

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

148

Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

149

Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

150

Spin-coated silicon nanoparticle/graphene electrode as a binder-free anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Si has been considered as a promising anode material but its practical application has been severely hindered due to poor cyclability caused by the large volume change during charge/discharge. A new and effective...

Xiaosi Zhou; An-Min Cao; Li-Jun Wan; Yu-Guo Guo

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A facile bubble-assisted synthesis of porous Zn ferrite hollow microsphere and their excellent performance as an anode in lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pure porous hollow Zn ferrite (ZnFe2O4) microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a facile bubble assisted method in the presence of ammonium acetate (NH4Ac) as an anode material in lithium ion battery. ...

Lingmin Yao; Xianhua Hou; Shejun Hu; Qiang Ru…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Uncertainty Studies of Real Anode Surface Area in Computational Analysis for Molten Salt Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 hours of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active liquid sodium bonding was dissolved.

Sungyeol Choi; Jaeyeong Park; Robert O. Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson; Kwang-Rag Kim; Il Soon Hwang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

154

Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Degradation Mechanisms of SOFC Anodes in Coal Gas Containing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abstract: The interaction of phosphorus in synthetic coal gas with the nickel-based anode of solid oxide fuel cells has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and...

156

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles Norikazu Takagi@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract During SOFC operation with typical Ni-YSZ anode, Ni is always subjected to the risk of oxidation the effect of redox cycles on anode performance has been intensively investigated, quantitative change

Kasagi, Nobuhide

157

Significant impact of 2D graphene nanosheets on large volume change tin-based anodes in lithium-ion batteries: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Sn-based materials have attracted much attention as anodes in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to their low cost, high theoretical capacities, and high energy density. However, their practical applications are limited by the poor cyclability originating from the huge volume changes. Graphene nanosheets (GNSs), a novel two-dimensional carbon sheet with one atom thickness and one of the thinnest materials, significantly address the challenges of Sn-based anodes as excellent buffering materials, showing great research interests in LIBs. In this review, various nanocomposites of GNSs/Sn-based anodes are summarized in detail, including binary and ternary composites. The significant impact of 2D \\{GNSs\\} on the volume change of Sn-based anodes during cycling is discussed, along with with their preparation methods, properties and enhanced LIB performance.

Yang Zhao; Xifei Li; Bo Yan; Dejun Li; Stephen Lawes; Xueliang Sun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Graphene/silicon nanocomposite anode with enhanced electrochemical stability for lithium-ion battery applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A graphene/silicon nanocomposite has been synthesized, characterized and tested as anode active material for lithium-ion batteries. A morphologically stable composite has been obtained by dispersing silicon nanoparticles in graphene oxide, previously functionalized with low-molecular weight polyacrylic acid, in eco-friendly, low-cost solvent such as ethylene glycol. The use of functionalized graphene oxide as substrate for the dispersion avoids the aggregation of silicon particles during the synthesis and decreases the detrimental effect of graphene layers re-stacking. Microwave irradiation of the suspension, inducing reduction of graphene oxide, and the following thermal annealing of the solid powder obtained by filtration, yield a graphene/silicon composite material with optimized morphology and properties. Composite anodes, prepared with high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid as green binder, exhibited high and stable reversible capacity values, of the order of 1000 mAh g?1, when cycled using vinylene carbonate as electrolyte additive. After 100 cycles at a current of 500 mA g?1, the anode showed a discharge capacity retention of about 80%. The mechanism of reversible lithium uptake is described in terms of Li–Si alloying/dealloying reaction. Comparison of the impedance responses of cells tested in electrolytes with or without vinylene carbonate confirms the beneficial effects of the additive in stabilizing the composite anode.

F. Maroni; R. Raccichini; A. Birrozzi; G. Carbonari; R. Tossici; F. Croce; R. Marassi; F. Nobili

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant e...

M. Mazar Atabaki; R. Kovacevic

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Alloys as Anode Materials in Magnesium Ion Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis is a feasibility study of the possible application of magnesium alloys forfuture magnesium-ion batteries. It investigates dierent alloys and characterizesthem with respect… (more)

Syvertsen, Alf Petter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a result of free trade, atmospheric transport of trace pollutants, and urbanization. Available waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee Photos courtesy of Dr. Frederick Bloetscher, PE W e are a diverse community of water profes- sionals. We

Central Florida, University of

162

Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Performance of Ni/ScSZ cermet anode modified by coating with Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} for a SOFC  

SciTech Connect

A Ni/scandia-stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) cermet anode was modified by coating with nano-sized gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC, Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2}) within the pores of the anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the anode characterizations. Open circuit voltages (OCVs) increased from 1.027 to 1.078 V, and the maximum power densities increased from 238 to 825 mW/cm{sup 2}, as the operating temperature of a SOFC with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode was increased from 700 to 850 deg. C in humidified hydrogen. The coating of nano-sized Gd{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 2} particle within the pores of the porous Ni/ScSZ anode significantly improved the performance of anode supported cell. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) illustrated that the cell with Ni/ScSZ anode exhibited far greater impedances than the cell with 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode. Consequently, 2.0 wt.%GDC-coated Ni/ScSZ anode could be used as a novel anode material for a SOFC due to better electrochemical performance.

Huang Bo [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: huangbo2k@hotmail.com; Ye, X.F. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, S.R. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Nie, H.W. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, R.Z. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wen, T.L. [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

164

Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WORK Identify suitable graphite materials for anodes that meet the requirement for low cost and long cycle life. Fabricate half cells (Ligraphite) and Li-ion (graphiteolivine)...

165

Charge–discharge characteristics of polythiopheneas a cathode active material in a rechargeable battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polythiophene films were electrochemically deposited on glassy carbon substrates under potentiostatic control and used as cathode active material together with a Zn anode in a...

G. C´iric´-Marjanovic´; S. Mentus

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Electrode materials for the electrolysis of metal oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon, tungsten, platinum, and iridium were examined as candidate anode materials for an electrolytic cell. The materials were pre-selected to endure high process temperatures and were characterized for inertness and high ...

Cooper, Benjamin D

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

The insert of zinc oxide thin film in indium tin oxide anode for organic electroluminescence devices q  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

structure including a trans- parent anode, an organic active layer, and a metallic cathode. It has recently zinc oxide films have been actively investigated as alternate materials to ITO because zinc oxide consisted of Al as a cathode, Al2O3 as an electro transport layer, Alq3 as a luminously layer, TPD as a hole

Boo, Jin-Hyo

169

ARAC: A unique command and control resource  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems Analysis Publications Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development-This key technology focuses on improving...

172

Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes Improving Fuel Cell...

173

Unique features of space reactors  

SciTech Connect

Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Buden, D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

CMI Unique Facility: Filtration Test Facility | Critical Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and it addresses the grand challenge of developing technologies for separating the rare earth elements. For more information, and to explore using the filtration test facility,...

175

Electrospinning of polymeric nanofiber materials : process characterization and unique applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrospinning or electrostatic fiber spinning employs electrostatic force to draw a fiber from a spinneret. This fiber solidifies and lies down on a collector in the form of a non-woven fiber mat. Electrospinning has ...

Yu, Jian Hang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

CMI Unique Facility: Bulk Combinatoric Materials Synthesis Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is in the form of a thin film. CMI researchers at The Ames Laboratory have adapted an additive manufacturing tool (sometimes known as a "3-D printer") to produce arrays of bulk...

177

Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Hybrid Nano Carbon FiberGraphene Platelet-Based High-Capacity Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Hybrid Nano Carbon...

178

Anodic CaO-TiO2 nanotubes composite film for low temperature CO2 adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel one-dimensional anodic CaO-TiO2 nanotubes composite film was prepared using a rapid-anodic oxidation electrochemical anodization technique for low temperature CO2 absorption application. This study aims to determine the ...

Chin Wei Lai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode current response Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as is shown below. Influence of anode... . 3a, the cell with the CDM anode has a lower methanol cross- over current density than the CCM anode... , owing to the thicker CDM...

180

Engineering porous materials for fuel cell applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...conducting material that is situated...anode and cathode in a PEMFC...delivery to the active catalyst...upon the material choice...1000-1200C for cathode sintering...fine grained active composite...showing the cathode, electrolyte...composed of an active catalyst...layers. material SIGRACET...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of hybrid cyclic phosphazene polymer/graphite anodes, where the phosphazene serves as distributed loci for Li deposition, has been investigated. Capacity within the hybrid system was found to occur reversibly in distinct regions. At the most positive voltages, above 0.06 V vs Li/Li+, the capacity was associated mostly with Li+ intercalation into graphite. In the most negative region, deposition of Li within the polymer was the predominate mechanism. A transitional region is inferred by the data whereby bulk aggregation or clustering of Li atoms occurs in proximity to the phosphazene sites that then serve as a template for more widespread population of Li within the anode at higher voltages, akin to a nucleation process. In full cells with a mixed oxide cathode, controlling the extent of Li deposition by limiting the charging voltage to 4.45 V enabled repeated cycling with no loss in capacity. Capacities as high as 183 mAh g-1 have been achieved for systems containing as little as 10% graphite while retaining coulombic efficiencies of 98% over 50 cycles. This level of cycling equates to the deposition of 7.4 Li per cyclic phosphazene.

Eric J. Dufek; Mark L. Stone; Kevin L. Gering; Frederick F. Stewart; David Jamison; Aaron D. Wilson; Lucia M. Petkovic; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Thermal Cyclability of Reactive Air Braze Seals in Anode Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The popularity of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has increased in tandem with the ability to fabricate thinner gas-tight yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte layers, which can now be routinely produced on the order of 7 to 10 ?m thick. While this has significantly improved power output and decreased the required fuel cell operating temperatures, the ability to reliably seal fuel cells remains a concern. The seals must be hermetic and be robust enough to retain their hermeticity even under the extreme operating conditions of SOFCs. Perhaps the largest contributor to stresses experienced by the seal is the fact that the SOFC is an assembly of many different materials with different thermal expansion properties. Although every effort is made to minimize thermal expansion mismatches across the seals, the stresses developed during thermal cycling still jeopardize seal integrity. Reactive air brazing (RAB), a method of joining that employs a metallic, and therefore non-brittle, seal material has been used to seal electrolyte/anode bilayers, such as those in anode-supported SOFCs, to Crofer-22 alloy. The results of rupture strength testing will be reported for as-brazed and thermally cycled samples and the effect of thermal cycling on the RAB seal microstructure will be shown

Hardy, John S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Weil, K. Scott

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode Effect of Humidity and Temperature Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 formation rates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC anode and cathode were catalyst onto the disk and by varying the temperature, dissolved O2 concentration, and the acidity levels

Weidner, John W.

184

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds

185

Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Snell, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River  

SciTech Connect

In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control.

Gray, J H; Gray, L W; Karraker, D G

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Surface roughness of anodized titanium coatings.  

SciTech Connect

Samples of grade five 6Al4V titanium alloy were coated with two commercial fluoropolymer anodizations (Tiodize and Canadize) and compared. Neither coating demonstrates significant outgassing. The coatings show very similar elemental analysis, except for the presence of lead in the Canadize coating, which may account for its lower surface friction in humid environments. Surface roughness has been compared by SEM, contact profilometry, optical profilometry, power spectral density and bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The Tiodize film is slightly smoother by all measurement methods, but the Canadize film shows slightly less scatter at all angles of incidence. Both films exhibited initial friction coefficients of 0.2 to 0.4, increasing to 0.4 to 0.8 after 1000 cycles of sliding due to wear of the coating and ball. The coatings are very similar and should behave identically in most applications.

Dugger, Michael Thomas; Chinn, Douglas Alan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries  

SciTech Connect

Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Special issue to “ICMAT 2009, Symposium F: nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy systems: lithium batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells, June 28-July 3, 2009, Singapore”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Symposium F on “Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy Systems: Lithium Batteries, Supercapacitors and Fuel Cells” provided an excellent opportunity for interdisciplinary ... (cathodes and anodes...

Palani Balaya; San Ping Jiang; Atsuo Yamada…

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Electrostatic probe apparatus for measurements in the near-anode region of Hall thrusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrostatic probe apparatus for measurements in the near-anode region of Hall thrusters L. Dorf Received 22 August 2003; accepted 27 January 2004; published 26 April 2004 Near-anode processes in Hall measurements in the near-anode region, the high potential of the anode relative to ground, small spatial

192

THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTED ANODES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND PLUME OF A HALL THRUSTER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTED ANODES ON THE PERFORMANCE AND PLUME OF A HALL THRUSTER By: ALEXANDER W electrodes in the discharge channel of a Hall thruster to divert discharge current to and from the main anode and thus control the anode temperature. By placing a propellant reservoir in the anode, the evaporation

King, Lyon B.

193

Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall thruster discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall thruster discharge L. Dorf,a Y. Raitses-attracting anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were characterized by measuring the plasma potential with biased in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster with clean and dielectrically coated anodes are identified

194

Tubular alumina formed by anodization in the meniscal region S. K. Lazarouk,1,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tubular alumina formed by anodization in the meniscal region S. K. Lazarouk,1,a D. A. Sasinovich,1 by anodization of aluminum at current densities up to 1400 mA/cm2 and anodization rates up to 70 m/min has been developed. It implies anodization in the meniscal region of the sample dipping into an electrolyte

195

FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach ­ The morphology and composition of Fe-containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

196

Effect of anode dielectric coating on Hall thruster operation Y. Raitses, and N. J. Fisch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of anode dielectric coating on Hall thruster operation L. Dorf,a) Y. Raitses, and N. J phenomenon observed in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which is produced on the anode surface during the normal

197

Prime or Unique Farmlands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Farmlands Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePrimeorUniqueFarmlands&oldid612170" Category: NEPA Resources...

198

Why Is Pt So Unique A Chemical Physics Approach  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is Pt So Unique Is Pt So Unique A Chemical Physics Approach Philip N. Ross, Jr. Materials Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94708 Outline * A brief history of electrode kinetics * Reaction pathway for oxygen reduction * Effect of pH * Systematic trends across Periodic Table * One electron makes a big difference d 9 s 1 versus d 10 s 1 * Pt at the top of the Volcano Curve Mechanism of the ORR at metal electrodes Addition of first electron needed to break O-O bond Rate limiting step in electrochemical reduction of O 2 is 1 st electron transfer O 2 + - → (O 2 - ) sol Outer Sphere E 0 ' =-0.3 V) O 2 + - → (O 2 - ) ads Inner Sphere (E 0 ' + ∆G ad /F) O 2 - adsorption strength nic properties of the electrode material Establish general trends across Periodic Table using

199

Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are Fast to Discharge but Slow to Charge December 02, 2014 Measured and calculated rate-performance of a Si thin-film (70...

200

Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

University 200,000 Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Coated Layered SiO x -Graphene Nanocomposite Anodes J-G Zhang and J. Liu Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture for High Capacity, High-Rate Li-ion Batteries Xin Zhao, Cary Hayner, Mayfair Kung, and Harold Kung, Northwestern...

202

Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

all acceptable and even preferable when compared to lithium metal anode for practical cells. An important evidence for this is the commercial availability of LiCoO2carbon cells...

