Sample records for underground reserves limit

  1. Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations and Water Quality Certification (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations...

  2. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. High sensitivity of peat decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    rights reserved. LETTERS High sensitivity of peat decomposition to climate change through water of the high water-holding capacity of peat and its low hydraulic conductivity, accumulation of soil organic­biogeochemical soil model with peat depths that are continuously updated from the dynamic balance of soil organic

  3. Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, James

    2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 5, 2006 ... Statutory reserve using methods specified by state insurance .... after the valuation date is discounted with interest to the date of valuation.

  4. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammesfahr, F.W.; Winter, P.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities. The concept that existing surface facilities, currently or potentially gas-capable, might contribute to the development of underground coal gasification technology by providing a low cost industrial application for the gas produced in a multi-module test appears valid. To further test the concept, three industries were reviewed in depth. These were the electric utility, natural gas, and petroleum industries. When looking at a fuel substitution of the type proposed, each industry had its special perspective. These are discussed in detail in the report.

  5. Underground Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underground Exploration and Testing A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy Nuclear Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Use rail to support tunnel boring machine operation . . . . . . . . . 14 Excavate smaller diameter tunnels outside the portal-to-portal loop . 15 Use a tunnel boring machine to excavate the core test area

  6. Georgia Underground Gas Storage Act of 1972 (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Underground Gas Storage Act, which permits the building of reserves for withdrawal in periods of peak demand, was created to promote the economic development of the State of Georgia and...

  7. Underground Storage Tank Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Underground Storage Tank Regulations is relevant to all energy projects that will require the use and building of pipelines, underground storage of any sorts, and/or electrical equipment. The...

  8. Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

  9. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  10. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  11. Exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section from the first run of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armel-Funkhouser, M.S.; /UC, Berkeley; Attisha, M.J.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Bailey, C.N.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Baudis, L.; /Florida U.; Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab; Brink, P.L.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Crisler, M.B.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; Daal, M.; /UC, Berkeley; Dixon, R.; /Fermilab; Dragowsky, M.R.; Driscoll, D.D.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Duong, L.; /Minnesota U.; Ferril, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Filippini, J.; /UC, Berkeley; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; /Case Western Reserve U. /Fermilab /Case Western Reserve

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II) employs low-temperature Ge and Si detectors to seek Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their elastic scattering interactions with nuclei. Simultaneous measurements of both ionization and phonon energy provide discrimination against interactions of background particles. For recoil energies above 10 keV, events due to background photons are rejected with > 99.99% efficiency. Electromagnetic events very near the detector surface can mimic nuclear recoils because of reduced charge collection, but these surface events are rejected with > 96% efficiency by using additional information from the phonon pulse shape. Efficient use of active and passive shielding, combined with the 2090 m.w.e. overburden at the experimental site in the Soudan mine, makes the background from neutrons negligible for this first exposure. All cuts are determined in a blind manner from in situ calibrations with external radioactive sources without any prior knowledge of the event distribution in the signal region. Resulting efficiencies are known to {approx}10%. A single event with a recoil of 64 keV passes all of the cuts and is consistent with the expected misidentification rate of surface-electron recoils. Under the assumptions for a standard dark matter halo, these data exclude previously unexplored parameter space for both spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering. The resulting limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic-scattering cross-section has a minimum of 4 x 10{sup -43} cm{sup 2} at a WIMP mass of 60 GeV c{sup -2}. The minimum of the limit for the spin-dependent WIMP-neutron elastic-scattering cross-section is 2 x 10{sup -37} cm{sup 2} at a WIMP mass of 50 GeV c{sup -2}.

  12. Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Library Reserved Room Policy All Meeting Spaces Room reservation To make a reservation for any Library meeting space, complete the room reservation form at http://library.syr.edu/services/space/form-findroom.php. In order to provide equitable access to library spaces, the Library may impose limitations on frequency

  13. Underground Injection Control (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule set forth criteria and standards for the requirements which apply to the State Underground Injection Control Program (U.I.C.). The UIC permit program regulates underground injections by...

  14. Sustainable growth and valuation of mineral reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The annual change in the value of an in-ground mineral is equal to the increase or decrease of inventories ("reserves"), multiplied by the market value of a reserve unit. The limited shrinking resource base does not exist. ...

  15. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  16. Underground and under scrutiny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 txH2O Summer 2014 Story by Leslie Lee The Frio River, located in the Texas Hill Country, is spring-fed and therefore affected by groundwater pumping. Photo from istock.com. Underground and under scrutiny A changing state increasingly... their geological features is more multifaceted. Consider that each aquifer in Texas has different geological and hydrological character- istics, and therefore varying recharge rates, water quality and regional needs, and the complexity heightens. From a legal...

  17. Underground Storage Tanks (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule governs the construction, installation, upgrading, use, maintenance, testing, and closure of underground storage tanks, including certification requirements for individuals who install,...

  18. Underground Storage Tanks (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter constitutes rules for all underground storage tank facilities- including registration, reporting, permitting, certification, financial responsibility and to protect human health and...

  19. Underground Storage Tank Program (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules are intended to protect public health and the environment by establishing standards for the design, installation, operation, maintenance, monitoring, and closure of underground storage...

  20. Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

  1. Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

  2. Saving an Underground Reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significant part of the region?s agricultural economy. Though the area has few rivers and lakes, underneath it lies a supply of water that has provided groundwater for developing this economy. This underground water, the Ogallala Aquifer, is a finite... resource. The amount of water seeping back into the aquifer is much less than the water taken out, especially in the southern half of the aquifer, which spreads out from western Kansas to the High Plains of Texas. ?Water levels are declining 2 to 4...

  3. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  4. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  5. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection Systems Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Underground...

  6. WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: WPCF Underground Injection...

  7. Underground Storage Tank Act (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New underground storage tank construction standards must include at least the following requirements: (1) That an underground storage tank will prevent releases of regulated substances stored...

  8. Georgia Underground Storage Tank Act (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Underground Storage Act (GUST) provides a comprehensive program to prevent, detect, and correct releases from underground storage tanks (“USTs”) of “regulated substances” other than...

  9. Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. - WEA-2009-02 Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. - WEA-2009-02 April 7, 2009 Issued to Pacific...

  10. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  11. Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21 3.96 1967-2010 PipelineUnderground

  12. Water intrusion in underground structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarchuk, Alex

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a study of the permissible groundwater infiltration rates in underground structures, the consequences of this leakage and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Design guides and codes do not restrict, ...

  13. Opportunities in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomstran, M.A.; Davis, B.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the results obtained on DOE-sponsored field tests of underground coal gasification in steeply-dipping beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The coal gas composition, process parameters, and process economics are described. Steeply-dipping coal resources, which are not economically mineable using conventional coal mining methods, are identified and potential markets for underground coal gasification products are discussed. It is concluded that in-situ gasification in steeply-dipping deposits should be considered for commercialization.

  14. Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barron, T.F. [Exeter Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

  15. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  16. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  17. Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility Ryan Haerer, Program Analyst, Alternative Fuels, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Environmental Protection Agency

  18. Underground coal gasification: environmental update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockter, L.; Mcternan, E.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the potential for ground water contamination by underground coal gasification, extensive postburn groundwater monitoring programs are being continued at two test sites in Wyoming. An overview of the environmental concerns related to UCG and some results to date on the two field sites are presented in this report.

  19. TSUAHXETSUAHXE UndergroUnd tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    USer waterheatexchange waterheatexchange general exhaUSt lab exhaUSt warmairexhaUSt radiant panel heat radiant panel heat by night air, then stored underground. cold water travels through floors and ceiling panels to absorb heat rain and snowmelt in toilets saves water and reduces stormwater runoff photovoltaic panels turn solar

  20. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  1. Natural Reserve System UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Scripps Coastal Reserve Santa Barbara 29 Carpinteria Salt Marsh Reserve 30 Coal Oil Point Natural Reserve

  2. GRI highlights underground gasification effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consortium headed by the Gas Research Institute is supporting major underground coal gasification tests to take place over the next two years at a site near Hanna, Wyoming. About 200 tons of coal will be gasified per day. Directional drilling will be used to form the horizontal gasification pathways linking the injection and production wells. The objectives of the program include a further evaluation of the controlled-retracting-injection-point technology. The technology involves the use of a device that is capable of igniting successive coal zones as it is retracted through a borehole in the coal seam. Comparable data will also be obtained during the test in sections where a linked-vertical-well concept will be used instead of the retracting-injection method. The linked-vertical-well concept, which has been used in most coal gasification tests, involves drilling a series of vertical wells into the coal seam gasification pathway for the ignition of successive coal zones. A parallel program will be conducted to evaluate environmental control technology applicable to underground coal gasification and to define the process requirements that must be satisfied to meet environmental quality standards. The results of these combined programs will provide the process and environmental data bases necessary to assess the economic potential of underground coal gasification from various US locations for a variety of end-product applications.

  3. Michigan Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUndergroundCubicDecadeFeet)Proved Reserves

  4. Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousandUnderground Storage VolumeperProved Reserves

  5. Underground storage of oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, S.M.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental and security advantages of underground storage of oil and gas are well documented. In many cases, underground storage methods such as storage in salt domes, abandoned mines, and mined rock caverns have proven to be cost effective when compared to storage in steel tanks constructed for that purpose on the surface. In good rock conditions, underground storage of large quantities of hydrocarbon products is normally less costly--up to 50-70% of the surface alternative. Under fair or weak rock conditions, economic comparisons between surface tanks and underground caverns must be evaluated on a case to case basis. The key to successful underground storage is enactment of a realistic geotechnical approach. In addition to construction cost, storage of petroleum products underground has operational advantages over similar storage above ground. These advantages include lower maintenance costs, less fire hazards, less land requirements, and a more even storage temperature.

  6. Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the nation's energy program is to develop processes for cleanly producing fuels from coal. One of the more promising of these is underground coal gasification (UCG). If successful, UCG would quadruple recoverable U.S. coal reserves. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed an early series of UCG field experiments from 1976 through 1979. The Hoe Creek series of tests were designed to develop the basic technology of UCG at low cost. The experiments were conducted in a 7.6-m thick subbituminous coal seam at a relatively shallow depth of 48 m at a site near Gillette, Wyoming. On the basis of the Hoe Creek results, more extensive field experiments were designed to establish the feasibility of UCG for commercial gas production under a variety of gasification conditions. Concepts and practices in UCG are described, and results of the field tests are summarized.

  7. Copyright 2001 All Rights Reserved Copyright 2001 All Rights Reserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amaral, Luis A.N.

    Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001

  8. Copyright 2001. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2001. All Rights Reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhl, Michael E.

    Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright

  9. Copyright 2001. All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2001. All Rights Reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Ted

    Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright ©2001. All Rights Reserved. #12;Copyright

  10. Copyright 2000 All Rights Reserved Copyright 2000 All Rights Reserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kari, Lila

    Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2000

  11. Copyright 1997. All rights reserved. Copyright 1997. All rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataillon, Thomas

    Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12;Copyright © 1997. All rights reserved. #12

  12. Drilling fluids and reserve pit toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuterman, A.J.J.; Jones, F.V.; Chandler, J.E. (M-I Drilling Fluids Co. (US))

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling fluids are now classified as exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste laws. Since 1986, however, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been studying reserve pit contents to determine whether oilfield wastes should continue under this exemption. Concerns regarding reserve pit contents and disposal practices have resulted in state and local governmental regulations that limit traditional methods of construction, closure, and disposal of reserve pit sludge and water. A great deal of attention and study has been focused on drilling fluids that eventually reside in reserve pits. In-house studies show that waste from water-based drilling fluids plays a limited role (if any) in possible hazards associated with reserve pits. Reserve pit water samples and pit sludge was analyzed and collated. Analyses show that water-soluble heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn and Mn) in reserve pits are generally undetectable or, if found in the total analysis, are usually bound to clays or organics too tightly to exceed the limitations as determined by the EPA toxicity leachate test. The authors' experience is that most contamination associated with reserve pits involves high salt content from produced waters and/or salt formations, lead contamination from pipe dope, or poorly designed pits, which could allow washouts into surface waters or seepage into groundwater sources. The authors' analyses show that reserve its associated with water-based drilling fluid operations should not be classified as hazardous; however, careful attention attention should be paid to reserve pit construction and closure to help avoid any adverse environmental impact.

  13. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  14. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application Fees (DEQ Form UIC 1003-GIC) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon...

  15. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection Control Registration webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  16. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal Heating Systems (DEQ Form UICGEO-1004(f)) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form:...

  17. ,"Tennessee Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  18. ,"Missouri Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  19. ,"Montana Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  20. ,"Iowa Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  1. ,"Pennsylvania Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  2. ,"Oregon Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  3. ,"Colorado Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  4. ,"Indiana Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  5. ,"Wyoming Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  6. ,"Kansas Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  7. ,"Maryland Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  8. ,"Alaska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  9. ,"Nebraska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  10. ,"Mississippi Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  11. ,"Utah Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  12. ,"Illinois Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  13. ,"Oklahoma Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  14. ,"Arkansas Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  15. ,"Virginia Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  16. ,"California Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  17. ,"Texas Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  18. ,"Kentucky Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  19. ,"Ohio Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  20. ,"Michigan Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  1. ,"Minnesota Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  2. ,"Washington Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  3. ,"Alabama Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  4. ,"Louisiana Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  5. Pipelines and Underground Gas Storage (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules apply to intrastate transport of natural gas and other substances via pipeline, as well as underground gas storage facilities. The construction and operation of such infrastructure...

  6. Wells, Borings, and Underground Uses (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section regulates wells, borings, and underground storage with regards to protecting groundwater resources. The Commissioner of the Department of Health has jurisdiction, and can grant permits...

  7. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  8. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  9. UNDERGROUND MUONS IN SUPER-KAMIOKANDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    HE 4.1.23 UNDERGROUND MUONS IN SUPER-KAMIOKANDE The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, presented by J The largest underground neutrino observatory, Super-Kamiokande, located near Kamioka, Japan has been for muons ver- sus zenith angle in Super-Kamiokande. The lled region is for muons with more than 1.7 Ge

  10. Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs Studies on Accumulation of Starch, Sugars and Oil Cover: Starch granules in cells of fresh potato tuber visualised by iodine staining. #12;Carbon By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location:...

  12. Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter Applications Emissions and Durability of Underground Mining Diesel Particulate Filter Applications Presentation given at...

  13. EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DUNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois and the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino FacilityDeep Underground Neutrino...

  14. Audit of staffing requirements for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s (Department) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (Reserve) is responsible for storing large quantities of crude oil, currently about 592 million barrels, to reduce the impact of any future supply disruptions. The Reserve facilities consist of a marine terminal and five underground storage sites located in Louisiana and Texas, and program and administrative offices in New Orleans and Washington, DC. At May 31, 1994, 1,692 Departmental and contractor personnel were employed in the operation, maintenance, and administration of Reserve activities and the Fiscal Year 1994 Congressional Appropriation was about $207 million. The audit was requested by the Deputy Secretary of Energy to assist Departmental management in evaluating the human resources required to meet Reserve program requirements. Specifically, the objective of the audit was to determine whether current staffing levels for the Reserve were necessary to effectively and efficiently accomplish current and future anticipated mission requirements. The Secretary`s goal of having the Department and its contractors embrace the best management practices in other Government agencies and industry to improve processes and eliminate waste has not been fully realized by Reserve management. We identified industry performance levels and staffing practices that, if achieved by the Reserve, could enable the Reserve to eliminate approximately 329 positions in eight functional areas with potential annual savings of about $16 million. Our analysis indicated that additional staffing reductions are possible over the long term through further application of industry practices and decreases in the number of managers. However, such staffing reductions will require further analysis by management to determine the specific number of staffing reductions that are attainable. The actual staffing reductions realized by the Reserve will be heavily influenced by several factors.

  15. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  16. Underground Storage Tank Regulations for the Certification of Persons Who Install, Alter, and Remove Underground Storage Tanks (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Underground Storage Tank Regulations for the Certification of Persons who Install, Alter, and Remove Underground Storage Tanks applies to any project that will install, alter or remove...

  17. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  18. Twenty Years of Underground Research at Canada's URL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, N. A.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) began in 1982. The URL was designed to address the needs of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. Over the years, a comprehensive program of geologic characterization and underground hydrogeologic, geotechnical and geomechanical projects have been performed, many of which are ongoing. The scientific work at the URL has evolved through a number of different phases to meet the changing needs of Canada's waste management program. The various phases of the URL have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. Collaboration with international organizations is encouraged at the URL, with the facility being a centre of excellence in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of underground facilities. One of AECL's major achievements of the past 20 year program has been the preparation and public defense of a ten-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a conceptual deep geologic repository. Completion of this dissertation on the characterization, construction and performance modeling of a conceptual repository in the granite rock of the Canadian Shield was largely based on work conducted at the URL. Work conducted over the seven years since public defense of the EIS has been directed towards developing those engineering and performance assessment tools that would be required for implementation of a deep geologic repository. The URL continues to be a very active facility with ongoing experiments and demonstrations performed for a variety of Canadian and international radioactive waste management organizations.

  19. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  20. Allocating Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of present and possible future ways to allocate and assign benefits for reserve requirements.

  1. Underground cosmic-ray experiment EMMA T. Enqvista

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Authority ­ STUK, Helsinki, Finland d Centre for Underground Physics at Pyh¨asalmi (CUPP), University

  2. Underground Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule establishes schedules of permit fees for state under?ground injection control permits issued by the Chief of the Office of Water Resources. This rule applies to any person who is...

  3. Underground Gas Storage Reservoirs (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lays out guidelines for the conditions under which coal mining operations must notify state authorities of intentions to mine where underground gas is stored as well as map and data requirements,...

  4. Underground Storage of Natural Gas (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any natural gas public utility may appropriate for its use for the underground storage of natural gas any subsurface stratum or formation in any land which the commission shall have found to be...

  5. Prince George's County Underground Storage Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas storage company may invoke eminent domain to acquire property in Prince George's County for underground gas storage purposes. The area acquired must lie not less than 800 feet below the...

  6. Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (UIC code) is adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-5-11). It is the...