204

#LabChat: Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm EDT |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm EDT #LabChat: Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm EDT June 27, 2012 - 2:31pm Addthis The simple, portable device identifies materials through their characteristic energy signals as unique as fingerprints. The three detectors are housed in a thermos-sized container that is connected to a laptop computer. The device issues a signal turning the laptop display bright red when nuclear material of interest is identified. | Photo courtesy of Princeton University The simple, portable device identifies materials through their characteristic energy signals as unique as fingerprints. The three detectors are housed in a thermos-sized container that is connected to a laptop computer. The device issues a signal turning the laptop display

205

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

34 JOM May 2001 Inert Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on three materials classes: ceramics, cermets, and metals. CERAMICS For resistance to chemical attack of aluminum production. Research is continuing on materials that would best serve that purpose. Results of studies on three possible materials are pre- sented in this paper: ceramics, cermets, and metals

Sadoway, Donald Robert

208

Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Coke–pitch interactions during anode preparation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The information on the interactions between coke and pitch is of great value for the aluminum industry. This information can help choose the suitable coke and pitch pairs as well as the appropriate mixing parameters to be used during the production of anodes. In this study, the interaction mechanisms of pitch and coke at the mixing stage were studied by a sessile-drop test using two coal-tar pitches as the liquid and three petroleum cokes as the substrate. The results showed that the coke–pitch interactions are related to both pitch and coke chemical compositions. The contact angle of different coke–pitch systems decreased with increasing time and temperature. At high temperatures, decreasing the pitch viscosity facilitated the spreading of pitch and its penetration into the coke bed. The chemical behavior of petroleum cokes and coal tar pitches were studied using the FT-IR spectroscopy and XPS. The results showed that the wettability behavior of cokes by pitches depends on their physical properties as well as the presence of surface functional groups of coke and pitch which can form chemical bonds.

Arunima Sarkar; Duygu Kocaefe; Yasar Kocaefe; Dilip Sarkar; Dipankar Bhattacharyay; Brigitte Morais; Jérôme Chabot

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Enhanced lithium storage performance in three-dimensional porous SnO2-Fe2O3 composite anode films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As one of the most promising anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), SnO2 attracts wide research attention. The practical application of SnO2 anodes, however, is mainly hampered by huge volume variation during cycling and large initial irreversible capacity. In this paper, three-dimensional porous SnO2-Fe2O3 composite films have been fabricated using the electrostatic spray deposition technique. As an anode for LIBs, the hierarchical porous SnO2-Fe2O3 film possesses a high reversible capacity (1034.1 mAh g-1) and a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 82.9% at a current density of 0.2 A g-1. At the same time, it shows good capacity retention with a capacity of 1025.6 mAh g-1 after 240 cycles and excellent rate performance. The enhanced lithium storage performance should be attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO2 and Fe2O3, as well as the three-dimensional hierarchical porous structure. The results demonstrate that such a three-dimensional porous composite anode shows great potential for application in high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

Tianzhi Yuan; Yinzhu Jiang; Yong Li; Dan Zhang; Mi Yan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Superconducting Magnet Safety Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) facilities present unique hazards not found in most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superconducting Magnet Safety Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) facilities present unique hazards or steel reinforced concrete, these ferromagnetic materials may have an effect on the magnetic field environmental temperature control is required (2) Structural support for heavy equipment and vibration control

Maroncelli, Mark

212

Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design and build unique, complex mechanical, optical,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design and build unique, complex mechanical, optical, far underground, and deep inside the intricacies of our own bodies. Aerospace and Mechanical skills in the areas of mechanics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, materials and automatic

Rohs, Remo

213

Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design and build unique, complex mechanical, optical, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design and build unique, complex mechanical, optical, far underground, and deep inside the intricacies of our own bodies. Aerospace and Mechanical skills in the areas of mechanics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, materials and automatic

Rohs, Remo

214

Three-dimensional microstructural changes in the Ni–YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode during operation  

SciTech Connect

Microstructural evolution in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cermet anodes has been investigated using X-ray nanotomography along with differential absorption imaging. SOFC anode supports composed of Ni and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were subjected to extended operation and selected regions were imaged using a transmission X-ray microscope. X-ray nanotomography provides unique insight into microstructure changes of all three phases (Ni, YSZ, pore) in three spatial dimensions, and its relation to performance degradation. Statistically significant 3D microstructural changes were observed in the anode Ni phase over a range of operational times, including phase size growth and changes in connectivity, interfacial contact area and contiguous triple-phase boundary length. These observations support microstructural evolution correlated to SOFC performance. We find that Ni coarsening is driven by particle curvature as indicated by the dihedral angles between the Ni, YSZ and pore phases, and hypothesize that growth occurs primarily by means of diffusion and particle agglomeration constrained by a pinning mechanism related to the YSZ phase. The decrease in Ni phase size after extended periods of time may be the result of a second process connected to a mobility-induced decrease in the YSZ phase size or non-uniform curvature resulting in a net decrease in Ni phase size.

Nelson G. J.; Chu Y.; Grew, K.N.; Izzo Jr. J.R.; Lombardo, J.J.; Harris, W.M.; Faes, A.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Van herle, J.; Wang, S.; Virkar, A.V.; Chiu, W.K.S.

2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

215

Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Develop composites of electrolyte materials with requisite electrochemical and mechanical properties - Fabricate thin membranes to provide good power performance and long...

216

Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Bi, [ORNL; Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 - 10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through

218

Unique Challenges of Managing Inductive Knowledge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 p 1 Abstract Unique Challenges of Managing Inductive Knowledge produc� ing statistical significance inductive bias David Jensen Executive Summary Statistical Significance knowledge dis� covery Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Intelligent Data Analysis et al. Tools for inducing knowledge from

Jensen, David

219

Stabilization of Photoluminescence of Porous Silicon with Nonaqueous Anodic Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to prevent the reduction of photoluminescence from porous silicon, we tried to form stable Si–O bonds by anodization in nonaqueous electrolyte at room temperature. Extremely strong, stable, and blue-shifted photoluminescence was obtained in porous silicon that was prepared in 1:1 solution of 49% HF and EtOH and subsequently anodized in KNO3-ethylene glycol electrolytes. The optimum condition was anodization at 20 mA cm-2 for 5 min in 0.02 M KNO3-ethylene glycol. For the formation of Si–O bonds on nanostructured surfaces, it is suggested that the electric field across the surface/electrolyte plays an important role because oxidation becomes more effective when the electrolyte is more resistive. Si–OH, which is formed as a precursor at subsequent anodization, stabilizes the nanostructured surface, converting itself to more stable Si–O bond with photoexcitation. The high current density introduced destroys nanostructured silicon by clustering with surrounding SiO2. With this clustering, wall sizes of the nanostructured silicon remain constant with anodization.

Michiko Shimura; Minoru Katsuma; Tsugunori Okumura

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Materials Science & Tech Division | Advanced Materials | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supporting Organizations Supporting Organizations Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences Chemical Sciences Division Materials Science and Technology BES Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Program BES Materials Sciences and Engineering Program Joint Institute For Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Supporting Organizations | Materials Science and Technology SHARE Materials Science and Technology Division The Materials Science and Technology Division is unique within the Department of Energy (DOE) System with mission goals that extend from fundamental materials science to applied materials science and technology. One key component of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of materials theory, synthesis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg  

SciTech Connect

Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

223

Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion...

224

Fabrication of Metal/Oxide Nanostructures by Anodization Processes for Biosensor, Drug Delivery and Supercapacitor Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications of micro/nano structures; (2) novel processes to innovate anodic aluminum oxide nanotube template; (3) the supercapacitor applications of anodic titanium oxide. First, the extremely high surface area AAO coated microneedle and microneedle array...

Chen, Po-Chun

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode image sensor Sample Search Results  

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biofilm, using techniques... on the anode surface have been greatly improved by the development of a real-time imaging MFC 100. This MFC... into anodic and cathodic chambers, an...

227

High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. High-performance anode based on porous Co3O4 nanodiscs. Abstract: In this article, two-dimensional, Co3O4 hexagonal nanodiscs are...

228

Effect of Anode Impurity on the Neutron Production in a Dense Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, neutron production characteristics were investigated by employing three different anode designs. Previously, Takao et al. in Plasma Sour Sci Technol 12:407, (2003) studied the effect of anode desig...

H. R. Yousefi; K. Masugata

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

230

One-pot synthesis of a metal–organic framework as an anode for Li-ion batteries with improved capacity and cycling stability  

SciTech Connect

Metal–organic framework is a kind of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here, a 3D metal–organic framework Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC (BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of Co{sup 2+} with a bio-inspired renewable organic ligand 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid through a solvothermal method. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this material exhibited an excellent cyclic stability as well as a large reversible capacity of ca. 650 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 50 mA g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles within the voltage range of 0.02–3.0 V, higher than that of other BDC based anode. - Graphical abstract: The PXRD pattern and the cycleability curves (inset) of Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC was synthesized through a one pot solvothermal process. • The solvent had a great effect on the purity of this material. • This material was used as anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. • Co{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}BDC showed improved capacity and cycling stability.

Gou, Lei, E-mail: Leigou@chd.edu.cn; Hao, Li-Min; Shi, Yong-Xin; Ma, Shou-Long; Fan, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Lei; Li, Dong-Lin, E-mail: dlli@chd.edu.cn; Wang, Kang

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE BY FOILS simpler, and low cost method to fabricate porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based applications such as sensors, optical devices, catalysts, and microfabricated fluidic devices. Anodic aluminum

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Intermittent contact of fluidized anode particles containing exoelectrogenic biofilms for continuous power generation in microbial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intermittent contact of fluidized anode particles containing exoelectrogenic biofilms on granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Particles were fluidized in the anode chamber for electricity was sustained by inter- mittent contact of charged particles with the anode. Higher power was obtained by flu

233

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube-Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells Xing Xie energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC

Cui, Yi

234

Efficient organic light-emitting diodes using polycrystalline silicon thin films as semitransparent anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anode X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok Center for Display Research. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate the application of boron-doped p-Si as a semi-transparent anode better performance to conventional OLEDs which use ITO as anodes. The present technique has the advantage

235

Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode and experimentally verify the evolution of liquid water and nitrogen fronts along the length of the anode channel in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating with a dead-ended anode that is fed by dry hydrogen

Stefanopoulou, Anna

236

Modification of polycrystalline silicon as efficient anode for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modification of polycrystalline silicon as efficient anode for active- matrix organic light silicon (p-Si) on the performance of p-Si anode OLEDs have been studied. UV-ozone treatment of p. By depositing ultra-thin high work function metal oxides, such as V2O5 and MoO3, on p-Si anode, the performance

237

Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different ABSTRACT: A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes

238

Vanadium pentoxide modified polycrystalline silicon anode for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vanadium pentoxide modified polycrystalline silicon anode for active-matrix organic light to be an efficient anode for organic light-emitting diode OLED X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong an ultrathin vanadium pentoxide V2O5 layer on the p-Si anode, the performance of the OLED can be greatly

239

Anodic Behavior of Ti in KOH Solutions Ellipsometric and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic Behavior of Ti in KOH Solutions Ellipsometric and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Studies A. Prusi of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, USA Anodic formation of oxide films on titanium surfaces of refraction of anodic oxide films have been determined. The voltage at which the oxide film breaks down

Popov, Branko N.

240

AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION production of aluminum the anodic reactions have been studied on carbon microelectrodes by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Anode gases have been analyzed by gas chromatography on-line during controlled- potential

Sadoway, Donald Robert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Jason B. Siegel,a, *,z electrolyte membrane fuel cell PEMFC with a dead-ended anode is observed using neutron imaging gas diffusion layer. Even though dry hydrogen is supplied to the anode via pressure regulation

Stefanopoulou, Anna

242

Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA This paper investigates the effects of dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a PEM fuel cell. The presence of oxygen in the anode channel, although normally less than 5% in molar

Stefanopoulou, Anna

243

Optimization of the Readout Electronics for Microchannel Plate Delay Line Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of the Readout Electronics for Microchannel Plate Delay Line Anodes John Vallerga and future space missions use microchannel plate (MCP) detectors with delay line anode readouts (e.g. FUSE Telescope). Delay line anodes are used to measure the position of the centroid of the charge clouds

Colorado at Boulder, University of

244

The Onset of Voltage Hash and its Relationship to Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Onset of Voltage Hash and its Relationship to Anode Spots in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters, 08544 A phenomenological model is developed to elucidate the relationship between voltage hash and anode electromagnetic force density leads to a mass depletion in the anode region which, in turn, leads to a disparity

Choueiri, Edgar

245

Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Supporting information for Vertically Grown Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Anode and Nickel. Summarized fabrication process flow The anode chamber and contact area were constructed on a 4" P area for the ohmic contact from the anode to the external load. A layer of Ni was then evaporated

246

Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and facile method in the manufacturing of anode support solid oxide fuel cell(1). Two anode support SOFCsPage 5-211 Advantages of Microwave Sintering in Manufacturing of Anode Support Solid Oxide Fuel oxide fuel cell (SOFC, hereafter) has been identified as an attractive technique in the recent few

Kasagi, Nobuhide

247

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells utilization in the cell-stack should be reduced. Ã? 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Introduction Solid-oxide Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

248

Algorithms for correcting geometric distortions in delay line anodes Erik Wilkinsona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Algorithms for correcting geometric distortions in delay line anodes Erik Wilkinsona , Steven V, Baltimore, MD 21218 ABSTRACT Time-delay anodes are typically used in conjunction with microchannel plates to provide photon counting and two- dimensional imaging. The anode and associated electronics are used

Colorado at Boulder, University of

249

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster Leonid Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 As was reported in our previous work, accurate, non-disturbing near-anode and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode

250

Onset Voltage Hash and Anode Spots in Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Onset Voltage Hash and Anode Spots in Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters Luke Uribarri: Edgar Y. Choueiri November 2008 #12;ONSET VOLTAGE HASH AND ANODE SPOTS IN QUASI noise ("hash") and anode damage in a self-field, quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT

Choueiri, Edgar

251

Scaling of Anode Sheath Voltage Fall with the Operational Parameters in Applied-Field MPD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scaling of Anode Sheath Voltage Fall with the Operational Parameters in Applied-Field MPD Thrusters (EPPDyL) Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA Scaling laws for the anode sheath voltage fall in applied-field MPD thrusters are derived in order to better understand the physics behind anode sheath

Choueiri, Edgar

252

Structural analysis of lignin-derived carbon composite anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains are studied to develop a relationship of structural properties such as crystallite size, intracrystallite d spacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density with their pair distribution functions, as obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering.

McNutt, N.W.

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

253

Towards Elimination of the Anode Effect and Perfluorocarbon Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on anode effect Hall-H�roult cell produces CF4 and C2F6 (PFCs) p PFCs have high GWP p in US, Al smelting & Sadoway (1997) r CF4 = a exp (b E ), where b = 0.331 V�1 #12;Sadoway, MIT ECS Meeting, Philadelphia, May

Sadoway, Donald Robert

254

Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Do viral proteins possess unique biophysical features?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Intrinsically Disordered Protein Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202Do viral proteins possess unique biophysical features? Nobuhiko Tokuriki1 , Christopher J. Oldfield of proteins to fit their environ- ment. We hypothesize that highly thermostable proteins and viral proteins

Tawfik, Dan S.

256

Polyaniline: characterization as a cathode active material in rechargeable batteries in aqueous electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytically pure form of chemically synthesized polyaniline having the emeraldine oxidation state has been used as a cathode active material together with a Zn anode in the...2 electrolyte (pH?4). The experim...

N. L. D. Somasiri; A. G. Macdiarmid

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS.sub.x).sub.n, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode.

Okamoto, Yoshi (Fort Lee, NJ); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY); Lee, Hung S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Cells having cathodes containing polycarbon disulfide materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to an electric current producing cell which contains an anode, a cathode having as a cathode-active material one or more carbon-sulfur compounds of the formula (CS{sub x}){sub n}, in which x takes values from 1.2 to 2.3 and n is greater or equal to 2, and where the redox process does not involve polymerization and de-polymerization by forming and breaking S--S bonds in the polymer backbone. The cell also contains an electrolyte which is chemically inert with respect to the anode and the cathode. 5 figs.