  7. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  8. Copyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights Reserved Copyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright 2001 All Rights Reserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troyer, Todd W.

    Copyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved #12;Copyright © 2001 All Rights ReservedCopyright © 2001 All Rights Reserved

  9. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckendorn, F.M., Robinson, C.W., Anderson, E.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)], Pardini, A.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction.

  10. Respiratory impairment and symptoms as predictors of early retirement with disability in US underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, R.G.; Trent, R.B.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A five-year prospective study of 1,394 United States underground coal miners was undertaken to study the effects of respiratory impairment on the rate of early retirement with disability (ERD). Using a logistic regression analysis, ERD was found to be related to reported persistent phlegm after adjustment was made for other respiratory symptoms, respiratory function measurements, cigarette smoking, and some demographic characteristics. No prediction of ERD occurred for spirometrically determined measures of respiratory function. The data thus give limited support to the hypothesis that early retirement with disability in underground coal miners can be predicted prospectively by measures of respiratory symptoms.

  11. The Underground Corrosion of Selected Type 300 Stainless Steels After 34 Years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. S. Yoder; M. K. Adler Flitton

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, interest in long-term underground corrosion has greatly increased because of the ongoing need to dispose of nuclear waste. Additionally, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires disposal of high-level nuclear waste in an underground repository. Current contaminant release and transport models use limited available short-term underground corrosion rates when considering container and waste form degradation. Consequently, the resulting models oversimplify the complex mechanisms of underground metal corrosion. The complexity of stainless steel corrosion mechanisms and the processes by which corrosion products migrate from their source are not well depicted by a corrosion rate based on general attack. The research presented here is the analysis of austenitic stainless steels after 33˝ years of burial. In this research, the corrosion specimens were analyzed using applicable ASTM standards as well as microscopic and X-ray examination to determine the mechanisms of underground stainless steel corrosion. As presented, the differences in the corrosion mechanisms vary with the type of stainless steel and the treatment of the samples. The uniqueness of the long sampling time allows for further understanding of the actual stainless steel corrosion mechanisms, and when applied back into predictive models, will assist in reduction of the uncertainty in parameters for predicting long-term fate and transport.

  12. Reservations to human rights treaties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...

  13. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  14. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  15. Underground coal gasification product quality parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruggink, P.R.; Davis, B.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified model is described which will indicate the economic value of the raw product gas from an experimental underground coal gasification test on a real-time basis in order to aid in the optimization of the process during the course of the test. The model relates the properties of the product gas and the injection gas to the cost of producing each of five potential commercial products. This model was utilized to evaluate data during the Gulf-DOE underground coal gasification test at Rawlins, Wyoming in the fall of 1981. 6 refs.

  16. Potential underground risks associated with CAES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Broome, Scott Thomas; Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CAES in geologic media has been proposed to help 'firm' renewable energy sources (wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings. Salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES, but not in a mode where renewable energy sources are supported. Reservoirs, both depleted natural gas and aquifers represent other potential underground storage vessels for CAES, however, neither has yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for CAES.

  17. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jay A.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

  18. Underground Natural Gas Storage Wells in Bedded Salt (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to natural gas underground storage and associated brine ponds, and includes the permit application for each new underground storage tank near surface water bodies and springs.

  19. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  20. Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the...

  1. EMMA a new underground cosmic-ray experiment T. Enqvista

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    and Nuclear Safety Authority ­ STUK, Helsinki, Finland d Centre for Underground Physics at Pyh¨asalmi (CUPP

  2. Exploiting heavy oil reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen the potential of heavy oil 8/9 Taking the legal lessons learned in the north Sea to a global audience 10 potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Aberdeen: A community of science AT WORK FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR ISSUE

  3. Design and Field Testing of an Autonomous Underground Tramming System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the repetitive "load-haul-dump" cycle is well suited to automation. In this case, a vehicle called a load underground mining vehicle. Described is the development of a fast, re- liable, and robust "autotramming in underground mining operations by robotiz- ing some of the functions of underground vehicles. For example

  4. Appendix E: Underground Storage Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix E: Underground Storage Tank Data #12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix E: Underground Storage Tank Data E-3 Table E.1. Underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Y-12 Plant Location/95) NA Closure approval 3/95 (6/96) 9714 2334-U 1987 In use 6,000 Gasoline Full Site check NA NA

  5. Appendix C: Underground Storage Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix C: Underground Storage Tank Data #12;#12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix C: Underground Storage Tank Data C-3 Table C.1. Underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Y-12 Plant Location/95) NA Closure approval 3/95 (6/96) 9714 2334-U 1987 In use 6,000 Gasoline Full Site check NA Case closed

  6. Appendix C: Underground Storage Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix C: Underground Storage Tank Data #12;#12;Annual Site Environmental Report Appendix C: Underground Storage Tank Data C-3 Table C.1. Underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Y-12 Complex Location/95) NA Closure approval 3/95 (6/96) 9714 2334-U 1987 In use 6,000 Gasoline Full Site check NA Case closed

  7. The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Simon Shackley #12;The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Dr Simon Shackley of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in the United Kingdom. The objectives were to identify the main dangers

  8. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

  9. Underground coal gasification simulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The underground coal gasification (UCG) process - both forward gasification and reverse combustion linkage - was mathematically modeled. The models were validated with field and laboratory data. They were then used to explain some important UCG phenomena that had not been predictable with other methods. Some views on the UCG technology status are also presented. 3 references, 25 figures, 10 tables.

  10. Minimize environmental impacts when replacing underground pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, L.R. [Ashland Petroleum Co., Catlettsburg, KY (United States); Kroll, T.R. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A US refiner urgently needed to repair a 40-year-old oily-water sewer system without disrupting processing operations. Equally important, the refiner wanted to minimize soil and groundwater contamination. In this case history, the refiner elected to use an alternative method--trenchless rehabilitation--to make required underground repairs.

  11. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  12. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. BOOKS & ARTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobb, Kim

    to palaeoclimate research. A bird's eye view of Holocene climate research reveals a movement away from poorly dated. Whether or not changes in solar irradiance have a signi cant e ect on Earth's climate is still hotly presentation, although they fail to address some of the most problematic new developments for solar

  13. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. NEWS & VIEWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddall, Mark

    carbon in Earth system models remains an unresolved issue of potentially great importance. Published system models is demonstrated by the first attempts to include freeze­thaw cycles of the active layer and future changes in soil carbon dynamics. The importance of incorporating the physical processes into Earth

  14. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For several years, the administration has proposed selling the government's ownership interest in the Naval Petroleum Reserves, arguing that it would help reduce the federal budget deficit. The administration's latest proposal calls for the sale of reserves in fiscal year 1990. DOE estimates that if the reserves are sold in 1990, proceeds would amount to about $3.4 billion. The Naval Petroleum Reserve at Elk Hills, California, is the largest of the reserves. This report has reviewed and analyzed the new reserve data and found that DOE's reserve estimates for Elk Hills are still neither accurate nor up-to-date.

  15. Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Strategic Petroleum Reserve Emergency Crude Oil Supply Requests Points of Contact Program Office - Washington Jim Gruber (202) 586-1547 James.Gruber@hq.doe.gov Nate Harvey (202)...

  17. Naval petroleum reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearing to consider two bills (S. 1744 and H.R. 3023) authorizing appropriations to operate the Naval Petroleum Reserve during fiscal 1982 brought testimony from officials of the Departments of Energy and Defense; from Chevron, USA; and from the Independent Refiners Association. Both bills authorize $228,463,000, of which $2.56 million will be available for the naval oil shale reserves and the remainder for the naval petroleum reserves. Chevron spokesmen noted that 8-11 months were required to reach full production at the Elk Hills site rather than the 60-90 days estimated by DOE, although both Chevron and the Independent Refiners Association of the west coast support the President's decision that it is in the national interest to continue the production of crude from naval petroleum reserves for the next three years.

  18. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Heise

    2014-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  19. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993.

  20. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heise, J. [Sanford Underground Research Facility, 630 East Summit Street, Lead, SD 57754 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    According to amendments to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act the target size of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is increased to 1 billion barrels, storage of oil not owned by the Federal Government is authorized, and the Reserve may be drawn down to alleviate an interruption in domestic supply. Congress appropriated $200.6 million for Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development, operation, and management during FY 1991. During calendar year 1990, 9.8 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. However, this quantity was offset by the sale of 3.9 million barrels during a test sale of the Reserve's oil in the fourth quarter. As of December 31, 1990, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 585.7 million barrels, a net increase of 5.8 million barrels over the 1989 year-end inventory of 579.9 million barrels. The Department has completed all major surface construction at the six SPR facilities, and cavern development is in progress to achieve 750 million barrels of storage by the end of 1991. During 1990, the Department of Energy conducted a test sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil (TEST SALE-90) to demonstrate the Reserve's drawdown and distribution capabilities. The test commenced on September 28, 1990, with the issuance of a Notice of Sale. Offers to purchase the oil were received on October 5, 1990 and contracts were awarded to eleven companies for a total of 3.925 million barrels by October 18, 1990. Deliveries of the oil to the purchasers commenced on October 19, 1990, and all deliveries were completed by December 2, 1990. The report gives details on all of these activities. 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  3. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  4. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  5. Legislation pertaining to underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goth, W. (Ventura County Environmental Health Division, CA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statutory authority in California for cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater to protect water quality is the Porter Cologne Water Quality Control Act (Water Code 1967). Two state laws regulating underground hazardous material storage tanks, passed in late 1983 and effective on January 1, 1984, were AB-2013 (Cortese) and AB-1362 (Sher). Both require specific actions by the tank owners. AB-2013 requires all tank owners to register them with the state Water Resources Control Board (SWCB) and to pay a registration fee. AB-1362, Health and Safety Code Section 25280 et seq., requires tank owners to obtain a Permit to Operate, pay a fee to the local agency, and to install a leak detection system on all existing tanks. New tanks installation requires a Permit to install and provide provide secondary containment for the tank and piping. For tank closures, a permit must be obtained from the local agency to clean out the tank, remove it from the ground, and collect samples from beneath the tank for evidence of contamination. In 1988, state law AB-853 appropriated state funds to be combined with federal EPA money to allow SWRCB to initiate rapid cleanups of leaks from underground tank sites by contracting with local agencies to oversee assessment and cleanup of underground tank releases. Locally, in Ventura County, there are more than 400 leaking underground tank sites in which petroleum products have entered the groundwater. To date, no public water supplies have been contaminated; however, action in necessary to prevent any future contamination to our water supply. Over 250 leaking tank sites have completed cleanup.

  6. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heise, Jaret

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-sea...

  7. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaret Heise

    2015-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  8. First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LUX Collaboration; D. S. Akerib; H. M. Araujo; X. Bai; A. J. Bailey; J. Balajthy; S. Bedikian; E. Bernard; A. Bernstein; A. Bolozdynya; A. Bradley; D. Byram; S. B. Cahn; M. C. Carmona-Benitez; C. Chan; J. J. Chapman; A. A. Chiller; C. Chiller; K. Clark; T. Coffey; A. Currie; A. Curioni; S. Dazeley; L. de Viveiros; A. Dobi; J. Dobson; E. M. Dragowsky; E. Druszkiewicz; B. Edwards; C. H. Faham; S. Fiorucci; C. Flores; R. J. Gaitskell; V. M. Gehman; C. Ghag; K. R. Gibson; M. G. D. Gilchriese; C. Hall; M. Hanhardt; S. A. Hertel; M. Horn; D. Q. Huang; M. Ihm; R. G. Jacobsen; L. Kastens; K. Kazkaz; R. Knoche; S. Kyre; R. Lander; N. A. Larsen; C. Lee; D. S. Leonard; K. T. Lesko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; A. Lyashenko; D. C. Malling; R. Mannino; D. N. McKinsey; D. -M. Mei; J. Mock; M. Moongweluwan; J. Morad; M. Morii; A. St. J. Murphy; C. Nehrkorn; H. Nelson; F. Neves; J. A. Nikkel; R. A. Ott; M. Pangilinan; P. D. Parker; E. K. Pease; K. Pech; P. Phelps; L. Reichhart; T. Shutt; C. Silva; W. Skulski; C. J. Sofka; V. N. Solovov; P. Sorensen; T. Stiegler; K. O`Sullivan; T. J. Sumner; R. Svoboda; M. Sweany; M. Szydagis; D. Taylor; B. Tennyson; D. R. Tiedt; M. Tripathi; S. Uvarov; J. R. Verbus; N. Walsh; R. Webb; J. T. White; D. White; M. S. Witherell; M. Wlasenko; F. L. H. Wolfs; M. Woods; C. Zhang

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment, a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), was cooled and filled in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search dataset, taken during the period April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live-days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of $7.6 \\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$ at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c$^2$. We find that the LUX data are in strong disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  9. First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akerib, D S; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Coffey, T; Currie, A; Curioni, A; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Dragowsky, E M; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Morii, M; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Sofka, C J; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stiegler, T; O`Sullivan, K; Sumner, T J; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; White, D; Witherell, M S; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment, a dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), was cooled and filled in February 2013. We report results of the first WIMP search dataset, taken during the period April to August 2013, presenting the analysis of 85.3 live-days of data with a fiducial volume of 118 kg. A profile-likelihood analysis technique shows our data to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis, allowing 90% confidence limits to be set on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering with a minimum upper limit on the cross section of $7.6 \\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$ at a WIMP mass of 33 GeV/c$^2$. We find that the LUX data are in strong disagreement with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of the results from several recent direct detection experiments.

  10. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's...

  11. Utah Division of Environmental Response and Remediation Underground...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Response and Remediation Underground Storage Tank Branch Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Utah Division of...

  12. Alabama Underground Storage Tank And Wellhead Protection Act...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    commission, is authorized to promulgate rules and regulations governing underground storage tanks and is authorized to seek the approval of the United States Environmental...

  13. ,"Lower 48 States Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  14. NNSA Commemorates the 20th Anniversary of the Last Underground...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Commemorates the 20th Anniversary of the Last Underground Nuclear Test | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the...

  15. ,"AGA Producing Region Underground Natural Gas Storage - All...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  16. ,"AGA Western Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  17. ,"West Virginia Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  18. ,"AGA Eastern Consuming Region Underground Natural Gas Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  19. ,"New York Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  20. ,"New Mexico Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  1. EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and at a "far detector," at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. NOTE: This Project was previously designated (DOEEA-1799). Further...

  2. Progress Continues Toward Closure of Two Underground Waste Tanks...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fiscal year 2013, which ended Sept. 30, SRR reached contract milestones in the Interim Salt Disposition Process, which treats salt waste from the underground storage tanks. Salt...

  3. Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    want to model what happens to the crystals' geochemistry when the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is injected underground for sequestration. Image courtesy of David...

  4. COST AND SCHEDULE FOR DRILLING AND MINING UNDERGROUND TEST FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamb, D.W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCHEDULE FOR DRILLING AND MINING UNDERGROUND TEST FACILITIEStimes are calculated for a mining and drilling progrilln toof cost and time to compl mining and core drilling for

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This May 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1989 through March 31, 1989.

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This August 15, 1989, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1989 through June 30, 1989.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This November 15, 1988, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1988 through September 30, 1988.

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on Activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This August 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1990, through June 30, 1990. 3 tabs.

  9. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  10. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes.

  11. Method of locating underground mines fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laage, Linneas (Eagam, MN); Pomroy, William (St. Paul, MN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of locating an underground mine fire by comparing the pattern of measured combustion product arrival times at detector locations with a real time computer-generated array of simulated patterns. A number of electronic fire detection devices are linked thru telemetry to a control station on the surface. The mine's ventilation is modeled on a digital computer using network analysis software. The time reguired to locate a fire consists of the time required to model the mines' ventilation, generate the arrival time array, scan the array, and to match measured arrival time patterns to the simulated patterns.

  12. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  13. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

  14. A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Network Provisioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balman, Mehmet

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Flexible Reservation Algorithm for Advance Networkusers’ requirements. Flexible Network Reservation: Wea new service, called Flexible Network Reservation Service,

  15. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  16. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 million barrels was completed in 1991, this November 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the status of storage facilities, oil acquisition, budget and costs of the Reserve during the period July 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992.

  18. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  19. Operating Reserves Billing Rules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N * The FERC approved standard BAL-002-WECC-2 for Contingency Reserves was effective on 10114. * Rules for assigning...

  20. Biological treatment of underground coal gasification wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, C.W. Jr.; Humenick, M.J.; Cawein, C.C.; Nolan, B.T. III

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biotreatability studies using underground coal gasification (UCG) wastewaters were performed by the University of Arizona and the University of Wyoming. The University of Arizona researchers found that UCG condensate could be effectively treated by activated sludge, using feed wastewaters of up to 50% strength. Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals approached 90% during this research. The University of Wyoming researchers found that solvent extraction and hot-gas stripping were effective pretreatments for undiluted UCG condensate and that addition of powdered activated carbon enhanced the biotreatment process. TOC and COD removals resulting from the combination of pretreatments and biotreatment were 91% and 95%, respectively. The yield, decay, and substrate removal rate coefficients were greater in the University of Wyoming study than in the University of Arizona study. This was possibly caused by removing bioinhibitory substances, such as ammonia, with pretreatment. 18 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test or Burn was conducted from approximately mid-November, 1987 through February, 1988. After the burn the project began proceeding with the following overall tasks: venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities; subsurface or groundwater cleanup; post-burn coring and drilling; groundwater monitoring, and site restoration/reclamation. By the beginning of 1991 field activities associated with venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities and post-burn coring and drilling had been completed. However, data analysis continued including the University of North Dakota analyzing drilling and coring data, and the US Department of Energy (DOE)/EG G developing a chronological listing of project events.