Okamoto, Y.; Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Corrosion inhibitor storage and release property of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method. ? Benzotriazole was loaded into the TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders. ? Low pH induced release of benzotriazole from TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders was proved. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most studied substances in material science due to its versatile properties and diverse applications. In this study titanium dioxide nanotube powder were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization (RBA) method. The synthesis involved potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} electrolyte under an applied voltage of 20 V and rapid stirring. The morphology and the phase of titanium dioxide nanotube powder were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Benzotriazole was chosen as model inhibitor to evaluate TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder's corrosion inhibitor loading and releasing properties. The storage and release properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder were studied using UV–visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

Arunchandran, C.; Ramya, S.; George, R.P. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kamachi Mudali, U., E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect

The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode  

SciTech Connect

A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

The Parisi formula has a unique minimizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1979, G. Parisi predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko. In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.

Antonio Auffinger; Wei-Kuo Chen

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

263

Experiments in anodic film effects during electrorefining of scrap U-10Mo fuels in support of modeling efforts  

SciTech Connect

A monolithic uranium molybdenum alloy clad in zirconium has been proposed as a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel option for research and test reactors, as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. Scrap from the fuel's manufacture will contain a significant portion of recoverable LEU. Pyroprocessing has been identified as an option to perform this recovery. A model of a pyroprocessing recovery procedure has been developed to assist in refining the LEU recovery process and designing the facility. Corrosion theory and a two mechanism transport model were implemented on a Mat-Lab platform to perform the modeling. In developing this model, improved anodic behavior prediction became necessary since a dense uranium-rich salt film was observed at the anode surface during electrorefining experiments. Experiments were conducted on uranium metal to determine the film's character and the conditions under which it forms. The electro-refiner salt used in all the experiments was eutectic LiCl/KCl containing UCl{sub 3}. The anodic film material was analyzed with ICP-OES to determine its composition. Both cyclic voltammetry and potentiodynamic scans were conducted at operating temperatures between 475 and 575 C. degrees to interrogate the electrochemical behavior of the uranium. The results show that an anodic film was produced on the uranium electrode. The film initially passivated the surface of the uranium on the working electrode. At high over potentials after a trans-passive region, the current observed was nearly equal to the current observed at the initial active level. Analytical results support the presence of K{sub 2}UCl{sub 6} at the uranium surface, within the error of the analytical method.

Van Kleeck, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Willit, J.; Williamson, M.A. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fentiman, A.W. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector 2002 DEER...

265

UNiquant, a Program for Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

UNiquant, a Program for Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Using Stable Isotope Labeling. UNiquant, a Program for Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Using Stable Isotope Labeling....

266

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fracture resistance for a ceramic-based material. Theresistance and structural capabilities (1-3); indeed, many natural materialsmaterials with unique combinations of strength and fracture resistance.

Munch, Etienne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Scientists Connect Thermoelectric Materials and Topological Insulators...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and relativity in combination produce a unique conducting state on the surface. Excellent thermoelectric performance depends on a material having both high conductivity and high...

269

"Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Raitses This invention relates to a new plasma thruster for space applications. The key innovations of this thruster allow it to effectively ionize different propellants, including gases, liquids and solids, at different flow rates, and to operate with wallout losses. Due to these characteristics and the design simplicity, this thruster can be miniaturized to operate at low power levels, including, but not limited to a few watts input power, and regimes relevant to Cubesat applications. The new thruster uses plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions and consists of at least two stages, ionization and acceleration, which are physically separated by the geometry, magnetic field topology and

270

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

NEWTON's Material Science Archive  

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Materials Science Archive: Materials Science Archive: Loading Most Recent Materials Science Questions: Hydrogen Compounds and Heat Conduction Weaving Carbon Nanotubes Metal as Electrical Conductor, Not Thermal Steel Changes with Age PETE, Ultraviolet Light, Benefits Strength of Yarn by Spinning Each Substance Unique Density Alloy versus Constituent Density Knowing When Material is Melted Crystalline Metal Versus Metallic Glass and Conduction Super Glue, Surgery, and Skin Silica Gel Teflon Non-Stick Property Salt Crystal Formation Lubricating Rubber Bands and Elasticity Materials for Venus Probe Crystalline Solids and Lowest Energy Sodium Polycarbonate and Salt Water Early Adhesives Surface Energy and Temperature Separating Polypropylene, Polyester, and Nylon Factors Effecting Polymer Flexibility

272

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

273

Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification  

SciTech Connect

The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Uniqueness of the EPR--chemeleon model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A classical deterministic, reversible dynamical systems, reproducing the Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen (EPR) correlations in full respect of causality and locality and without the introduction of any ad hoc selection procedure, was constructed in the paper [AIR02]. In the present paper we prove that the above mentioned model is unique (see Theorem (2) in the sense that any local causal probability measure which reproduces the EPR correlations must coincide, under natural and generic assumptions, with the one constructed in [AIR02]. [AIR02] L. Accardi, K. Imafuku and M. Regoli, "ON THE EPR--CHAMELEON EXPERIMENT", Infinite Dimensional Analysis, Quantum Probability and Related Topics, vol. 5 (2002) 1--20.

Luigi Accardi; Satoshi Uchiyama

2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

275

Effects of anode flooding on the performance degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks in a fuel cell vehicle can be inevitably exposed to harsh environments such as cold weather in winter, causing water flooding by the direct flow of condensed water to the electrodes. In this study, anode flooding was experimentally investigated with condensed water generated by cooling the anode gas line during a long-term operation (?1600 h). The results showed that the performance of the PEMFC was considerably degraded. After the long-term experiment, the thickness of the anode decreased, and the ratio of Pt to carbon in the anode increased. Moreover, repeated fuel starvation of the half-cell severely oxidized the carbon surface due to the high induced potential (>1.5 VRHE). The cyclic voltammogram of the anode in the half-cell experiments indicated that the characteristic feature of the oxidized carbon surface was similar to that of the anode in the single cell under anode flooding conditions during the long-term experiment. Therefore, repeated fuel starvation by anode flooding caused severe carbon corrosion in the anode because the electrode potential locally increased to >1.0 VRHE. Consequently, the density of the tri-phase boundary decreased due to the corrosion of carbons supporting the Pt nanoparticles in the anode.

Mansu Kim; Namgee Jung; KwangSup Eom; Sung Jong Yoo; Jin Young Kim; Jong Hyun Jang; Hyoung-Juhn Kim; Bo Ki Hong; EunAe Cho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Photovoltaic Materials  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and modules in the field for 25 years. Under this project, Ferro leveraged world leading analytical capabilities at ORNL to characterize the paste-to-silicon interface microstructure and develop high efficiency next generation contact pastes. Ampulse Corporation is developing a revolutionary crystalline-silicon (c-Si) thin-film solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Utilizing uniquely-textured substrates and buffer materials from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and breakthroughs in Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) techniques in epitaxial silicon developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Ampulse is creating a solar technology that is tunable in silicon thickness, and hence in efficiency and economics, to meet the specific requirements of multiple solar PV applications. This project focused on the development of a high rate deposition process to deposit Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex films as an alternate to hot-wire CVD. Mossey Creek Solar is a start-up company with great expertise in the solar field. The primary interest is to create and preserve jobs in the solar sector by developing high-yield, low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells using MSC-patented and -proprietary technologies. The specific goal of this project was to produce large grain formation in thin, net-shape-thickness mc-Si wafers processed with high-purity silicon powder and ORNL's plasma arc lamp melting without introducing impurities that compromise absorption coefficient and carrier lifetime. As part of this project, ORNL also added specific pieces of equipment to enhance our ability to provide unique insight for the solar industry. These capabilities include a moisture barrier measurement system, a combined physical vapor deposition and sputtering system dedicated to cadmium-containing deposits, adeep level transient spectroscopy system useful for identifying defects, an integrating sphere photoluminescence system, and a high-speed ink jet printing system. These tools were combined with others to study the effect of defects on the performance of crystalline silicon and

Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

Study of the electrode material and insulator length effect on high-energy X-rays emitted by a 4-kJ plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) anisotropy and its intensity along the anode bar of the APF plasma focus device (16 kV, 36 ?F, 115...Z anode insert materials not only increases the intensity of HXR si...

M. Habibi

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

DOE Preparing for Sale of Unique RMOTC Property and Equipment in Wyoming |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Preparing for Sale of Unique RMOTC Property and Equipment in Preparing for Sale of Unique RMOTC Property and Equipment in Wyoming DOE Preparing for Sale of Unique RMOTC Property and Equipment in Wyoming October 24, 2013 - 8:59am Addthis DOE Preparing for Sale of Unique RMOTC Property and Equipment in Wyoming Did you know? RMOTC's mission is to ensure America's energy security and prosperity by assisting its partners in developing and commercializing energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies to address critical global energy challenges. NPR-3, the site of RMOTC, is the only remaining Naval Petroleum Reserve administered by DOE and the government's only operating oilfield. The government's sale of NPR-3 by the end of 2014 will include the sale of all RMOTC-owned equipment and materials. In the eastern Rocky Mountains about 40 miles north of Casper, Wyo., is a

279

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hornig, G. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Multiphoton Laser Processing: A Unique and Simple Way to Enter the  

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Multiphoton Laser Processing: A Unique and Simple Way to Enter the Multiphoton Laser Processing: A Unique and Simple Way to Enter the Nano-Platform Speaker(s): Andreas Ostendorf Date: January 27, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Multiphoton laser processing is one of the rapidly advancing laser technologies, providing unique possibilities for the fabrication of two- and three-dimensional microstructures. Multiphoton material processing has very important advantages over processes based on single photon absorption: an increased spatial resolution and the possibility of photofabrication inside transparent materials. Due to nonlinear nature of multiphoton processing, applications of ultrashort laser systems allow one to overcome the diffraction limit and to produce high quality 3D microstructures with a sub-wavelength resolution. This is very powerful

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode dielectric coating Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

during cell conditioning and Summary: the catalyst slurries were coated onto the micro- porous layer, the anode and cathode were cured at 160 C... during cell conditioning...

283

Insights into the morphological changes undergone by the anode in the lithium sulphur battery system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In this thesis, the morphological changes of the anode surface in lithium sulphur cell, during early cycling, were simulated using symmetrical lithium electrode cells… (more)

Yalamanchili, Anurag

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Biofilm formation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 towards fundamental understanding of anode respiring communities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microbial fuel cells are bioelectrochemical devices where, on the anode, microorganisms oxidize complex carbon sources and reduce the electrode via complex mechanisms of extra-cellular electron… (more)

Roy, Jared

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina supported Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Nanotube Mat as an Anode of Batteries for Medical Applications ... Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

286

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxide overlayer Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo Collection: Engineering 56 Development of a Novel CO Tolerant Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anode Summary: :Ru alloy...

287

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative anode reaction Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Technology Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Chemistry 5 Development of a Novel CO Tolerant Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anode Summary: of the...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode wire grids Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics ; Engineering 54 Simple Template-Based Method to Produce Bradbury-Nielsen Gates Summary: are then anodized for a black finish to have higher contrast with...

289

Réactivité de l'anode et désulfuration : effet du niveau de calcination du coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Les propriétés du coke et la performance des anodes sont affectées par le niveau de calcination du coke. Une densité de coke (VBD) élevée implique… (more)

Bergeron-Lagacé, Charles-Luc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Pitch Production Using Solvent Extraction of Coal: Suitability as Carbon Anode Precursor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Albertan coal has been used to produce extracts as precursor for production of anode coke. Coal extractability was studied using digestion with Tetralin in a… (more)

Mohammad Ali Pour, Mehdi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Degradation Of Selected Organic Agrochemicals In Artificial Soil Slurry Systems By Anodic Fenton Treatment .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigated the application of anodic Fenton treatment to the degradation of several probe agrochemicals in model soil slurry systems. A kinetic model, called… (more)

Ye, Peng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Non-conductive TiO2 as the anode catalyst support for PEM water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The applicability of a non-conductive TiO2 as the support of the anodic catalyst for PEM water electrolysis was tested. Three TiO2 samples with different specific surface areas were modified by IrO2 using a modified version of the Adams fusion method. A constant weight ratio of IrO2/TiO2 of 0.6 was maintained in all cases. The size, specific surface area and morphology of IrO2 electrocatalyst crystallites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The electron conductivity of compressed catalyst powders was evaluated. Their electrochemical properties were studied on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) and finally in a laboratory electrolyser. Utilization of the TiO2 support resulted in a reduction in the size of the IrO2 crystallites. It was found that the lower the specific surface area of the supports, the higher was the electrochemical activity of the catalyst. This is most likely due to the formation of a conductive IrO2 film on the surface of non-conductive supports. For the supports with a higher surface area, the amount of IrO2 used was not sufficient to form an adequately compact film. This resulted in high electron resistance of such a catalyst. The RDE results were confirmed by a laboratory electrolysis test. Taken together with the excellent stability of TiO2 in an anodic environment, these results suggest that these materials are promising supports if the appropriate amount of iridium is deposited.

Petr Mazúr; Jakub Polonský; Martin Paidar; Karel Bouzek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Divalent Iron Nitridophosphates: A New Class of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4-6) Here we demonstrate the design of a battery cathode material incorporating N3– anions as a distinct structural building block. ... Lithium transition metal phosphates are of interest as storage cathodes for rechargeable Li batteries because of their high energy d., low raw materials cost, environmental friendliness and safety. ... The reversible specific capacities for the cathode and anode active materials were detd. ...

Jue Liu; Xiqian Yu; Enyuan Hu; Kyung-Wan Nam; Xiao-Qing Yang; Peter G. Khalifah

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

294

Self-assembled porous MoO2/graphene microspheres towards high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three dimensional (3D) porous self-assembled MoO2/graphene microspheres are successfully synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal process in a short reaction time followed by thermal annealing. Such rationally designed multifunctional hybrid nanostructure is constructed from interconnected MoO2 nanoparticles (3–5 nm), which is self-assembled into ordered nanoporous microspheres via strong electrostatic attraction between graphene sheets and MoO2 nanoparticles. The MoO2/graphene hybrid structure delivers a high reversible capacity with significantly enhanced cycling stability (?1300 mAh g?1 after 80 cycles at C/10 rate) and excellent rate capability (913 and 390 mAh g?1 at 2C and 5C rates, respectively), when used as an anode material. The microspheres are interconnected and well encapsulated by the flexible graphene sheets, which not only accommodates large volume change but also increases the electrical conductivity of the hybrid structure. Moreover, nanoporous voids present in the 3D framework facilitate effective electrolyte penetration and make a direct contact with the active MoO2 nanoparticles, thereby greatly enhancing lithium ion transport. The strategic combination of self-assembly, nanoporous voids, 3D network and intriguing properties of graphene sheets provides excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for Lithium ion battery applications.

Kowsalya Palanisamy; Yunok Kim; Hansu Kim; Ji Man Kim; Won-Sub Yoon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ultrafine tin oxide on reduced graphene oxide as high-performance anode for sodium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Na-ion Battery is attractive alternative to Li-ion battery due to the natural abundance of sodium resource. Searching for suitable anode materials is one of the critical issues for Na-ion battery due to the low Na-storage activity of carbon materials. In this work, we synthesized a nanohybrid anode consisting of ultrafine SnO2 anchored on few-layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a facile hydrothermal route. The SnO2/rGO hybrid exhibits a high capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability. The hybrid can deliver a high charge capacity of 324 mAh gSnO2?1 at 50 mA g?1. At 1600 mA g?1 (2.4C), it can still yield a charge capacity of 200 mAh gSnO2?1. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g?1, the hybrid can retain a high charge capacity of 369 mAh gSnO2?1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ex situ transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the origin of the excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties of SnO2/rGO.

Yandong Zhang; Jian Xie; Shichao Zhang; Peiyi Zhu; Gaoshao Cao; Xinbing Zhao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

PEMFC reconfigured anodes for enhancing CO tolerance with air bleed.  

SciTech Connect

Practical PEM fuel cells based on perfluorinated ionomer membranes (eg Nafion), most probably will use reformed fuel as primary source for the anode feed. The reformate, besides hydrogen, may contain trace amounts of carbon monoxide (CO. from a few to hundreds ppm), whose presence is detrimental to the cell performance. Energy conversion at fuel cells depends on highly dispersed carbon-supported Pt, where the hydrogen electro-oxidatisn takes place. However, CO strongly adsorbs on the Pt surface leading to a decreasing of the Pt active Surface area and consequently to losses in electrical current that are unacceptable for a practical device.

Uribe, F. J. (Francisco J.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

298

The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Monday, 25 November 2013 12:06 Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the...

299

TMI recovery: a unique engineering event  

SciTech Connect

The March 28, 1979, accident at the Three Mile Island Station of Metropolita Edison Company was the start of a unique experience for over 500 Burns and Roe people. The emergency response by Burns and Roe personnel began immediately after the accident with questions answered by phone in minutes, minor redesigns telecopied within hours, and major new systems designed and drawings delivered by courier within days. After the initial problems were solved and the recovery team organized, the Burns and Roe people were primarily involved in the Plant Modifications Group. Plant Modification's first problem was an urgent task request on April 5 by the Waste Management Group for a backup filter system to be installed within days. The urgency necessitated locating completed equipment from manufacturers or nuclear power plants under construction. By April 25 the system was complete enough to run two fans; by May 4 it was in operation filtering radioiodine from the ventilation exhaust from the crippled plant. In less than a month a multi-million dollar facility had been engineered, constructed and put into operation. (SAC)

Cobean, W.R. Jr.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The ability to make materials with nanoscale dimensions opens vast opportunities for creating custom materials with unique properties. The properties of materials on the nanoscale… (more)

Zaniewski, Anna Monro

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Revisiting the Uniqueness of Simple Demographics in the US Population  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Revisiting the Uniqueness of Simple Demographics in the US Population Philippe Golle Palo Alto% of the US population can be uniquely identified by gen- der, ZIP code and full date of birth. This short paper revisits the uniqueness of simple demographics in the US population based on the most recent

Golle, Philippe

302

Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery  

SciTech Connect

Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Original formulation of spatially variant anodization for complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery oversampled at twice the Nyquist rate (2.OX). Here we report a spatially interpolating, noninteger-oversampled SVA sidelobe. The pixel's apparent IPR location is assessed by comparing its value to the sum of its value plus weighted comparable for exact interpolation. However, exact interpolation implies an ideal sine interpolator3 and large components may not be necessary. Note that P is the summation of IPR diagonal values. The value of a sine IPR on the diagonals is a sine-squared; values much less than cardinal direction (m, n) values. This implies that cardinal direction interpolation requires higher precision than diagonal interpolation. Consequently, we employed a smaller set. The spatially interpolated SVA used an 8-point/4-point sine interpolator described above. Table 1 shows the Table 1 results show a two-times speed-up using the 1.3x oversampled and spatially interpolated SVA over the Figure 1d. Detected results of 1.3x oversampled sine interpolated spatially variant

Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Yocky, David A.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

303

Pulsed klystrons with feedback controlled mod-anode modulators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a fast rise and fall, totem-pole mod-anode modulators for klystron application. Details of these systems as recently installed utilizing a beam switch tube ''on-deck'' and a planar triode ''off-deck'' in a grid-catch feedback regulated configuration will be provided. The grid-catch configuration regulates the klystron mod-anode voltage at a specified set-point during switching as well as providing a control mechanism that flat-top regulates the klystron beam current during the pulse. This flat-topped klystron beam current is maintained while the capacitor bank droops. In addition, we will review more modern on-deck designs using a high gain, high voltage planar triode as a regulating and switching element. These designs are being developed, tested, and implemented for the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator refurbishment project, ''LANSCE-R''. An advantage of the planar triode is that the tube can be directly operated with solid state linear components and provides for a very compact design. The tubes are inexpensive compared to stacked semiconductor switching assemblies and also provide a linear control capability. Details of these designs are provided as well as operational and developmental results.

Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jerry, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rees, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Improving the microstructure and electrochemical performance of carbon nanofibers containing graphene-wrapped silicon nanoparticles as a Li-ion battery anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, graphene-wrapped Si nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon composite nanofibers (CCNFs) with G/Si, is fabricated by electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment. In \\{CCNFs\\} with G/Si, Si \\{NPs\\} are distributed and preserved inside the CNF surface because the graphene wrapping the Si \\{NPs\\} help prevent agglomeration and ensure a good dispersion of Si \\{NPs\\} inside the CNF matrix. 20-GSP prepared from a weight ratio of 20 wt% of G/Si to polyacrylonitrile exhibits stable capacity retention and a reversible capacity of above 600 mAh g?1 up to 100 cycles. The high cycling performance and superior reversible capacity of the 20-GSP anode can be attributed to the one-dimensional nanofibrous structure with non-agglomerated Si \\{NPs\\} in the CNF matrix, which promotes charge transfer, maintains a stable electrical contact, and buffers the Si volume expansion.

So Yeun Kim; Kap Seung Yang; Bo-Hye Kim

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film treatment of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a mercury film electrode Is presented. Nu- merlcal) frequency ( f ) and amount of metal depostted In the mercury layer (9R) and glves a response 6 tlmes

Kounaves, Samuel P.

307

Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades hydrogen as a fuel and pure oxygen as an oxidant. Anode-reference static current method, with a current

Kasagi, Nobuhide

308

Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

309

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

Hobson, D.O.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

310

Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominatedImpedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance

Cui, Yi

311

Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals as Stable Interfacial Layer for Improvement of Lithium Metal Anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nitride, graphene Lithium ion batteries have been a great success as the power source for portable boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene directly on Cu metal current collectors. Lithium ions were able battery chemistry such as Si anodes,3,4 Li-S, and Li- air.5 Li metal anode has the highest specific

Cui, Yi

312

Short communication Hierarchical SiOx nanoconifers for Li-ion battery anodes with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oxide Li rechargeable battery Anode Nanoconifer Nanowire Thermal evaporation a b s t r a c t Silicon subShort communication Hierarchical SiOx nanoconifers for Li-ion battery anodes with structural through a simple thermal evaporation process.

Jo, Moon-Ho

313

Nanostructured Polyaniline/Titanium Dioxide Composite Anode for Microbial Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of the anode shows that the composite with 30 wt % PANI gives the best bio- and electrocatalytic performance. ... The catalytic performance of the composite anode in microbial fuel cells can be optimized by adjusting the PANI percentage in the composite, and the composite with 30 wt % PANI gives the highest bio- and electrocatalytic performance. ... To optimize and develop energy prodn. ...

Yan Qiao; Shu-Juan Bao; Chang Ming Li; Xiao-Qiang Cui; Zhi-Song Lu; Jun Guo

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

314

Comparative Study of Plasma Anodization of Silicon in a Column of a dc Glow Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comparative study of plasma anodization of silicon in the column of a dc oxygen glow discharge is presented. Quantitative results for growth rates of silicon dioxide in the negative glow Faraday dark space positive column and the anode fall are given. It is observed that the growth rate is higher in the positive column than the other regions of the discharge.

M. A. Copeland; R. Pappu

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Electrolyte electroreflectance study of the effects of anodization and of chemomechanical polish on Hg1?x Cd x Te  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We havw shown that electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) can be used as a sensitive probe to study the effects of processing agents on the near surface bulk. Our results indicate that Br2/methanol may be damaging Hg?annealed materials to a depth of about 600 Angstroms depleting them in Cd and leaving their surfaces covered with a Te?rich layer. While it is possible to remove the damaged layer anodization?dissolution steps our results show that such a procedure must be terminated when the undamaged material has been reached. If it is continued the difference between the rates at which the Cd and Hg diffuse through the oxide would again deplete the interface in Cd.

A. Lastras?Martinez; U. Lee; J. Zehnder; P. M. Raccah

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Influence of anode area and electrode gap on the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes arrays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to fabricate the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes arrays which were used in the photocatalytic degradation of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) by anodization, the influence of the electrode gap and anode area on the morphology ...

Min Wang; Li Jia; Shuangmei Deng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

320

Old Electrochromic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochromic Materials Electrochromic Materials DOE also supports the development of electrochromic coatings through several mechanisms. Three companies are engaged in development of commercial prototypes through the Electrochromics Initiative and an SBIR small business grant. LBNL and another DOE laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) perform a variety of measurements to evaluate the energy performance and durability of these prototypes . Other research activities are intended to assist the efforts of the industry in general. At LBNL, research focuses on rapid development and analysis of electrode materials. Among recent accomplishments was the production of a stoichiometric form of Li0.5Ni0.5O by laser deposition and sputtering with excellent electrochromic properties. Dr. Stuart Cogan of EIC Laboratories tested the films and declared them to have "the highest coloration efficiency of any known anodic electrochromic material." EIC will test the films in their own devices in the near future. We also work on several binary electrodes produced by cosputtering from two targets simultaneously. For example, enhanced forms of tungsten oxide produced in this way have wide application because of the prevalence of tungsten oxide in today's devices. In addition to testing durability, NREL also investigates the degradation mechanisms which lead to failure in the hope of being able to correlate accelerated testing to real time failure as well as to diagnose and correct device problems.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Self-organization phenomena accompanying deformation-thermal instability during anodic etching of silicon in a HF solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model of self-organization during anodic etching in the preparation of porous silicon is proposed.

V. S. Kuznetsov; 1; 2A. V. Prokaznikov

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Ramsey, James A. (The Dalles, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Critical Materials Hub  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Critical materials, including some rare earth elements that possess unique magnetic, catalytic, and luminescent properties, are key resources needed to manufacture products for the clean energy economy. These materials are so critical to the technologies that enable wind turbines, solar panels, electric vehicles, and energy-efficient lighting that DOE's 2010 and 2011 Critical Materials Strategy reported that supply challenges for five rare earth metals—dysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium, and yttrium—could affect clean energy technology deployment in the coming years.1, 2

324

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS  

SciTech Connect

Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

SciTech Connect

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

44 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 27, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Ultraviolet Imaging of the Anode Attachment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Anode Attachment in Transferred-Arc Plasma Cutting Byron L. Bemis and Gary S. Settles Abstract-- The anode phenomena occurring at the location of current transfer from the plasma jet to the plate affects imaging technique was used to visualize the anode attachment spot under various cut- ting conditions

Settles, Gary S.

327

Nitrogen blanketing front equilibria in dead end anode fuel cell operation Jixin Chen, Jason B. Siegel, and Anna G. Stefanopoulou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen blanketing front equilibria in dead end anode fuel cell operation Jixin Chen, Jason B the dead-ended anode (DEA) operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A reduced order model is developed focusing on the species molar fraction in the anode channel. At equilibrium, hydrogen is present

Stefanopoulou, Anna

328

Materials Preparation Center | Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Preparation Center Materials Preparation Center Materials Preparation Center The Materials Preparation Center (MPC) is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering specialized research center located at the Ames Laboratory. MPC operations are primarily funded by the Materials Discovery, Design, & Synthesis team's Synthesis & Processing Science core research activity. MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: Rare earth metals [learn about rare earths] Single crystal growth Metal Powders/Atomization Alkaline-earth metals [learn more, wikipedia] External Link Icon Refractory metal [learn more, wikipedia] External Link Icon

329

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

330

Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

Intercalation Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery Based on Molybdenum Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work is financially supported by the National Centre for Photovolatic Research and Education (NCPRE, MNRE-Govt. of India) and IRCC, IIT Bombay. ...

Uttam Kumar Sen; Apoorv Shaligram; Sagar Mitra

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

332

A new anode material for oxygen evolution in molten oxide electrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is an electrometallurgical technique that enables the direct production of metal in the liquid state from oxide feedstock and compared with traditional methods of extractive metallurgy offers ...

Allanore, Antoine

333

Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy anode material Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the surface area, and also improves the cycle performance of Li- alloy ... Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

335

Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.; Beaudoin, B.; Naudin, E.; Morctette, M.; Tarascon, J. M. Solid State Ionics 2004, 166, 295. (6) Fernandez. Chem., Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 5987. (12) Kim, E.; Kim, M. G.; Kim, Y.; Cho, J. Electrochem. Solid-State. Soc. 2006, 153, A1633. (14) Kim, J.; Cho, J. Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 2006, 9, A373. (15) Kim, E

Cho, Jaephil

336

Graphene as a high-capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene was produced via a soft chemistry synthetic route for lithium ion battery applications. The sample was characterized by X ... electron microscopy, respectively. The electrochemical performances of graphene

Hongdong Liu ???; Jiamu Huang ???; Xinlu Li…

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Sn and SnO2-graphene composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sn and SnO2-graphene composites were synthesized using hydrothermal process, followed by annealing in Ar/H2 atmosphere, and characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transition elec...

Qi-Hui Wu; Chundong Wang; Jian-Guo Ren

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Electrochemical studies of few-layered graphene as an anode material for Li ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Few-layered graphene (FLG) with specific surface area of only ~8.2 m2 g?1 was synthesized from graphene oxide (GO) using microwave-assisted exfoliation. GO was prepared using modified Hummers method. Few-layered ...

Shaikshavali Petnikota; Naresh K. Rotte…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

MnO nanorods on graphene as an anode material for high capacity lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The MnO/graphene hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by an in...2 nanorods were attached on the graphene oxides (GOs) to form the MnO2.../GO nanocomposites, which were reduced to the MnO/graphene hybrid under arg...

Tonghua Wu; Feiyue Tu; Suqin Liu; Shuxin Zhuang…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Nickel-Seeded Silicon Nanowires Grown on Graphene as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??There is a growing interest for relying on cleaner and more sustainable energy sources due to the negative side-effects of the dominant fossil-fuel based energy… (more)

Elsayed, Abdel Rahman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Graphene anchored with mesoporous NiO nanoplates as anode material for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene is an excellent substrate to load nanomaterials ... stability. In this study, thermal exfoliated functionalized graphene sheets with good conductivity and high BET ... synthesis approach. Electrochemical...

Danfeng Qiu; Zijing Xu; Mingbo Zheng; Bin Zhao…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Graphene supported Li2SnO3 as anode material for lithium-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The graphene supported Li2SnO3 composites were prepared via a deoxidation technique. The structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the composites were detected by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA ...

Yang Zhao; Ying Huang; Qiufen Wang; XiaoYa Wang; Meng Zong…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

New High Power Li2MTi6O14Anode Material  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

344

Power from marine sediment fuel cells: the influence of anode material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An abundant supply of fuel is available in marine sediments, in the form of oxidisable organic...?3.... Micro-organisms limited by oxygen supplied by overlying sea water can create potential differences of up to ...