  2. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Akerib; X. Bai; S. Bedikian; E. Bernard; A. Bernstein; A. Bolozdynya; A. Bradley; D. Byram; S. B. Cahn; C. Camp; M. C. Carmona-Benitez; D. Carr; J. J. Chapman; A. Chiller; C. Chiller; K. Clark; T. Classen; T. Coffey; A. Curioni; E. Dahl; S. Dazeley; L. de Viveiros; A. Dobi; E. Dragowsky; E. Druszkiewicz; B. Edwards; C. H. Faham; S. Fiorucci; R. J. Gaitskell; K. R. Gibson; M. Gilchriese; C. Hall; M. Hanhardt; B. Holbrook; M. Ihm; R. G. Jacobsen; L. Kastens; K. Kazkaz; R. Knoche; S. Kyre; J. Kwong; R. Lander; N. A. Larsen; C. Lee; D. S. Leonard; K. T. Lesko; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; A. Lyashenko; D. C. Malling; R. Mannino; Z. Marquez; D. N. McKinsey; D. -M. Mei; J. Mock; M. Moongweluwan; M. Morii; H. Nelson; F. Neves; J. A. Nikkel; M. Pangilinan; P. D. Parker; E. K. Pease; K. Pech; P. Phelps; A. Rodionov; P. Roberts; A. Shei; T. Shutt; C. Silva; W. Skulski; V. N. Solovov; C. J. Sofka; P. Sorensen; J. Spaans; T. Stiegler; D. Stolp; R. Svoboda; M. Sweany; M. Szydagis; D. Taylor; J. Thomson; M. Tripathi; S. Uvarov; J. R. Verbus; N. Walsh; R. Webb; D. White; J. T. White; T. J. Whitis; M. Wlasenko; F. L. H. Wolfs; M. Woods; C. Zhang

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  3. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Camp, C; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Classen, T; Coffey, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, E; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Holbrook, B; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; Marquez, Z; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Roberts, P; Shei, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sofka, C J; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Stiegler, T; Stolp, D; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, D; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  4. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  6. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Coughlin; Jan Harms; Nelson Christensen; Vladimir Dergachev; Riccardo DeSalvo; Shivaraj Kandhasamy; Vuk Mandic

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. A major noise source for these detectors would be Newtonian noise, which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the Newtonian noise to below the projected noise floor for future gravitational-wave detectors. In this paper, we use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the frequency band 0.05 -- 1\\,Hz. This achieves more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation over a majority of this band. We show how this subtraction would benefit proposed future low-frequency gravitational wave detectors. The variation in the Wiener filter coefficients over the course of the day, including how local activities impact the filter, is analyzed. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a month, showing the stability of the filter with time. How varying the filter order affects the subtraction performance is also explored. It is shown that optimizing filter order can significantly improve subtraction of seismic noise, which gives hope for future gravitational-wave detectors to address Newtonian noise.

  7. Underground reactor containments: An option for the future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Kress, T.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing world conditions and changing technologies suggest that serious consideration should be given to siting of nuclear power plants underground. Underground siting is not a new concept. Multiple research reactors, several weapons production reactors, and one power reactor have been built underground. What is new are the technologies and incentives that may now make underground siting a preferred option. The conditions and technologies, along with their implications, are discussed herein. Underground containments can be constructed in mined cavities or pits that are then backfilled with thick layers of rock and soil. Conventional above-ground containments resist assaults and accidents because of the strength of their construction materials and the effectiveness of their safety features that are engineered to reduce loads. However, underground containments can provide even more resistance to assaults and accidents because of the inertia of the mass of materials over the reactor. High-technology weapons or some internal accidents can cause existing strong-material containments to fail, but only very-high energy releases can move large inertial masses associated with underground containments. New methods of isolation may provide a higher confidence in isolation that is independent of operator action.

  8. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve program was set into motion by the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). By 1990, 590 million barrels of oil had been placed in storage. Salt domes along the Gulf Coast offered ideal storage. Both sweet'' and sour'' crude oil have been acquired using various purchase options. Drawdown, sale, and distribution of the oil would proceed according to guidelines set by EPCA in the event of a severe energy supply disruption. (SM)

  9. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  10. Analysis of forward combustion underground coal gasification models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fausett, L.K.; Fausett, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey has been made of forward combustion gasification models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study have been mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The models range in scope of generality from a simple constrained mass balance model to a two-dimensional unsteady-state model. The computer code for each model has been implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses with each of the programs are compared using data (taken primarily from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Data Base) corresponding to six representative DOE sponsored field experiments at Hanna, Hoe Creek, Rawlins, and Pricetown. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam injection experiments. This study provides a direct comparison of input data requirements and computer resource requirements of the six computer codes. It furnishes an indication of the applicability of each model to the various operating conditions in the different field tests. Computational capabilities and limitations of each model are discussed in detail. 20 references, 47 figures, 13 tables.

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facilities development for the authorized 750 million barrel program was completed in 1991. Expansion of the SPR's offsite commercial distribution capacity to 4.3 million barrels per day is in progress. During calendar year 1991, the SPR's crude oil storage capacity increased by 61 million barrels with the completion of caverns at the Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw sites. On January 16, 1991, in conjunction with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, President Bush ordered a drawdown and distribution of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil as part of a coordinated contingency plan agreed to by member countries of the International Energy Agency. The Department successfully conducted the drawdown during the period January 17 through March 31 and delivered a total of 17.2 million barrels of crude oil to 13 purchasers. There were no crude oil deliveries to the SPR during the year ending December 31, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of December 31, 1991, the SPR inventory was 568.5 million barrels.

  12. Mass balances for underground coal gasification in steeply dipping beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindeman, R.; Ahner, P.; Davis, B.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different mass balances were used during the recent underground coal gasification tests conducted in steeply dipping coal beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The combination of both mass balances proved extremely useful in interpreting the test results. One mass balance which assumed char could be formed underground required the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. The assumption of no char decouples the 3 equations in the other mass balance. Both mass balance results are compared to the test data to provide an interpretation of the underground process.

  13. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kunze, Jay F [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Giraud, Kellen M [BABECOCK AND WILCOX; Mahar, James M [IDAHO STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  14. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Kudryavtsev

    2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  15. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created to reduce the impact of disruptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. This May 15, 1990, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 1990. 3 tabs.

  16. Characteristics of North Sea oil reserve appreciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G. C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many petroleum basins, and especially in more mature areas, most reserve additions consist of the growth over time of prior discoveries, a phenomenon termed reserve appreciation. This paper concerns crude oil reserve ...

  17. Post war federal reserve policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modrow, William Geoffery

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct and Guaranteed 1 p 4 ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 51 Principal Policy actions of Federal Reserve S3f'stems lg'+i 0 i ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ 0 ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ XX, Sember Sank Reserves and Determinants& 194S-1949 ~ ~ 69 XXX, Yields on United States... a consequence of such action the amount oi' money in the economy ?as determined by the holders of Govern ment securities, Reasures taken by the Federal Reserve to contract bank credit were largely offset by Federal Reserve purchases of Government...

  18. Environmental assessment of oil degasification at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve facilities in Texas and Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to treat gassy oil at four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage sites to lower the gas content of the stored crude oil and help ensure safe transfer of the oil during drawdown. The crude oil is stored underground in caverns created in salt domes. The degree of gassiness of the oil varies substantially among sites and among caverns within a site. This environmental assessment describes the proposed degasification operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. The need for degasification has arisen because over time, gases, principally methane and nitrogen, have migrated into and become dissolved in the stored crude oil. This influx of gas has raised the crude oil vapor pressure above limits required by safety and emission guidelines. When oil is drawn from the caverns, excess gases may come out of solution. Based on preliminary data from an ongoing sampling program, between 200 and 350 million of the 587 million barrels of crude oil stored at these four sites would require processing to remove excess gas. Degasification, a commonly used petroleum industry process, would be done at four crude oil storage facilities: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas, and West Hackberry and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana. DOE would use a turnkey services contract for engineering, procurement, fabrication, installation, operation and maintenance of two degasification plants. These would be installed initially at Bryan Mound and West Hackberry. Degasification would be complete in less than three years of continuous operations. This report summarizes the environmental impacts of this gasification process.

  19. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

  20. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

  1. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bradley M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smith, Ann Marie (Pocatello, ID); Hanson, Richard W. (Spokane, WA); Hodges, Richard T. (Deer Park, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment.

  2. Underground barrier construction apparatus with soil-retaining shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, B.M.; Smith, A.M.; Hanson, R.W.; Hodges, R.T.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for building a horizontal underground barrier by cutting through soil and depositing a slurry, preferably one which cures into a hardened material. The apparatus includes a digging means for cutting and removing soil to create a void under the surface of the ground, a shield means for maintaining the void, and injection means for inserting barrier-forming material into the void. In one embodiment, the digging means is a continuous cutting chain. Mounted on the continuous cutting chain are cutter teeth for cutting through soil and discharge paddles for removing the loosened soil. This invention includes a barrier placement machine, a method for building an underground horizontal containment barrier using the barrier placement machine, and the underground containment system. Preferably the underground containment barrier goes underneath and around the site to be contained in a bathtub-type containment. 17 figs.

  3. advanced underground vehicle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and radiogenic 40Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of 39Ar to 40Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that...

  4. aging underground reinforced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and geo-neutrinos, and perform exotic searches, with a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented 3% energy resolution (at 1 MeV) at 700-meter deep underground...

  5. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:08:54 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5070NM2"...

  6. amchitka underground nuclear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    searches, with a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented 3% energy resolution (at 1 MeV) at 700-meter deep underground and to have other rich scientific...

  7. HEAT TRANSFER IN UNDERGROUND HEATING EXPERIMENTS IN GRANITE, STRIPA, SWEDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Session on Heat Transfer in Nuclear Waste Disposal, C'.heat transfer processes associated with underground nuclear wasteheat transfer and related processes in an un­ derground environment similar to that expected in a mined nuclear waste

  8. Nevada National Security Site Underground Test Area (UGTA) Flow...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 12, 2014 To view all the P&RA CoP 2014 Technical Exchange Meeting videos click here. Video Presentation Nevada National Security Site Underground Test Area...

  9. ,"New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:17:17 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5290NY2"...

  10. ,"New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:16:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5060NY2"...

  11. ,"New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:16:55 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5070NY2"...

  12. ,"New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:16:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5060NY2"...

  13. Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...

  14. Underground-Energy-Storage Program, 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two principal underground energy storage technologies are discussed--Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). The Underground Energy Storage Program objectives, approach, structure, and milestones are described, and technical activities and progress in the STES and CAES areas are summarized. STES activities include aquifer thermal energy storage technology studies and STES technology assessment and development. CAES activities include reservoir stability studies and second-generation concepts studies. (LEW)

  15. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

  16. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  17. Underground storage of hydrocarbons in Ontario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, T.R.; Manocha, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The underground storage of natural gas and liquified petroleum products in geological formations is a provincially significant industry in Ontario with economic, environmental, and safety benefits for the companies and residents of Ontario. There are 21 active natural gas storage pools in Ontario, with a total working storage capacity of approximately 203 bcf (5.76 billion cubic metres). Most of these pools utilize former natural gas-producing Guelph Formation pinnacle reefs. In addition there are seventy-one solution-mined salt caverns utilized for storage capacity of 24 million barrels (3.9 million cubic metres). These caverns are constructed within salt strata of the Salina A-2 Unit and the B Unit. The steadily increasing demand for natural gas in Ontario creates a continuing need for additional storage capacity. Most of the known gas-producing pinnacle reefs in Ontario have already been converted to storage. The potential value of storage rights is a major incentive for continued exploration for undiscovered reefs in this mature play. There are numerous depleted or nearly depleted natural gas reservoirs of other types with potential for use as storage pools. There is also potential for use of solution-mined caverns for natural gas storage in Ontario.

  18. Roof control strategies for underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.C. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roof support, an important aspect of ground control, involves maintaining roof competency to ensure a safe and efficient mining environment. Wide variability in rock quality and stress distributions requires a systematic approach to roof support design that satisfies specific goals. The success of past roof support in reducing the incidence of roof falls has been primarily attributed to safer roof bolting practices. However, roof falls continue to be the number one occupational hazard in underground coal mines. This US Bureau of Mines report presents a general overview of roof bolting and other roof support methods used in the United States. Characteristics of bad roof and associated roof failure theories are briefly presented as background to roof support. Methods of detecting and monitoring roof behavior and/or bolt performance provide essential feedback on roof support requirements. A discussion follows on roof bolt design that assimilates roof and support parameters into useful equations or nomographs to help decide what bolt types to use and how they should be installed under different roof conditions. 35 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Underground Muons in Super-KAMIOKANDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; presented by J. G. Learned

    1997-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest underground neutrino observatory, Super-Kamiokande, located near Kamioka, Japan has been collecting data since April 1996. It is located at a depth of roughly 2.7 kmwe in a zinc mine under a mountain, and has an effective area for detecting entering-stopping and through-going muons of about $1238 m^2$ for muons of $>1.7 GeV$. These events are collected at a rate of 1.5 per day from the lower hemisphere of arrival directions, with 2.5 muons per second in the downgoing direction. We report preliminary results from 229 live days analyzed so far with respect to zenith angle variation of the upcoming muons. These results do not yet have enough statistical weight to discriminate between the favored hypothesis for muon neutrino oscillations and no-oscillations. We report on the search for astrophysical sources of neutrinos and high energy neutrino fluxes from the sun and earth center, as might arise from WIMP annihilations. None are found. We also present a topographical map of the overburden made from the downgoing muons. The detector is performing well, and with several years of data we should be able to make significant progress in this area.

  20. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  1. Strategic petroleum reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period January 1, 1991, through March 31, 1991. A special section is also included discussing the January 1991 drawdown and distribution of crude oil. 8 tabs.

  2. Energy Smart Reserved Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS)LaboratorySmart-Reserved-Power Sign In

  3. Indian Reservations in Kansas and the Extinguishment of Their Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Annie Heloise

    1900-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 1802.*f Her construction of that document was not consistent with the facts in the case; for the federal government had not promised to expel the In­ dians from Georgia, but only to extinguish their title within the reserved limits of the state " a...^ C i^J j ) INDIAN RESERVATIONS IN KANSAS ANI^EHE EXTINGUISHMENT OF THEIR TITLE. Thesis prepared in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the University of Kanowwfey ^ w degree of master of arts, by A N N A H B L O I S B A B E L , * of Salina...

  4. Parking Options 2011/12 Reserved Permits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parking Options 2011/12 Reserved Permits A Reserved permit is $275 this fiscal year and is only available to faculty and staff through payroll deduction. Individuals issued a Reserved permit may park is completely full someone is parked illegally and Parking Services should be notified. Reserved permit holders

  5. Hoe Creek No. 3: first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are compelling reasons for pursuing underground coal gasification. The resource that could be exploited is huge - enough to quadruple present proved coal reserves - if the process is successful. Cost estimates indicate that substitute natural gas or gasoline may be producible at reasonable prices by the technique. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, then the forward gasification process began - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, approximately 3900 tons of coal was gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons/day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/SCF (194 kj/mol), suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is approximately 900 Btu/SCF (800 kj/mol).

  6. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release The Energy Policy and Conservation...

  7. Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Monreal

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

  8. Limitation Date and Time Total Wind SCE Plus CSGI Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting SignLiisa O'Neill About

  9. Underground coal gasification: A near-term alternate fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avasthi, J.; Singleton, A.M.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the beginning of this century underground coal gasification has been considered as an alternative to mining as a means of utilizing the coal resources not recoverable by conventional methods. The energy crunch of the seventies gave a new impetus to it, and several tests were conducted in the U.S. to demonstrate the feasibility of this method in both horizontal and steeply dipping coal resources. Gulf Research and Development Company has conducted two successful underground coal gasification tests near Rawlins, Wyoming, in steeply dipping coal beds. The results of these tests indicate that the present state of the art is advanced enough for utilization of this technique for commercial purposes. A right combination of resource, consumer, and economic factors will dictate future commercialization of underground coal gasification for the U.S. coal resources.

  10. Estimation of resources and reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

  11. Reserves, Refuges, and Sanctuaries (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter provides rules for the establishment of wildlife reserves, refuges, sanctuaries, and other natural areas on land and water bodies. The Game and Parks Commission has the authority to...

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current storage capacity and ullage available; current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities, major projects and the acquisition of petroleum products; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The August 15, 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1987 through June 30, 1987. The program background and major activities of this quarter are briefly discussed. Other topics are site development; oil acquisition; information on the budget and cost of the reserve; and other program items. During the second quarter of 1987, Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 570 million barrels. At Bryan Mound, final corrective leaching was completed in Cavern 5 whose conversion from sweet to sour crude oil storage is proceeding on schedule. At West Hackberry, leaching was completed for Cavern 115 and proceeded in the four remaining caverns still under development. At the Bayou Choctaw site, Cavern 17 oil fill was initiated; this 10-million-barrel cavern currently contains over five million barrels of oil. At Big Hill, construction has progressed to the point that attainment of leaching capability by the end of September is on schedule. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 527,186,515 barrels during the quarter ending June 30, 1987. The average fill rate during the quarter was 79,119 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $19.17 per barrel. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1987 include $526 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $262 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Approximately $23 million of Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account funds will be carried over to reduce new budget authority required for the account in fiscal year 1988.

  15. The XENON10 WIMP Direct Detection Search at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manalaysay, Aaron [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States) and Physics Institute, University of Zuerich, Zuerich, CH-8057 (Switzerland)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct detection search for WIMPs with the XENON10 detector has produced among the best results in the field to date. The detector is a dual-phase liquid xenon time projection chamber, capable of 3-D position reconstruction and nuclear recoil discrimination. We summarize 58.6 live-days of WIMP search data collected at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. With this data we have been able to set stringent upper limits on the spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP scattering cross sections, in addition to a lower limit of 2.2 TeV/c{sup 2} on the mass of the heavy Majorana neutrino.

  16. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage caverns, and gas market area storage needs of these regions.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) Public Law 94-163, approved on December 22, 1975, and extended in July 1985, June 1989, March 1990, and September 1990, to reduce the impact of disroptions in petroleum supplies and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report is submitted in accordance with section 165(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, which requires that the Secretary of Energy submit quarterly reports to Congress on activities undertaken with respect to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Since the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facilities program for the 750 minion barrels was completed in 1991, this August 15, 1992, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report focuses on activities related primarily to the storage facilities status, oil acquisition, budget, and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992.