K. Scott; I. Cotlarciuc; D. Hall; J. B. Lakeman…

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Nanocolumnar Structured Porous Cu-Sn Thin Film as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peak position correction is further corrected by referencing the C 1s peak position of the adventitious carbon for a sample (284.8 eV, PHI Handbook of Photoelectron Spectroscopy), and shifting all other peaks in the spectrum accordingly. ... This work was also supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC0206CH11357 with the main support provided by the Vehicle Technologies Office, Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). ...

Deniz B. Polat; Jun Lu; Ali Abouimrane; Ozgul Keles; Khalil Amine

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs  

SciTech Connect

Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Effect of anode shape on pinch structure and X-ray emission of plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of anode shapes on pinch structure and X-ray emission of plasma focus device operated with cylindrical, diverging, oval and converging anode tips is reported. The pinch structure in the radial compression phase has been investigated by employing a triple pinhole camera. It has been observed that pinch structure as well as the X-ray emission of PF device strongly depends upon anode tip designs. For the first time the studies were carried out in two new shapes of anode tips that is the oval and the divergent one. It has been observed that the oval and diverging anode tips are more conducive for the formation of instabilities and hotspot generation. The studies of X-ray emission were also carried out by employing three channels of a p-i-n diode X-ray spectrometer in entire anode designs to corroborate the results of a triple pinhole camera. Additionally, the effective hard X-ray photon energy was also estimated by the radiography method for all the anode tip designs, which indirectly provide a qualitative idea of the generation of induced accelerating field in the pinched column during compression.

N. Talukdar; N.K. Neog; T.K. Borthkur

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

Local Uniqueness for the Fixed Energy Fixed Angle Inverse Problem ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We prove local uniqueness for the inverse problem in obstacle scattering at a fixed energy and fixed incident angle. We consider the inverse problem of ...

351

Unique Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hardware and Software Data Acquisition and Processing Solutions in a Small Engine Test Cell for Enhanced Kinetic Engine Modeling Accuracy Unique Hardware and Software Data...

352

Lab team makes unique contributions to the first bionic eye  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lab team makes unique contributions to the first bionic eye The Argus II will help people blinded by the rare hereditary disease retinitis pigmentosa or seniors suffering from...

353

Lab team makes unique contributions to the first bionic eye  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

eye Lab team makes unique contributions to the first bionic eye The Argus II will help people blinded by the rare hereditary disease retinitis pigmentosa or seniors suffering...

354

Unique Aspects and Scientific Challenges - Advanced R and D|...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Advanced R and D Unique Aspects and Scientific Challenges High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier...

355

Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

Materialism and materiality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accountants and auditors in recent financial scandals have been pictured as materialistic, simply calculating consequences and ignoring duties. This paper potentially explains this apparently materialistic behaviour in what has historically been a truthtelling profession. Materiality, which drives audit priorities, has been institutionalised in accounting and auditing standards. But a materiality focus inherently implies that all amounts that are not 'materially' misstated are equally true. This leads to habitual immaterial misstatements and promotes the view that auditors do not care about truth at all. Auditors' lack of commitment to truth undermines their claim to be professionals in the classic sense.

Michael K. Shaub

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Thermal Stability of MnBi Magnetic Materials. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. It is unique because its coercivity increases with increasing temperature,...

359

UNCTIONAL PERFLUOROPOLYETHERS AS NOVEL MATERIALS FOR MICROFLUIDICS AND SOFT LITHOGRAPHY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNCTIONAL PERFLUOROPOLYETHERS AS NOVEL MATERIALS FOR MICROFLUIDICS AND SOFT LITHOGRAPHY Jason P photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). PFPEs are a unique class of fluoropolymers that are liquids at room

Carter, Kenneth

360

EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS FOR BOUSSINESQ TYPE EQUATIONS ON A CIRCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS FOR BOUSSINESQ TYPE EQUATIONS ON A CIRCLE Yung-fu Fang1 & Manoussos G. Grillakis2 Abstract. We establish local and global existence results for Boussinesq type equations. In the present work, we want to consider the question of existence and uniqueness of solutions for Boussinesq

Fang, Yung-Fu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Uniqueness of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and Boussinesq equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uniqueness of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and Boussinesq equations Wen-Xiu Maa and Asli Pekcanb a-Petviashvili and Boussinesq equations (uxxx - 6uux)x - utx ± uyy = 0, (uxxx - 6uux)x + uxx ± utt = 0, are completely a uniqueness property of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and Boussinesq equations in the integrability theory

Ma, Wen-Xiu

362

The Consumption of Carbon in the Electric Arc. No. III. The Anode Loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 February 1916 research-article The Consumption of Carbon in the Electric Arc. No. III. The Anode Loss W. G. Duffield Mary D. Waller The Royal Society is collaborating with...

1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode catalysts prepared Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel cells, by modifying both the anode and the cathode catalysts that will enable PEM fuel cell... catalyst as a separate phase - as nanoparticles. 2. ... Source: DOE Office of...

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodal transcranial direct Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

111:796806, 2009 796 J Neurosurg Volume 111 October 2009 Summary: of rTMS over the Trains of transcranial direct current stimulation antagonize motor cortex... of anodal tran-...

365

E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-cathode microbial fuel Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 61 Visions on Energy Production Technologies for Finland up to 2030 Summary: turbine G G After- burner Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Anode...

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - antigen circulating anodic Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells Summary: . Y. Wang, F. Liu, Y. Sato and E. Sakaue, Dual-Pump Anode System with Circulating Liquid for Direct......

367

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer for organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)was used as the anode buffer layer in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene-based solar cells. The power conversion e...

Zisheng Su; Lidan Wang; Yantao Li; Haifeng Zhao; Bei Chu…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Direct hybridization of tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites for highly efficient lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A facile direct hybridization route to prepare SnO2/graphene nanocomposites for Li-ion battery anode application is demonstrated. Uniform distribution of...2 nanoparticles on graphene layers was enabled by a one-...

Dong Ok Shin; Hun Park; Young-Gi Lee; Kwang Man Kim…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Use of Carbon Mesh Anodes and the Effect of Different Pretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, cloth, felt, or foam (4-6); reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) (7); graphite sheets, rods, and granules provide insulation between the electrodes and to reduce oxygen transfer from the cathode to the anode

370

Study of Anodic and Cathodic Catalysts for Water Electrolysis Activation of Membranes and Diaphragms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optimization of the anodic and cathodic catalysts developed under the previous contract 067–76-EHI, with a view to identifying the best candidate for alkaline and acid electrolysis at temperatures up to 140°C,...

Placido M. Spaziante

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Rapid determination of trace concentrations of lead in gasoline by anodic stripping voltammetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry can be used for the determination of ?g/l concentrations of lead in gasoline. A gasoline sample is extracted with iodine monochloride reagent solution. An aliquot of the aqueous ph...

Pentti Laukkanen

372

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

SciTech Connect

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

373

Acidity and aluminum toxicity caused by iron oxidation around anode bars  

SciTech Connect

Soil acidity and aluminum toxicity are serious environmental problems often found in humid temperate and tropical regions or in areas with acid rain. Iron oxidation in soils can also cause high concentrations of H{sup +}, which, in turn, causes an increase of Al{sup 3+} in the soil solution. To examine this problem, a study was undertaken to discover the cause of crop damage in crops planted over buried anode bars. Anode bars are part of an impressed current cathodic protection system for pipelines near Decatur, Illinois. Soil samples were collected from the problem site and from a non-problem site for comparison. Results showed that Fe oxidation around anode bars at the problem site is stimulated by electric current, a situation that results in high concentrations of H{sup +} and reduces soil pH to less than 3.0. Under the low pH condition, the content of available Al is very high, and therefore, the soil solution becomes toxic for soybean roots. Exchangeable Al was 360 to 700 ppm in soil immediately adjacent to anode bars but only 3 ppm in the soil midway between anode bars. The damage to the plants, such as reduced vegetative growth and lowered seed yield, developed in a circular pattern over the anode bars. Factors contributing to the problem were soil Fe content, rectifier voltage, and soil drainage.

Shen, S. [Dept. of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). ARS Eastern Regional Research Center] [Dept. of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). ARS Eastern Regional Research Center; Pepper, G.E.; Hassett, J.J.; Stucki, J.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Anodic dissolution of 304 stainless steel using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

In this work a new spectroelectrochemical method based on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry has been developed and used to measure the elementary dissolution rates of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, and Cu simultaneously during linear scan voltammetry of a 304 stainless steel in the active region. Simultaneous dissolution was observed for all elements with the exception of copper, which appeared in solution at a potential approximately 100 mV more positive. The Tafel slopes for Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mn partial dissolution rates were measured around the corrosion potential and found to be identical within experimental error, between 59 and 68 mV/decade. The anodic dissolution of copper in acidic chloride and sulfate solutions was used to establish the quantitative relationship between the concentration transients and the dissolution rate. The residence time distribution of the electrochemical flow cell was determined using galvanostatic pulses of copper or stainless steel dissolution. The experimental residence time distribution could be approximated to a high degree of accuracy at both long and short times by a log-normal distribution. The effect of the residence time distribution on the shape of partial elemental current transients during linear scan voltammetry was investigated by numerical simulation.

Ogle, K.; Weber, S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Amorphous Zn?GeO? Nanoparticles as Anodes with High Reversible Capacity and Long Cycling Life for Li-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous and crystalline Zn?GeO? nanoparticles were prepared and characterized as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. A higher reversible specific capacity of 1250 mAh/g after 500 cycles and excellent rate capability were obtained for amorphous Zn?GeO? nanoparticles, compared to that of crystalline Zn?GeO? nanoparticles. Small particle size, amorphous phase and incorporation of zinc and oxygen contribute synergetically to the improved performance by effectively mitigating the huge volume variations during lithiation and delithiation process.

Yi, Ran; Feng, Jinkui; Lv, Dongping; Gordin, Mikhail; Chen, Shuru; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials has been a burgeoning field of study since the discovery of isolated single layer graphene in 2004. Graphene, a semi-metal, has a unique gapless Dirac-like band ...

Baugher, Britton William Herbert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade Unique Solar Thermal Laboratory Gets an Upgrade September 10, 2010 - 2:54pm Addthis This “power tower” is part of the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, which is getting upgrades through Recovery Act funding. | Photo Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories This "power tower" is part of the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, which is getting upgrades through Recovery Act funding. | Photo Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories is unique - and in demand. The Facility has been instrumental in NASA tests, national defense programs and concentrated solar technology development.

379

DOE Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Capture  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Capture and Storage Knowledge DOE Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Capture and Storage Knowledge February 8, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Future leaders and innovators in the area of carbon capture and storage (CCS) can gain a unique and intensive tutorial on the subject by participating in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration (RECS) program. Supported by the Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the program for graduate students and early career professionals is currently accepting applications for RECS 2011, scheduled for June 5-15, in Birmingham, AL, and the deadline to apply is April 15. An intensive science-based program, RECS 2011 will combine classroom

380

The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Molecular Ingenuity of a Unique Fish Scale Print Arapaima gigas, a freshwater fish found in the Amazon Basin, has a remarkable ability to resist predation by piranhas through...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Unique University and Utility Team Reduces Energy and Pollutants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1992 the Center for Energy Systems Research of the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and the Arizona State University (ASU) Facilities Management Department formed a unique Demand Side Management (DSM) team dedicated to reducing energy...

Smith, K. L.; Traill, D. A.; Sears, R. L.; Spielman, M.

382

Denver Museum Taps Into Unique Geothermal Source | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Into Unique Geothermal Source March 9, 2010 - 4:59pm Addthis Denver Museum of Nature & Science is planning to install a heat pump system that utilizes the citys municipal...

383

Midwest Motor Systems Consortium- A Unique Business Partnership  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Midwest Motor Systems Consortium is a creative, new business partnership of motor systems users, suppliers, and other interested parties. It is unique in that it brings together all of the stakeholders in the motor systems market-with buyers...

Hackner, R.; Cockrill, C.

384

The unique features of starch metabolism in red algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unique features of starch metabolism in red algae Roberto Viola 1 * Pi Nyvall 2 Marianne...SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden Red algae (Rhodophyceae) are photosynthetic eukaryotes...plastids. The starch granules from red algae (floridean starch) show structural similarities...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Manipulation of ring strain and antiaromaticity in the design and synthesis of unique optoelectronic materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fully-conjugated ladder polymers are leading candidates for organics electronics, as their inherent conformational rigidity encourages electron delocalization. Many of these ...

Parkhurst, Rebecca R. (Rebecca Rosenberg)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

387

TUDE SPECTROMTRIQUE DE LA LUMIRE MISE PAR LE PLA SMA ANODIQUE PENDANT L'EFFET D'ANODE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

99 �TUDE SPECTROM�TRIQUE DE LA LUMI�RE �MISE PAR LE PLA SMA ANODIQUE PENDANT L'EFFET D'ANODE DANS. Abstract. 2014 One can determine fundamental properties of anodic plasma by studiing Li and K isolated travaux ont eu pour objet l'étude électrochimique de l'effet d'anode (voir, par exemple [1

Boyer, Edmond

388

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science Materials Science Materials Science1354608000000Materials ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access./No/Questions? 667-5809library@lanl.gov Materials Science Some of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access. Key Resources Data Sources Reference Organizations Journals Key Resources CINDAS Materials Property Databases video icon Thermophysical Properties of Matter Database (TPMD) Aerospace Structural Metals Database (ASMD) Damage Tolerant Design Handbook (DTDH) Microelectronics Packaging Materials Database (MPMD) Structural Alloys Handbook (SAH) Proquest Technology Collection Includes the Materials Science collection MRS Online Proceedings Library Papers presented at meetings of the Materials Research Society Data Sources

389

Experimental Study of Hard X-ray Emission with Different Anode Tips in APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the effect of different anode tips on the hard X-ray (HXR) emission from APF plasma focus device (16 kV, 36 ?f, and...

M. Habibi; R. Amrollahi; G. R. Etaati

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

DELAYED COKING OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED COAL FOR PRODUCTION OF ANODE GRADE COKE: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PRODUCTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates the feasibility of using high temperature solvent extraction of coal to produce feedstock for the production of anode grade coke through delayed… (more)

Karri, Vamsi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Characterization of Sodium Ion Electrochemical Reaction with Tin Anodes: Experiment and Theory  

SciTech Connect

Tin anodes show a rich structure and reaction chemistry which we have investigated in detail. Upon discharge five plateaus are observed corresponding to -Sn, an unidentified phase (Na/Sn = 0.6), an amorphous phase (Na/Sn = 1.2), a hexagonal R-3m Na5Sn2, and fully sodiated Na15Sn 4. With charging there are six plateaus, which are related to the formation of Na5Sn2 followed by the formation of amorphous phases and -Sn. Upon cycling the formation of metastable Na5Sn2 seems to be suppressed, leading to a single charge plateau at 0.2 V. Theoretical voltages calculated from existing crystal structures using DFT provide a good match with constant current measurements, however, the voltage is more negative compared to quasi-equilibrium measurements (GITT). Search for additional (meta)stable phases using cluster-expansion method predicts many phases lower in energy than the convex hull, including the R-3m Na5Sn2 phase characterized experimentally. The presence of multiple phases in varying lattices with very similar formation energy suggests why the reaction mechanism is non-reversible. Interpretation of M ssbauer spectroscopy data is not yet elucidated due to the very low recoil-free fraction of the materials. The electrode surface is terminated with a SEI layer rich in carbonates such as Na2CO3 and Na alkyl carbonates as evidenced by XPS. After a full charge at 2V, strong evidence for the formation of oxidized Sn4+ is obtained. Subjecting the electrode to a rest after a full charge at 2 V reveals that aging in the electrolyte reduces the oxidized Sn4+ into Sn2+ and Sn0, and concomitantly suppresses the electrolyte decomposition represented by an anomalous discharge plateau at 1.2 V. Thereby, the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte during discharge is caused by nanosized Sn particles covered by oxidized Sn4+ and not by pure metallic Sn.