  18. Strategic petroleum reserve: Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes activities undertaken with respect to the development of the Reserve. The introduction and summary briefly discuss program background and major activities of the quarter. Section II describes site development. Oil acquisition activities are reported in Section III. Information on the budget and cost of the Reserve is contained in Section IV. Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage capacity reached 581.3 million barrels. The total inventory of crude oil stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve reached 550, 055,724 barrels. The average fill rate during the quarter was 56,239 barrels per day, and the weighted average delivered price during this quarter was $15.99 per barrel. The average fill rate through the third quarter of fiscal year 1988 was 59,000 barrels per day. Funds available for obligation in fiscal year 1988 include $439 million in the SPR Petroleum Account for the acquisition and transportation of crude oil and $232 million in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account for activities associated with storage facilities development and the operation and management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

  19. Muon-Induced Background Study for Underground Laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. -M. Mei; A. Hime

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a comprehensive study of the cosmic-ray muon flux and induced activity as a function of overburden along with a convenient parameterization of the salient fluxes and differential distributions for a suite of underground laboratories ranging in depth from $\\sim$1 to 8 km.w.e.. Particular attention is given to the muon-induced fast neutron activity for the underground sites and we develop a Depth-Sensitivity-Relation to characterize the effect of such background in experiments searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  20. INDUCED SEISMICITY MONITORING OF AN UNDERGROUND SALT CAVITY UNDER A TRANSIENT PRESSURE EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INDUCED SEISMICITY MONITORING OF AN UNDERGROUND SALT CAVITY UNDER A TRANSIENT PRESSURE EXPERIMENT to 125 m in cemented boreholes drilled in thé vicinity of thé study area. The underground cavity under

  1. Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the...

  2. A study of the feasibility of construction of underground storage structures in soft soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Stephen Anthony

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Underground construction is a means of providing efficient use of land space. In recent times, the most extensive use of underground construction has been in Sweden. However, possible uses of underground space were recognized... widespread and efficient use of underground space has been in Sweden. This is facilitated in part by the competent rock that is found there. The stratigraphy in Sweden is dominated by Pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic rock with a thin covering of moraine sediment...

  3. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification field test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The six in situ coal gasification field tests conducted by LETC near Hanna, WY, demonstrated typical gasification rates of 100 tons/day for continuous operation of about 30 days. Featuring high coal recovery and high product-gas calorific values, the underground process proved to be simple, reliable, and potentially controllable.

  4. Underground Coal Mine Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yunhao

    10 Underground Coal Mine Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks MO LI and YUNHAO LIU Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Environment monitoring in coal mines is an important application queries under instable circumstances. A prototype is deployed with 27 mica2 motes in a real coal mine. We

  5. GEOPHYSICAL DETECTION OF UNDERGROUND CAVITIES DRIAD-LEBEAU1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    GEOPHYSICAL DETECTION OF UNDERGROUND CAVITIES DRIAD-LEBEAU1 Lynda, PIWAKOWSKI2 Bogdan, STYLES3 & Environmental Geophysics Research Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, UK; p.lataste@ghymac.u- bordeaux1.fr ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a synthesis of the geophysical investigations conducted

  6. Underground Mine Communication and Tracking Systems : A Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    get carved and come into existence in the due course of the mineral extraction process. · Low loss of the cutting of the mineral faces. · Unstable nature of geological construction : A mineral face consists from the presence of pillars and undulations following the mineral seam. These underground structures

  7. Heat transfer model of above and underground insulated piping systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified heat transfer model of above and underground insulated piping systems was developed to perform iterative calculations for fluid temperatures along the entire pipe length. It is applicable to gas, liquid, fluid flow with no phase change. Spreadsheet computer programs of the model have been developed and used extensively to perform the above calculations for thermal resistance, heat loss and core fluid temperature.

  8. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  9. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  10. Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Morrison Knudson Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management & Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management.

  11. Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area might have on the UCG process; likewise, the effects of UCG on the environment were unknown. Since the UCG experiments were completed, dilute concentrations of pyrolysis products and leachates have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells in and near some of the six cavities. Three primary UCG indicator constituents have been measured at elevated concentrations: phenols, TDS, and sulfate. The Hanna III cavity water exceeded the DOE target level for TDS and sulfate, and the Hanna I cavity water exceeded the DOE target level for phenols. The indicated phenols contamination, however, was in groundwater sampled from a well which was previously used as a production well during the experiment. Water pumped during the restoration project and a new well located approximately 10 ft from the old production well was sampled and no elevated phenols concentration was detected. Therefore, the restoration performed on the Hanna I cavity water was not necessary. The restoration was performed, however, because these indications were not available until during the restoration. Locally, various other constituents exceed DOE target levels, but concentrations are very near target levels and are well within livestock use limits. 2 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Groundwater restoration field test at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, J.S.; Barrash, W.; Nolan, B.T.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three underground coal gasification burns were conducted at the Hoe Creek Site in the Powder River Basin. Some contaminants were released in the groundwater. The Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the water from a network of wells. Two million gallons of groundwater were pumped from wells adjacent to the Hoe Creek II underground coal gasification cavity, passed through filters and carbon adsorbers, and reinjected into the cavity. Phenol was the target compound of the water treatment system. The phenol concentration pumped from well WS-10 decreased from 974 parts per billion (ppB) when treatment began on July 2, 1987, to about 200 ppB when treatment ceased on August 29, 1987. Phenol concentrations pumped from well WS-22 fluctuated during the tests, but they decreased to the 150 to 200 ppB range by the time treatment was terminated. The phenol concentration of treated water reinjected into the Hoe Creek II cavity was below detectable limits (less than 20 ppB). Pumping rates were about 18 gallons per minute (gpm) from well WS-10 and 6 to 8 gpm from well WS-22. Hoe Creek is located approximately 20 miles southwest of Gillette, Wyoming. 12 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The CY1999 Site Environmental Report and Compliance Summary discusses environmental compliance activities for NPR-3 (Teapot Dome). All hazardous wastes that were stored in the hazardous waste accumulation at NPR-3 were removed in CY1999. NPR-3 maintains its status as a conditionally exempt small quantity generator. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) flares have not operated at NPR-3 since 1996; monitoring of H2S indicates readings well below limits. All underground storage tanks were removed in 1998. Wastewater samples were in compliance with applicable standards.

  14. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  15. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  16. Naval Petroleum Reserves | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naval Petroleum Reserves For much of the 20th century, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves served as a contingency source of fuel for the Nation's military. All that...

  17. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Group Study Room Policy and Reservation Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Albert C.

    to the Group Study Reservation Form. Fill out the web form and click "Send" to submit the request. A confirming

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the third quarter of calendar year 1994. It addresses issues relative to storage facilities in Texas and Louisiana and include information on fill rate; average price of products purchased; current and projected storage capacity of each facility; analyses of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage or petroleum products; budgets established for the operation of each facility during the quarter and total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. The report also briefly discusses two problems which have temporarily reduced the Reserve`s oil inventory for drawdown. These problems are a higher-than-normal gas content and elevated temperatures of crude at other facilities.

  20. Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil or oil reserves is a political act. The SEC, to satisfy bankers and shareholders, obliges the oil

  1. Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leahy, Richard M.

    © Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved Electrical Engineering at USC What it means to you... Mark Redekopp redekopp@usc.edu ENGR 101 #12;© Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved What is Electrical Engineering #12;© Mark Redekopp, All rights reserved What is Electrical Engineering · The key partner and enabling

  2. BODEGA MARINE LABORATORY AND RESERVE Procedures & Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    from the Reserve Staff to walk on the Reserve (this includes the sand dunes near the housing facilities. Abandoned seal and sea lion pups should be left alone. Mothers of these pups are probably out hunting and will return in several hours. Report abandoned pups and injured mammals to the Reserve Staff or Main Office

  3. Ground vibration from underground railways: how simplifying assumptions limit prediction accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Simon

    2010-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Fundamental Solution and the Boundary Integral Formulation . . . . . . 174 D.2 Numerical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 E The PiP Derivation in 3D 179 E.1 3D Cylindrical Shell Equations... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.10 Development of surface subsidence trough due to tunneling . . . . . . . . 27 2.11 Schematic of soil inhomogeneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.1 Void at the tunnel-soil interface...

  4. EIS-0034: Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Expansion of Reserve, Supplemental

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) developed this SEIS to address the environmental impacts of expanding the SPR to store 1,000 million barrels of oil. The final programmatic EIS (FEA-FES-76-2), addressed the environmental impacts of storing 500 million barrels of oil.

  5. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

  6. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  7. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  8. Preliminary assessment report for Olney Military Reservation, Installation 24175, Olney, Maryland. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, J.; Rose, C.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Maryland Army National Guard property near Olney, Maryland. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies Phase I of the US Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program for Olney Military Reservation property. Olney Military Reservation is an 8-acre site located in the southwestern portion of Maryland, about six miles northwest of Washington, DC, in Montgomery County. The major facilities included in this PA comprise the administration building, barracks, and motor repair shops. The environmentally significant operations associated with the property are underground and aboveground storage tanks, a vehicle wash rack, a flammable materials storage area (a lean-to structure), and a hazardous materials storage building. The review of both historical and current practices at the property indicates that Olney Military Reservation property poses no immediate threat to human health or the environment. Argonne`s reviewers noted several historical potential threats to the environment that have occurred at the property that installation personnel have corrected or eliminated.

  9. Proceedings of the eleventh annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eleventh Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Laramie Project Office of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, and hosted by the Western Research Institute, University of Wyoming research Corporation, in Denver, Colorado, on August 11 to 14, 1985. The five-session symposium included 37 presentations describing research on underground coal gasification (UCG) being performed throughout the world. Eleven of the presentations were from foreign countries developing UCG technology for their coal resources. The papers printed in the proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The papers have not been refereed, nor have they been edited extensively. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Underground gas storage in New York State: A historical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, G.M.; Sarwar, G.; Bass, J.P. [Brooklyn College of the City Univ., Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New York State has a long history of underground gas storage activity that began with conversion of the Zoar gas field into a storage reservoir in 1916, the first in the United States. By 1961 another fourteen storage fields were developed and seven more were added between 1970 and 1991. All twenty-two operating storage reservoirs of New York were converted from depleted gas fields and are of low-deliverability, base-load type. Nineteen of these are in sandstone reservoirs of the Lower Silurian Medina Group and the Lower Devonian Oriskany Formation and three in limestone reservoirs are located in the gas producing areas of southwestern New York and are linked to the major interstate transmission lines. Recent developments in underground gas storage in New York involve mainly carbonate-reef and bedded salt-cavern storage facilities, one in Stuben County and the other in Cayuga County, are expected to begin operation by the 1996-1997 heating season.

  11. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  12. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve reduces the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument and an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975 (Public Law 94-163). Its purposes are to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1995, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve; current and projected storage capacity, analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  13. Strategic petroleum reserve annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94- 163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). This report describes activities for the year ending December 31, 1995.

  14. Strategic petroleum reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of our most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. Its existence provides an effective response mechanism should a disruption occur and a formidable deterrent to the use of oil as a political instrument. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of December 22, 1975, (Public Law 94-163) as amended, to reduce the impact of disruptions in supplies of petroleum products and to carry out obligations of the United States under the Agreement on an International Energy Program. Section 165(a) of the Act requires the submission of Annual Reports and Section 165(b)(1) requires the submission of Quarterly Reports. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the first quarter of calendar year 1994, including: (1) inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; (2) fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; (3) average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; (4) current and projected storage capacity; (5) analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; (6) funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and (7) major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  15. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin T. Lesko; Steven Acheson; Jose Alonso; Paul Bauer; Yuen-Dat Chan; William Chinowsky; Steve Dangermond; Jason A. Detwiler; Syd De Vries; Richard DiGennaro; Elizabeth Exter; Felix B. Fernandez; Elizabeth L. Freer; Murdock G. D. Gilchriese; Azriel Goldschmidt; Ben Grammann; William Griffing; Bill Harlan; Wick C. Haxton; Michael Headley; Jaret Heise; Zbigniew Hladysz; Dianna Jacobs; Michael Johnson; Richard Kadel; Robert Kaufman; Greg King; Robert Lanou; Alberto Lemut; Zoltan Ligeti; Steve Marks; Ryan D. Martin; John Matthesen; Brendan Matthew; Warren Matthews; Randall McConnell; William McElroy; Deborah Meyer; Margaret Norris; David Plate; Kem E. Robinson; William Roggenthen; Rohit Salve; Ben Sayler; John Scheetz; Jim Tarpinian; David Taylor; David Vardiman; Ron Wheeler; Joshua Willhite; James Yeck

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multidisciplinary experiments in a laboratory whose projected life span is at least 30 years. From these experiments, a critical suite of experiments is outlined, whose construction will be funded along with the facility. The Facility design permits expansion and evolution, as may be driven by future science requirements, and enables participation by other agencies. The design leverages South Dakota's substantial investment in facility infrastructure, risk retirement, and operation of its Sanford Laboratory at Homestake. The Project is planning education and outreach programs, and has initiated efforts to establish regional partnerships with underserved populations - regional American Indian and rural populations.

  16. Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. High frequency electromagnetic burn monitoring for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Hill, R.W.; Laine, E.F.

    1981-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of high frequency electromagnetic waves to monitor an in-situ coal gasification burn process, and presents some recent results obtained with the method. Both the technique, called HFEM (high frequency electromagnetic) probing, the HFEM hardware used are described, and some of the data obtained from the LLNL Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment conducted near Gillette, Wyoming are presented. HFEM was found to be very useful for monitoring the burn activity found in underground coal gasification. The technique, being a remote sensing method which does not require direct physical contact, does not suffer from burnout problems as found with thermocouples, and can continue to function even as the burn progresses on through the region of interest. While HFEM does not replace more conventional instrumentation such as thermocouples, the method does serve to provide data which is unobtainable by other means, and in so doing it complements the other data to help form a picture of what cannot be seen underground.

  18. Geologic technical assessment of the Stratton Ridge salt dome, Texas, for potential expansion of the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.; Looff, Karl M. (Geologic Consultant, Lovelady, TX)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Stratton Ridge salt dome is a large salt diapir located only some ten miles from the currently active Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site at Bryan Mound, Texas. The dome is approximately 15 miles south-southwest of Houston. The Stratton Ridge salt dome has been intensively developed, in the desirable central portions, with caverns for both brine production and product storage. This geologic technical assessment indicates that the Stratton Ridge salt dome may be considered a viable, if less-than-desirable, candidate site for potential expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Past development of underground caverns significantly limits the potential options for use by the SPR. The current conceptual design layout of proposed caverns for such an expansion facility is based upon a decades-old model of salt geometry, and it is unacceptable, according to this reinterpretation of salt dome geology. The easternmost set of conceptual caverns are located within a 300-ft buffer zone of a very major boundary shear zone, fault, or other structural feature of indeterminate origin. This structure transects the salt stock and subdivides it into an shallow western part and a deeper eastern part. In places, the distance from this structural boundary to the design-basis caverns is as little as 150 ft. A 300-ft distance from this boundary is likely to be the minimum acceptable stand-off, from both a geologic and a regulatory perspective. Repositioning of the proposed cavern field is possible, as sufficient currently undeveloped salt acreage appears to be available. However, such reconfiguration would be subject to limitations related to land-parcel boundaries and other existing infrastructure and topographic constraints. More broadly speaking, the past history of cavern operations at the Stratton Ridge salt dome indicates that operation of potential SPR expansion caverns at this site may be difficult, and correspondingly expensive. Although detailed information is difficult to come by, widely accepted industry rumors are that numerous existing caverns have experienced major operational problems, including salt falls, sheared casings, and unintended releases of stored product(s). Many of these difficulties may be related to on-going differential movement of individual salt spines or to lateral movement at the caprock-salt interface. The history of operational problems, only some of which appear to be a matter of public record, combined with the potential for encountering escaped product from other operations, renders the Stratton Ridge salt dome a less-than-desirable site for SPR purposes.

  19. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  20. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1992 the Department continued planning activities for the expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to one billion barrels. A draft Environmental Impact Statement for the five candidate sites was completed in October 1992, and a series of public hearings was held during December 1992. Conceptual design engineering activities, life cycle cost estimates and geotechnical studies to support the technical requirements for an Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan Amendment were essentially completed in December 1992. At the end of 1992, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 574.7 million barrels and an additional 1.7 million barrels was in transit to the Reserve. During 1992 approximately 6.2 million barrels of crude oil were acquired for the Reserve. A Department of Energy Tiger Team Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Assessment was conducted at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve from March 9 through April 10, 1992. In general, the Tiger Team found that Strategic Petroleum Reserve activities do not pose undue environmental, safety or health risks. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve`s Final Corrective Action Plan, prepared in response to the Tiger Team assessment, was submitted for Department approval in December 1992. On November 18, 1992, the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy selected DynMcDennott Petroleum Operations Company to provide management and operating services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for a period of 5 years commencing April 1, 1993. DynMcDermott will succeed Boeing Petroleum Services, Inc.

  1. Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors: chemical volatility effects that occur during the initial plasma condensation, and groundwater remobilization that occurs over a much longer time frame. Fission product partitioning is very sensitive to the early cooling history of the test cavity because the decay of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 1 hour) fission-chain precursors occurs on the same time scale as melt glass condensation. Fission product chains that include both volatile and refractory elements, like the mass 99, 125, and 129 chains, can show large variations in partitioning behavior depending on the cooling history of the cavity. Uranium exhibits similar behavior, though the chemical processes are poorly understood. The water temperature within the Chancellor cavity remains elevated (75 C) more than two decades after the test. Under hydrothermal conditions, high solubility chemical species such as {sup 125}Sb and {sup 129}I are readily dissolved and transported in solution. SEM analyses of melt glass samples show clear evidence of glass dissolution and secondary hydrothermal mineral deposition. Remobilization of {sup 99}Tc is also expected during hydrothermal activity, but moderately reducing conditions within the Chancellor cavity appear to limit the transport of {sup 99}Tc. It is recommended that the results from this study should be used together with the IAEA data to update the range in partitioning values for contaminant transport models at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site).