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL] [ORNL; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude [Institut Charles Gerhardt, University of Montpellier II, FRANCE] [Institut Charles Gerhardt, University of Montpellier II, FRANCE; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on platinum electrode in alkaline medium  

SciTech Connect

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms strong metal complexes and is often used to remove scale from heat-transfer equipment and to decontaminate equipment exposed to radioactive material. However, the resultant waste in the form of EDTA-metal complex is hard to treat due to the high stability of such complexes. The anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in alkaline medium on a smooth platinum electrode. Bulk electrolysis indicated that stable organic intermediates (formaldehyde and glyoxal) are formed during the oxidation of EDTA and that complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} can be achieved. The proposed pathway suggests that the acetate groups in EDTA are initially oxidized, generating formaldehyde and ethylenediamine. The rest potential of EDTA (0.066 to 0.164 V vs. Hg/HgO) was observed to be higher than for other organic species. In alkaline medium, very little EDTA oxidation was found to occur on bare platinum. Limiting-current behavior due to PtO formation was observed immediately positive of the rest potential. Tafel behavior (Tafel slope 120 mV/dec) was observed in the potential region positive of the cessation of the bulk of oxide film formation and negative of the onset of O{sub 2} evolution. The reaction order of EDTA was determined to be {approximately}0.5, and that of OH{sup {minus}} was close to zero. The reaction mechanism consistent with the experimental data involves Temkin-type adsorption and a first-electron-transfer rate-determining step.

Pakalapati, S.N.R.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Crystal Orientation Tuning of LiFePO4 Nanoplates for High Rate Lithium Battery Cathode Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For an electrochemical cell to deliver capacity at high rate, all parts of the Li+-electron path between the anode and the cathode active material have to be capable of sustaining this rate. ... Materials with the olivine LixMPO4 structure form an important class of rechargeable battery cathodes. ...

Li Wang; Xiangming He; Wenting Sun; Jianlong Wang; Yadong Li; Shoushan Fan

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

394

Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

D'Andrade, Brian (Westampton, NJ); Esler, James (Levittown, PA)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

395

Pore-Scale Investigation of Mass Transport and Electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect

The development and validation of a model for the study of pore-scale transport phenomena and electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode are presented in this work. This model couples mass transport processes with a detailed reaction mechanism, which is used to model the electrochemical oxidation kinetics. Detailed electrochemical oxidation reaction kinetics, which is known to occur in the vicinity of the three-phase boundary (TPB) interfaces, is discretely considered in this work. The TPB regions connect percolating regions of electronic and ionic conducting phases of the anode, nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively; with porous regions supporting mass transport of the fuel and product. A two-dimensional (2D), multi-species lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to describe the diffusion process in complex pore structures that are representative of the SOFC anode. This diffusion model is discretely coupled to a kinetic electrochemical oxidation mechanism using localized flux boundary conditions. The details of the oxidation kinetics are prescribed as a function of applied activation overpotential and the localized hydrogen and water mole fractions. This development effort is aimed at understanding the effects of the anode microstructure within TPB regions. This work describes the methods used so that future studies can consider the details of SOFC anode microstructure.

Grew, K. N.; Joshi, A. S.; Peracchio, A. A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Microstructural coarsening effects on redox instability and mechanical damage in solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In state-of-the-art high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) a porous composite of nickel and yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ) is employed as the anode. The rapid oxidation of Ni into NiO is regarded as the main cause of the so-called reduction-oxidation (redox) instability in Ni/YSZ anodes due to the presence of extensive bulk volume changes associated with this reaction. As a consequence the development of internal stresses can lead to performance degradation and/or structural failure. In this study we employ a recently developed continuum formalism to quantify the mechanical deformation behavior and evolution of internal stresses in Ni/YSZ porous anodes due to re-oxidation. In our approach a local failure criterion is coupled to the continuum framework in order to account for the heterogeneous damage accumulation in the YSZ phase. The hallmark of our approach is the ability to track the spatial evolution of mechanical damage and capture the interaction of YSZ damaged regions with the local microstructure. Simulation results highlight the importance of the microstructure characterized by Ni to YSZ particle size ratio on the redox behavior and damage accumulation in as-synthesized SOFC anode systems. Moreover a redox-strain-to-failure criterion is developed to quantify the degree by which coarsened anode microstructures become more susceptible to mechanical damage during re-oxidation.

F. Abdeljawad; M. Haataja

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Gas conversion impedance: A test geometry effect in characterization of solid oxide fuel cell anodes  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of an extra arc in impedance spectra obtained on high performance solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes is recognized when experiments are conducted in a test setup where the working and reference electrodes are placed in separate atmospheres. A simple continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is used to illustrate how anodes measured with the reference electrode in an atmosphere separate from the working electrode are subject to an impedance contribution from gas conversion. The gas conversion impedance is split into a resistive and a capacitive part, and the dependences of these parameters on gas composition, temperature, gas flow rate, and rig geometry are quantified. The fuel gas flow rate per unit of anode area is decisive for the resistivity, whereas the capacitance is proportional to the CSTR volume of gas over the anode. The model predictions are compared to actual measurements on Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia cermet anodes for SOFC. The contribution of the gas conversion overpotential to dc current-voltage characteristics is deduced for H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and shown to have a slope of RT/2F in a Tafel plot.

Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Materials Research Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Ionization-enhanced currents to an anode in a magnetic field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic-field effects are known to play an important role in determining current-collection characteristics of electrodes in magnetoplasmas. In the Parker-Murphy model of current collection, for example, the magnetic field excludes electrons that originate from outside a characteristic collection radius from reaching the anode. In this paper we show that these excluded electrons can dominate current collection through ionization effects, even at pressures well below the Paschen threshold for ionization. We demonstrate this by releasing a controlled current near a spherical anode in a magnetic field, and measuring the resultant anode current. The use of a spatially localized electron source reveals aspects of current collection that are not evident when a background plasma constitutes the electron source. We find that the anode current can exceed the source current by more than two orders of magnitude. The conditions are such that we can neglect the contribution to the anode current from secondary emission at the chamber wall. We therefore attribute the additional current to the flow of electrons released by ionization of the ambient neutral gas and show how the ionization arises from electron trapping.

R. G. Greaves and D. A. Boyd

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

First-Principles Study of Novel Conversion Reactions for High-Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes in the Li-Mg-B-N-H System  

SciTech Connect

Anodes for Li-ion batteries are primarily carbon-based due to their low cost and long cycle life. However, improvements to the Li capacity of carbon anodes, LiC{sub 6} in particular, are necessary to obtain a larger energy density. State-of-the-art light-metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications often contain Li and involve reactions requiring Li transport, and light-metal ionic hydrides are candidates for novel conversion materials. Given a set of known solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble, as a function of lithium chemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAh g{sup -1} that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li{sub 4}BN{sub 3}H{sub 10}. While the predicted reactions involve multiple steps, the maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si.

Mason, T.H.; Graetz, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, J.; Majzoub, E.H.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Reference Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Materials Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos...

402

Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

can be prepared in 1 shot). Traditional ball mills, adopt stirred mills or vibration mills. Only few grams of material can be made SPEX mill machine SiO-SnCoC composite...

403

Moab Project Offers Unique Educational Resource in Site Tours | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project Offers Unique Educational Resource in Site Tours Project Offers Unique Educational Resource in Site Tours Moab Project Offers Unique Educational Resource in Site Tours May 2, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Students from the University of Utah contemplate the hillside geology at the rail load out area while Moab Federal Project Director Donald Metzler (in orange vest) addresses a question. The uranium mill tailings pile is behind and below the viewing area. Students from the University of Utah contemplate the hillside geology at the rail load out area while Moab Federal Project Director Donald Metzler (in orange vest) addresses a question. The uranium mill tailings pile is behind and below the viewing area. As Durham University students stand on the bank of the Colorado River, Moab Groundwater Manager Ken Pill (in yellow vest at left) explains how the groundwater interim action system operates. A well vault is in the foreground.

404

Denver Museum Taps Into Unique Geothermal Source | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Denver Museum Taps Into Unique Geothermal Source Denver Museum Taps Into Unique Geothermal Source Denver Museum Taps Into Unique Geothermal Source March 9, 2010 - 4:59pm Addthis Denver Museum of Nature & Science is planning to install a heat pump system that utilizes the city’s municipal water system. | Photo courtesy of Denver Museum of Nature & Science Denver Museum of Nature & Science is planning to install a heat pump system that utilizes the city's municipal water system. | Photo courtesy of Denver Museum of Nature & Science Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE What will the project do? These energy efficient practices could save the museum up to $7 million over the next 20 years. The heating and air conditioning in the new wing of the Denver Museum if

405

Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and 8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome August 20, 2010 - 5:18pm Addthis Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? An Argonne Scholar has figured out a way to convert grocery bags into carbon nanotubes that can be used as components for lithium-ion batteries. We have about three pounds of bacteria living in our gut -- most of which is helpful for our immune system development and metabolism. Scientists at Ames Laboratory are making batteries that are "greener" and more cost-efficient by using rare earth elements -- neodymium

406

Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effect of operating parameters and anode gas impurities upon polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

PEM fuel cells are actively under development for transportation and other applications. Integration of a PEM fuel cell stack with a methanol reformer requires an understanding of single cell performance under a range of operating conditions using anode gas contaminated with impurities. The effect of temperature, pressure, and anode gas impurities on single cell PEM performance was investigated with platinum black electrodes. Single cell performance remained unchanged as temperature was varied between 80 and 100 at 3 atm pressure. High water partial pressures at 120C produced a mass transfer limiting current. While operation at 120C did not reverse CO{sub 2} poisoning, anode air addition proved effective. Air injection also decreased CO poisoning at injected concentrations up to 200 ppm CO. Higher single cell tolerance was observed for CH{sub 3}OH than CO. Up to 1 mole % CH{sub 3}OH in the gas phase reduced the current density by less than 10%.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

"Nucleon-Structural" Corrections to First Forbidden Unique Beta Transitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coupling of leptons to a conserved isovector current is shown to result in a small change in the shape of the electron momentum spectrum in forbidden unique beta transitions. The experimental advantages and disadvantages of studying such nucleon-structural effects in forbidden unique transitions rather than in allowed transitions, as suggested by Gell-Mann, are discussed. To facilitate the computations, the betadecay interaction Hamiltonian is written in a form in which the terms leading to the "nucleon-structural" corrections associated with the coupling of the leptons to a conserved isovector current and the terms leading to effects of comparable order of magnitude are simply identified.

J. F. Dreitlein

1959-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Effects of anode microstructures on durability of microtubular solid oxide fuel cells during internal steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract When hydrocarbons are used as a fuel in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), internal steam reforming increases the energy conversion efficiency and simplifies the system, including the balance-of-plant. However, conventional nickel–yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni–YSZ) anodes are prone to deterioration at high temperatures and high humidity. This paper focuses on effects in anode microstructure on performance and durability of microtubular SOFCs. The evaluations were conducted under high steam content and internal methane reforming conditions using Ni–YSZ anodes using acrylic resin and graphite pore formers. The initial cell performance was almost identical to that of \\{SOFCs\\} with anodes using acrylic resin and graphite pore formers in 40% H2–3% H2O at 700 °C. However, the anode using acrylic resin deteriorated rapidly in 40% H2–30% H2O over a period of 28 h. Furthermore, it generated almost no electric power by internal steam reforming of methane. The local oxidation of nickel particles was observed at the interface between the electrolyte and the deteriorated anodes. The anode using graphite pore former provided stable power generation in 40% H2–30% H2O, and was able to generate power in 10% CH4–30% H2O. The pore formers strongly affect fuel diffusivity in the SOFC anodes, which is an important factor in stable internal steam reforming of methane.

Hirofumi Sumi; Toshiaki Yamaguchi; Toshio Suzuki; Hiroyuki Shimada; Koichi Hamamoto; Yoshinobu Fujishiro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Parameterization of GDL Liquid Water Front Propagation and Channel Accumulation for Anode Purge Scheduling in Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. I. INTRODUCTION Water produced at the cathode catalyst layer can diffuse back to the anode side due of the catalyst support in the cathode [4]. Therefore, scheduling an occasional purge of the anode volume that was observed via neutron imaging of an operational 53 cm2 PEMFC. Simulation results for the GDL and Membrane

Stefanopoulou, Anna

411

Addition of non-reacting gases to the anode flow field of DMFCs leading to improved performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, as compared with hydro- gen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFCs), they offer the basic advantages through the polymer membrane, low electro-activity of methanol oxidation on anode, and severe cathode and searching for alternatives [7­14], to evaluating and optimizing anode catalysts and structures [15

Zhao, Tianshou

412

Reduced Graphene Oxide Wrapped FeS Nanocomposite for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with Improved Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reduced Graphene Oxide Wrapped FeS Nanocomposite for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with Improved Performance ... A new nanocomposite formulation of the FeS-based anode for lithium-ion batteries is proposed, where FeS nanoparticles wrapped in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are produced via a facile direct-precipitation approach. ...

Ling Fei; Qianglu Lin; Bin Yuan; Gen Chen; Pu Xie; Yuling Li; Yun Xu; Shuguang Deng; Sergei Smirnov; Hongmei Luo

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Relationship of chemical components and impurities of aluminum galvanic anodes upon the cathodic protection of marine structures  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum galvanic anodes form the principal basis for cathodic protection of offshore structures and marine vehicles. A satisfactory cathodic protection (CP) design using the galvanic mode must employ a valid anode. It follows, therefore, that highly responsible compositional consideration be associated with such anodes. Since applications extend from very low temperature to above ambient seawaters, this factor is addressed in the paper. Applications in sea muds and its effect upon anode behavior is also considered. Primary emphasis will be given the indium-activated alloys with occasional comparisons to the mercury-activated aluminum anodes. The grounds for this emphasis lies in the fact that the indium-activated anodes constitute the great majority of use. The data and observations discussed are based primarily on low temperature, ambient and higher temperature laboratory and pilot tests supplemented by user field applications over the last 25--30 years. Dependable aluminum anode performance in the subject waters and muds point to careful control of iron and copper impurities, coupled with the correct balance of indium, zinc and silicon. Generalized recommendations are presented with regard to composition. The future challenges of cathodic protection at greater seawater depths are also addressed. Possible effects upon anode current capacity and voltage are so related.

Schrieber, C.F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial Suqin Ci a,c  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial fuel cells Suqin Ci November 2011 Available online 20 November 2011 Keywords: Carbon nanotubes Nitrogen doping Anode Microbial. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical systems that directly convert chemical energy

415

A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas*[e] and Thomas Schleid[f] Abstract: A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from

Schmidt, Volker

416

Journal of Power Sources 156 (2006) 345354 Development of PtRu-CeO2/C anode electrocatalyst for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal of Power Sources 156 (2006) 345­354 Development of PtRu-CeO2/C anode electrocatalyst a growing interest in the development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) because when compared oxidation reac- tion on the anode and the oxygen reduction reaction on the cathode remains as one

Zhao, Tianshou

417

Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

418

Anodic bonding of glass-ceramics to stainless steel coated with intermediate SiO2 layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodic bonding between glass-ceramics and stainless steel (No. 430#) which was coated with SiO"2 layer were investigated. The SiO"2 layers with thickness comprised between 150 and 250nm were coated on stainless steel surfaces by sol-gel method, the ... Keywords: Anodic bonding, Glass-ceramics, Intermediate layer, SiO2, Stainless steel

Dehua Xiong; Jinshu Cheng; Hong Li; Wei Deng; Kai Ye

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. The critical issues facing the development of economically competitive SOFC systems include lowering the operation temperature and creating novel anode materials and microstructures capable of efficiently utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m- thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing, and both Ni- and Cu-based anodes were prepared by a solution impregnation process. At 600 C, SOFCs fueled with humidified H{sub 2}, methane, and propane, reached peak power densities of 602, 519, and 433 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Both microstructure and composition of the anodes, as fabricated using a solution impregnation technique, greatly influence fuel cell performance. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C.

Shaowu Zha; Luis Aguilar; Meilin Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Ten-percent solar-to-fuel conversion with nonprecious materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nickel-borate thin film electrocatalyst . J Am Chem Soc 135 ( 9 ): 3662 – 3674...Accelerating materials development for photoelectrochemical hydrogen...Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Program ECCS-1150878 (to...a NiBi anode and NiMoZn cathode operating in 1 M KOH (pH...

Casandra R. Cox; Jungwoo Z. Lee; Daniel G. Nocera; Tonio Buonassisi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

SIMOS,N.

2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

422

Cancer Cell Dissecting the Unique Role of the Retinoblastoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cancer Cell Article Dissecting the Unique Role of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor during-cycle control. However, cancer-associated mutations are almost exclusively found in RB, implying that RB has for cancer development; hence, the roles and regulation of RB have been intensively studied (reviewed

423

Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders  

SciTech Connect

A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Phot

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Our unique collaboration of research, education and health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doctors Our unique collaboration of research, education and health care creates partnerships both. The care of patients provided by USF Health is guided by research and focused on memorable experiences. This leads to the creation of a national model for education and care devoted to the continuum of health

Meyers, Steven D.

425

Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Phot

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

426

UNIQUE STRUCTURE Michigan's Ross School of Business designed the Global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL #12;2 WELCOME UNIQUE STRUCTURE Michigan's Ross School of Business designed the Global MBA Highlights WELCOME #12;WELCOME 2 Why Ross? 6 Curriculum 8 Program Structure 9 Schedule 10 Across into the next generation. DISTINGUISHED DEGREE All Michigan Ross MBA programs adhere to the same rigorous

Michigan, University of

427

Modules with Unique Closure Relative to a Torsion Theory. III  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We continue the study of modules over a general ring R whose submodules have a unique closure relative to a hereditary torsion theory on Mod-R. It is proved that, for a given ring R and a hereditary torsion theor...

S. Do?ruöz; A. Harmanci; P. F. Smith

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Fabrication of TiO2 film with different morphologies on Ni anode and application in photoassisted water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anode of an alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis was modified by TiO2 photocatalysts with different morphologies. The water electrolysis was coupled with photocatalytic decomposition of water by irradiation of UV light on the modified anode. And a feasible process for the hydrogen production of water electrolysis assisted by photocatalysis (WEAP) was proposed and experimentally confirmed. The results show that the highly ordered, vertically oriented tubular arrays structure on Ni anode surface has better hydrogen production performance than random TiO2. In WEAP process, the maximum rate of hydrogen production is 2.77 ml/(h*cm2) when the anode modified by ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, compared to traditional alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis with Ni anode, H2-production rate increased by 139%.

Hongbo He; Aiping Chen; Hui Lv; Haijun Dong; Ming Chang; Chunzhong Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Evaluation of thermal stresses in planar solid oxide fuel cells as a function of thermo-mechanical properties of component materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, cathode and anode materials for SOFC and their effect on thermally induced stresses in SOFC stacks. Since a mismatch in Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) and Elastic moduli between the materials causes the development of detrimental thermal stresses... the development of the advanced flat plate (Planar) SOFC. Along with the SOFC design as a whole, advance materials were being developed for the various components. In the early 1970s, Nickel/YSZ, doped In 2 O 3 , and CoCr 2 O 3 were used as anode, cathode...

Manisha,

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

430

Efficient organic light-emitting diode using semitransparent silver as anode Huajun Peng, Xiuling Zhu, Jiaxin Sun, Zhiliang Xie, Shuang Xie,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient organic light-emitting diode using semitransparent silver as anode Huajun Peng, Xiuling A semitransparent silver layer is investigated as the anode for organic light-emitting devices OLEDs. A bottom-emitting OLED using the modified, semitransparent silver anode, demonstrates improved current

431

40th Joint Propulsion Conference, Fort Lauderdale, FL, July 11-14, 2004 Effect of Segmented Anodes On the Beam Profile of a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

40th Joint Propulsion Conference, Fort Lauderdale, FL, July 11-14, 2004 Effect of Segmented Anodes was investigated. A BPT-2000 magnetic circuit was retrofitted with a segmented anode with thermal measurement capabilities. Current was shared between shims and main anode by changing the voltage on the shim. A Faraday

King, Lyon B.

432

Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia-Xin Sun,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia (TOLED) with pure aluminum metal layer as the bottom anode has been fabricated. The brightness as high as that of the TOLED with additional high work function silver deposited on aluminum as the anode

433

Conductive Anodic Filament Enhancement the Presence of a Polyglycol -Containing Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Under certain environmental conditions, printed wiring boards (CAF), is a result of an electrochemical corrosion process that initiates at the anode and proceeds process involves two steps [2]. The first is a physical degradation of the fibedepoxy bond

Bennett, Gisele

434

A Planar Anode -Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A Planar Anode - Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Model with Internal Reforming of Natural Gas of natural gas has been developed. The model simultaneously solves mass, energy transport equations emission level, and multiple fuel utilization. SOFC can operate with various kinds of fuels such as natural

Boyer, Edmond

435

Adaptable Silicon–Carbon Nanocables Sandwiched between Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Lithium Ion Battery Anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adaptable Silicon–Carbon Nanocables Sandwiched between Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as Lithium Ion Battery Anodes ... Despite rapidly growing interest in the application of graphene in lithium ion batteries, the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical cycling is not fully understood. ...

Bin Wang; Xianglong Li; Xianfeng Zhang; Bin Luo; Meihua Jin; Minghui Liang; Shadi A. Dayeh; S. T. Picraux; Linjie Zhi

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

436

Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interest in using nanomaterials for advanced lithium-ion battery electrodes, par- ticularly for increasingSolution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Candace K. Chan, Reken N. Patel storage capacity (theoretical values of 4200 vs 372 mAh/g for graphite). How- ever, the insertion

Cui, Yi

437

Optical Properties of ZrO2–Containing Anodic Coatings on Aluminum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anodic oxide coatings (AOC) formed at the potentials of spark breakdowns...2ZrF6) contain up to 36 wt.% of Zr. The modification of ZrO2 in AOC is tetragonal. The reflection coefficients of AOC have been measured ...

P. M. Nedozorov; K. N. Kilin; T. P. Yarovaya…

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

439

TOWARDS ELIMINATION OF THE ANODE EFFECT AND PERFLUOROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM HALL-HROULT CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the perfluorocarbons (PFCs) CF4 and C2F6 (1). Owing to the high global warming potentials of these gases (2 that trace levels of CF4 are present in the anode off-gas during #12;periods of normal operation (5

Sadoway, Donald Robert

440

Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of microstructures inside the Ni-YSZ anode of a solid oxide fuel cell Jeff Lillibridge Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Advisor: Mikko Haataja #12;What is a solid oxide fuel cell microstructuralcoarsening processes to electrochemical performancein solid oxide fuel cells: An integrated modeling approach

Petta, Jason

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel Phase Wettability and YSZ Redox Fracture Percolation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Alex and Aerospace Engineering Background Solid oxide fuel cells lose mechanical stability and functionality when oxidize (redox reaction) instead of the hydrogen fuel [2]. This conversion to NiO exerts a volumetric

Petta, Jason

442

Effect of magnetic field profile on the anode fall in a Hall-effect thruster dischargea...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the plasma, and not in the non-neutral sheath near the cathode like in regular glow and arc discharges. Thus of the magnetic field configuration on the anode fall in an E B discharge of a Hall thruster is studied both of Hall thrusters is based on electro- static acceleration of heavy ions in crossed electric and mag

443

Experimental Investigation of Degradation in PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the current level affects degradation rate. The fuel cell membrane failures were predicated by high current Arbor Michigan 48109 Fuel cell durability and cost are two important concerns for commercializing Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems. A Dead-Ended Anode (DEA) system has lower cost

Stefanopoulou, Anna

444

Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells Vanessa Lanas, Bruce E. Logan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected (You et al., 2007), carbon cloth (Wang et al., 2009), and activated carbon fiber felt (Zhu et al., 2011 27 August 2013 Available online 5 September 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Carbon brush anode

445

Crumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Jiayan Luo, Xin Zhao Information ABSTRACT: Submicrometer-sized capsules made of Si nanoparticles wrapped by crumpled graphene dispersion of micrometer-sized graphene oxide (GO) sheets and Si nanoparticles were nebulized to form aerosol

Huang, Jiaxing

446

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

447

Conduction in Multiphase ParticulateFibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitectured carbon networks, typically in the form electronically February 7, 2003. Several promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitecturedConduction in Multiphase ParticulateÃ?Fibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

Sastry, Ann Marie

448

Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

Gossett, S.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Materializing energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of ... Keywords: design, design theory, energy, materiality, sustainability

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Novel forms of carbon as potential anodes for lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to design and synthesize novel carbons as potential electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. A synthetic approach which utilizes inorganic templates is described and initial characterization results are discussed. The templates also act as a catalyst enabling carbon formation at low temperatures. This synthetic approach should make it easier to control the surface and bulk characteristics of these carbons.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Polarization effects in intermediate temperature, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported sold oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) + YSZ cathode, and Ni + YSZ anode were fabricated and their performance was evaluated between 650 and 800 C with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities measured were {approximately} 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C and {approximately} 0.82 W/cm{sup 2} at 650 C. Voltage (V) vs. current density (i) traces were nonlinear; V vs. i exhibited a concave-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {ge} 0] at low values of i and a convex-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {le} 0] at higher values of i, typical of many low temperature fuel cells. Analysis of concentration polarization based on transport of gaseous species through porous electrodes, in part, is used to explain nonlinear V vs. i traces. The effects of activation polarization in the Tafel limit are also included. It is shown that in anode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature can be due either to activation or concentration polarization, or both. By contrast, in cathode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature is entirely due to activation polarization. From the experimentally observed V vs. i traces for anode-supported cells, effective binary diffusivity of gaseous species on the anodic side was estimated to be between {approximately} 0.1 cm{sup 2}/s at 650 C and {approximately} 0.2 cm{sup 2}/s at 800 C. The area specific resistance of the cell (ohmic part), varied between {approximately} 0.18 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 650 C and {approximately} 0.07 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 800 C with an activation energy of {approximately} 65 kJ/mol.

Kim, J.W.; Virkar, A.V.; Fung, K.Z.; Mehta, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

NETL: News Release - DOE Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 8, 2011 February 8, 2011 DOE Program Offers Participants Unique Opportunity to Gain Carbon Capture and Storage Knowledge Program for Graduate Students, Early Career Professionals Provides Intensive Hands-On Tutorial Washington, DC - Future leaders and innovators in the area of carbon capture and storage (CCS) can gain a unique and intensive tutorial on the subject by participating in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration (RECS) program. MORE INFO Application instructions on RECS website Supported by the Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the program for graduate students and early career professionals is currently accepting applications for RECS 2011, scheduled for June 5-15, in Birmingham, AL, and the deadline to apply is April 15.

453

Argonne launches unique research initiative to realize solar energy's  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

launches unique research initiative to realize solar energy's launches unique research initiative to realize solar energy's full potential By Angela Hardin * February 22, 2010 Tweet EmailPrint Spurred by global development and population growth, the world's energy needs are expected to double by 2050. The best solution to meet this coming demand is an energy mix that includes generous amounts of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and biofuels, as well as nuclear energy and fossil fuels. Of the many options, the sun represents the most abundant renewable energy source. Its rays have a potential supply that dwarfs the global demand for energy today and for the foreseeable future. However, the costs of converting sunlight to usable electricity, heat or fuel must be radically reduced to realize this potential. And that can only be accomplished

454

Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Data at Multiple Scales Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Sfederspiel's picture Submitted by Sfederspiel(5) Member 20 May, 2013 - 13:28 FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Planetary Skin Institute recently released a new open platform hosted by OpenEI which enables state and local governments, agencies, corporations, and other energy analysts to effectively visualize energy use data and make energy data more useful for decision-making processes. The Free Energy Data (FRED) platform will contribute to the Energy Data Initiative to make energy data more transparent and adaptable for

455

Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Process, Chapter 13 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, ``Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities.`` The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19.

Not Available

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385°C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350°C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500°C to 750°C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650°C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2010-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

458

Nuclear concepts and energy resources institute: A unique approach to public education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear concepts and energy resources institute: A unique approach to public education ... A unique approach to educating the public about nuclear power, particularly high school science teachers. ...

W. A. Jester; A. J. Baratta; J. J. McDermott

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode  

SciTech Connect

Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

CMI Unique Facility: Pilot-Scale Separations Test Bed Facility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Idaho National Laboratory Noting that the CMI Grand Challenges include separating rare earth elements from each other, the Critical Materials Institute established a pilot-scale...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Unique Configuration of a Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbon: Potential Applications to Semiconductor and Hydrogen Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unique Configuration of a Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbon: Potential Applications to Semiconductor and Hydrogen Fuel Cell ... Further examination on oxygen adsorption at NTSG reveals high electrocatalytic activity of NTSG in oxygen reduction reaction, indicating that this nitrogen-doped graphene material could be used as a potential catalyst for hydrogen fuel cells. ... (48) One recent theoretical work has also disclosed that the nitrogen-doped fullerene could be used as a potential catalyst for hydrogen fuel cells. ...

Hong Zheng; Jia-jia Zheng; Ling He; Xiang Zhao

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ni?GDC Anode?Supported Ceria Electrolyte Film and Its Application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper 10–20% samaria?doped ceria (10 SDC and 20 SDC) electrolyte films were successfully prepared by a citrate sol?gel route combined with a sol suspension spray coating technique. The characterization and microstructure of the thin film were investigated by XRD and FE?SEM. The results show that the SDC film prepared was pure fluorite type nanocrystalline homogenous and almost fully dense as well as indicate the flexibility of adjustable SDC chemical compositions. Electrochemical performance of a single cell based on the thin 20 SDC film with thickness of 500 nm and La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3?? (LSCF) as cathode material was examined. The cell provided an OCV of 0.83 V at 600?°C which was close to that of the thicker ceria cell (10 ?m) and maximum power densities of 41 90 78 32? mW ? cm 2 at 600 700 800 and 900?°C respectively. It was demonstrated that the thin SDC film less than several ?m showed a good combination with the porous Ni?GDC anode substrate and good insulating ability for electrons migration at temperatures less than 700?°C. The thin ceria electrolyte prepared was potential to use for the IT?SOFCs.

H. Lin; C. Ding; K. Kumada; Y. Tsutai; C. Wada; T. Hashida

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Electrochemical behaviors of co-deposited Pb/Pb–MnO2 composite anode in sulfuric acid solution – Tafel and EIS investigations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oxygen evolution kinetics and anodic layer properties of Pb/Pb–MnO2 composite anode during the 72 h galvanostatic electrolysis in H2SO4 solution were investigated with Quasi-stationary polarization (Tafel) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results revealed that the anodic activity and reaction kinetics varied a lot during the electrolysis for it is a process indicating the formation and stabilization of anodic layer. At the very beginning of electrolysis, the composite anode exhibited very high oxygen evolution activity since the reaction was controlled by the transformation step of intermediates. Then, its oxygen evolution activity was largely diminished and the rate determination step (rds) became the formation and adsorption of first intermediate, S–OHads. In the prolonged electrolysis, the anodic potential gradually decreased and the final stable value was comparable to industrial Pb–Ag (1.0%) anode. On the stable anodic layer after 72 h, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was still controlled by the formation and adsorption of intermediate, and the adsorption resistance took a dominant part in the whole impedance. Besides, compared with Pb–Ag and Pb anode, although OER at the stable state were all controlled by the intermediate adsorption process, the adsorption resistance of Pb/Pb–MnO2 anode was much smaller than the other two due to the existence of MnO2 particles and large amount of ?-PbO2 in the stable anodic layer.

Yanqing Lai; Yuan Li; Liangxing Jiang; Wang Xu; Xiaojun Lv; Jie Li; Yexiang Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Los Alamos Lab: Materials Physics & Applications Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ADEPS Materials Physics and Applications, MPA ADEPS Materials Physics and Applications, MPA About Us Organization Jobs Materials Physics & Applications Home Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Superconductivity Technology Center Condensed Matter and Magnet Science Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Materials Chemistry CONTACTS Division Leader Antoinette Taylor Deputy Division Leader David Watkins Point of Contact Susan Duran 505-665-1131 Materials Physics and Applications Division serves as the Laboratory's focal point for fundamental materials physics and materials chemistry, provides world-class user facilities, unique experimental capabilities, and the scientific talent and infrastructure to facilitate understanding and control of materials properties, and develops and apply materials-based solutions

465

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

467

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

468

Scintillator material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

Anderson, David F. (Batavia, IL); Kross, Brian J. (Aurora, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges  

SciTech Connect

A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

470

Advanced Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Express Licensing Active Terahertz Metamaterial Devices Express Licensing Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, And Membrane Express Licensing Analysis Of Macromolecule, Liggands And Macromolecule-Lingand Complexes Express Licensing Carbon Microtubes Express Licensing Chemical Synthesis Of Chiral Conducting Polymers Express Licensing Forming Adherent Coatings Using Plasma Processing Express Licensing Hydrogen Scavengers Express Licensing Laser Welding Of Fused Quartz Express Licensing Multiple Feed Powder Splitter Negotiable Licensing Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Negotiable Licensing Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Negotiable Licensing Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Express Licensing Method of Synthesis of Proton Conducting Materials

471

Critical Materials:  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

lighting. 14 (bottom) Criticality ratings of shortlisted raw 76 materials. 15 77 2. Technology Assessment and Potential 78 This section reviews the major trends within...

472

Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for spray coating material which employs a plasma gun that has a cathode, an anode, an arc gas inlet, a first powder injection port, and a second powder injection port. A suitable arc gas is introduced through the arc gas inlet, and ionization of the arc gas between the cathode and the anode forms a plasma. The plasma is directed to emenate from an open-ended chamber defined by the boundary of the anode. A coating is deposited upon a base metal part by suspending a binder powder within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the first powder injection port; a material subject to degradation by high temperature oxygen reactions is suspended within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the second injection port. The material fed through the second injection port experiences a cooler portion of the plasma and has a shorter dwell time within the plasma to minimize high temperature oxygen reactions. The material of the first port and the material of the second port intermingle within the plasma to form a uniform coating having constituent percentages related to the powder-feed rates of the materials through the respective ports.

Lenling, William J. (Madison, WI); Henfling, Joseph A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

473

Apparatus for controlling system state based on unique identifiers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus allows workers to assert and release control over the energization of a system. The apparatus does not require the workers to carry any additional paraphernalia, and is not be easily defeated by other workers. Users asserting and releasing control present tokens uniquely identifying each user to a reader, and the apparatus prevents transition of the system to an undesired state until an appropriate number of users are currently asserting control. For example, a dangerous manufacturing robot can be prevented from energizing until all the users that have asserted control when entering the robot's controlled space have subsequently released control when leaving the robot's controlled space.

Drotning, William D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

"Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

It all began in 2001, when three NREL researchers took their thin-film It all began in 2001, when three NREL researchers took their thin-film expertise from window technology research and applied it to a solid-state, thin-film lithium battery. The researchers knew that lithium batteries tended to degrade quickly because the fragile lithium metal anode was on the top of the battery, where any cracks in the encapsulant could lead to rapid failure. The team developed the concept of building the battery in reverse order, depositing first the solid-state electrolyte, made of lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON), then the cathode, a metal oxide. Lithium is typically intercalated (chemically trapped) within the cathode material. Placing an initial charge on the battery causes the lithium ions to migrate out of the cathode

475

High-Speed Parameter Estimation Algorithms For Nonlinear Smart Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-Speed Parameter Estimation Algorithms For Nonlinear Smart Materials Jon M. Ernstberger with experimental data. 1. INTRODUCTION Smart materials exhibit unique actuator and sensor capabilities for a range of aerospace, aeronautic, indus- trial and DoD applications. Applications of smart materials include

476

Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Hybrid of Co3Sn2@Co Nanoparticles and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid of Co3Sn2@Co Nanoparticles and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as a Lithium Ion Battery Anode ... VO2 Nanowires Assembled into Hollow Microspheres for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium Batteries ...

Nasir Mahmood; Chenzhen Zhang; Fei Liu; Jinghan Zhu; Yanglong Hou

2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

478

Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Chemisorption and anodic oxidation of aromatic molecules on Pd electrode surfaces: studies by UHV-EC-STM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

yields an edge-vertical oriented diphenolic species. (iii) The extent of anodic oxidation of the chemisorbed organic strongly depends upon its initial orientation; only the flat-adsorbed species are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide. (iv...

Chen, Xiaole

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

480

A silicon nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide composite anode with excellent nanoparticle dispersion to improve lithium ion battery performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composite anodes of Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets with highly dispersed...+...electrochemistry by becoming highly involved in the charge–discharge reaction mechanisms as indicat...

Rhet C. de Guzman; Jinho Yang; Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unique anode material" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Anisotropic Investigation of Hard X-ray Emission with Flat Anode Tips in APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) anisotropy and its intensity along the anode bar from APF plasma focus facility (16 kV, 36 ?f, and...

M. Habibi; R. Amrollahi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_NETL_ liquid metal anode.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 Harry Abernathy, Kirk Gerdes, Randy Gemmen Phone: (304)285-4342, Kirk.Gerdes@NETL.DOE.GOV Fuel cells are one of the most efficient methods for converting the chemical energy in coal directly to electrical energy, minimizing the amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants produced per kilowatt of electricity even before scrubbing and carbon sequestration. To use coal as a fuel source, even the most tolerant solid ceramic fuel cell systems require prior gasification of the coal into syngas, which significantly adds to total system cost. By replacing the ceramic fuel electrode of a traditional high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a liquid metal

483

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

484

A microfocus x-ray source based on a nonmetal liquid-jet anode  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate stable operation of a nonmetallic anode in an electron-impact x-ray source. A high-brightness electron beam is focused on a {approx}70 m/s speed, {approx}10 {mu}m diameter methanol jet producing stable x-ray emission with peak spectral brightness at {approx}5.4x10{sup 5} photons/(sx{mu}m{sup 2}xsrx0.1%BW). The jet is fully evaporated in the interaction point. The shape of a simulated spectrum using Monte Carlo methods shows good agreement with experimental data, and the theoretical brightness values give an upper limit for the achievable x-ray emission from jets with very high velocities. Using this anode concept, all compounds and elements found in liquid form are potentially usable for x-ray generation.

Tuohimaa, T.; Ewald, J.; Schlie, M.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U. [Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Fernandez-Varea, J. M. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

485

Improving dielectric performance in anodic aluminum oxide via detection and passivation of defect states  

SciTech Connect

The electronic and ionic transports in 32–56?nm thick anodic aluminum oxide films are investigated before and after a 1-h anneal at 200–400?°C in argon. Results are correlated to their defect density as measured by the Mott-Schottky technique. Solid state measurements show that electronic conduction upon annealing is hindered by an increase in the Schottky emission barrier, induced by a reduction in dopant density. Using an electrochemical contact, the films fail rapidly under cathodic polarization, unless defect density is decreased down to 10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, resulting in a three order of magnitude reduction in current and no visible gas evolution. Under anodic polarization, the decrease in defect density delays the onset of ionic conduction as well as further oxide growth and failure.

Mibus, M.; Zangari, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Jensen, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Hu, X.; Reed, M. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Knospe, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

486

Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm2and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

H Lustfeld; J Hirschfeld; M Reißel; B Steffen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Project Description In the search for superior batteries, the road to success is paved with advanced materials: better  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Description In the search for superior batteries, the road to success is paved with advanced materials: better cathodes, better anodes, better electrolytes. The universe of candidates is so of this proposal is that by leveraging the advances in informatics and high-throughput experimental

Sadoway, Donald Robert

489

Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells  

SciTech Connect

In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

490

Adsorbate-induced corrosion: anodic dissolution of palladium induced by chemisorbed iodine in halide-free acid solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADSORBATE-INDUCED CORROSION: ANODIC DISSOLUTION OF PALLADIUM INDUCED BY CHEMISORBED IODINE IN HALIDE-FREE ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis JANEMARIE A. SCHIMPF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry ADSORBATE-INDUCED CORROSION: ANODIC DISSOLUTION OF PALLADIUM INDUCED BY CHEMISORBED IODINE IN HALIDE-FREE ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis JANEMARIE A. SCHIMPF Approved...

Schimpf, Janemarie A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

491

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

SciTech Connect

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

A novel method for preparing anode cermets for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A new method for fabrication of metal-cermet anodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been developed. Highly porous, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were prepared using a mixture of zircon fibers (YSZp, Si-stabilized, and {lt}0.3% Si) and normal YSZ powders (YSZd). The films remained highly porous following calcination up to 1,550 C, after which either Cu or Ni could be incorporated by impregnation with the nitrate salts. For Cu cermets, the performance increased with metal loading to at least 40% Cu. At 800 C using H{sub 2} as the fuel and a 230 {micro}m, YSZ electrolyte, the current-voltage (I-V) curves for either a Cu- or Ni-cermet anode formed using this new method were found to be identical to the I-V curve for a Ni cermet formed using traditional methods. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the anode films remained porous even with addition of Cu, so that additional modification was possible. Tests of this concept through the addition of ceria by impregnation with the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} led to an additional increase in the cell performance.

Craciun, R.; Park, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Vohs, J.M.; Wang, C.; Worrell, W.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Corrosion rate and anodic dissolution behavior of a B2-iron aluminide alloy in sulfuric acid  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical investigation was conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of an iron aluminide (B2-FeAl) alloy (with 24 wt% Al) in sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) under potentiodynamic polarization conditions. Corrosion rates were determined using the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) technique, in which simultaneous computations of the Tafel slopes were obtained by a curve-fitting procedure. The corrosion rate of B2-FeAl was comparable to high-purity iron at the beginning of immersion but increased noticeably with time, showing significantly diminished corrosion resistance after several hours of immersion. At small anodic overpotentials, the polarization curve showed an active dissolution region, with the anodic current dependent upon potential and pH, which suggested an anodic process under iron dissolution control. Active corrosion of B2-FeAl was believed to follow an initial selective dissolution of the aluminum constituent. The rate-determining step of the process was the charge-transfer reaction of iron, similar to that for iron-chromium alloys. However, a significant difference between aluminum and chromium existed in the poorer performance of aluminum as an alloying element in inhibiting active dissolution of iron-based alloys.

Frangini, S. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Energie, Rome (Italy). Div. Nuovi Materiali

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Materials - Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Coatings & Lubricants * Coatings & Lubricants * Nanofluids * Deformation Joining * Recycling * Catalysts * Assessment * Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Materials ring on liner reciprocating tester Tribology Lab: Ring-on-liner reciprocating tester. Argonne National Laboratory plays an important role in the Department of Energy's (DOE's) efforts to develop advanced materials for transportation. The materials are developed with DOE support from the EERE Office of Vehicle Technology and Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies in collaboration with worldwide industrial partners. Examples

495

Fundamental study of magnetic field-assisted micro-EDM for non-magnetic materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (??-EDM) is a unique machining method capable of removing material in the sub-grain size range (0.1-10 ??m) from materials irrespective of their… (more)

Heinz, Kenneth G., Jr.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Material Basics Material Basics Photovoltaic Cell Material Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics that influence its suitability for specific applications. For example, PV cell materials may differ based on their crystallinity, bandgap, absorbtion, and manufacturing complexity. Learn more about each of these characteristics below or learn about these solar cell materials: Silicon (Si)-including single-crystalline Si, multicrystalline Si, and amorphous Si Polycrystalline Thin Films-including copper indium diselenide (CIS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film silicon Single-Crystalline Thin Films-including high-efficiency material

497

The reaction mechanism of SnSb and Sb thin film anodes for Na-ion batteries studied by X-ray diffraction, 119Sn and 121Sb M ssbauer spectroscopies  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reaction of Sb and SnSb anode materials with Na results in the formation of amorphous materials. To understand the resulting phases and electrochemical capacities we studied the reaction products local order using 119Sn and 121Sb M ssbauer spectroscopies in conjunction with measurements performed on model powder compounds of Na-Sn and Na-Sb to further clarify the reactions steps. For pure Sb the discharge (sodiation) starts with the formation of an amorphous phase composed of atomic environments similar to those found in NaSb, and proceeds further by the formation of environments similar to that present in Na3Sb. The reversible reaction takes place during a large portion of the charge process. At full charge the anode material still contains a substantial fraction of Na, which explains the lack of recrystallization into crystalline Sb. The reaction of SnSb yields Na3Sb crystalline phase at full discharge at higher temperatures (65 and 95 C) while the room temperature reaction yields amorphous compounds. The electrochemically-driven, solid-state amorphization reaction occurring at room temperature is governed by the simultaneous formation of Na-coordinated Sn and Sb environments, as monitored by the decrease (increase) of the 119Sn (121Sb) M ssbauer isomer shifts. Overall, the monitoring of the hyperfine parameters enables to correlate the changes in Na content to the individual Sn and Sb local chemical environments.

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Hah, Hien-Yoong [University of Tennessee (UT) Space Institute; Jumas, Dr. Jean-Claude [Institut Charles Gerhardt, University of Montpellier II, FRANCE; Johnson, Prof. Dr. Charles E. [University of Tennessee (UT) Space Institute; Johnson, Jackie A. [University of Tennessee (UT) Space Institute; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Complex Materials  

SciTech Connect

Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

Cooper, Valentino

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

499

Complex Materials  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

Cooper, Valentino

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

500

Materializing Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of materializing energy. Three critical themes are presented: the intangibility of energy, the undifferentiatedness of energy, and the availability of energy. Each theme is developed through combination of critical investigation and design exploration, including the development and deployment of several novel design artifacts: Energy Mementos and The Local Energy Lamp. A framework for interacting with energy-as-materiality is proposed involving collecting, keeping, sharing, and activating energy. A number of additional concepts are also introduced, such as energy attachment, energy engagement, energy attunement, local energy and energy meta-data. Our work contributes both a broader, more integrative design perspective on energy and materiality as well as a diversity of more specific concepts and artifacts that may be of service to designers and researchers of interactive systems concerned with sustainability and energy. Author Keywords Sustainability, energy, materiality, design, design theory

James Pierce; Eric Paulos