  2. A Testbed of Magnetic Induction-based Communication System for Underground Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Xin; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) can enable many important applications such as intelligent agriculture, pipeline fault diagnosis, mine disaster rescue, concealed border patrol, crude oil exploration, among others. The key challenge to realize WUSNs is the wireless communication in underground environments. Most existing wireless communication systems utilize the dipole antenna to transmit and receive propagating electromagnetic (EM) waves, which do not work well in underground environments due to the very high material absorption loss. The Magnetic Induction (MI) technique provides a promising alternative solution that could address the current problem in underground. Although the MI-based underground communication has been intensively investigated theoretically, to date, seldom effort has been made in developing a testbed for the MI-based underground communication that can validate the theoretical results. In this paper, a testbed of MI-based communication system is designed and implemented in a...

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the second quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the current quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products, and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated.

  4. Search for double beta decay with HPGe detectors at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Chkvorets

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrinoless double-beta decay is practically the only way to establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino mass and its decay rate provides a probe of an effective neutrino mass. Double beta experiments are long-running underground experiments with specific challenges concerning the background reduction and the long term stability. These problems are addressed in this work for the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM), GENIUS Test Facility (TF) and GERDA experiments. The HdM experiment collected data with enriched 76Ge high purity (HPGe) detectors from 1990 to 2003. An improved analysis of HdM data is presented, exploiting new calibration and spectral shape measurements with the HdM detectors. GENIUS-TF was a test-facility that verified the feasibility of using bare germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen. The first year results of this experiment are discussed. The GERDA experiment has been designed to further increase the sensitivity by operating bare germanium detectors in a high purity cryogenic liquid, which simultaneously serves as a shielding against background and as a cooling media. In the preparatory stage of GERDA, an external background gamma flux measurement was done at the experimental site in the Hall A of the Gran Sasso laboratory. The characterization of the enriched detectors from the HdM and IGEX experiments was performed in the underground detector laboratory for the GERDA collaboration. Long term stability measurements of a bare HPGe detector in liquid argon were carried out. Based on these measurements, the first lower limit on the half-life of neutrinoless double electron capture of 36Ar was established to be 1.85*10^18 years at 68% C.L.

  5. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  6. Rules and Regulations for Underground Storage Facilities Used for Petroleum Products and Hazardous Materials (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to underground storage facilities for petroleum and hazardous waste, and seek to protect water resources from contamination. The regulations establish procedures for the...

  7. Head of EM Visits Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for First Underground...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    donning personal protective clothing or respirators. Workers are cleaning and performing preventive maintenance on equipment in the underground and on the surface impacted by the...

  8. A WSRC-MS-g8-00318 Heat Transfer Model of Above and Underground...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the surrounding air to prevent condensation. Most of city water, sewage and liquid waste are usually transferred through single or double underground pipe lines. The...

  9. Table 16. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a.Total

  10. BIOSPHERE RESERVES MANAGER'S SURVEY In preparation for the October 1995 Biosphere Reserves Managers'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOSPHERE RESERVES MANAGER'S SURVEY In preparation for the October 1995 Biosphere Reserves Managers' Workshop, William Gregg of the National Biological Service, surveyed the managers' perceptions about as important. For additional information on the Biosphere Reserves Managers' Survey please contact: Dr. William

  11. Effective Immediately - OASIS Reservation Points Suspended -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CommitteesTeams Customer Training Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Notice: Effective Immediately - OASIS Reservation Points...

  12. WELCOME TO THE ELECTRONIC RESERVES COURSE READINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    WELCOME TO THE ELECTRONIC RESERVES COURSE READINGS NOTE: THIS MATERIAL MAY BE PROTECTED animals--ingesting food, digesting it, assimilating it, excreting waste, reproducing, and being mobile

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: SolarReserve Inc.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter SolarReserve is testing engineering units at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) operated by Sandia....

  14. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision analysis (DDA) (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). This new model includes the uncertainty in the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithology and hydraulic conductivity from the 1999 model as well as the uncertainty in the other flow and transport parameters from the 2000 DDA model. Additionally, the new model focuses on a much smaller region than was included in the earlier models, that is, the subsurface within the UC-1 land withdrawal area where the 1999 model predicted radionuclide transport will occur over the next 1,000 years. The purpose of this unclassified document is to present the modifications to the CNTA groundwater flow and transport model, to present the methodology used to calculate contaminant boundaries, and to present the Safe Drinking Water Act and risk-derived contaminant boundaries for the Faultless underground nuclear test CAU.

  15. SUNLAB - The Project of a Polish Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisiel, J.; Dorda, J.; Konefall, A.; Mania, S.; Szeglowski, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Universytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Budzanowski, M.; Haranczyk, M.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Mietelski, J. W.; Puchalska, M.; Szarska, M.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Zalewska, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow (Poland); Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland); Cygan, S.; Hanzel, S.; Markiewicz, A.; Mertuszka, P. [KGHM CUPRUM CBR, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The project of the first Polish underground laboratory SUNLAB, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine, belonging to the KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. holding, is presented. Two stages of the project are foreseen: SUNLAB1 (a small laboratory in the salt layer exhibiting extremely low level of natural radioactivity) and SUNLAB2 (a big laboratory in the anhydrite layer, able to host the next generation liquid argon detector - GLACIER, which is considered within the LAGUNA FP7 project). The results of the natural radioactivity background measurements performed in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice salt cavern are also briefly summarized.

  16. Coalbed methane production enhancement by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettema, M.H.H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Neumann, B.V.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-surface of the Netherlands is generally underlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous strata at greater depths (at many places over 1,500 m). These coal seams are generally thinner than 3 meter, occur in groups (5--15) within several hundred meters and are often fairly continuous over many square kilometers. In many cases they have endured complex burial history, influencing their methane saturation. In certain particular geological settings, a high, maximum coalbed methane saturation, may be expected. Carboniferous/Permian coals in the Tianjin-region (China) show many similarities concerning geological settings, rank and composition. Economical coalbed methane production at greater depths is often obstructed by the (very) low permeabilities of the coal seams as with increasing depth the deformation of the coal reduces both its macro-porosity (the cleat system) and microporosity. Experiments in abandoned underground mines, as well as after underground coal gasification tests indicate ways to improve the prospects for coalbed methane production in originally tight coal reservoirs. High permeability areas can be created by the application of underground coal gasification of one of the coal seams of a multi-seam cycle with some 200 meter of coal bearing strata. The gasification of one of the coal seams transforms that seam over a certain area into a highly permeable bed, consisting of coal residues, ash and (thermally altered) roof rubble. Additionally, roof collapse and subsidence will destabilize the overburden. In conjunction this will permit a better coalbed methane production from the remaining surrounding parts of the coal seams. Moreover, the effects of subsidence will influence the stress patterns around the gasified seam and this improves the permeability over certain distances in the coal seams above and below. In this paper the effects of the combined underground coal gasification and coalbed methane production technique are regarded for a single injection well. Known geotechnical aspects are combined with results from laboratory experiments on compaction of thermally treated rubble. An axi-symmetric numerical model is used to determine the effects induced by the gasified coal seam. The calculation includes the rubble formation, rubble compaction and induced stress effects in the overlying strata. Subsequently the stress effects are related to changes in coal permeability, based on experimental results of McKee et al.

  17. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  18. New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved Reservesthroughwww.eia.govNThousand CubicUnderground

  19. Illinois Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess thanThousandUnderground Storage Volume

  20. Indiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessApril 2015Year Jan Feb MarDecadeUnderground

  1. Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0Cubic Feet) Underground Storage

  2. Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals All Operators

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0Cubic Feet) Underground

  3. Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0Cubic Feet) UndergroundWithdrawals

  4. WAC - 173-218 Underground Injection Control Program | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: EnergydbaInformation Underground Injection

  5. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y625(95)Feet) Underground

  6. Arkansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1Year%Underground Storage Volume

  7. Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUnderground Storage1Feet)Year Jan

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUndergroundCubicDecade

  9. Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUndergroundCubicDecadeFeet) Year Jan Feb Mar

  10. Michigan Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUndergroundCubicDecadeFeet) Year Jan Feb

  11. Minnesota Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of Fossil Energy, U.S.Year Jan Feb Mar AprUnderground

  12. Montana Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of FossilFoot) Year Jan Feb(MillionYearUnderground

  13. Virginia Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197 14,197(BillionYearThousandUnderground

  14. Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas,Underground Storage

  15. Wyoming Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousandUnderground Storage Volume (Million Cubic

  16. Oregon Fees for Underground Injection Control Program Fact Sheet | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy Information Fees for Underground Injection Control Program

  17. Louisiana Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYear Jan Next MECSInput SupplementalYear JanUnderground

  18. Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade EnergyTennesseeYearUnderground Storage1Feet)Year Jan Feb

  19. Montana Underground Storage Tanks Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville,Missoula, Montana:Northeast AsiaAir|Underground Storage Tanks Webpage

  20. NAC - 534 Underground Water and Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources Jump to:MuskingumMyers-4 Jump- 534 Underground

  1. Draft "Michigan Saves" Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  2. Billing Factors for Operating Reserves September 30, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are effective on October 1, 2014. This implements the FERC approved standard BAL-002-WECC-2. Operating Reserve - Spinning Reserve: The Billing Factor for the rates specified in...

  3. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy Headquaters Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System Heating Oil, PIA Office of Fossil Energy...

  4. DOE to Resume Filling Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Oil Acquisition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Resume Filling Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Oil Acquisition Slated for 2009 DOE to Resume Filling Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Oil Acquisition Slated for 2009 January 2, 2009 -...

  5. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency May 2, 2014 -...

  6. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and Timeline Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 Disposition Decision Analysis and Timeline This Report to Congress provides a...

  7. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are relatively large in size with mature or old-growth community composition; lack current disturbance factors or potential threats and disturbances; are in excellent condition with good buffers; are places where ecological and evolutionary processes can occur relatively unaffected by humans; and can be reasonably defended and maintained as natural areas in an undeveloped condition. Highly ranked sites are the most significant and should receive the greatest protections. Composite scores of the ranked areas ranged from 1-25.5, with a mean score of 12. The ranked areas were divided into three Priority Groups. Group I, the most highly ranked group, included 20 sites and covered 5189 acres or 15.4% of Reservation lands; Group II included 31 sites and covered 4108 acres; Group III included 19 sites covering 400 acres of Reservation lands. All sites together comprise 9697 acres or 28.8% of Reservation lands. Six sites emerged as clearly the most significant natural areas on the Reservation. The study developed a number of recommendations that should be implemented in order to enhance and refine the natural areas data for the Reservation. There is a clear need for better and standardized ecological community classification and identification. Several areas are proposed for merger into larger units, and some new areas are proposed for inclusion and recognition in a natural areas system. Various gaps and discrepancies in the existing data are described and should be corrected. Other recommendations are made, including the development of a corollary system that can accommodate aquatic natural areas. The study relied primarily on the synthesis of information from many sources and from limited reconnaissance and direct observation during field work to produce a methodology for assessing natural area importance and assigning priorities for protection. Many instances of incomplete, missing or conflicting information made it difficult to complete thorough analysis. Further review and discussion among natural resources personnel will likely reveal possibilities for refinement and

  8. A Detailed Look at the First Results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Dark Matter Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Szydagis; D. S. Akerib; H. M. Araujo; X. Bai; A. J. Bailey; J. Balajthy; E. Bernard; A. Bernstein; A. Bradley; D. Byram; S. B. Cahn; M. C. Carmona-Benitez; C. Chan; J. J. Chapman; A. A. Chiller; C. Chiller; T. Coffey; A. Currie; L. de Viveiros; A. Dobi; J. Dobson; E. Druszkiewicz; B. Edwards; C. H. Faham; S. Fiorucci; C. Flores; R. J. Gaitskell; V. M. Gehman; C. Ghag; K. R. Gibson; M. G. D. Gilchriese; C. Hall; S. A. Hertel; M. Horn; D. Q. Huang; M. Ihm; R. G. Jacobsen; K. Kazkaz; R. Knoche; N. A. Larsen; C. Lee; A. Lindote; M. I. Lopes; D. C. Malling; R. Mannino; D. N. McKinsey; D. -M. Mei; J. Mock; M. Moongweluwan; J. Morad; A. St. J. Murphy; C. Nehrkorn; H. Nelson; F. Neves; R. A. Ott; M. Pangilinan; P. D. Parker; E. K. Pease; K. Pech; P. Phelps; L. Reichhart; T. Shutt; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; P. Sorensen; K. O'Sullivan; T. Sumner; D. Taylor; B. Tennyson; D. R. Tiedt; M. Tripathi; S. Uvarov; J. R. Verbus; N. Walsh; R. Webb; J. T. White; M. S. Witherell; F. L. H. Wolfs; M. Woods; C. Zhang

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    LUX, the world's largest dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber, with a fiducial target mass of 118 kg and 10,091 kg-days of exposure thus far, is currently the most sensitive direct dark matter search experiment. The initial null-result limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section was released in October 2013, with a primary scintillation threshold of 2 phe, roughly 3 keVnr for LUX. The detector has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, and is the first experiment to achieve a limit on the WIMP cross-section lower than $10^{-45}$ cm$^{2}$. Here we present a more in-depth discussion of the novel energy scale employed to better understand the nuclear recoil light and charge yields, and of the calibration sources, including the new internal tritium source. We found the LUX data to be in conflict with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of other results.

  9. A Detailed Look at the First Results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Dark Matter Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szydagis, M; Araujo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Coffey, T; Currie, A; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LUX, the world's largest dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber, with a fiducial target mass of 118 kg and 10,091 kg-days of exposure thus far, is currently the most sensitive direct dark matter search experiment. The initial null-result limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section was released in October 2013, with a primary scintillation threshold of 2 phe, roughly 3 keVnr for LUX. The detector has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, and is the first experiment to achieve a limit on the WIMP cross-section lower than $10^{-45}$ cm$^{2}$. Here we present a more in-depth discussion of the novel energy scale employed to better understand the nuclear recoil light and charge yields, and of the calibration sources, including the new internal tritium source. We found the LUX data to be in conflict with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of other results.

  10. Spectral Analysis of Energy-Constrained Reserves Fernando L. Alvarado, Professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spectral Analysis of Energy-Constrained Reserves Fernando L. Alvarado, Professor alvarado@engr.wisc.edu The University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 57706, USA Abstract The definition of a service is key may be energy or otherwise time-limited. This paper illustrates how to take into consideration energy

  11. Energy Policy 33 (2005) 483498 Simulating the impacts of a strategic fuels reserve in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a strategic fuels reserve (SFR) designed to limit the increase in gasoline prices in the days following. The demand for gasoline is the sum of the retail demand and the wholesale demand to rebuild inventory. Background Gasoline prices in California are more volatile than in the rest of the country due to a variety

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Coal Gasification project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Britten, J.A.

    1989-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively developing Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) technology for 15 years. The goal of the project has been to develop a fundamental technological understanding of UCG and foster the commercialization of the process. In striving to achieve this goal the LLNL project has carried out laboratory experiments, developed mathematical models, actively participated in technology transfer programs, and conducted field test experiments. As a result of this work the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) concept was developed which helps insure optimum performance of an underground gasifier in a flat seam, and provides a means to produce multiple gasification cavities. The LLNL field work culminated in the Rocky Mountain I field test in which a gasifier using the CRIP technology generated gas of a quality equal to that of surface gasifiers. This last test and others preceding it have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt, that UCG is technically feasible in moderately thick coal seams at modest depths. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Underground tank vitrification: Engineering-scale test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, B.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination associated with underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites and other sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes such as underground tanks into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian with crystalline phases. A radioactive engineering-scale test performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of using ISV for this application. A 30-cm-diameter (12-in.-diameter) buried steel and concrete tank containing simulated tank sludge was vitrified, producing a solid block. The tank sludge used in the test simulated materials in tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system. The steel tank was converted to ingots near the bottom of the block and the concrete walls were dissolved into the resulting glass and crystalline block. Although one of the four moving electrodes froze'' in place about halfway into the test, operations were able to continue. The test was successfully completed and all the tank sludge was vitrified. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Probing New Physics with Underground Accelerators and Radioactive Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eder Izaguirre; Gordan Krnjaic; Maxim Pospelov

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    New light, weakly coupled particles can be efficiently produced at existing and future high-intensity accelerators and radioactive sources in deep underground laboratories. Once produced, these particles can scatter or decay in large neutrino detectors (e.g Super-K and Borexino) housed in the same facilities. We discuss the production of weakly coupled scalars $\\phi$ via nuclear de-excitation of an excited element into the ground state in two viable concrete reactions: the decay of the $0^+$ excited state of $^{16}$O populated via a $(p,\\alpha)$ reaction on fluorine and from radioactive $^{144}$Ce decay where the scalar is produced in the de-excitation of $^{144}$Nd$^*$, which occurs along the decay chain. Subsequent scattering on electrons, $e(\\phi,\\gamma)e$, yields a mono-energetic signal that is observable in neutrino detectors. We show that this proposed experimental set-up can cover new territory for masses $250\\, {\\rm keV}\\leq m_\\phi \\leq 2 m_e$ and couplings to protons and electrons, $10^{-11} new physics component to the neutrino and nuclear astrophysics programs at underground facilities.

  15. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  16. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  17. International Workshop on ecological aspects on underground mining of usable minerals deposits,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Workshop on ecological aspects on underground mining of usable minerals deposits, GIG Ecological aspects of underground mining of usable minerals deposits, Szczyrk : Poland (1993)" #12;2/12 I and exemplary programme for the reclamation of opencast mining sites at the Herault Operations Unit

  18. Permanent Closure of MFC Biodiesel Underground Storage Tank 99ANL00013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. Nisson

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the Materials and Fuels Complex biodiesel underground storage tank 99ANL00013 in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, “Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.”

  19. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve serves as one of the most important investments in reducing the Nation`s vulnerability to oil supply disruptions. This Quarterly Report highlights activities undertaken during the third quarter of calendar year 1993, including: inventory of petroleum products stored in the Reserve, under contract and in transit at the end of the calendar quarter; fill rate for the quarter and projected fill rate for the next calendar quarter; average price of the petroleum products acquired during the calendar quarter; current and projected storage capacity and plans to accelerate the acquisition or construction of such capacity; analysis of existing or anticipated problems with the acquisition and storage of petroleum products and future expansion of storage capacity; funds obligated by the Secretary from the SPR Petroleum Account and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Account during the prior calendar quarter and in total; and major environmental actions completed, in progress, or anticipated. Samples of the oil revealed two problems that, although readily correctable, have reduced the availability of some of the oil inventory for drawdown in the near-term. These problems are: (1) a higher-than-normal gas content in some of the crude oil, apparently from years of intrusion of methane form the surrounding salt formation; and (2) elevated temperatures of some of the crude oil, due to geothermal heating, that has increased the vapor pressure of the oil. Investigations are proceeding to determine the extent to which gas intrusion and geothermal heating are impacting the availability of oil for drawdown. Preliminary designs have been developed for systems to mitigate both problems.

  20. Einstein Room Reservations Rules and Regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Andrew

    Einstein Room Reservations Rules and Regulations Before Reservation: Requests are not confirmed Activities, Joan Junger, (718) 430-2105 or student.activities@einstein.yu.edu. A meeting or conversation in accordance to Albert Einstein College of Medicine's Alcohol Policy. Before your request is confirmed you must

  1. Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July 7, 2004 1 SPEEDTYPE / PROJECT PREFIXES Funds PLT Plant CIP Construction in Progress #12;Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July Annual Fund Gift RES Research TRN Training SPC Special Programs/Projects OSA Other Sponsored Activities

  2. Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July 7, 2004 1 ACCOUNTS 10000 - 199999 Asset of the following: ANN LON CIP OPR CSR OSA END PLT FHB RES INC SPC INS TRN All other SpeedTypes will populate the Account field for you. #12;Case Western Reserve University Chart of Accounts July 7, 2004 2 Asset Accounts

  3. GPRS-Based Cinema Ticket Reservation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science and Engineering. This MSC project implements a mobile Location Aware Cinema Ticket Reser- vationGPRS-Based Cinema Ticket Reservation System Mihai Balan Kongens Lyngby 2007 IMM-2007-7b #12 is called Cinema Ticket Reservation System and it can determine user's current position, allow users

  4. Reservations | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s OverviewB&W Y-12 LLC for the NationalReservations To

  5. Expansion analyses of strategic petroleum reserve in Bayou Choctaw : revised locations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a series of three-dimensional simulations for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The U.S. Department of Energy plans to leach two new caverns and convert one of the existing caverns within the Bayou Choctaw salt dome to expand its petroleum reserve storage capacity. An existing finite element mesh from previous analyses is modified by changing the locations of two caverns. The structural integrity of the three expansion caverns and the interaction between all the caverns in the dome are investigated. The impacts of the expansion on underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity are quantified. Two scenarios were used for the duration and timing of workover conditions where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric pressure. The three expansion caverns are predicted to be structurally stable against tensile failure for both scenarios. Dilatant failure is not expected within the vicinity of the expansion caverns. Damage to surface structures is not predicted and there is not a marked increase in surface strains due to the presence of the three expansion caverns. The wells into the caverns should not undergo yield. The results show that from a structural viewpoint, the locations of the two newly proposed expansion caverns are acceptable, and all three expansion caverns can be safely constructed and operated.

  6. Energy policy examined as strategic petroleum reserve is extended

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, M.

    1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reviews the agreement to extent the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SRV) for 4 more years to 1994, include in the reserve refined products,allows drawdown of reserves without a severe energy supply emergency', allows lease of reserves instead of purchase, allows for testing of drawdown capabilities. Also addressed is the call by political leaders for the development of a national energy policy.

  7. Arco's research and development efforts in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.J.; Bailey, D.W.; Brandenburg, C.F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco has studied underground coal gasification (UCG) since the mid-1970's in an attempt to advance the technology. This paper is a review of past and present UCG research and development efforts, starting with Arco's Rocky Hill No. 1 test. Although this first experiment gave Arco invaluable experience for conducting UCG in the deep, wet, thick coal resources of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, many formidable questions remain to be addressed with the operation of a larger-scale, multi-well test. Unresolved issues include such items as site selection, well design, well linking, overburden subsidence, ground water protection, surface treatment of product gas, and the interaction of simultaneously operating modules.

  8. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Method and apparatus for constructing an underground barrier wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Willis E. (W. Richland, WA); Dwyer, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for constructing a underground barrier wall structure using a jet grout injector subassembly comprising a pair of primary nozzles and a plurality of secondary nozzles, the secondary nozzles having a smaller diameter than the primary nozzles, for injecting grout in directions other than the primary direction, which creates a barrier wall panel having a substantially uniform wall thickess. This invention addresses the problem of the weak "bow-tie" shape that is formed during conventional jet injection when using only a pair of primary nozzles. The improvement is accomplished by using at least four secondary nozzles, of smaller diameter, located on both sides of the primary nozzles. These additional secondary nozzles spray grout or permeable reactive materials in other directions optimized to fill in the thin regions of the bow-tie shape. The result is a panel with increased strength and substantially uniform wall thickness.

  10. Twelve Year Study of Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Kay Adler Flitton; Timothy S. Yoder

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subsurface radioactive disposal facility located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho site contains neutron-activated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term corrosion study is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The study uses non-radioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, two types of stainless steels, welded stainless steel, welded nickel-chromium steel alloy, zirconium alloy, beryllium, and aluminum. Additionally, carbon steel (the material used in cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and duplex stainless steel (high-integrity containers) are also included in the study. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the corrosion rate results through twelve years of underground exposure.

  11. Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

  12. Review of underground coal gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL has conducted three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, WY. Three different linking methods were used: explosive fracturing, reverse burning and directional drilling. Air was injected on all three experiments and a steam/oxygen mixture during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the linking method didn't influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters, but declined from its initial value over a period of time. This was due to heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  13. Review of underground coal gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, WY, LLNL applied three different linking methods: explosive fracture, reverse burning, and directional drilling. Air was injected in all three experiments; a steam/oxygen mixture, during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the type of linking method did not influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters but declined from its initial value over a period of time because of heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  14. A sweep efficiency model for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Edgar, T.F.; Himmelblau, D.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model to predict sweep efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG) has been developed. The model is based on flow through rubble in the cavity as well as through the open channel and uses a tanks-in-series model for the flow characteristics. The model can predict cavity growth and product gas composition given the rate of water influx, roof collapse, and spalling. Self-gasification of coal is taken into account in the model, and the coal consumption rate and the location of the flame front are determined by material and energy balances at the char surface. The model has been used to predict the results of the Hoe Creek III field tests (for the air gasification period). Predictions made by the model such as cavity shape, product gas composition, temperature profile, and overall reaction stoichiometry between the injected oxygen and the coal show reasonable agreement with the field test results.

  15. US coal reserves: A review and update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  16. Strategic Petrolem Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 1986 the President reaffirmed the Administration's strong support for development of a 750 million-barrel Strategic Petroleum Reserve and committed the Administration to filling the Reserve throughout fiscal year 1987. During 1986, a number of bills related to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve were enacted. As of December 31, 1986, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil inventory was 511.6 million barrels of crude oil, an increase of 18.3 million barrels over the 1985 year end inventory of 493.3 million barrels. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was filled at an average fill rate of 51,430 barrels per day during 1986. During the calendar year 1986, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve increased its crude oil storage capability from 509.4 million barrels to 550.7 million barrels, adding approximately 27.4 million barrels of new storage capacity at the Bryan Mound storage site and 13.9 million barrels at the West Hackberry storage site. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985, enacted July 2, 1985, the Department of Energy conducted a test sale of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil between November 18, 1985 and January 31, 1986, to test the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's drawdown and distribution capabilities. In addition to the test sale, three subsequent tests of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's physical drawdown capabilities were conducted. Substantial progress was made in distribution enhancement program during 1986, with the construction of a 46-mile oil distribution pipeline from Bryan Mound to the ARCO common carrier pipeline system at Texas City, TX. 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. California Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunYear Jan

  18. California Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunYear

  19. California Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  20. Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21 3.96 1967-2010 Pipeline andDecade

  1. Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21 3.96 1967-2010 Pipeline

  2. Kentucky Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) DecadeYear(MillionDecade Year-0

  3. Kentucky Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) DecadeYear(MillionDecade

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This report combines the fourth quarter 1993 Quarterly Report with the 1993 Annual Report. Key activities described include appropriations; life extension planning; expansion planning; Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil acquisition; the oil stabilization program; and the refined petroleum product reserve test programs. Sections of this report also describe the program mission; the storage facility development program; environmental compliance; budget and finance; and drawdown and distribution.

  6. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report briefly covers the program legislation and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Plan and its amendments. The current status of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is outlined in Section II and the appropriations, budget and finances to date are provided in Section III. Section IV addresses organization, management, and contractor support. A discussion of the drawdown system and vulnerability impact are set forth in Section V. The Appendix contains detailed information on the status of each Strategic Petroleum Reserve site and crude oil specificcations. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Application of geological studies to overburden collapse at underground coal gasification experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethridge, F.G.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Burns, L.K.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed geologic and mineralogic studies were conducted on the Hanna, Wyoming, and Hoe Creek, Wyoming, underground coal gasification sites. These studies demonstrate the importance geologic factors have on controlling overburden collapse into the reactor cavity during and after coal gasification and on subsequent environmental problems. Parameters that control the collapse of overburden material into the reactor cavity include: duration of the burn; maximum span of unsupported roof rock; lateral and vertical homogeneity, permeability and rock strength; and thickness of overburden materials. At the Hoe Creek I experiment, a small reactor cavity and a correspondingly short maximum span of unsupported roof rock consisting of fine-grained, low permeability overbank deposits resulted in minimal collapse. At the Hoe Creek II experiment, a significant amount of collapse occurred due to an increased span of unsupported roof rock comprised of poorly consolidated, more permeable channel sandstones and a limited amount of overburden mudstones and siltstones. Roof rock collapse extended to the surface at the Hoe Creek III experiment where the roof rock consisted of highly permeable, poorly consolidated channel sandstones. The unit comprising the reactor cavity roof rock at the Hanna II experimental site is a laterally continuous lacustrine delta deposit, which primarily consists of sandstones with lesser amounts of interbedded siltstones and claystones. Calcite cement has reduced permeability and interstitial waters which probably kept spalling of the roof rock to a minimum. Consequently, roof rock collapse at the Hanna II experiment was much less extensive than at the Hoe Creek II and III experiments.

  8. Fundamental investigations of underground coal gasification. Final report, March 1982-December 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents several mathematical models of underground coal-gasification processes. Through these models, a much better theoretical understanding of underground coal gasification becomes possible. Specific phenomena studied were the effects of high-amplitude pressure oscillation, reverse combustion, spontaneous ignition at high pressures, an analytical model of reverse-combustion channeling, an exploratory study of electrolinking, cavity-growth behavior, and a technical evaluation of the Forestburg underground coal-gasification field test at Forestburg, Alberta. This test is especially interesting because the site was escavated after completion of the experiment.

  9. Steam tracer experiment at the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water plays an important role in in-situ coal gasification. To better understand this role, we conducted a steam tracer test during the later stages of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test. Deuterium oxide was used as the tracer. This report describes the tracer test and the analysis of the data obtained. The analysis indicates that at Hoe Creek the injected steam interacts with a large volume of water as it passes through the underground system. We hypothesize that this water is undergoing continual reflux in the underground system, resulting in a tracer response typical of a well-stirred tank.

  10. World petroleum resources and reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 1965 the world produced and consumed only 10% of the oil available on this planet; between 1965 and 2040 we will use up 80% of the remaining reserves, leaving only 10% of the resource for the years to follow. Clearly, the epoch of petroleum is a transitory one. Nevertheless, petroleum is at present the most important component of the energy base supporting the industrialized world. This book describes and analyzes the geological basis for the current world petroleum situation. Mr. Riva exaplains the formation and accumulation of conventional and unconventional oil and gas, methods used by geologists in search for petroleum and petroleum-containing basins, and techniques for petroleum production. He then discusses the uneven distribution of the world's oil, focusing on the Arabian-Iranian basin, which contains half of the world's known recoverable reserves, and examines the petroleum prospects in several distinctly different areas of the world. The United States is presented as an example of an area in general decline already exhaustively explored. In contrast, the case study of the Soviet petroleum industry and a geological assessment of Soviet production prospects show a region at the peak of its oil production, with its decline about to begin. He chooses Indonesia as the focus for a typical Southeast Asian petroleum history and develops a profile of Mexico's petroleum situation as an example of an area with increasing production potential. Mr. Riva concludes with an assessment of the prospects for future world petroleum discoveries and a geologically based estimate of the earth's total original stock of recoverable petroleum.

  11. Aurora Cassandra Elmore ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ©[2009] Aurora Cassandra Elmore ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;LATE PLEISTOCENE CHANGES IN NORTHERN COMPONENT WATER: INFERENCES FROM GEOCHEMICAL AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL RECORDS FROM GARDAR DRIFT by AURORA FROM GEOCHEMICAL AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL RECORDS FROM GARDAR DRIFT by AURORA CASSANDRA ELMORE Dissertation

  12. Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved. Investitionsmanagement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved. Investitionsmanagement Wie steuert man erfolgreich Investitionen? - Tools eines erfolgreichen, globalen Industrieunternehmens - Michael Sigmund CFO Siemens Investitionsplanung Berlin, 26. November, 2009 #12;Page 2 November 26, 2009 Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights

  13. A new reef marine reserve in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A new reef marine reserve in the southern Arabian Gulf ­ Jebel Ali (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) Just in time to make a major contribution to IYOR, Dubai municipality (United Arab Emirates) declared

  14. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    supplements the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve, a one million barrel supply of ultra-low sulfur diesel, which was used for the first time by first-responders and to fill...

  15. History of Heating Oil Reserve Releases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur distillate (diesel), was created to build a buffer to allow commercial companies to compensate for...

  16. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  17. Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Underground Construction, Inc.- WEA-2009-02

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Pacific Underground Construction, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  18. REGIONAL THERMOHYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AN UNDERGROUND REPOSITORY FOR NUCLEAR WASTES IN HARD ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    underground repository for nuclear waste in hard rock, LBL-and Vath, J.E. , Nuclear waste projections and source-termthe Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, Material

  19. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  20. EA-1219: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming.

  1. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  2. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground Storage of Natural Gas in the United States andEnergy Information Agency (2002). U.S. Natural Gas Storage.www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/info_glance/storage.html

  3. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

  4. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA); Udell, Kent (Berkeley, CA); Buetnner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  5. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyomingissue of Middle East oil reserves has drawn public scrutinyMiddle East national oil reserve figures are exaggerated.

  6. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. The strengthening and repair of underground structures: A new approach to the management of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents three closely related ideas and technologies: (1) The secure, repairable, long time confinement of nuclear radioactive waste underground by a large surrounding region of compressive overstress; (2) The inherent tectonic weakness and vulnerability of the normal underground environment and its modification by overstress; (3) The process of creating overstress by the sequential periodic high pressure injection of a finite gel strength rapid setting grout. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities Setting Much of the work done under the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of Environmental, soil, groundwater, surface water, or other environmental media. Update This section will discuss the EM

  9. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities Setting Much of Environmental Management (EM) work done on the ORR is performed as a result, soil, groundwater, surface water, or other environmental media. Most of the remaining part of EM work

  10. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities Much of the work done under the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office of Environmental Management (EM and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 1992 Federal Facility

  11. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities Much of the work accomplished by the DOE Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 1992 Federal Facility

  12. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Environmental Management and Reservation Activities 3-1 3. Environmental Management and Reservation Activities Much of the work accomplished by the DOE Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (DOE- EM that remain in structures, buildings, facilities, soil, groundwater, surface water, or other environmental

  13. Annual report of operations. [Naval Petroleum Reserves No. 1, 2, 3; oil shale reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves during FY 1980 deliver 59,993,213 bbl of crude oil and substantial quantities of natural gas, butane, propane and natural gasoline to the United States market. During September, Naval Petroleum Reserve oil was utilized to resume filling the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. During FY 1980, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, became the largest producing oil field in California and the second largest producing field in the United States. Production at the end of September was 165,000 bbl/d; production is expected to peak at about 190,000 bbl/d early in calender year 1982. Production from Naval Petroleum Reserves Nos. 2 and 3 in California and Wyoming, contributed 1,101,582 and 1,603,477 bbl of crude oil to the market, respectively. Enhanced oil recovery work has been inititated at Naval Petroleum Reserve no. 3. Total revenues from the Naval Petroleum Reserves during FY 1980 were 1.6 billion. The three Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado and Utah have substantial potential. In addition to containing approximately 2.5 billion bbl recoverable shale oil. They probably contain significant quantities of conventional oil and gas.

  14. Rawlins UCG (underground coal gasification) Demonstration Project site characterization report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy and Energy International, Inc. have entered into a Cooperative Agreement to conduct a cost-shared UCG field test demonstrating the operation of commercial scale Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) on steeply dipping bed modules to provide synthesis gas for a small scale commercial ammonia plant. The field test and the commercial ammonia plant will be located at the North Knobs site near Rawlins, Wyoming. During this demonstration test, two or more UCG modules will be operated simultaneously until one module is completely consumed and an additional module is brought on line. During this period, the average coal gasification rate will be between 500 and 1200 tons per day. A portion of the raw UCG product gas will be cleaned and converted into a synthesis gas, which will be used as feedstock to a 400--500 ton per day ammonia plant. The UCG facility will continue to operate subsequent to the test demonstration to provide feedstock for the commercial plant. The objective of the hydrologic site characterization program is to provide an accurate representation of the hydrologic environment within the area to be gasified. This information will aid in the placement and operation of the process wells in relation to the ground water source. 21 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Rawlins UCG (underground coal gasification) Demonstration Project site characterization report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy and Energy International, Inc. have entered into a Cooperative Agreement to conduct a cost-shared UCG field test demonstrating the operation of commercial scale underground coal gasification (UCG) on steeply dipping bed modules to provide synthesis gas for a small scale commercial ammonia plant. The field test and the commercial ammonia plant will be located at the North Knobs site near Rawlins, Wyoming. During this demonstration test, two or more UCG modules will be operated simultaneously until one module is completely consumed and an additional module is brought on line. During this period, the average coal gasification rate will be between 500 and 1200 tons per day. A portion of the raw UCG product gas will be cleaned and converted into a synthesis gas, which will be used as feedstock to a 400--500 ton per day ammonia plant. The UCG facility will continue to operate subsequent to the test demonstration to provide feedstock for the commercial plant. The objective of the geologic site characterization program is to provide a descriptive model that accurately represents the geologic environment of the coal resource that is to be gasified. This model is to be used as an aid in understanding the hydrology of the coal bearing sequence, as a framework for installation of the process wells and the subsequent exploitation of the coal resources. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Effects of aquifer interconnection resulting from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory evaluated the effects of aquifer interconnection caused by the collapse of cavities formed in coal seams by two small underground coal gasification experiments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Flow models and field measurements were used to show that the water from one or both of the upper aquifers enters the collapse, rubble and flows down to the lowest aquifer (the gasified coal seam) where it flows away from the collapse zones. The investigations showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the collapse rubble is less than that of the aquifers and provides only a moderately permeable interconnection between them, a marked reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the gasified coal seam near the collapse zones restricts the flow in the seam, away from them; changes in the hydraulic head and flow patterns caused by aquifer interconnection extend generally only 60-90 m away from the experiment sites, whereas flow in the uppermost aquifer at one of the sites may be influenced as far away as 122 m. At both sites, the aquifer interconnection allows water from the uppermost (sand) aquifer, which contains the poorest quality water of the 3 aquifers, to enter one or both of the underlying aquifers.

  17. Analysis of mathematical models of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fausett, L.V.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are reported of a survey and comparison of forward combustion underground coal gasification (UCG) models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study were mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The computer code for each model was implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses were made with each of the programs using data to simulate six representative UCG field tests. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam. Modifications were necessary to two models in order for them to simulate oxygen/steam injection experiments. A mistake in the computer code for one model was discovered and corrected; this enabled the code to execute with data from one field test for which the original version had failed. An alternate numerical solution technique for one mdoel was studied, and improved correlations for the model were developed. An approximate analytical solution to the model was obtained that is valid over the region where difficulties were encountered, using both multiple shooting and collocation numerical solutions. The applicability of each model to the various conditions occurring in the different field tests was determined.

  18. Proceedings of the thirteenth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.W.; Barone, S.P. (eds.)

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thirteenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office and Gas Research Institute of Chicago, Illinois, and hosted by the Western Research Institute of Laramie, Wyoming. The symposium was held in Laramie, Wyoming, during the period, August 24 to 26, 1987. Papers printed in these Proceedings were reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. They have not been refereed nor have they been edited after receipt for publishing. The purpose for this annual meeting is to provide an opportunity for scientists working in the technology to present their research results, exchange ideas, and discuss their future plans. Nearly 100 attendees from industry, academia, Government, and eight countries, including Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Japan, West Germany, India, and Yugoslavia participated. Forty-seven papers were presented in five formal sessions covering Technology, International, Environmental, and General Topics and one informal poster session dominantly covering laboratory and modeling studies. Industrial papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Lateral Distribution for Aligned Events in Muon Groups Deep Underground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. L. Tsyabuk; R. A. Mukhamedshin; Yu. V. Stenkin

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper concerns the so-called aligned events observed in cosmic rays. The phenomenon of the alignment of the most energetic subcores of gamma-ray--hadron ($\\gamma-h$) families (particles of the highest energies in the central EAS core) was firstly found in the "Pamir" emulsion chamber experiment and related to a coplanar particle production at $E_0>10^{16}$ eV. Here a separation distribution (distances between pairs of muons) for aligned events has been analyzed throughout muon groups measured by Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope (BUST) for threshold energies $0.85 \\div 3.2$ TeV during a period of 7.7 years. Only muon groups of multiplicity $m\\geq 4$ with inclined trajectories for an interval of zenith angles $50^\\circ - 60^\\circ$ were selected for the analysis. The analysis has revealed that the distribution complies with the exponential law. Meanwhile the distributions become steeper with the increase of threshold energy. There has been no difference between the lateral distribution of all the groups and the distribution of the aligned groups.

  20. Simulation of neutrons produced by high-energy muons underground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lindote; H. M. Araujo; V. A. Kudryavtsev; M. Robinson

    2009-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the Monte Carlo simulation used to interpret the measurement of the muon-induced neutron flux in the Boulby Underground Laboratory (North Yorkshire, UK), recently performed using a large scintillator veto deployed around the ZEPLIN-II WIMP detector. Version 8.2 of the GEANT4 toolkit was used after relevant benchmarking and validation of neutron production models. In the direct comparison between Monte Carlo and experimental data, we find that the simulation produces a 1.8 times higher neutron rate, which we interpret as over-production in lead by GEANT4. The dominance of this material in neutron production allows us to estimate the absolute neutron yield in lead as (1.31 +/- 0.06) x 10^(-3) neutrons/muon/(g/cm^2) for a mean muon energy of 260 GeV. Simulated nuclear recoils due to muon-induced neutrons in the ZEPLIN-II target volume (~1 year exposure) showed that, although a small rate of events is expected from this source of background in the energy range of interest for dark matter searches, no event survives an anti-coincidence cut with the veto.

  1. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  2. Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

  3. Process analysis and simulation of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation pertains to the prediction of cavity growth and the prediction of product gas composition in underground coal gasification (ICG) via mathematical model. The large-scale simulation model of the UCG process is comprised of a number of sub-models, each describing definable phenomena in the process. Considerable effort has been required in developing these sub-models, which are described in this work. In the first phase of the investigation, the flow field in field experiments was analyzed using five selected flow models and a combined model was developed based on the Hoe Creek II field experimental observations. The combined model was a modified tanks-in-series mode, and each tank consisted of a void space and a rubble zone. In the second phase of this work, a sub-model for self-gasification of coal was developed and simulated to determine the effect of water influx on the consumption of coal and whether self-gasification of coal alone was shown to be insufficient to explain the observed cavity growth. In the third phase of this work, a new sweep efficiency model was developed and coded to predict the cavity growth and product gas composition. Self-gasification of coal, water influx, and roof collapse and spalling were taken into account in the model. Predictions made by the model showed reasonable agreement with the experimental observations and calculations.

  4. NREL Variability and Reserves Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; King, J.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional variability and uncertainty increase reserve requirements. In this light, this presentation discusses how use of generation reserves can be optimized for managing variability and uncertainty. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Provided a method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) Method is based on statistical analysis of historical time series data; (3) Reserves are dynamic, produced for each hour; (4) Reserve time series are calculated from and synchronized to simulation data; (5) PROMOD can not model directly, but workarounds exist for regulation and spin; and (6) Other production modeling packages have varying capability for reserves modeling.

  5. Process Limits on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Limits Process Limits Limit Hard Soft core file size (blocks) 0 unlimited data seg size (kbytes) unlimited unlimited scheduling priority 0 0 file size (blocks) unlimited...

  6. Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County, Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County, Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement. Example of loan loss reserve agreement.

  7. New, improved equation solves for volatile oil, condensate reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.P. (Petroleum Recovery Research Inst., Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generalized material-balance equation (GMBE) can be applied to the full range of reservoir fluids, including volatile oil and gas condensate. The GMBE replaces the nearly 60-year-old conventional material-balance equation (CMBE). Material balance methods are routinely used by petroleum engineers to estimate reserves. The so-called straight-line methods are the most common. Two of the most popular are: P/z-plot for estimating gas reserves in a dry-gas reservoir; and Havlena and Odeh method for estimating original oil-in-place (N) and original gas-in-place (G) in a black-oil reservoir. A major shortcoming of these and other straight-line methods is that none apply to the full range of reservoir fluids and very few, if any, deal satisfactorily with volatile oil and rich gas condensate. Also, the limits of the methods are not well defined. As drilling goes deeper and more volatile oil and gas-condensate reservoirs are discovered, there is a growing need for a general straight-line method to estimate N and G. For the GMBE, no restrictions are placed on the initial fluid compositions.

  8. EA-1943: Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment Project (LBNF/DUNE) at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois and the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of using the existing Main Injector Accelerator at Fermilab to produce a pure beam of muon neutrinos. The neutrinos would be examined at a "near detector" proposed to be constructed at Fermilab, and at a "far detector," at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. NOTE: This Project was previously designated (DOE/EA-1799).

  9. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

  10. Methamphetamine and Tribal Criminal Jurisdiction on the Wind River Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Mandy

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The drug methamphetamine is creating an epidemic on Tribal reservations. Non-Indian drug dealers are targeting vulnerable addicted populations, including the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming in hopes to replace the alcohol ...

  11. The value of United States oil and gas reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this research is to estimate a time series, starting in 1979, for the value of in-ground oil reserves and natural gas reserves in the United States. Relatively good statistics exist for the physical quantities. ...

  12. air reserve base: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Dja reserve has not yet been subject to forest logging. But the high processing of timber extraction and the commercial hunting of large mammals around the reserve, result...

  13. abnormal coronary reserve: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Dja reserve has not yet been subject to forest logging. But the high processing of timber extraction and the commercial hunting of large mammals around the reserve, result...

  14. alveolar microvascular reserves: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Dja reserve has not yet been subject to forest logging. But the high processing of timber extraction and the commercial hunting of large mammals around the reserve, result...

  15. advance lightpath reservation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Dja reserve has not yet been subject to forest logging. But the high processing of timber extraction and the commercial hunting of large mammals around the reserve, result...

  16. areas oak ridge reservation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Dja reserve has not yet been subject to forest logging. But the high processing of timber extraction and the commercial hunting of large mammals around the reserve, result...

  17. Top 100 Operators: Proved Reserves and Production, Operated vs...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Top 100 Operators: Proved Reserves and Production, Operated vs Owned, 2009 1 Top 100 Operators: Proved Reserves and Production, Operated vs Owned, 2009 The operator of an oil or...

  18. additional reserve recovery: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive Loss Reserving for Dependent Lines of Business By Klaus D. Schmidt Lehrstuhl f models for loss reserving and study their impact on extensions of the additive method and...

  19. Five more spring nature walks planned on Oak Ridge Reservation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reservation. April 4's nature walk will feature frog calls and bat monitoring. Photo: W.K. Roy. An American toad captured in mid-croak on the Oak Ridge Reservation. April 4's...

  20. Draft 'Michigan Saves' Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund. Author: State of Michigan

  1. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM...

  2. Structural analysis of underground gunite storage tanks. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the structural analysis of the 50-ft diameter underground gunite storage tanks constructed in 1943 and located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) South Tank Farm, known as Facility 3507 in the 3500-3999 area. The six gunite tanks (W-5 through W-10) are spaced in a 2 {times} 3 matrix at 60 ft on centers with 6 ft of soil cover. Each tank (Figures 1, 2, and 3) has an inside diameter of 50 ft, a 12-ft vertical sidewall having a thickness of 6 in. (there is an additional 1.5-in. inner liner for much of the height), and a spherical domed roof (nominal thickness is 10 in.) rising another 6 ft, 3 in. at the center of the tank. The thickness of both the sidewall and the domed roof increases to 30 in. near their juncture. The tank floor is nominally 3-in. thick, except at the juncture with the wall where the thickness increases to 9 in. The tanks are constructed of gunite (a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water in the form of a mortar) sprayed from the nozzle of a cement gun against a form or a solid surface. The floor and the dome are reinforced with one layer of welded wire mesh and reinforcing rods placed in the radial direction. The sidewall is reinforced with three layers of welded wire mesh, vertical {1/2}-in. rods, and 21 horizontal rebar hoops (attached to the vertical rods) post-tensioned to 35,000 psi stress. The haunch at the sidewall/roof junction is reinforced with 17 horizontal rebar hoops post-tensioned with 35,000 to 40,000 psi stress. The yield strength of the post-tensioning steel rods is specified to be 60,000 psi, and all other steel is 40,000 psi steel. The specified 28-day design strength of the gunite is 5,000 psi.

  3. LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project annual report - fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.; O'Neal, E.M. (eds.)

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 to 1979. Five small field experiments, the large-block tests, were completed from 1981 to 1982 at the exposed coal face in the WIDCO coal mine near Centralia, Washington. A larger test at the same location, the partial-seam CRIP test, was completed during fiscal year 1984. In conjunction with the DOE and an industrial group lead by the Gas Research Institute, we have prepared a preliminary design for a large-scale test at the WIDCO site. The planned test features dual injection and production wells, module interaction, and consumption of 20,000 tons of coal during a hundred-day steam-oxygen gasification. During fiscal year 1984, we documented the large-block excavations. The cavities were elongated, the cavity cross sections were elliptical, and the cavities contained ash and slag at the bottom, char and dried coal above that, and a void at the top. The results from the large-block tests provided enough data to allow us to construct a composite model, CAVSM. Preliminary results from the model agree well with the product-gas chemistry and cavity shape observed in the large-block tests. Other models and techniques developed during the year include a transient, moving-front code, a two-dimensional, reactive-flow code using the method of lines, and a wall-recession-rate model. In addition, we measured the rate of methane decomposition in the hot char bed and developed an engineering rate expression to estimate the magnitude of the methane-decomposition reaction. 16 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.

  4. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  5. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  6. ERS 14.3 Underground and Above Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tanks FPS 12.1, 1/9/01

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this surveillance is to verify underground and above ground diesel storage tanks are maintained, monitored, configured and marked as required.  These surveillance activities...

  7. ERS 14.3 Underground and Above Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tanks FPS 12.1, 1/9/01

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     The objective of this surveillance is to verify underground and above ground diesel storage tanks are maintained, monitored, configured and marked as required.  These surveillance activities...

  8. Dalhousie Libraries e-Reserves Service Library Readings in OWL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dellaire, Graham

    will look like this: #12;Dalhousie Libraries can Provide URLs to these Types of Electronic MaterialDalhousie Libraries e-Reserves Service Library Readings in OWL #12;Course Reserves Faculty now have 2 options for Reserve materials: NEW Option: Upload a course reading list and Library staff will

  9. RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukai, Tomoki

    RICSK: HPCI 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 1 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 2 1. RICSK 30 2. RICSK 1 (:30) 3. RICSK1 RICS 2013/7/30 RICSK All Rights Reserved, Copyright 2013 Riken, Japan. 3 Simulation setting RICS Visio 3

  10. Alberta's Energy Reserves 2007 and Supply/Demand Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Alberta's Energy Reserves 2007 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2008-2017 0 ST98-2008 Energy Resources RESOURCES CONSERVATION BOARD ST98-2008: Alberta's Energy Reserves 2007 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2008: Reserves Andy Burrowes, Rick Marsh, Nehru Ramdin, and Curtis Evans; Supply/Demand and Economics

  11. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to submit annual and quarterly reports to the President and the Congress on activities to develop the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Additional prospective information related to the development and fill of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is required by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1986. This report combines the fourth quarter 1988 Quarterly Report with the 1988 Annual Report. Topics addressed include: storage facilities development; oil acquisition and transportation; budget and finance; drawdown and distribution system and vulnerability impact; other project activities.

  12. Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wellhead PriceProved Reserves

  13. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. nature geoscience | VOL 1 | JULY 2008 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 409

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    Carolina 27695-8208, USA; 2 Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA; 3 Energy to fulfil growing needs. Farmers in the United States, Europe and Asia have responded by increasing progress in controlling these emissions, but US regulations remain inadequate. Wet deposition Dry

  14. Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships. Specifically, we conducted a parameter sensitivity analysis of the influence of thermal and hydrological properties of the host coal, caprock, and bedrock on cavity temperature and steam production.

  15. Fundamental investigations of underground coal gasification. Annual report Mar 82-Mar 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, R.D.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal deposits in the Appalachian and Midwest Coal Regions consist primarily of thin relatively deep seams of swelling bituminous coal, but little scientific effort in the United States has been directed toward underground coal gasification in these important industrial areas. In Europe, however, major work is under way on underground coal gasification in thin, deep seams of swelling coal. The principal investigator and a graduate student are participating in field tests in Belgium and supporting laboratory experiments in Germany. Mathematical models are being developed to interpret these experimental data, and a better understanding of the underground coal gasification process is emerging. This understanding is essential for evaluating potential problems, for devising solutions to such problems and for designing field tests.

  16. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  17. Characterization of the seismic environment at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, South Dakota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Harms; Fausto Acernese; Fabrizio Barone; Imre Bartos; Mark Beker; J. F. J. van den Brand; Nelson Christensen; Michael Coughlin; Riccardo DeSalvo; Steven Dorsher; Jaret Heise; Shivaraj Kandhasamy; Vuk Mandic; Szabolcs Márka; Guido Müller; Luca Naticchioni; Thomas O'Keefe; David S. Rabeling; Angelo Sajeva; Tom Trancynger; Vinzenz Wand

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of seismometers is being developed at the Sanford Underground Laboratory, the former Homestake mine, in South Dakota to study the properties of underground seismic fields and Newtonian noise, and to investigate the possible advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. Seismic data were analyzed to characterize seismic noise and disturbances. External databases were used to identify sources of seismic waves: ocean-wave data to identify sources of oceanic microseisms, and surface wind-speed data to investigate correlations with seismic motion as a function of depth. In addition, sources of events contributing to the spectrum at higher frequencies are characterized by studying the variation of event rates over the course of a day. Long-term observations of spectral variations provide further insight into the nature of seismic sources. Seismic spectra at three different depths are compared, establishing the 4100-ft level as a world-class low seismic-noise environment.

  18. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  19. Ultra-stable performance of an underground-based laser interferometer observatory for gravitational waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Sato; S. Miyoki; S. Telada; D. Tatsumi; A. Araya; M. Ohashi; Y. Totsuka; M. Fukushima; M. -K. Fujimoto

    2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to detect the rare astrophysical events that generate gravitational wave (GW) radiation, sufficient stability is required for GW antennas to allow long-term observation. In practice, seismic excitation is one of the most common disturbances effecting stable operation of suspended-mirror laser interferometers. A straightforward means to allow more stable operation is therefore to locate the antenna, the ``observatory'', at a ``quiet'' site. A laser interferometer gravitational wave antenna with a baseline length of 20m (LISM) was developed at a site 1000m underground, near Kamioka, Japan. This project was a unique demonstration of a prototype laser interferometer for gravitational wave observation located underground. The extremely stable environment is the prime motivation for going underground. In this paper, the demonstrated ultra-stable operation of the interferometer and a well-maintained antenna sensitivity are reported.

  20. Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED ______________________________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jefferys, William

    : ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pick-up All orders are to be picked up at the Texas Union Hospitality Center desk in the south end West#12;#12;Texas Union Pizza Order Form ROOM RESERVED with the Texas Union Policies and Procedures. I understand that I will be held responsible for any debts incurred

  1. Determination of Optimal Electricity Reserve Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    load demand forecast error, the wind production forecast error and the failures of the power plants of wind power production and power load demand 14 2.4.2 Mega Watts failed to avoid it is to allocate electricity reserves and use them to balance up the system if required

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  3. WELCOME TO THE ELECTRONIC RESERVES COURSE READINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    WELCOME TO THE ELECTRONIC RESERVES COURSE READINGS NOTE: THIS MATERIAL MAY BE PROTECTED-489 File # 020702008_Shrader #12;Science versus educated guessing - risk assessment, nuclear waste is irrational and ignorant in fearing risks such as permanent disposal of radioactive waste. In recent

  4. Revolving Loan Funds and Loan Loss Reserves

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) State Energy Program (SEP) guidance to states, Indian tribes, and overseas U.S. territories receiving SEP grants under the 209 Recovery Act dealing with loan loss reserves for revolving loan funds.

  5. VEHICLE RESERVATION DO NOT WRITE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    VEHICLE RESERVATION DO NOT WRITE IN SHADED AREAS For Information Call 764-2485 FAX # (76)3-1470 Vehicle No. License OK VEHICLE DAMAGE INSPECTION Circle area of damage and/or describe below: OUTGOING for Rules & Regulations for Vehicle Rentals Reference Number 5 digit # Date Department Short code Requestor

  6. Strategic petroleum reserve crude oil assays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet provides background information on the purchase of crude oils for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), procedures used to assess quality of the stored petroleum, and methods used in generating assays of the various streams which may be sold. Current assays of the eight SPR crude oil streams are included.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  8. Fundamental Drivers of the Cost and Price of Operating Reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M. R.; Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating reserves impose a cost on the electric power system by forcing system operators to keep partially loaded spinning generators available for responding to system contingencies variable demand. In many regions of the United States, thermal power plants provide a large fraction of the operating reserve requirement. Alternative sources of operating reserves, such as demand response and energy storage, may provide more efficient sources of these reserves. However, to estimate the potential value of these services, the cost of reserve services under various grid conditions must first be established. This analysis used a commercial grid simulation tool to evaluate the cost and price of several operating reserve services, including spinning contingency reserves and upward regulation reserves. These reserve products were evaluated in a utility system in the western United States, considering different system flexibilities, renewable energy penetration, and other sensitivities. The analysis demonstrates that the price of operating reserves depend highly on many assumptions regarding the operational flexibility of the generation fleet, including ramp rates and the fraction of fleet available to provide reserves.

  9. Advance Network Reservation and Provisioning for Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS [3], by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes guaranteed bandwidth of secure virtual circuits at a certain time, for a certain bandwidth and length of time. Though OSCARS operates within the ESnet, it also supplies end-to-end provisioning between multiple autonomous network domains. OSCARS gets reservation requests through a standard web service interface, and conducts a Quality-of-service (QoS) path for bandwidth guarantees. Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) and the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) enable to create a virtual circuit using Label Switched Paths (LSP's). It contains three main components: a reservation manager, a bandwidth scheduler, and a path setup subsystem. The bandwidth scheduler needs to have information about the current and future states of the network topology in order to accomplish end-to-end bandwidth guaranteed paths.

  10. Oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. Quarterly progress report, July-September, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical progress made for the second quarter, July 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983 are described for three areas, oil shale, tar sand and underground gasification of coal. The oil shale program is divided into the following tasks: chemistry and physics; retort bed analysis; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. The tar sand investigation covers: recovery processes; preparation; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. Underground coal gasification covers: recovery processes; field project evaluation; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. An executive summary is provided for the three programs. 19 figures, 23 tables.

  11. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  12. Reserves determination using type-curve matching and EMB methods in the Medicine Hat shallow gas field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, S.L. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Cochrane, P.J.R. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Cold Lake, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tight, shallow gas reservoirs in the Western Canada basin present a number of unique challenges in determining reserves accurately. Traditional methods such as decline analysis and material balance are inaccurate owing to the formation`s low permeabilities and poor pressure data. The low permeabilities cause long transient periods that are not separated easily from production decline with conventional decline analysis, resulting in lower confidence in selecting the appropriate decline characteristics (exponential or harmonic), which effects recovery factors and remaining reserves significantly. Limited, poor-quality pressure data and commingled production from the three producing zones results in nonrepresentative pressure data and hence inaccurate material-balance analysis. This paper presents two new methods of reserve evaluation that address the problems described above for tight, shallow gas in the Medicine Hat field. The first method applies type-curve matching, which combines the analytical pressure solutions of the diffusivity equation (transient) with the empirical decline equation. The second method is an extended material balance (EMB), which incorporates the gas deliverability theory to allow selection of appropriate p/z derivatives without relying on pressure data. Excellent results were obtained when these two methods were applied to 10 properties that gather gas from 2,300 wells. The two independent techniques resulted in similar production forecasts and reserves, confirming their validity. They proved to be valuable, practical tools in overcoming the various challenges of tight, shallow gas and in improving the accuracy in gas-reserves determination in the Medicine Hat field.

  13. Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A very important aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970's. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

  14. Analysis, comparison, and modeling of radar interferometry, date of surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Phase I: underground explosions, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, W; Vincent, P; Walter, W

    1999-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have previously presented simple elastic deformation modeling results for three classes of seismic events of concern in monitoring the CTBT--underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Those results explored the theoretical detectability of each event type using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) based on commercially available satellite data. In those studies we identified and compared the characteristics of synthetic interferograms that distinguish each event type, as well the ability of the interferograms to constrain source parameters. These idealized modeling results, together with preliminary analysis of InSAR data for the 1995 mb 5.2 Solvay mine collapse in southwestern Wyoming, suggested that InSAR data used in conjunction with regional seismic monitoring holds great potential for CTBT discrimination and seismic source analysis, as well as providing accurate ground truth parameters for regional calibration events. In this paper we further examine the detectability and ''discriminating'' power of InSAR by presenting results from InSAR data processing, analysis and modeling of the surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions. Specifically, we present results of a detailed study of coseismic and postseismic surface deformation signals associated with underground nuclear and chemical explosion tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Several interferograms were formed from raw ERS-1/2 radar data covering different time spans and epochs beginning just prior to the last U.S. nuclear tests in 1992 and ending in 1996. These interferograms have yielded information about the nature and duration of the source processes that produced the surface deformations associated with these events. A critical result of this study is that significant post-event surface deformation associated with underground nuclear explosions detonated at depths in excess of 600 meters can be detected using differential radar interferometry. An immediate implication of this finding is that underground nuclear explosions may not need to be captured coseismically by radar images acquired before and after an event in order to be detectable. This has obvious advantages in CTBT monitoring since suspect seismic events--which usually can be located within a 100 km by 100 km area of an ERS-1/2 satellite frame by established seismic methods-can be imaged after the event has been identified and located by existing regional seismic networks. Key Words: InSAR, SLC images, interferogram, synthetic interferogram, ERS-1/2 frame, phase unwrapping, DEM, coseismic, postseismic, source parameters.

  15. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the ability to detect evidence for an underground facility using InSAR depends on the displacement sensitivity and spatial resolution of the interferogram, as well as on the size and depth of the facility and the time since its completion. The methodology development described in this report focuses on the exploitation of synthetic aperture radar data that are available commercially from a number of satellite missions. Development of the method involves three components: (1) Evaluation of the capability of InSAR to detect and characterize underground facilities ; (2) inversion of InSAR data to infer the location, depth, shape and volume of a subsurface facility; and (3) evaluation and selection of suitable geomechanical forward models to use in the inversion. We adapted LLNL's general-purpose Bayesian Markov Chain-Monte Carlo procedure, the 'Stochastic Engine' (SE), to carry out inversions to characterize subsurface void geometries. The SE performs forward simulations for a large number of trial source models to identify the set of models that are consistent with the observations and prior constraints. The inverse solution produced by this kind of stochastic method is a posterior probability density function (pdf) over alternative models, which forms an appropriate input to risk-based decision analyses to evaluate subsequent response strategies. One major advantage of a stochastic inversion approach is its ability to deal with complex, non-linear forward models employing empirical, analytical or numerical methods. However, while a geomechanical model must incorporate adequate physics to enable sufficiently accurate prediction of surface displacements, it must also be computationally fast enough to render the large number of forward realizations needed in stochastic inversion feasible. This latter requirement prompted us first to investigate computationally efficient empirical relations and closed-form analytical solutions. However, our evaluation revealed severe limitations in the ability of existing empirical and analytical forms to predict deformations from undergro

  16. Prospects for and Status of CUORE ? The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, E B

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a next generation experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless DBD of {sup 130}Te using a bolometric technique. The present status of the CUORE is presented along with the latest results from its prototype, CUORICINO.

  17. Oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of progress achieved during the quarter ending June 30, 1984 are summarized. This research involves three resource areas: oil shale, tar sands, and underground gasification of coal. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  18. Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

  19. IMPACT OF LOW-EMISSION DIESEL ENGINES ON UNDERGROUND MINE AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 IMPACT OF LOW-EMISSION DIESEL ENGINES ON UNDERGROUND MINE AIR QUALITY Susan T. Bagley1, Winthrop-1295 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Diesel Research, University of Minnesota, 111, however, is providing the report on its Website because it is important for parties interested in diesel

  20. Underground water resources of our planet have long been considered as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Underground water resources of our planet have long been considered as unlimited. This is not true anymore. Many reasons lead to an increasing deterioration of the quality and quantity of subsurface water, with a focus on coastal environments. To assess and bring under control pollution risks for water resources

  1. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    on transmission level fault location methods have been focused on overhead lines. Because of the very different- termine the fault location. Because only one end meas- urements are used, the algorithm is derived usingState of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

  2. Regulation for Underground Storage of CO2 Passed by U.S. States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regulation for Underground Storage of CO2 Passed by U.S. States Holly Javedan Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 #12;p. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT capture, transportation, injection and storage of CO2. To date nine states have passed regulation

  3. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  4. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  5. Underground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies & Practicality.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    environments and are very salty, like the Marcellus shale and other oil and gas formations underlying the areaUnderground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies), Region 3. Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar, February 18, 2010 (Answers provide below by Karen Johnson

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots'' from the concrete vault, and the drilling removal of the cement-lined vault sump. Field activities began on November 28, 2000, and ended on December 4, 2000. After verification samples were collected, the vault was repaired with cement. The concrete vault sump, soil excavated beneath the sump, and compactable hot line trash were disposed at the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill. The vault interior was field surveyed following the removal of waste to verify that unrestricted release criteria had been achieved. Since the site is closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification, post-closure care is not required.

  7. Reserves hike to buoy Bontang LNG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that a redetermination of reserves in an Indonesian production sharing contract (PSC) will boost liquefied natural gas sales for an Indonesian joint venture (IJV) of Lasmo plc, Union Texas (South East Asia) Inc., Chinese Petroleum Corp. (CPC), and Japex Rantau Ltd. The Indonesian reserves increase involves the Sanga PSC operated by Virginia Indonesia Co., a 50-50 joint venture of Lasmo and Union Texas. Union Texas holds a 38% interest in the IJV and Lasmo 37.8%, with remaining interests held by CPC and Japex. meantime, in US LNG news: Shell LNG Co. has shelved plans to buy an added interest in the LNG business of Columbia Gas System Inc. Panhandle Eastern Corp. units Trunkline Gas Co., Trunkline LNG Co., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. (PEPL) filed settlement agreements with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to recover from customers $243 million in costs associated with Panhandle's Trunkline LNG operation at Lake Charles, Louisiana.

  8. Contrast limitations of dual electrochromic systems J. Padilla *, T.F. Otero *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otero, Toribio Fernández

    Contrast limitations of dual electrochromic systems J. Padilla *, T.F. Otero * Center characterize any combination of a dual electrochromic system as a function of the redox charge of its reserved. Keywords: Conducting polymer; Electrochromism; Maximum contrast; Dual system; PEDOT; ProDOT 1

  9. The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

    . They indicated that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas or methane resulted in an increase in NOx for most increases, and then decreases with the increase in the fraction of hydrogen. Overall, hydrogen enrichment rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogen enrichment; NOx; Extinction limit; Ultra-lean premixed flame. 1

  10. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Annual/quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facilities development for the authorized 750 million barrel program was completed in 1991. Expansion of the SPR`s offsite commercial distribution capacity to 4.3 million barrels per day is in progress. During calendar year 1991, the SPR`s crude oil storage capacity increased by 61 million barrels with the completion of caverns at the Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw sites. On January 16, 1991, in conjunction with the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, President Bush ordered a drawdown and distribution of Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil as part of a coordinated contingency plan agreed to by member countries of the International Energy Agency. The Department successfully conducted the drawdown during the period January 17 through March 31 and delivered a total of 17.2 million barrels of crude oil to 13 purchasers. There were no crude oil deliveries to the SPR during the year ending December 31, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of December 31, 1991, the SPR inventory was 568.5 million barrels.

  11. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  12. An evaluation of risk simulation models for reserve estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judah, Janeen Sue

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in estimating reserves for petroleum economic evaluations is an 1mportant everyday problem encountered by practicing petroleum engineers. This study addresses the problem of est1mating reserves for petroleum evaluations with little available data. The risk... to reserve est1mates. Latin Hypercube sampling is a relatively recent statistical development and has never before been applied to petroleum economic evaluations or petroleum risk simulators. The results show that simple random sampling is adequate...

  13. 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Meirong

    © 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved

  14. 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Weihong

    © 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved

  15. 1995-2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. 1995-2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ke-Min

    © 1995-2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. #12;© 1995-2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved

  16. Filling the Strategic Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1999, the Clinton Administration announced a new plan to resume fill of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve with federal royalty oil from production in the Central Gulf of Mexico....

  17. apache indian reservation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    survival or death 1. However, these statistical methods are constrained Sudarshan, S. 2 Logging the Great Lakes Indian Reservations: The Case of the Bad River Environmental...

  18. atlantic forest reserve: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archive Summary: An investigation of the effects of commercial mechanised selective logging on rain forest vegetation and mammals, was undertaken in the Lope Reserve, central...

  19. SolarReserve, LLC (Crescent Dunes) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SolarReserve's 110 MW solar power tower that concentrates solar energy to heat molten salt, converting that heat into electricity. This project is the first commercial...

  20. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    implementation, data analyses, etc., a technology will be developed in which the electricity consumption will be used as a frequencycontrolled reserve (DFR). References...

  1. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    controlled reserve (DFR) implementation, a system that automatically stops or starts electricity consumption in response to system frequency variations. References "EU...

  2. Selection of bioclimatically representative biological reserve systems under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyke, C R; Fischer, Douglas T

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of bioclimatically representative biological reserve systemsthat are bioclimatically representative across a range ofa ?at line (i.e. a representative sample of current climate

  3. Draft Michigan SAVES Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample LRF agreement between a grantee and an financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  4. Update Invalid Reservation Points for Transmission Service Requests...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CommitteesTeams Customer Training Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Update: Invalid Reservation Points for Transmission Service...

  5. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  6. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  7. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  8. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  9. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  10. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  11. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  12. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release...

  13. ,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  14. Department of Energy, Office of Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Items that may be marked "disposrtron not Office of Naval Petroleum & Oil Shale Reserves approved" or "withdrawn" In column 10 4 Nameof Personwith whom to confer 5...

  15. NERSC Supercomputers Help Reveal Secrets of Natural Gas Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Reserves New structural information could yield more efficient extraction of gas and oil from shale December 3, 2013 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Materials Science,...

  16. 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt distribution in 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. High resolution imaging of the melt;© 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Abstract We determine the 3-D melt geometry

  17. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Barat, D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveN ATIONAL L ABORATORY Demand Response Spinning Reserveemployer. LBNL-XXXXX Demand Response Spinning Reserve

  18. First Characterization of the Ultra-Shielded Chamber in the Low-noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) of Rustrel Pays d'Apt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Waysand; D. Bloyet; J. P. Bongiraud; J. I. Collar; C. Dolabdjian; Ph. Le Thiec

    1999-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In compliance with international agreements on nuclear weapons limitation, the French ground-based nuclear arsenal has been decommissioned in its totality. One of its former underground missile control centers, located in Rustrel, 60 km east of Avignon (Provence) has been converted into the ``Laboratoire Souterrain \\`a Bas Bruit de Rustrel-Pays d'Apt'' (LSBB). The deepest experimental hall (500 m of calcite rock overburden) includes a 100 m$^{2}$ area of sturdy flooring suspended by and resting on shock absorbers, entirely enclosed in a 28 m-long, 8 m-diameter, 1 cm-thick steel Faraday cage. This results in an unparalleled combination of shielding against cosmic rays, acoustic, seismic and electromagnetic noise, which can be exploited for rare event searches using ultra low-temperature and superconducting detectors. The first characterization measurements in this unique civilian site are reported. For more info see http://home.cern.ch/collar/RUSTREL/rustrel.html

  19. The Astrophysical Journal, 604:L25L28, 2004 March 20 2004. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    . All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. LIMITS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS threshold of Milagro allow it to detect VHE gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission with much higher sensitivity than VHE luminosity of GRBs for any GRB emission and progenitor model. Subject headings: gamma rays: bursts

  20. TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 2 DF WASTE LINE REMOVAL, BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-SR-02-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 2 DF WASTE LINE REMOVAL, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY