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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Tube construction for fluidized bed combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

De Feo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Fluidized bed combustor and tube construction therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a reactor or a housing which has a windbox distributor plate adjacent the lower end thereof which contains a multiplicity of hole and air discharge nozzles for discharging air and coal into a fluidized bed which is maintained above the distributor plate and below a take-off connection or flue to a cyclone separator in which some of the products of combustion are treated to remove the dust which is returned into the fluidized bed. A windbox is spaced below the fluidized bed and it has a plurality of tubes passing therethrough with the passage of combustion air and fluidizing air which passes through an air space so that fluidizing air is discharged into the reaction chamber fluidized bed at the bottom thereof to maintain the bed in a fluidized condition. A fluid, such as air, is passed through the tubes which extend through the windbox and provide a preheating of the combustion air and into an annular space between telescoped inner and outer tubes which comprise heat exchanger tubes or cooling tubes which extend upwardly through the distributor plate into the fluidized bed. The heat exchanger tubes are advantageously arranged so that they may be exposed in groups within the reactor in a cluster which is arranged within holding rings.

De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Hosek, William (Morris, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project 289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project EIS-0289: JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project SUMMARY This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the Clean Coal Technology Program. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD December 7, 2000 EIS-0289: Record of Decision JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL June 1, 2000 EIS-0289: Final Environmental Impact Statement JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project August 1, 1999 EIS-0289: Draft Environmental Impact Statement JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor

5

Combined fluidized bed retort and combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a combined fluidized bed retorting and combustion system particularly useful for extracting energy values from oil shale. The oil-shale retort and combustor are disposed side-by-side and in registry with one another through passageways in a partition therebetween. The passageways in the partition are submerged below the top of the respective fluid beds to preclude admixing or the product gases from the two chambers. The solid oil shale or bed material is transported through the chambers by inclining or slanting the fluidizing medium distributor so that the solid bed material, when fluidized, moves in the direction of the downward slope of the distributor.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Zeng, Li-Wen (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Refractory experience in circulating fluidized bed combustors, Task 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an investigation into the status of the design and selection of refractory materials for coal-fueled circulating fluidized-bed combustors. The survey concentrated on operating units in the United States manufactured by six different boiler vendors: Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster Wheeler, Keeler Dorr-Oliver, Pyropower, and Riley Stoker. Information was obtained from the boiler vendors, refractory suppliers and installers, and the owners/operators of over forty units. This work is in support of DOE's Clean Coal Technology program, which includes circulating fluidized-bed technology as one of the selected concepts being evaluated.

Vincent, R.Q.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

DeFeo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Fluidized bed combustor and removable windbox and tube assembly therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor comprises a housing having a chamber therein with a top having a discharge for the gases which are generated in the chamber and a bottom with a discharge for heated fluid. An assembly is arranged in the lower portion of the chamber and the assembly includes a lower plate which is mounted on a support flange of the housing so that it is spaced from the bottom of the chamber and defines a fluid plenum between it and the bottom of the chamber for the discharge of heated fluid. The assembly includes a heat exchanger inlet plenum having tubes therethrough for the passage of fluidizer air and a windbox above the heat exchanger plenum which has a distributor plate top wall. A portion of the chamber above the top wall defines a fluidized bed.

DeFeo, Angelo (Totowa, NJ); Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

NETL: Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC) Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC) Project No.: DE-FE0009448 Oxy-PFBC Layout. Oxy-PFBC Layout. Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) is developing an oxy-fired pressurized fluidized bed combustor (Oxy-PFBC). Pressurized combustion with oxygen enables high efficiency through staged combustion, which results in reduced oxygen use, as well as through recovery of high quality heat from exhaust water vapor. In addition, the process can result in reduced costs for utilization or storage of CO2 because the CO2 is available at increased pressure, reducing compression requirements. Overall, pressurized fluidized bed combustion can result in electricity production from coal with near-zero emissions. PWR will be testing a novel process for pressurized oxy-combustion in a

12

Development of a topping combustor for advanced concept pressurized fluidized-bed combustion systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A project team consisting of Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Gilbert/Commonwealth and the Institute of Gas Technology, are developing a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed System. Foster Wheeler is developing a carbonizer (a partial gasifier) and a pressurized fluidized bed combustor. Both these units operate at a nominal 1600{degrees}F (870{degrees}C) for optimal sulfur capture. Since this temperature is well below the current combustion turbine combustor outlet operating temperature of 2350{degrees}F (1290{degrees}C), to reach commercialization, a topping combustor and hot gas cleanup (HGCU) equipment must be developed. Westinghouse`s efforts are focused on the development of the high temperature gas cleanup equipment and the topping combustor. This paper concentrates on the design and test of the topping combustor, which must use a low heating value syngas from the carbonizer at approximately 1600{degrees}F and 150 to 210 psi.

Domeracki, W.F.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Refractory experience in circulating fluidized bed combustors, Task 7. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an investigation into the status of the design and selection of refractory materials for coal-fueled circulating fluidized-bed combustors. The survey concentrated on operating units in the United States manufactured by six different boiler vendors: Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster Wheeler, Keeler Dorr-Oliver, Pyropower, and Riley Stoker. Information was obtained from the boiler vendors, refractory suppliers and installers, and the owners/operators of over forty units. This work is in support of DOE`s Clean Coal Technology program, which includes circulating fluidized-bed technology as one of the selected concepts being evaluated.

Vincent, R.Q.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Control of thermal processes in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat and mass balance equations for the transient process of a fluidized bed furnace are described. The equations involve heat release from char and volatiles combustion, heat consumption during moisture evaporation, and heating of char and circulating particles. Calculations and experimental data for steady-state and unsteady conditions are compared. The results show that the height of the dense bed, the excess-air ratio and kinetic features of the fuel affect the rate of the transient process. The time constant for a disturbance by a change of the air flow rate was found to be smaller than the one for a change of the fuel input.

Munts, V.A.; Filippovskij, N.F.; Baskakov, A.P.; Pavliok, E.J. [Ural State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Heat Power Dept.; Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

In-bed tube bank for a fluidized-bed combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in-bed tube bank (10) for a fluidized bed combustor. The tube bank (10) of the present invention comprises one or more fluid communicating boiler tubes (30) which define a plurality of selectively spaced boiler tube sections (32). The tube sections (32) are substantially parallel to one another and aligned in a common plane. The tube bank (10) further comprises support members (34) for joining adjacent tube sections (32), the support members (34) engaging and extending along a selected length of the tube sections (32) and spanning the preselected space therebetween.

Hemenway, Jr., Lloyd F. (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Simulation and modeling of atmospheric fluidized bed combustors for high sulfur coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal issues in modeling atmospheric fluidized bed combustors (AFBC) are described using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) steady state AFBC model as an example. Comparisons are made between model predictions of boiler performance with experimental data from the TVA 20 MW(e) AFBC pilot plant data. Recent FBC models are briefly reviewed and compared with the ORNL-TVA model. The paper also describes the ongoing effort at TVA on transient modeling of AFBC and presents some preliminary results from the TVA AFBC transient model.

Krishnan, R.P.; Daw, C.S.; Byrd, J.; Zielke, R.; Wells, J.W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Tests and Results in an Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor with Warm Flue Gas Recycle ... Dynamic step change tests concerning the coal feed rate and coal type were conducted. ... In the dynamic tests, the oxygen concentration in the flue gas fluctuates in the form of a sinusoidal wave because of the fast volatile combustion and the delay in the char ignition. ...

Jian-xin Zhou; Zhuang Shao; Feng-qi Si; Zhi-gao Xu

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method of and apparatus for preheating pressurized fluidized bed combustor and clean-up subsystem of a gas turbine power plant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a gas turbine power plant having a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, gas turbine-air compressor subsystem and a gas clean-up subsystem interconnected for fluid flow therethrough, a pipe communicating the outlet of the compressor of the gas turbine-air compressor subsystem with the interior of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor and the gas clean-up subsystem to provide for flow of compressed air, heated by the heat of compression, therethrough. The pressurized fluidized bed combustor and gas clean-up subsystem are vented to atmosphere so that the heated compressed air flows therethrough and loses heat to the interior of those components before passing to the atmosphere.

Cole, Rossa W. (E. Rutherford, NJ); Zoll, August H. (Cedar Grove, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Performance analysis of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal wastes. Leading this approach is the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). It has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power by burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of two power plants rated at 250 MWe and 150 MWe were developed. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant along with environmental issues. With the PFBC`s operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

DOE/EIS-0289, Final Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project (June 1, 2000)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FINAL FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR THE JEA CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTOR PROJECT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA June 2000 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COVER SHEET June 2000 RESPONSIBLE AGENCY U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TITLE Final Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project; Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida CONTACT Additional copies or information concerning this final environmental impact statement (EIS) can be obtained from Ms. Lisa K. Hollingsworth, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Document Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P. O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880. Telephone: (304) 285-4992. Fax: (304) 285-4403. E-mail: lisa.hollingsworth@netl.doe.gov.

22

DOE/EIS-0289; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project, August 1999  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Draft Draft ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT FOR THE JEA CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTOR PROJECT JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA August 1999 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COVER SHEET August 1999 RESPONSIBLE AGENCY U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TITLE Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project; Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida CONTACT Additional copies or information concerning this draft environmental impact statement (EIS) can be obtained from Ms. Lisa K. Hollingsworth, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Document Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P. O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880. Telephone: (304) 285-4992. Fax: (304) 285-4403. E-mail: lisa.hollingsworth@fetc.doe.gov.

23

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fluidized bed combustor 50 MW thermal power plant, Krabi, Thailand. Feasibility study. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents the results of a study prepared by Burns and Roe for the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand to examine the technical feasibility and economic attractiveness for building a 50 MW Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion lignite fired power plant at Krabi, southern Thailand. The study is divided into seven main sections, plus an executive summary and appendices: (1) Introduction; (2) Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology Overview; (3) Fuel and Limestone Tests; (4) Site Evaluation; (5) Station Design and Arrangements; (6) Environmental Considerations; (7) Economic Analysis.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Sorbent utilization prediction methodology: sulfur control in fluidized-bed combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Government has embarked on an ambitious program to develop and commercialize technologies to efficiently extract energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One of the more promising new technologies for steam and power generation is the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. In this process, coal is burned in a fluidized bed composed mainly of calcined limestone sorbent. The calcium oxide reacts chemically to capture the sulfur dioxide formed during the combustion and to maintain the stack gas sulfur emissions at acceptable levels. The spent sulfur sorbent, containing calcium sulfate, is a dry solid that can be disposed of along with coal ash or potentially used. Other major advantages of fluidized-bed combustion are the reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions because of the relatively low combustion temperatures, the capability of burning wide varieties of fuel, the high carbon combustion efficiencies, and the high heat-transfer coefficients. A key to the widespread commercialization of fluidized-bed technology is the ability to accurately predict the amount of sulfur that will be captured by a given sorbent. This handbook meets this need by providing a simple, yet reliable, user-oriented methodology (the ANL method) that allows performance of a sorbent to be predicted. The methodology is based on only three essential sorbent parameters, each of which can be readily obtained from standardized laboratory tests. These standard tests and the subsequent method of data reduction are described in detail.

Fee, D.C.; Wilson, W.I.; Shearer, J.A.; Smith, G.W.; Lenc, J.F.; Fan, L.S.; Myles, K.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Metal wastage design guidelines for bubbling fluidized-bed combustors. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These metal wastage design guidelines identify relationships between metal wastage and (1) design parameters (such as tube size, tube spacing and pitch, tube bundle and fluidized-bed height to distributor, and heat exchanger tube material properties) and (2) operating parameters (such as fluidizing velocity, particle size, particle hardness, and angularity). The guidelines are of both a quantitative and qualitative nature. Simplified mechanistic models are described, which account for the essential hydrodynamics and metal wastage processes occurring in bubbling fluidized beds. The empirical correlational approach complements the use of these models in the development of these design guidelines. Data used for model and guideline validation are summarized and referenced. Sample calculations and recommended design procedures are included. The influences of dependent variables on metal wastage, such as solids velocity, bubble size, and in-bed pressure fluctuations, are discussed.

Lyczkowski, R.W.; Podolski, W.F.; Bouillard, J.X.; Folga, S.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Test study of salty paper mill waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Pyropower Inc. has supplied a 73.7 kg/s bubbling fluidized bed boiler to MacMillan Bloedel's Powell River paper mill (now Pacifica Paper). The BFB boiler was designed to fire a fuel mixture of a mill effluent sludge and a hog fuel (bark) that is contaminated with seawater. Due to its very high alkali content and low ash content, the fuel is prone to cause problems such as agglomeration in the fluidized bed. Foster Wheeler and MacMillan Bloedel took a proactive approach to quantify likely problems and to identify solutions. A 200 hour-long test program was carried out at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in Livingston, New Jersey with the Powell River feedstock. This paper provides the project background, an outline of the test facility, test matrix, fuel and bed material characteristics, followed by a test process overview. A summary of fuel alkali related agglomeration mechanism in fluidized bed is also included. The paper offers further observations on in-bed alkali accumulation as well as examinations of different types of bed material agglomerates found during the tests. A recommended boiler operating strategy for preventing agglomeration in the BFB boiler developed based on the test results is described. These recommendations have been successfully implemented during the start up of the boiler. The boiler has been in operation since November 1997. Boiler performance tests completed in April 1998 have demonstrated all guaranteed process conditions.

Wu, S.; Sellakumar, K.M.; Chelian, P.K.; Bleice, C.; Shaw, I.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Final Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This EIS assesses environmental issues associated with constructing and demonstrating a project that would be cost-shared by DOE and JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) under the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project would demonstrate circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology at JEA's existing Northside Generating Station in Jacksonville, Florida, about 9 miles northeast of the downtown area of Jacksonville. The new CFB combustor would use coal and petroleum coke to generate nearly 300 MW of electricity by repowering the existing Unit 2 steam turbine, a 297.5-MW unit that has been out of service since 1983. The proposed project is expected to demonstrate emission levels of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter that would be lower than Clean Air Act limits while at the same time producing power more efficiently and at less cost than conventional coal utilization technologies. At their own risk, JEA has begun initial construction activities without DOE funding. Construction would take approximately two years and, consistent with the original JEA schedule, would be completed in December 2001. Demonstration of the proposed project would be conducted during a 2-year period from March 2002 until March 2004. In addition, JEA plans to repower the currently operating Unit 1 steam turbine about 6 to 12 months after the Unit 2 repowering without cost-shared funding from DOE. Although the proposed project consists of only the Unit 2 repowering, this EIS analyzes the Unit 1 repowering as a related action. The EIS also considers three reasonably foreseeable scenarios that could result from the no-action alternative in which DOE would not provide cost-shared funding for the proposed project. The proposed action, in which DOE would provide cost-shared finding for the proposed project, is DOE's preferred alternative. The EIS evaluates the principal environmental issues, including air quality, traffic, noise, and ecological resources, that could result from construction and operation of the proposed project. Key findings include that maximum modeled increases in ground-level concentrations of SO{sub 2} nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (for the proposed project alone or in conjunction with the related action) would always be less than 10% of their corresponding standards for increases in pollutants. For potential cumulative air quality impacts, results of modeling regional sources and the proposed project indicate that the maximum 24-hour average SO{sub 2} concentration would closely approach (i.e., 97%) but not exceed the corresponding Florida standard. After the Unit 1 repowering, results indicate that the maximum 24-hour average SO{sub 2} concentration would be 91% of the Florida standard. Concentrations for other averaging periods and pollutants would be lower percentages of their standards. Regarding toxic air pollutants from the proposed project, the maximum annual cancer risk to a member of the public would be approximately 1 in 1 million; given the conservative assumptions in the estimate, the risk would probably be less. With regard to threatened and endangered species, impacts to manatees, gopher tortoises, and other species would be negligible or non-existent. Construction-induced traffic would result in noticeable congestion. In the unlikely event that all coal were transported by rail, up to 3 additional trains per week would exacerbate impacts associated with noise, vibration, and blocked roads at on-grade rail crossings. Additional train traffic could be minimized by relying more heavily on barges and ships for coal transport, which is likely to be a more economic fuel delivery mode. During construction of the proposed project, noise levels would increase from the current operational levels. Except possibly during steam blowouts and possibly during operation of equipment used to construct a nearby segment of a conveyor, construction noise should not appreciably affect the background noise of nearby residences or exceed local nois

N /A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

29

PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Peltier, R.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Proceedings of the 1987 international conference on fluidized bed combustion: FBC comes of age  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on fluidized-bed combustors. Topics considered at the conference included fluidized bed boilers for utility applications, coal-fired systems, boiler retrofit, demonstration programs, atmospheric fluidized bed applications at the Tennessee Valley Authority, pressurized fluidized bed applications, waste disposal, adsorbents, fluid mechanics in fluidized beds, hydrodynamics, desulfurization, environmental issues, and advanced concepts.

Mustonen, J.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

An innovative bed temperature-oriented modeling and robust control of a circulating fluidized bed combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion systems are increasingly used as superior coal burning systems in power generation due to their higher efficiency and lower emissions. However, because of their non-linearity and complex behavior, it is difficult to build a comprehensive model that incorporates all the system dynamics. In this paper, a mathematical model of the circulating fluidized bed combustion system based on mass and energy conservation equations was successfully extracted. Using these correlations, a state space dynamical model oriented to bed temperature has been obtained based on subspace method. Bed temperature, which influences boiler overall efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission, is one of the most significant parameters in the operation of these types of systems. Having dynamic and parametric uncertainties in the model, a robust control algorithm based on linear matrix inequalities (LMI) have been applied to control the bed temperature by input parameters, i.e. coal feed rate and fluidization velocity. The controller proposed properly sets the temperature to our desired range with a minimum tracking error and minimizes the sensitivity of the closed-loop system to disturbances caused by uncertainties such as change in feeding coal, while the settling time of the system is significantly decreased.

Aboozar Hadavand; Ali Akbar Jalali; Parviz Famouri

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Reuse of Fly Ash from a Fluidized Bed Combustor for Sulfur Uptake:? The Role of Ettringite in Hydration-Induced Reactivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reuse of Fly Ash from a Fluidized Bed Combustor for Sulfur Uptake:? The Role of Ettringite in Hydration-Induced Reactivation ... It was found that ettringite was extensively produced during water hydration and that effective enhancement of the sulfur uptake ability of the fly ash was achieved. ... The very favorable performance of reactivated ash as a sulfur sorbent was mostly related to the large amount of free lime formed during thermal decomposition of ettringite. ...

Fabio Montagnaro; Piero Salatino; Graziella Bernardo; Antonio Telesca; Gian Lorenzo Valenti

2005-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Mass balance for \\{POPs\\} in a real scale fluidized bed combustor co-incinerating automotive shredder residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The European directive 2000/53/EC implies a “reuse and recovery” rate for end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) of 95% to be reached by the year 2015. One of the options to increase the actual average European “reuse and recovery” rate of approximately 78% (EU 15, 2008) is incineration of automotive shredder residue (ASR) with energy-recovery. The mass balance and the congener fingerprints for PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, \\{PCBs\\} and \\{PAHs\\} in a real scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) incinerating 25% ASR with 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 50% waste water treatment sludge (WWT sludge) were investigated. The PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB, PCB and PAH concentrations in this input waste mix were more than hundred times higher than in the usual waste feed of the incinerator (30% RFD and 70% WWT sludge). In the outputs of the FBC, however, the concentrations of these POP groups were comparable or only slightly higher than in the outputs generated during the incineration of the usual waste feed. The considered \\{POPs\\} in the waste were destroyed efficiently and the formation of new \\{POPs\\} during cooling of the flue gas appeared to a large extent independent of the POP concentrations in the incinerated waste.

J. Van Caneghem; C. Block; I. Vermeulen; A. Van Brecht; P. Van Royen; M. Jaspers; G. Wauters; C. Vandecasteele

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Investigation of Heat Transfer and Combustion in the Advanced Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report summarizes the research conducted and progress achieved during the period from January 1, 1997 to March 30, 1997. The systematic tests were conducted to investigate the thermal performance and heat transfer effect on the exploratory hot model. Test results were analyzed to understand thermal performance, heat balance, and heat transfer effect on exploratory hot model. Temperature was measured at different locations of the combustor chamber. The temperature was decreased along the increase the distance from the bottom of the combustor chamber. The heat loss from the combustor wall to the environment is a great portion of the total heat transfer. The flame enthalpy and heat loss at the reactor center changed along the reactor height. The heat loss into the cooling water for case A is about two times lager than that of case B. The heat transfer coefficient from gas to the environment increased as the flame temperature increased.

Lee, S.W.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cofiring Lignite with Hazelnut Shell and Cotton Residue in a Pilot-Scale Fluidized Bed Combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absence of studies on cofiring of indigenous lignite with hazelnut shell/cotton residue blends in fluid bed combustors on one hand and the recent trend in utilization of biomass with local reserves in industry and utility boilers on the other necessitate investigation of combustion and emission characteristics of these fuel blends. ... However, the effect of recycle on gaseous emissions from combustion of Turkish lignites with high ash, volatile matter, and sulfur contents has not been investigated to date. ...

Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selçuk

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

37

Investigation of Heat Transfer and Combustion in the Advanced Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report summarizes the research conducted and progress achieved during the period from April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. The exploratory hot model was modified to explore the operational limits, fuel flexibility, and the role of heat transfer in combustion control. Eight air injection nozzles were newly designed to set different angles. Three runs of independently controllable water-cooling tubes were arranged to study the local heat transfer characteristics along the flow direction of the combustor height. The fuel nozzle was carefully designed to improve the fuel atomization quality. The igniter system was designed to safe and dependable ignition. According to the established safety and health guideline, the auxiliary subsystems are inspected carefully. All instruments are checked and calibrated for the system test. The combustion test result was analyzed to understand thermal performance and heat transfer characteristics. The flame enthalpy decreased along the combustor height. The heat is removed by the cooling water at different zones during the combustion test. The axial variation of heat transfer coefficient was predicted. The heat transfer coefficient is generally lower in the top area than in the bottom of the combustor.

Lee, S.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

NETL: Oxy-Fired Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (Oxy-PFBC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimization of Pressurized Oxy-Combustion with Flameless Reactor Optimization of Pressurized Oxy-Combustion with Flameless Reactor Project No.: DE-FE0009478 Unity Power Alliance (UPA), a joint venture between the Italian company ITEA and ThermoEnergy Corp, is investigating the optimization of pressurized oxy-combustion with a flameless reactor. They will develop a basis for modeling conditions in a flameless reactor and inlet conditions for a heat recovery steam generator. A range of cycles will be evaluated at varying operating pressures to assess the effectiveness of heat recovery by vapor condensation; the optimum size and design of the combustor and the pressure drop in the recirculation pipes; and various purities of oxygen to determine how the variations affect the operation and performance of the air separation unit, the CO2 separation system, and the oxy-combustion process.

39

FBC (fluidized-bed combustors) engineering correlations for estimating the combustion efficiency of a range of fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simplified engineering correlations are presented for estimating the combustion efficiency of a wide range of fuel types in fluidized bed boilers. The correlations are presented in such a way that they can be applied to various boiler designs, including both bubbling and circulating beds. Major emphasis is placed on minimizing the boiler design and operating details required, thereby enhancing the usefulness of these methods as screening tools. The impact of fuel type is addressed by making use of the fuel characterization parameters measured by the Babcock and Wilcox Company for the Electric Power Research Institute. It is demonstrated that the methods described give combustion efficiency estimates that agree well with typical observations from some well-documented fluidized bed combustion test facilities. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Daw, C.S.; Chandran, R.R.; Duqum, J.N.; Perna, M.A.; Petrill, E.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC). Technical progress report No. 1, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report summarizes the research work performed and progress achieved during the period of October 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. The newly-concept of exploratory fluidized bed based on the integrating the advantages of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and cyclonic combustor was designed to study the gas and particle flows and to develop control techniques for gas-particle flow in the FBC. The test chamber was made of transparent acrylic tube with 6in. I.D. to facilitate visual observation. Eight nozzles (s) were made at the freeboard in different levels to provide secondary air, which will generate strong swirling flow field. The progress of this project has been on schedule. Design and fabrication of the exploratory cold test model will be continued with an arrangement of the auxiliary system. After completion of the design/fabrication of the system, the system test will be conducted for the overall system. Instrumentations for the gas/particle flow will be arranged with the auxiliary system. The electrostatic impact probe and associated signal processing units will be designed and fabricated for measuring particle mass flux.

Lee, S.W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Study of the hydrothermal treatments of residues from fluidized bed combustors for the manufacture of ettringite-based building elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste is generally unsuitable for making ordinary cements and concretes, and its alternative uses are therefore worthy of consideration. In the present work, FBC waste is investigated as a potentially suitable single raw material for the manufacture of building components based on ettringite, a compound characterized by low density, high fire resistance, significant mechanical strength and usefulness as the main component of preformed lightweight building materials. The hydration behaviour of two FBC waste samples (a fly and a bottom ash) was explored within curing periods comprised between 2 and 24 h at 55 °C, 70 °C and 85 °C. X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis were employed as main experimental techniques in order to evaluate the distribution of the hydration products. The role of the raw ash chemical and mineralogical composition, operating temperature and time in the ettringite formation was highlighted. The fly ash was more prone to generate ettringite which, after 2 h-curing time, tended to form and decompose earlier, as the curing temperature and time were further increased. The selectivity of the reactants toward ettringite can be enhanced by the addition of blending components.

Antonio Telesca; Daniela Calabrese; Milena Marroccoli; Gian Lorenzo Valenti; Fabio Montagnaro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Simulation of biomass gasification in a dual fluidized bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass gasification with steam in a dual-fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG) was simulated with ASPEN Plus. ... that the content of char transferred from the gasifier to the combustor decreases from 22.5...2 concentra...

Jie He; Kristina Göransson; Ulf Söderlind…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Fluidized Bed Technology- An R&D Success Story  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In the early 1990s, POWER magazine called the development of fluidized bed coal combustors "the commercial success story of the last decade in the power generation business." The success, perhaps...

45

A comparative study of iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base weldments exposed in TVA 20-MW and Rocketdyne atmospheric fluidized bed combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base weldment materials were exposed in TVA 20-MW and Rocketdyne atmospheric fluidized bed combustors (AFBCs) at 849{degree}C for 1261 h and 871{degree}C for 1000 h, respectively. Postexposure analyses were conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. All specimens experienced different degrees of internal oxidation/sulfidation. Among eight filler materials, Marathon 25/35R and Haynes 188 showed the least corrosion attack, i.e., less than 0.5 mm/yr. A high nickel content in the weldment was unfavorable for corrosion resistance in the AFBC environment. Differences in the coal/bed chemistry of the TVA and Rocketdyne systems yielded different corrosion behavior in the materials. Calcium sulfate deposits on the specimens significantly affected the internal oxidation/sulfidation of the alloys. The results of this study supplement the material data base, in particular that of weldment performance, and aid in materials selection for AFBC applications. 10 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

Wang, D.Y.; Natesan, K.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

17 - Fluidized bed gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The chapter describes the state-of-the-art of fluidized bed gasification of solid fuels, starting from the key role played by hydrodynamics, and its strong correlation with physical and chemical phenomena of the process and operating performance parameters of the reactor. The possible configurations of fluidized bed gasification plants are also assessed, and an analysis of the main methods for syngas cleaning is reported. Finally, the chapter describes some of the most interesting commercial experiences. The analysis indicates that the gasification of biomass and also of municipal and industrial solid wastes appear to be the most interesting sectors for the industrial development and utilization of fluidized bed gasifiers.

U. Arena

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The development of a cyclonic combustor for high particulate, low caloric value gas produced by a fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methods, utilizing a biomass source, are: combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and bio-degradation processes. Direct combustion is envisioned as the most immediately available conversion technology. However, there is considerable interest... the combustion of a low caloric value (LCV) and high particulate gas. Performance tests were conducted to verify the cyclone combustor design flexibility by identifying satisfactory performance characteristics. The LCV gas was produced from the gasification...

Cardenas, Manuel Moises

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Staged fluidized bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

Mallon, R.G.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

50

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fluidized bed boiler feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Tenth annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings of the Tenth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference is presented. The Conference was held November 14-15, 1994 in Jacksonville, FL and covered such topics as: opportunity fuels, the fluid bed market, bubbling fluid bed retrofitting, waste fuel-based circulating fluidized-bed project, construction permits for major air pollution sources, fluidized bed residues, uses for fluidized bed combustion ash, ash pelletization, sorbents for FBC applications, refractory maintenance, and petroleum coke. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

54

Biparticle fluidized bed reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

55

Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

Comparato, Joseph R. (Bloomfield, CT); Jacobs, Martin (Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Twelfth annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Fluidized Bed Conference held November 11-13, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA are presented. Information is given on: owner`s discussions; new aspects and field upgrades in fluidized bed boilers; manufacturer`s perspectives; fuel considerations; FBC ash reclassification; and beneficial uses of FBC ash. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion system. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is presented on erosion and corrosion of fluidized bed combustor component materials. The characteristics of erosion of in-bed tubes was investigated. Anti-corrosion measures were also evaluated.

Lee, Seong W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Eleventh annual fluidized bed conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Fluidized Bed Conference are presented. The Conference was held November 14-15, 1995 in Allentown, Pennsylvania and discussed the following topics: third and fourth generation systems; fuel considerations; and FBC energy and environmntal regulatory issues. A separate abstract was entered into the Energy Science and Technology Database for each of the 19 papers presented at the conference.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

Advanced atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion design - spouted bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Spouted-Fluidized Bed Boiler that is an advanced atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (FBC). The objective of this system design study is to develop an advanced AFBC with improved performance and reduced capital and operating costs compared to a conventional AFBC and an oil-fired system. The Spouted-Fluidized Bed (SFB) system is a special type of FBC with a distinctive jet of air in the bed to establish an identifiable solids circulation pattern. This feature is expected to provide: reduced NO/sub x/ emissions because of the fuel rich spout zone; high calcium utilization, calcium-to-sulfur ratio of 1.5, because of the spout attrition and mixing; high fuel utilization because of the solids circulation and spout attrition; improved thermal efficiency because of reduced solids heat loss; and improved fuel flexibility because of the spout phenomena. The SFB was compared to a conventional AFBC and an oil-fired package boiler for 15,000 pound per hour system. The evaluation showed that the operating cost advantages of the SFB resulted from savings in fuel, limestone, and waste disposal. The relative levelized cost for steam from the three systems in constant 1985 dollars is: SFB - $10 per thousand pounds; AFBC - $11 per thousand pounds; oil-fired - $14 per thousand pounds. 18 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Shirley, F.W.; Litt, R.D.

1985-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

63

Lateral solids dispersion coefficient in large-scale fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of fuel feed ports in a large-scale fluidized bed combustor depends on the fuel characteristics and lateral solids mixing. However, the reported values of the effective lateral solids dispersion coefficient (D{sub sr}) are scattered in the broad range of 0.0001-0.1 m{sup 2}/s. With the aim of predicting D{sub sr} in wider fluidized beds which is difficult to measure directly or deduce from experimental results in lab-scale facilities, a computational method is proposed. It combines the Eulerian-Granular simulation and fictitious particle tracing technique. The value of D{sub sr} is calculated based on the movement of the tracers. The effect on D{sub sr} of bed width (W) ranging from 0.4 m up to 12.8 m at different levels of superficial gas velocity (U{sub 0}) is investigated. It is found that increasing W whilst maintaining U{sub 0}, D{sub sr} initially increases markedly, then its increase rate declines, and finally it stays around a constant value. The computed values of D{sub sr} are examined quantitatively and compared with a thorough list of the measured D{sub sr} in the literature since 1980s. Agreed with the measurements performed in the pilot-scale fluidized beds, the value of D{sub sr} in wider facilities at higher fluidizing velocities is predicted to be around the order of magnitude of 0.1 m{sup 2}/s, much higher than that in lab-scale beds. Finally, the effect of D{sub sr} on the distribution of fuel particles over the cross section in fluidized beds with the specified layout of feed ports is discussed. (author)

Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fluidized bed heat treating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fluidized Bed Technology - An R&D Success Story | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An R&D Success Story An R&D Success Story Fluidized Bed Technology - An R&D Success Story In the early 1990s, POWER magazine called the development of fluidized bed coal combustors "the commercial success story of the last decade in the power generation business." The success, perhaps the most significant advance in coal-fired boiler technology in a half century, was achieved largely through the technology program of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (and its predecessors). The Interior Department's Office of Coal Research, one of the forerunners of the Energy Department, began studying the fluidized bed combustion concept in the early 1960s. The original goal was to develop a compact "package" coal boiler that could be pre-assembled at the factory and shipped to a plant site (a lower cost

66

Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies » Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized Bed Technology - Overview Fluidized beds suspend solid fuels on upward-blowing jets of air during the combustion process. The result is a turbulent mixing of gas and solids. The tumbling action, much like a bubbling fluid, provides more effective chemical reactions and heat transfer. Fluidized-bed combustion evolved from efforts to find a combustion process able to control pollutant emissions without external emission controls (such as scrubbers). The technology burns fuel at temperatures of 1,400 to 1,700 degrees F, well below the threshold where nitrogen oxides form (at approximately 2,500 degrees F, the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the

67

Biomass Gasification in Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dual fluidized bed gasification technology is prospective because it produces high...2...dilution even when air is used to generate the required endothermic heat via in situ combustion. This study is devoted ...

Toshiyuki Suda; Takahiro Murakami…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Design of a Pilot Plant Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents the design principles for a biomass fluidized bed gasifier pilot plant. The fluidized bed gasifier has a nominal capacity of 400 kg ... most important parameters for the performance of the gasifier

K. Maniatis; V. Vassilatos; S. Kyritsis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Particle withdrawal from fluidized bed systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for removing ash formed within, and accumulated at the lower portion of, a fluidized bed coal gasification reactor vessel. A supplemental fluidizing gas, at a temperature substantially less than the average fluidized bed combustion operating temperature, is injected into the vessel and upwardly through the ash so as to form a discrete thermal interface region between the fluidized bed and the ash. The elevation of the interface region, which rises with ash accumulation, is monitored by a thermocouple and interrelated with a motor controlled outlet valve. When the interface rises above the temperature indicator, the valve opens to allow removal of some of the ash, and the valve is closed, or positioned at a minimum setting, when the interface drops to an elevation below that of the thermocouple.

Salvador, Louis A. (Greensburg, PA); Andermann, Ronald E. (Arlington Heights, IL); Rath, Lawrence K. (Mt. Pleasant, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA); Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Evaluating the fluidized bed combustion options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proceedings from a conference on fluidized bed combustion are now available. The book discusses the immediate availability of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology as a practical, environmentally sound option for burning all grades of coal, wood, wood wastes, and biomass. The economics and technical fundamentals of atmospheric FBC are explained for the benefit of owners and managers of industrial boilers, boiler operators, architects/engineers, boiler manufacturers, and fuel suppliers. More than 15 FBC experts have contributed their expertise and experiences to the book.

Sheahan, R.T. (ed.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

74

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Zboray, James A. (Irvine, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

User converts gas boiler to fluidized bed to save $1. 5M  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Retrofitting a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system may allow Clayton Foods Inc. to reduce its annual fuel bill by $1.5 million when the system comes on line in 1986. The system will burn low-grade, high-sulfur coal instead of natural gas, and should pay back the $4.1 million investment in under five years. The dual bed design separates the chemical processes of combustion and desulfurization into two chambers, which allows smaller-sized combustors that achieve high efficiencies in less time than conventional, single-bed fluidized bed boilers. Possible limitations prevent other manufacturers from making the dual-bed system. The Wormser unit is the only retrofit application of this technology in an industrial setting.

Springer, N.

1985-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

82

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility were completed. The riser, primary cyclone and secondary cyclone of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Combustor have been erected. Second, the Mercury Control Workshop and the Grand Opening of Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET) were successfully held on February 22 and 23, 2006, respectively. Third, effects of hydrogen chlorine (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on mercury oxidation were studied in a drop tube reactor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; Songgeng Li

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Based on Pressurized Fluidized Bed Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enviropower Inc. has developed a modern power plant concept based on an integrated pressurized fluidized bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC)....

Kari Salo; J. G. Patel

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

E-Print Network 3.0 - agitated fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

testing of manure digestion system has been initiated. The new TAMU fluidized bed gasifier... of the fluidized bed gasifier. Activity this quarter: a. The assembly of the new...

85

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric fluidized bed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions... in a fluidized bed coater. The bed relative humidity and the droplet size of the coating aerosol were predicted... Fluidized bed coating ... Source: Groningen,...

86

E-Print Network 3.0 - agitation fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

testing of manure digestion system has been initiated. The new TAMU fluidized bed gasifier... of the fluidized bed gasifier. Activity this quarter: a. The assembly of the new...

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University of Minnesota Collection: Engineering 16 POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS Summary: POTENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF INCINERATION IN FLUIDIZED BEDS...

88

Utilization of ash from fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion ash from a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler contains not only carbon, but also silica alumina, quicklime as a sorbent, and a calcium sulfate by-product. These substances react chemically during fluidized bed combustion, and with the addition of water, they start an ettringite reaction and solidify. We determined the conditions necessary for producing hard solids through the study of the composition, curing methods, and characteristics of the solidified ash. We then used two types of road base material, crushed stone and solidified ash from an FBC boiler, to construct a test road at a site with a great deal of heavy traffic. Construction began in 1985, and since then, periodic tests have been performed to evaluate the performance of the road base materials. The testing of the manufacturing techniques centered on the amount and manner that water was added to the mixture and the curing methods of the mixture. Additional testing focused on the handling of the ash powder, the mixtures, and the solidified ash. Since 1991, under the sponsorship of MITI, the Center for Coal Utilization, in conjunction with Naruto Salt Mfg., Ltd., Nippon Hodo Co., Ltd., and Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has used the referenced results to undertake a joint research and development project aimed at the eventual practical application of the technology. In 1993, a pilot facility to solidify ash with the fluidized bed boiler of 75 t/h capacity was completed. At present, all the discharged ash from the pilot facility is being solidified, and experiments on solidification and road base application techniques are underway. Actual road base tests are also in progress, and we are continuing research to meet the national certification requirements for road base materials.

Takada, Tomoaki [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Model for attrition in fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model developed to predict the particle-size distribution and amount of fines generated during the attrition of particles in fluidized beds agrees well with experimental data for siderite iron ore and lignite char. Certain parameters used in the model are independent of particle size, orifice size, system pressure, bed weight, and attrition time, thus making the model suitable for scale-up purposes. Although the analysis was limited to a single jet with the attrition occurring at room temperature, the model can be extended to multi-jet, high-temperature operations.

Chen, T.P.; Sishtla, C.I.; Punwani, D.V.; Arastoopour, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

Sadler, III, Leon Y. (Tuscaloosa, AL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory is nearly complete, and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building is in the final stages. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is being discussed with a potential contractor. Discussions with potential contactor regarding the availability of materials and current machining capabilities have resulted in the modification of the original designs. The selection of the fabrication contractor for the CFBC Facility is expected during the next quarter. Third, co-firing experiments conducted with coal and chicken waste have been initiated in the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This purpose of this report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the new Combustion Laboratory was occupied on June 15, 2005, and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building is in the final painting stage. Second, the fabrication and manufacturing contract for the CFBC Facility was awarded to Sterling Boiler & Mechanical, Inc. of Evansville, Indiana. Sterling is manufacturing the assembly and component parts of the CFBC system. The erection of the CFBC system is expected to start September 1, 2005. Third, mercury emissions from the cofiring of coal and chicken waste was studied experimentally in the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described.

Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

96

EXPERIMENT AND NEURAL NETWORK MODEL OF PRIMARY FRAGMENTATION OF OIL SHALE IN FLUIDIZED BED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the fluidized bed temperature is an important factor of primary fragmentation of oil shale, and

Zhigang Cui; Xiangxin Han; Xiumin Jiang; Jianguo Liu

97

Fluidized bed combustion picks up steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial interest in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) continues, although the technology has been slow to enter the marketplace. Two FBC pilot plants funded by DOE and one commercial size project are in operation. FBC designs and commercial warranties are already available from the boiler industry, but 1981 was the first year to see significant numbers of privately-funded orders, now numbering 38 out of 50 boilers. Manufacturers are working on a universal boiler able to accept any fuel, but potential users are wary of new technology without a long-term demonstration of reliability and economics. There is interest in second generation designs, a new shallow-bed design suitable for retrofitting, and circulating bed types that decouple the combustion system from the heat removal system. (DCK)

Lawn, J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a steam hydro gasification and reforming process.study on biomass Air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed.limestone calcination on the gasification processes in a BFB

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Initial Design of a Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluidized bed gaisifers (CFB) (Figure 1.6) 1.3.1. Bubblingbed gasifiers (BFB and CFB) have great features for SH.employed for the SHR design. CFB enables a circulation of

Yun, Minyoung

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Current Status and Challenges within Fluidized Bed Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed technology is rapidly expanding. Today, more than 600 large (20+ MWth) FBC boilers with a total installed thermal capacity of ... beds (BFBC). The size of the boilers has increased steeply; the larg...

Mikko Hupa

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The backflow cell model for fluidized bed catalytic reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the backmixing of gas in a small fluidized bed with high length to diameter rati. o is relatively small. Hence, it was recommended. that reaction rate studies in fluidized bed reactors be correlated on the basis oi' piston flow~ neglecting mixing. Nay (19...) points out that the straight line obtained on plotting the results of Gilliland's ex- periment on a paper with semilogarithmic coordinates, can be used to characterize the residence time distribution introduced by Danckwerts (6). A steep slope, he...

Ganapathy, E. V

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fluidized-bed retrofit a practical alternative to FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparison is made between the costs of flue-gas desulphurization retrofit to a 112 MW pf-fired boiler, fluidized-bed combustion retrofit to the boiler, and a new fluidized-bed boiler. Breakdowns are given for capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the busbar cost of energy for a 20 year unit life. The analysis shows that fbc is a viable option for the retrofit of many existing boilers from both a technical and economic viewpoint.

Stringfellow, T.E.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building was completed. The experimental facilities have been moved into the CFB Combustor Building. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is in the final stage and is expected to be completed before November 30, 2005. Third, the drop tube reactor has been remodeled and installed to meet the specific requirements for the investigation of the effects of flue gas composition on mercury oxidation. This study will start in the next quarter. Fourth, the effect of sulfur dioxide on molecular chlorine via the Deacon reaction was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li; John T. Riley

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Fate of Fuel Nitrogen in the Furnace of an Industrial Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler during Combustion of Biomass Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-firing biomass with challenging fuels, such as sludge, demolition wood, and solid recovered fuel (SRF), has become an attractive possibility to improve the economy of power production and to reduce the amount of landfill. ... Therefore, the fuel was extremely wet, with a dry solids content below 50 wt %. ... Thus, CS could reduce NOx effectively in devices where other techniques fails, e.g., in kraft recovery boilers, fluidized bed combustors, low-grade fuel combustors, small and domestic boilers, and fast engines. ...

Emil Vainio; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa; Hannu Vesala; Tuula Kajolinna

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

105

Development and applications of clean coal fluidized bed technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation in Europe and elsewhere relies heavily on coal and coal-based fuels as the source of energy. The reliance will increase in the future due to the decreasing stability of price and security of oil supply. In other words, the studies on fluidized bed combustion systems, which is one of the clean coal technologies, will maintain its importance. The main objective of the present study is to introduce the development and the applications of the fluidized bed technology (FBT) and to review the fluidized bed combustion studies conducted in Turkey. The industrial applications of the fluidized bed technology in the country date back to the 1980s. Since then, the number of the fluidized bed boilers has increased. The majority of the installations are in the textile sector. In Turkey, there is also a circulating fluidized bed thermal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 160 MW under construction at Can in Canakkale. It is expected that the FBT has had, or will have, a significant and increasing role in dictating the energy strategies for Turkey.

Eskin, N.; Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Influence of solids hydrodynamics on local heat transfer from tube banks immersed in a gas fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has generated considerable interest as an efficient low-cost and non-polluting means of burning a variety of fuels. Despite the research and developmental efforts focused on FBC for more than three decades, the current state-of-the-art remains at a distance from the point where the combustor/boiler performance can be predicted with confidence. The high heat transfer rates and small internal temperature gradients as perceived from efficient mixing have yet to be fully realized. This is due largely to the multiplicity of variables involved in a fluidized bed combustor and the complexity of its hydrodynamics. Many empirical correlations for predicting heat transfer between a gas fluidized bed and the immersed internals have been proposed. They are based mainly on gross experimental observations with minimal attention to the mechanism of heat transfer due, at least in part, to the lack of systematic data on solids motion. Much useful insight can be obtained from a simultaneous determination of the local heat transfer rates from immersed internal structures and the associated hydrodynamics of the solid particles. Accordingly, in this study, the local mean heat transfer coefficients of horizontal internals simulating tube banks were measured for several locations in the bed along with measurements of the mean solids velocity and density distributions for a range of superficial gas velocities. The experiments were conducted in a 184 mm (7.25 in.) ID air fluidized bed with a horizontal in-line internal rod bundle of 16 mm (0.625 in.) OD with pitch-to-diameter ratio of 4 over a wide range of gas velocities. The results showed that the local heat transfer rates depend strongly on the flow pattern of solids induced by the bubble motion. The data confirmed the expectation that particle convection plays a major role in the mechanisms of heat transfer from immersed internals. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Moslemian, D.; Chen, M.M.; Chao, B.T.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fluidized bed pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and corn stover were pyrolyzed in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor to examine the influence of storage time on thermochemical converting of these materials. The influence of storage on the thermochemical conversion of the biomass feedstocks was assessed based on pyrolysis product yields and chemical and instrumental analyses of the pyrolysis products. Although char and gas yields from corn stover feedstock were influenced by storage time, hybrid poplar and switchgrass were not significantly affected. Liquid, char, and gas yields were feedstock dependent. Total liquid yields (organic+water) varied from 58%-73% depending on the feedstock. Char yields varied from 14%-19% while gas yields ranged from 11%-15%. The chemical composition of the pyrolysis oils from hybrid polar feedstock was slightly changed by storage, however, corn stover and switchgrass feedstock showed no significant changes. Additionally, stored corn stover and hybrid poplar pyrolysis oils showed a significant decrease in their higher heating values compared to the fresh material.

Besler, S.; Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Practical and Regulatory Challenges in Controlling Trace Element Inputs to Soils from Land Application of Fluidized Bed Combustion Residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The 165 MWe circulating fluidized bed boiler at the Nova Scotia Power Inc. ( ... largest fluidized bed unit. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) allows the burning of high sulphur (...in situ capture of S (removal of ...

M. Hope-Simpson; W. Richards

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Materials performance in fluidized-bed air heaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed and use of air heaters to generate hot air for turbine systems has been in progress for a number of years. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) to assess the performance of various heat exchanger materials and establish confidence in the resultant designs of fluidized-bed-combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in association with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB/Combustion Engineering, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE. Argonne National Laboratory, through a contract with the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, conducted tests in the DOE 1.8 {times} 1.8 m atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility in El Segundo, California. This paper presents an assessment of the materials performance in fluidized bed environments and examines guidelines for materials selection on the basis of corrosion resistance in air and in combustion environments, mechanical properties, fabricability/thermal stability, and cost.

Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Combustion of Cattle Manure in a Fluidized Bed Combustor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Experiments were conducted with -20 to +20 percent excess air and at bed temperatures ranging from 600?C (1112?F) to 800?C (1472?F). Experimental data revealed that the gasification efficiencies ranged from 90 to 98 percent, while the combustion... of manure (A, B, C, 0, E, and F) were obtained. The gasification and partial oxidation results for manure A, B, and C (supplied by Hill Feed Yard and Biocon Division of Anderson Peat Company) were reported in references [6 and BJ. The thermochemical...

Annamalai, K.; Colaluca, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. Y.; Sweeten, J. M.

112

Heat exchanger materials for fluidized bed coal combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 4500-h test in the FluiDyne AFBC tells us three things: (1) ferritic and austenitic superheater alloys perform well to approximately 590/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F), (2) high-temperature alloys can perform well at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F), and (3) they also may fail miserably at approximately 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F). Additional studies are clearly needed to develop a fundamental understanding of corrosion mechanisms in AFBC and to determine the envelope of safe operating conditions, which will depend upon alloy sensitivity, the oxygen and sulfur activities, and the many parameters that affect mixing and homogeneity within an operating AFBC. Ultimately long-term tests for periods to 20,000 h will be needed to assure the operability of in-bed heat exchanger and structural materials for the anticipated lifetime of a plant. Good design and well-controlled operations will yield good material performance in AFBC. The key to reliable material usage is operation within the safe envelope. Results from the present experiment suggest that this envelope is large for utility steam systems but smaller for high-temperature tubes and uncooled components in AFBC.

Godfrey, T G; Copper, R H; DeVan, J H; Drake, K R

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Robust techniques for developing empirical models of fluidized bed combustors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report is designed to provide a review of those data analysis techniques that are most useful for fitting m-dimensional empirical surfaces to very large sets of data. One issue explored is the improvement

Gruhl, Jim

114

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

Jantzen, C

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

115

The fluidized bed combustion ash management puzzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the electric and industrial power generation industry upgrades and expands, the amount of coal and other solid fuels also expands. With increased environmental controls, the introduction of a competitive market for power, and the increased interest in opportunity fuels will increase the usage of Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) boilers in the power industry. The combustion of these solid fuels will generate combustion ashes. Power generators, including FBC boilers owners, have traditionally looked to landfills for the disposal of their ash. With the tighter environmental controls being placed on landfills at the federal and state level, power generators are beginning to see constantly escalating tipping fees which now make the landfill option less attractive. In some instances, landfills are beginning to refuse to accept ash regardless of the tipping fee. In view of this, the power generators are now struggling to find a place to store or dispose of the ash that is produced by their power boiler. Other disposal alternatives such as backhaul to the mine and beneficial reuse are now being considered. Either alternative presents its own set of technical and environmental variables to be considered in developing an effective ash management plan. To be effective, these plans need to incorporate an aggressive, yet realistic, role to support beneficial reuse of the ash. Many applications exist for reuse of the various types of ash. The applications for conventional ashes such as those from pulverized coal boilers and stoker fired boilers are mature and more commonplace. The uses for FBC ash are not as well researched and demonstrated and therefore the marketing opportunities for FBC ash continue to require development. FBC boiler owners and operators must be willing to accept the challenges posed in developing these reuse applications for FBC ash for the market to accept the applications for FBC ash and allow the full value of the FBC ash to be realized.

Fitzgerald, H.B. [ReUse Technology, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Development of Catalytic Tar Decomposition in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass gasification in an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) using Ni/Ah03 as tar ... as catalyst in a lab-scale fluidized bed gasifier with catalyst fixed bed. The new catalyst...

Xianbin Xiao; Due Dung Le; Kayoko Morishita…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Methods of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed an apparatus for forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the apparatus includes a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile, and the bottom portion configured to contain a bed of particles; and a gas inlet configured to produce a column of gas to carry entrained particles therein. There is disclosed a method of forming a fluidized bed of circulating particles. In an embodiment, the method includes positioning particles within a bottom portion having a sidewall, the sidewall defining a curvilinear profile; producing a column of gas directed upwardly through a gas inlet; carrying entrained particles in the column of gas to produce a fountain of particles over the fluidized bed of circulating particles and subside in the particle bed until being directed inwardly into the column of gas within the curvilinear profile.

Marshall, Douglas W. (Blackfoot, ID)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

118

Gasification and its emission characteristics for dried sewage sludge utilizing a fluidized bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of these parameters were, therefore, investigated through a series of experiments with a fluidized bed gasifier.

Seong-Wan Kang; Jong-In Dong; Jong-Min Kim…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

An assessment of waste fuel burning in operating circulating fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC), today's fastest growing boiler technology, has the flexibility to burn a wide range of fuels, including many waste fuels, while satisfying all present and anticipated environmental regulations. The first generation of FBC--atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC)--concentrated on ''bubbling'' fluidized bed designs. These systems have inherent limitations and experienced several problems. In response to these problems, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology was developed.

Gendreau, R.J.; Raymond, D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Combustion of coal eliminates most emissions of S and N oxides but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements may make the technology uneconomic. Fluidized Bed residues are cementlike and when mixed with soil, produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that the residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of 7 acres and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. Materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters have been obtained. A contractor will build and deliver a mobile foam generator and spray to the field to demonstrate fugitive dust control from FBC fly ash (dust problem is one key barrier to more widespread use of FBC ash).

Paul, B.C.; Esling, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Pisani, F. [Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands reclamation Council (United States); Wells, T. [Archer-Daniels-Midland Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Co-combustion of biomass and gaseous fuel in a novel configuration of fluidized bed: Thermal characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Experimental study on co-combustion of rice straw and natural gas has been performed in a fluidized bed. The used combustor allows the novel, jetting-fountain configuration and the conventional operation as well. In the jetting-fountain configuration, natural gas premixed with the air sufficient for combustion proceeds through the jet pipe to create a jetting-fountain zone. Whereas only the air required for rice straw combustion passes through the gas distributor. The experiments show that smooth combustion of natural gas with rice straw can be performed in the jetting-fountain fluidized bed avoiding acoustic effects and explosions of burning bubbles that occurs in conventional operation. The jetting-fountain fluidized bed is shown to dampen greatly the freeboard overheating at particularly lower bed temperatures. This is because the fountain-particles absorb a great part of heat released in the freeboard and recover it back to the bed. It is confirmed by measuring the in-bed cooling load that was found to increase considerably at lower bed temperatures. The natural gas contribution is found to play a major role when applying the jetting-fountain configuration. Increasing the natural gas contribution enlarges the fountain zone that causes greater reduction in the freeboard overheating and recovers more heat back to the bed. Measuring the in-bed cooling also approves the later conclusion.

F. Okasha; G. Zaater; S. El-Emam; M. Awad; E. Zeidan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emergent Behavior in a Low-Order Fluidized-Bed Bubble Model John S. Halow National Energy of this type of model to describe the dynamics of voids in bubbling fluidized beds. The model considers vertical interactions between neighboring bubbles in fluidized beds. Emergent collective behavior is shown

Tennessee, University of

123

Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Considerations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations paper 970563 Page 1 of 35 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Considerations Richard E. Weinstein, P.E. Parsons Power Group Inc. Reading, Pennsylvania eMail: Richard_E_Weinstein@Parsons.COM / phone: 610 / 855-2699 Robert W. Travers, P.E. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Germantown, Maryland eMail: Robert.Travers@HQ.DOE.GOV / phone: 301 / 903-6166 Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations paper 970563 Page 2 of 35 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Repowering Considerations ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................................................................................

124

THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Fluidized bed combustion of a high-sulphur eastern Canadian coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-sulphur bituminous coal from Nova Scotia has been tested in a pilot scale FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustor) and an industrial FBC boiler. A comprehensive pilot plant program involved 28 tests at a nominal bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C (1560/sup 0/F) and fluidizing velocities of 1.2, 2.1 and 3 m/s (4,7 and 10 ft/sec) with and without fly ash recycle. Two different sizes of limestone were used for sulphur sorption. The industrial boiler trials involved two tests at 65% and 100% MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating). Pilot scaling results indicate that high combustion efficiencies are achievable. Sulphur capture of over 80% (meeting the SO/sub 2/ emission standard of 705 ng/J or 1.64 lbs/MBTU input) is possible with a Ca/S molar ratio <3 with fly ash recycle.

Desai, D.L.; Anthony, E.J.; Friedrich, F.D.; Razbin, V.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Combustion of paper deinking solids in a pilot-scale fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressed solids from two commercial deinking operations were incinerated in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor. Test parameters included usage of support fuel (dry wood pellets or propane) and supply of overfire air. Stable combustion was achieved for a wide range of feedstock moisture contents (43% and 68%) and bed temperatures (700--1,000 C). Overfire air was varied from 0% to 60% of the total air, and the use of overfire air greatly improved burnout of CO in most cases. NO[sub x] emissions increased when overfire air was used and were in the range of 200 ppm to 275 ppm at 3% O[sub 2]. Ash from the deinking solids did not fuse at temperatures below 1,200 C, and no clinkers were formed in the bed during the trials. The ash consists mainly of kaolinite and contains insignificant quantities of heavy metals.

Douglas, M.A. (ABB Combustion Systems, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada)); Latva-Somppi, J.; Tran, H.N. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Razbin, V.V. (Canada Center for Mineral And Energy Technology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Friedrich, F.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Use of fluidized bed combustion by-products for liners and alkali substitutes. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) of coal eliminates most emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but produces sizable volumes of a solid residue that EPA may require to be placed in capped and lined landfills. Fluidized Bed Combustors are one of the most promising growth markets for Illinois coal and imposing cap and liner requirements would render the technology economically inviable. Fluidized Bed residues are cement-like and when mixed with soil produce a material as impermeable as the clay liners used at landfills. This project will demonstrate that Fluidized Bed Combustion Residues can be mixed with soils by regular construction equipment and used in place of clays as a liner material. The demonstration cap will cover an area of seven acres, and will prevent water infiltration into acid producing material. Baseline studies of Briar Creek indicate that the water is now highly degraded by acid drainage. Construction delays have enhanced the data collected on Briar Creek by allowing monitoring to continue through major seasonal changes without any effects attributable to the FBC ash. The materials needed to place the wells and lysimeters as soon as the weather improves this spring have been purchased and delivered. Also experiments suggest that it may be possible to control dust by foam conditioning the FBC ash at the power station.

Paul, B.C.; Esling, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Pisani, F. [Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council, IL (United States); Wells, T. [Archer-Daniels-Midland Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Advances in mathematical modeling of fluidized bed gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of solid fuel into the gas which contains mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. In gasification, fluidized bed technology is widely used due to its various advantageous features which include high heat transfer, uniform and controllable temperature and favorable gas–solid contacting. Modeling and simulation of fluidized bed gasification is useful for optimizing the gasifier design and operation with minimal temporal and financial cost. The present work investigates the different modeling approaches applied to the fluidized bed gasification systems. These models are broadly classified as the equilibrium model and the rate based or kinetic model. On the other hand, depending on the description of the hydrodynamic of the bed, fluidized bed models may also be classified as the two-phase flow model, the Euler–Euler model and the Euler–Lagrange model. Mathematical formulation of each of the model mentioned above and their merits and demerits are discussed. Detail reviews of different model used by different researchers with major results obtained by them are presented while the special focus is given on Euler–Euler and Euler–Lagrange CFD models.

Chanchal Loha; Sai Gu; Juray De Wilde; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Pradip K. Chatterjee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The Design and Tests in a Three Interconnected Fluidized Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen production based on chemical looping combustion can obtain clean hydrogen with near zero emission of carbon dioxide. This technique can be auto-thermal, making it very promising for hydrogen production. In this paper, the interconnected fluidized ... Keywords: chemical looping combustion, hydrogen production Interconnected fluidized beds

Junjiao Zhang; Jingzhou Jiang; Qiang Lu; Changqing Dong; Teng Zhang; Xinglei Liu; Zhiyong Liang; Yongping Yang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

DMEC-1 Pressurized Circulating Fluidized-Bed Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DMEC-1 project will demonstrate the use of Pyropower`s PYROFLOW pressurized circulating fluidized bed technology to repower an existing coal fired generating station. This will be the first commercial application of this technology in the world. The project is now in budget period 1, the preliminary design phase.

Kruempel, G.E.; Ambrose, S.J. [Midwest Power, Des Moines, IA (United States); Provol, S.J. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Heat exchanger support apparatus in a fluidized bed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger is mounted in the upper portion of a fluidized combusting bed for the control of the temperature of the bed. A support, made up of tubes, is extended from the perforated plate of the fluidized bed up to the heat exchanger. The tubular support framework for the heat exchanger has liquid circulated therethrough to prevent deterioration of the support.

Lawton, Carl W. (West Hartford, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Biomass combustion with in situ CO2 capture by CaO in a 300 kWth circulating fluidized bed facility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper reports experimental results from a new 300 kWth calcium looping pilot plant designed to capture CO2 “in situ” during the combustion of biomass in a fluidized bed. This novel concept relies on the high reactivity of biomass as a fuel, which allows for effective combustion around 700 °C in air at atmospheric pressure. In these conditions, CaO particles fed into the fluidized bed combustor react with the CO2 generated during biomass combustion, allowing for an effective CO2 capture. A subsequent step of regeneration of CaCO3 in an oxy-fired calciner is also needed to release a concentrated stream of CO2. This regeneration step is assumed to be integrated in a large scale oxyfired power plant and/or a larger scale post-combustion calcium looping system. The combustor-carbonator is the key reactor in this novel concept, and this work presents experimental results from a 300 kWth pilot to test such a reactor. The pilot involves two 12 m height interconnected circulating fluidized bed reactors. Several series of experiments to investigate the combustor-carbonator reactor have been carried out achieving combustion efficiencies close to 100% and CO2 capture efficiencies between 70 and 95% in dynamic and stationary state conditions, using wood pellets as a fuel. Different superficial gas velocities, excess air ratios above stoichiometric requirements, and solid circulating rates between combustor-carbonator and combustor-calciner have been tested during the experiments. Closure of the carbon and oxygen balances during the combustion and carbonation trials has been successful. A simple reactor model for combustion and CO2 capture in the combustor-carbonator has been applied to aid in the interpretation of results, which should facilitate the future scaling up of this process concept.

M. Alonso; M.E. Diego; C. Pérez; J.R. Chamberlain; J.C. Abanades

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Co-combustion of biomass and gaseous fuel in a novel configuration of fluidized bed: Combustion characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Experimental study on co-combustion of rice straw and natural gas has been performed in a bubbling fluidized bed. The used combustor allows a novel jetting-fountain configuration and the conventional operation as well. In the jetting-fountain configuration, natural gas premixed with the air sufficient for combustion proceeds through the jet pipe to create a jet-fountain zone. Whereas only the air required for rice straw combustion passes through the gas distributor. The findings of the experiments confirm that smooth combustion of natural gas with rice straw can be performed in the novel jetting-fountain fluidized bed. This avoids acoustic effects and explosions of burning bubbles that occurs in the conventional operation. Natural gas contribution had a major impact on combustion characteristics and the performance of the combustor has been found to be much better when applying the jetting-fountain configuration. There are considerable reductions (up to 64%, 28% and 34%) in CO, \\{NOx\\} and SO2 emissions, respectively. The fixed carbon loss reduces (up to 65%) as well. Combustion efficiency records generally higher values with the jetting-fountain configuration. Combustion efficiency steadily improves with increasing natural gas contribution (up to 99.8%). Increasing bed temperature (up to 900 °C) is beneficial for reducing CO, decreasing fixed carbon loss and improving combustion efficiency. The existence of an optimum bed temperature for sulfur retention has been confirmed. As normal, \\{NOx\\} increases with bed temperature.

F. Okasha; G. Zaater; S. El-Emam; M. Awad; E. Zeidan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

A free radical equilibrium in the fluidized bed retort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solid-recycle fluidized bed retort has been used to study gas phase local equilibria in an oil shale pyrolyzer. In the LLNL pilot scale retort, light gases, methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene, form in a ratio that is inconsistent with equilibration, and they are not equilibrated when recycled. However, in a variety of fluidized bed retorting experiments, the free radical precursors of these gases come to a steady state that requires a transient free radical equilibrium. The steady state is established very rapidly, without need for gas recycle. The 1- and 2-butyl free radicals have been investigated as representative intermediates. The steady state mechanism extends to the entire homologous series of free radicals, and offers a means to achieve improved liquid product yield. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Coburn, T.T.; Droege, M.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

139

Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

140

Four Rivers second generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products has been selected in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Round V program to build, own, and operate the first commercial power plant using second generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology. The four Rivers Energy Project (Four Rivers) will produce up to 400,000 lb/hr steam, or an equivalent gross capacity of 95 MWe. The unit will be used to repower an Air Products chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky.

Holley, E.P.; Lewnard, J.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (United States); von Wedel, G. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik (GmbH); Richardson, K.W. [Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. (United States); Morehead, H.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp. (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Great lakes fluidized-bed combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program was conducted to design, construct, and operate an industrial fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler demonstration plant with a capacity of 50,000 lb/h steam. The following were the objectives of the program: (1) to extend the fluidized bed boiler design by employing natural circulation cooling; (2) to design, build, operate, test, and demonstrate a fluidized bed boiler that could burn high sulfur coal in an environmentally acceptable manner; and (3) to obtain sufficient data for industry to make an objective appraisal of fluidized bed coal burning boilers. Following a five-year design, development, and construction effort, the demonstration plant was first operated in June of 1981. Initial operation identified several equipment and operating problems, particularly in the areas of the fuel preparation and fuel feed systems. Unit operation and availability steadily improved, culminating in a 30-day continuous run ending in May 1982. Following shutdown, major problem areas such as bed tube failures were addressed by C-E and rectified prior to the start of the test program. Shakedown/testing operation commenced on August 12, 1983. The objectives for the test program were to establish the unit operating conditions required to optimize SO/sub 2/ removal and combustion efficiency for different operating modes, and to evaluate the long-term performance of components which are essential for reliable FBC operation. A total of 23 tests were run from February 16, 1984 to April 19, 1984. The test results demonstrated that FBC is an environmentally and commercially sound technology. Specificially, the required sulfur removal, low NO/sub x//CO emissions and high combustion efficiencies can be readily achieved. This report identifies the effects of recycle, excess air, Ca/S mole ratio, and overfire air on combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and emissions. 6 refs., 97 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.'' which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. [times] 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. [times] 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. [times] 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

Numerical and experimental study of hydrodynamics in a compartmented fluidized bed oil palm shell biomass gasifier.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Numerical and experimental studies of hydrodynamic parameters of fluidized beds formed by either a single component system or a binary mixture in a pilot plant… (more)

Wee, Siaw Khur

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"Biomass Thermochemcial Conversion to Biofuels: Advances in Modeling and Summary: gasification in fluidized bed reactors will be presented. This includes the development of...

147

Sulfur removal in advanced two stage pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter a series of sulfidation tests were conducted in the high-pressure high-temperature thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA unit) using limestone and dolomite. The results suggest that half-calcined dolomite is much more reactive than uncalcined limestone. Also, temperature in the range of 800 to 950 C did not significantly affect the sulfidation reaction rates for both limestone and dolomite.

Abbasian, J.; Chowdiah, P.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Sulfur removal in advanced two-staged pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective, the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. A pressurized TGA unit has been purchased by IGT for use in this project.

Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Rue, D.M.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Sulfur removal in advanced two-stage fluidized-bed combustion. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to obtain data on the rates of reaction between, hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents under operating conditions relevant to first stage (carbonizer) of Advanced Two-Stage Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustors (PFBC). In these systems the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the first stage generally exceeds the equilibrium value for calcium carbonate decomposition. Therefore, removal of sulfur compounds takes place through the reaction between H{sub 2}S and calcium carbonate. To achieve this objective the rates of reaction between hydrogen sulfide and uncalcined calcium-based sorbents will be determined by conducting tests in pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) units. The effects of sorbent type, sorbent particle size, reactor temperature and pressure, and CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S partial pressures on the sulfidation reaction rate will be determined. During this quarter, the high-pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HPTGA) unit was installed and the shakedown process was completed. Several tests were conducted in the HPTGA unit to establish the operating procedure and the repeatability of the experimental results. Sulfidation by conducting the baseline sulfidation tests. The results are currently being analyzed.

Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Wangerow, J.R.; Rue, D.M. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Evaluation and selection of circulating fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers to generate steam on an industrial scale is increasing. The reasons for this growth include high combustion efficiency, fuel flexibility, and inherent emissions control capability, particularly with regards to control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}). However, CFB boiler technology is unique, with operating performance, and construction features that differ significantly from those used in conventional pulverized coal (PC) and stoker-fired boiler technology. An overview of these features is presented by the author.

Marcinek, F.T. (Charles B. Tibbits and Associates, Seattle, WA (US))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Using Ilmenite To Reduce the Tar Yield in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, ilmenite was used as the catalytic material in the Chalmers 2–4 MWth dual fluidized bed gasifier to decrease the yield of tar. ... Indirect gasification, using the Dual Fluidized Bed (DFB) concept, has been identified as being suitable for medium- to large-scale production units. ... catalytic reactors, the implementation of specific reaction media such as supercrit. ...

Anton Larsson; Mikael Israelsson; Fredrik Lind; Martin Seemann; Henrik Thunman

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on Almonds with a Fluidized Bed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigated the use of a fluidized bed atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) as a possible pasteurization methodInactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on Almonds with a Fluidized Bed Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Kalyani Narayanan1, Nathan M. Anderson2, Gregory J. Fleischman2 and Susanne Keller2 1Institute

Heller, Barbara

154

Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOROF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR F Iis fed into a hydro-gasifier reactor. One such process was

Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Adaptive higher order numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive higher order numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds Ch. Nagaiah1 adaptive numerical results of heat and mass transfer in fluidized beds using higher order time stepping injection. The numerical results are tested with different time stepping methods for different spatial grid

Magdeburg, Universität

156

Fluidized-bed gasification of an eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current conceptual HYTORT process design for the hydroretorting of oil shales employs moving-bed retorts that utilize shale particles larger than 3 mm. Work at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in progress to investigate the potential of high-temperature (1100 to 1300 K) fluidized-bed gasification of shale fines (<3 mm size) using steam and oxygen as a technique for more complete utilization of the resource. Synthesis gas produced from fines gasification can be used for making some of the hydrogen needed in the HYTORT process. After completing laboratory-scale batch and continuous gasification tests with several Eastern oil shales, two tests with Indiana New Albany shale were conducted in a 0.2 m diameter fluidized-bed gasification process development unit (PDU). A conceptual gasifier design for 95% carbon conversion was completed. Gasification of 20% of the mined shale can produce the hydrogen required by the HYTORT reactor to retort 80% of the remaining shale. 12 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Conductivity tracer studies for a fluidized-bed bioreactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An automated conductivity tracer test was developed to measure the residence time distribution (RTD) of a cometabolic fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBBR). The FBBR contained sand-core bioparticles grown with phenol and it provided high (70% to 80%) removal of trichloroethene (TCE) at short (3 minute) detention times. The tracer test apparatus was constructed with off-the-shelf components controlled with a PC-based data acquisition system. Non-disruptive hydrodynamic testing was obtained during normal operation of the FBBR. The conductivity of injected brine pulses was monitored at the reactor inlet and outlet. Dispersion numbers and detention times were computed by fitting the advection-dispersion model to the tracer curves. Typical dispersion numbers attributed to the fluidized-bed of bioparticles ranged from 0.07 to 0.11. In simplified modeling of the FBBR, dispersion was found to have little effect on TCE removal. Based on the dispersion of brine pulses, it was determined that phenol feed pulses injected at inhibitory concentrations over 2 g/L would be rapidly dispersed in the biological bed to non-inhibitory concentrations.

Leung, S.Y.; Segar, R.L. Jr. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fluidized-bed retrofit a practical alternative to FGD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When SO/sub 2/ emissions from an existing utility boiler must be reduced, retrofitting for fluidized-bed combustion may be an attractive alternative. In addition to reducing atmospheric pollutants during combustion, FBC retrofits allow simultaneous burning of a wide range of low-cost fuels. Also, since new components are incorporated in the steam generator rather than added on as pollution-control equipment, they extend the use of the plant beyond its normal life expectancy. There are five types of fossil-fuel-fired boilers used by utilities (pulverized coal, cyclone, stoker, oil, and gas), and literally hundreds of designs. Not all of these designs lend themselves to FBC retrofit, and much depends on the size and age of the boiler. Units that are not structurally sound or that have extensive internal corrosion are generally not suitable. Boilers over 150 MW usually have complicated water circuitry and small furnace plan areas, and may not have enough space to accommodate the fluidized bed. Other important considerations are: Water/steam-circulation design, Furnace bottom-to-grade clearance, Air-heater type and arrangement, Boiler support, Type of particulate-control device, Fan capacity, Space available in the boiler island for alterations.

Stringfellow, T.E.; Nolte, F.S.; Sage, W.L.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

The atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustion of coal in the Netherlands, cleaner it can't be  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of coal in atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustors for the generation of process steam is still a viable option for industrial applications world wide but interest in this as and electricity generation technology has also grown. The general advantages of AB-FBC are environmental acceptability and great fuel flexibility. As will be shown in this paper, it has a great potential for meeting possible future, even more stringent, regulations. Since 1979, Stork Boilers, TNO and Twente University have been carrying out a joint national research programme aimed at the design of industrial installations operating to stringent emission standards. This has led to the demonstration of a 90 MWth industrial boiler at the AKZO Chemical Works. The work has been under the control of NOVEM, the Netherlands Agency of Energy and the Environment. This body provides the financial resources on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs by awarding annual contracts.

van Gasselt, M.L.G. (TNO-Apeldoorn, P.O. Box 342,7300 AH Apeldoorn (NL))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, agglomerates which formed in the FBC at Montana-Dakota Utilities (Heskett Station Unit 2 located in Bismarck, ND) were analyzed by x-ray diffraction analyses (XRD) for mineral determination; bulk chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy; and polished sections were made for optical and scanning electron microscopy. Polarized-light microscopy was performed using a Zeiss research microscope. Individual mineral grains were analyzed using an ARL electron microprobe and a JOEL 840 scanning electron microscope. The agglomerate was found in the mechanical dust collector and was about ten centimeters in diameter with a dark-colored core and a greenish rim. The sample had voids up to ten millimeters in size; however, the agglomerate was hard to break apart. Bulk compositionally, the agglomerate consists primarily of calcium, silica, and alumina with relatively high abundances of iron (8 to 9 wt %), magnesium (5 to 9 wt %) and sodium (3 to 4 wt %). It is likely that the ``root`` cause of this agglomerate originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed. Because fluidized bed combustors work below the ash fusion temperature of coal ash, aluminosilicates (clays) in the ash probably became ``sticky`` due to fluxing reactions with pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and perhaps alkalies (Na). This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerate. Because of the size of the deposit, the bed particles probably agglomerated in the dust collector.

Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume 1. Model evolution and development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), under Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, has been engaged in the development of a comprehensive mechanistic model of Fluidized Bed Combustors (FBC). The primary aims of this modeling effort are the generation and to the extent possible, validation of an analytical framework for the design and scale-up of fluidized bed combustors. In parallel with this modeling effort, M.I.T. also embarked upon the development of an FBC-Data Base Management System (FBC-DBMS) aimed at facilitating the coordination, interpretation and utilization of the experimental data that are or will become available from diverse sources, as well as in the identification of areas of large uncertainty or having a paucity of experimental results. The synergistic operation of the FBC-Model and FBC-Data Base promises to offer a powerful tool for the design and optimization of FBC's and represents the ultimate goal of the M.I.T. effort. The modeling effort was initially focused upon evaluation and application of state-of-the-art models. The initial system model was divided into five basic components: fluid dynamics, combustion, sulfur capture, heat transfer and emissions. Due to the technical complexity of modeling FBC operation and the initial primitive nature of models for these components, it was deemed necessary to be able to incorporate evolutionary improvements in understanding and correlating FBC phenomena: the M.I.T. system model is, therefore, modular in nature, i.e., each sub-model can be replaced by an updated or equivalent sub-model without necessitating reprogramming of the entire system model.

Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, February 1-July 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Griffith, J.; Joshi, C.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages -- namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects -- brief descriptions of these are also included.

Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Design and Operation of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Wood Powders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper introduces a circulating fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG) with a diameter of 410mm,...2...h for wood powders. The CFBG has been operated in Press Wood Products factory, utilizing its wastes, for more than...

Xu Bingyan; Wu Jiagzhi; Luo Zengfen…

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic fluidized bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fluidized bed Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Assembly and Testing of an On-Farm Manure to Energy Conversion BMP for Animal Waste Pollution Control Summary: . Environmental chamber...

166

Energy balance of ethanol production with a gas-solid fluidized bed fermenter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper delivers the theoretical results achieved the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a fluidized bed ... recirculation of the fluidizing gas and coolers for ethanol recovery. The influenc...

Dipl.-Ing. M. Beck; Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Bauer

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon fluidized-bed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies 16 PRODUCTION OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES BY MEANS OF FLUIDIZED BED PYROLYSIS OF VIRGIN OR RECYCLED POLYMERS Summary: PRODUCTION OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES BY...

168

Gasification of Coffee Grounds in Dual Fluidized Bed:? Performance Evaluation and Parametric Investigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasification of Coffee Grounds in Dual Fluidized Bed:? Performance Evaluation and Parametric Investigation ... Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. ... With a national technical program, we recently worked on converting this biomass waste into middle-caloric product gas. ...

Guangwen Xu; Takahiro Murakami; Toshiyuki Suda; Yoshiaki Matsuzawa; Hidehisa Tani

2006-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

169

Failure Analysis of Bed Coil Tube in an Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology is being used in thermal power plants for steam generation. FBC plants are more flexible than conventional plants ... fuels may be used for firing. The FBC technology...

M. Venkateswara Rao; S. U. Pathak…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Combustor with multistage internal vortices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard area to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard.

Shang, Jer Y. (4524 Andes Dr., Fairfax, VA 22030); Harrington, Richard E. (114 Beechwood St., Morgantown, WV 26505)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fluidized Bed Technology - An R&D Success Story | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2002 Powerplant Award to the Northside facility. Following start-up of the JEA CFB combustor, four demonstration tests were completed as part of the Department of...

172

Assessment of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion recycle systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a technical and economic evaluation of AFBC power plants with recycle systems, and a comparison of these plants with AFBC power plants with carbon burnup beds (CBB) and with pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The analysis considers 1000 MWe plants burning both eastern and western coals. The capital and operating cost estimates are based on boiler designs developed by Babcock and Wilcox, Inc., and on sorbent requirements estimated by Burns and Roe, Inc. The economic analyses are based on a plant located in the East Central region of the United States with a 30-year life and a 70 percent capacity factor. The eastern coal-fired plants are designed to burn Illinois bituminous coal with a higher heating value of 10,100 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 4%. The required calcium to sulfur mole ratios for the eastern plants are 3.8:1 and 2.5:1 for the AFBC/CBB and AFBC/recycle plants, respectively. The western coal-fired plants are designed to burn Wyoming subbituminous coal with a higher heating value of 8,020 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 0.48%. The required calcium to sulfur mole ratios for the western plants are 0.7:1 and 0.4:1 for the AFBC/CBB and AFBC/recycle plants, respectively. These Ca/S mole ratios allow for 30 percent utilization of the alkaline coal ash to reduce sorbent requirements to the fluidized bed combustor. The analyses indicate that the AFBC/recycle plants have an economic advantage over the AFBC/CBB plants and over the PCF/FGD plants for both eastern and western coal.

Rogali, R.; Wysocki, J.; Kursman, S.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Treatment of trichloroethene (TCE) with a fluidized-bed bioreactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBBR`s) offer a promising alternative to existing treatment technologies for the treatment of water contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The objective of this research was to test a laboratory-scale FBBR for removal of trichloroethene (TCE) from groundwater and to study the FBBR kinetic behavior so that field-scale treatment systems could be designed. Phenol was selected as the growth substrate for biofilm-forming microorganisms enriched from activated-sludge because phenol induces enzymes capable of cometabolizing TCE and lesser chlorinated ethenes. The biofilm forming microorganisms were identified as Pseudomonas putida, a common soil bacterium. Experiments with a conventional, single-pass FBBR addressed TCE removal as effected by changes in TCE loading, phenol loading, and media type. In this study, TCE removal using quartz filter sand and garnet filter sand as the biofilm attachment media was measured. Removal ranged from 20 to 60% and was not affected by the media type. Also, removal was not affected by inlet TCE concentration over the range of 100 to 500 {micro}g/L provided the phenol loading was decreased with increasing TCE loading. The FBBR was capable of complete phenol removal at an inlet concentration of 20 to 25 mg/L and an empty-bed contact time of 2.7 minutes. However, the empty-bed contact time was insufficient to sustain greater than 40 to 50% removal of TCE in a nutrient-amended groundwater.

Foeller, J.R.; Segar, R.L. Jr. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

Jantzen, C

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

176

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. The PGM consists of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) reactor together with a recycle cyclone and a particulate removing barrier filter. Coal, air, steam, and possibly sand are fed to the bottom of the PCFB reactor and establish a relatively dense bed of coal/char in the bottom section. As these constituents react, a hot syngas is produced which conveys the solids residue vertically up through the reactor and into the recycle cyclone. Solids elutriated from the dense bed and contained in the syngas are collected in the cyclone and drain via a dipleg back to the dense bed at the bottom of the PCFB reactor. This recycle loop of hot solids acts as a thermal flywheel and promotes efficient solid-gas chemical reaction.

Unknown

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. Technology status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of DOE/METC's AFBC activities is to establish an engineering technology base by 1990, from which the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors can build and operate coal-fired AFBC systems. These systems will be capable of economically generating process steam, direct and indirect heat, and onsite electric power from coals of all ranks and sulfur contents in an environmentally acceptable manner. First-generation atmospheric fluidized-bed technology is considered commercial; a number of US boiler manufacturers are offering commercial units. However, many of these first units are products of empirical design and offer marginal gains in economics, performance, and reliability over conventional systems. In order to resolve the remaining technical issues and to broaden the market, DOE is pursuing advanced concepts. Development of this second-generation AFBC technology is directed toward small industrial, commercial, and residential applications. Penetration of these potential markets will require: (1) a 20 to 30% reduction in capital and operating costs over first-generation technology; (2) significant improvements in performance and reliability; and (3) compliance with existing and proposed New Source Performance Standards for environmental emissions. Current AFBC activities address: industrial operations, advanced concepts, and technology development. Four AFBC demonstration projects were active in FY 1984. The development of AFBC technology is directly supported by the evaluation of five advanced concepts by the M.W. Kellogg Company (circulating-bed FBC), Battelle Columbus Laboratories (spouted-bed FBC), Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (moving-bed FBC), Howard University (staged cascade FBC), and Arthur D. Little, Inc. (pulsed-bed FBC). These concepts may improve the economics and performance. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Not Available

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ash vaporization in circulating fluidized bed coal combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the vaporization of the ash-forming constituents in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in a full-scale 80 MW{sub th} unit was studied. Ash vaporization in CFBC was studied by measuring the fly ash aerosols in a full-scale boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) at the flue gas temperature of 125{degree}C. The fly ash number size distributions showed two distinct modes in the submicrometer size range, at particle diameters 0.02 and 0.3 {mu}m. The concentration of the ultrafine 0.02-{mu}m mode showed a large variation with time and it decreased as the measurements advanced. The concentration of the 0.02-{mu}m mode was two orders of magnitude lower than in the submicrometer mode observed earlier in the bubbling FBC and up to three orders of magnitude lower than in the pulverized coal combustion. Scanning electron micrographs showed few ultrafine particles. The intermediate mode at 0.3 {mu}m consisted of particles irregular in shape, and hence in this mode the particles had not been formed via a gas to particle route. We propose that the 0.3-{mu}m mode had been formed from the partial melting of the very fine mineral particles in the coal. The mass size distribution in the size range 0.01-70 {mu}m was unimodal with maximum at 20 {mu}m. Less than 1% of the fly ash particles was found in the submicrometer size range. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Maenhaut, W. [Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Shah, A.; Huggins, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Dynamic analysis of a circulating fluidized bed riser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A linear state model is proposed to analyze dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed riser. Different operating regimes were attained with high density polyethylene beads at low and high system inventories. The riser was operated between the classical choking velocity and the upper transport velocity demarcating fast fluidized and transport regimes. At a given riser superficial gas velocity, the aerations fed at the standpipe were modulated resulting in a sinusoidal solids circulation rate that goes into the riser via L-valve. The state model was derived based on the mass balance equation in the riser. It treats the average solids fraction across the entire riser as a state variable. The total riser pressure drop was modeled using Newton’s second law of motion. The momentum balance equation involves contribution from the weight of solids and the wall friction caused by the solids to the riser pressure drop. The weight of solids utilizes the state variable and hence, the riser inventory could be easily calculated. The modeling problem boils down to estimating two parameters including solids friction coefficient and time constant of the riser. It has been shown that the wall friction force acts in the upward direction in fast fluidized regime which indicates that the solids were moving downwards on the average with respect to the riser wall. In transport regimes, the friction acts in the opposite direction. This behavior was quantified based on a sign of Fanning friction factor in the momentum balance equation. The time constant of the riser appears to be much higher in fast fluidized regime than in transport conditions.

Panday, Rupen [REM Engineering PLLC; Shadle, Lawrence J. [U.S. DOE; Guenther, Chris [U.S. DOE

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

The combustion of large particles of char in bubbling fluidized beds: The dependence of Sherwood number and the rate of burning on particle diameter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particles of char derived from a variety of fuels (e.g., biomass, sewage sludge, coal, or graphite), with diameters in excess of {approx}1.5mm, burn in fluidized bed combustors containing smaller particles of, e.g., sand, such that the rate is controlled by the diffusion both of O{sub 2} to the burning solid and of the products CO and CO{sub 2} away from it into the particulate phase. It is therefore important to characterize these mass transfer processes accurately. Measurements of the burning rate of char particles made from sewage sludge suggest that the Sherwood number, Sh, increases linearly with the diameter of the fuel particle, d{sub char} (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). This linear dependence of Sh on d{sub char} is expected from the basic equation Sh=2{epsilon}{sub mf}(1+d{sub char}/2{delta}{sub diff})/{tau}, provided the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer, {delta}{sub diff}, is constant in the region of interest (d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm). Such a dependence is not seen in the empirical equations currently used and based on the Frossling expression. It is found here that for chars made from sewage sludge (for d{sub char}>{approx}1.5mm), the thickness of the boundary layer for mass transfer in a fluidized bed, {delta}{sub diff}, is less than that predicted by empirical correlations based on the Frossling expression. In fact, {delta}{sub diff} is not more than the diameter of the fluidized sand particles. Finally, the experiments in this study indicate that models based on surface renewal theory should be rejected for a fluidized bed, because they give unrealistically short contact times for packets of fluidized particles at the surface of a burning sphere. The result is the new correlation Sh = 2{epsilon}{sub mf}/{tau} + (A{sub cush}/A{sub char})(d{sub char}/ {delta}{sub diff}) for the dependence of Sh on d{sub char}, the diameter of a burning char particle. This equation is based on there being a gas-cushion of fluidizing gas underneath a burning char particle; the implication of this correlation is that a completely new picture emerges for the combustion of a char particle in a hot fluidized bed. (author)

Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.; Scott, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA, England (United Kingdom)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) plants: an operations and maintenance study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors analyzed data from a fluidized bed boiler survey distributed during the spring of 2003 to develop appropriate AFBC (Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion) performance benchmarks. The survey was sent to members of CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners), who sponsored the survey, as well as to other firms who had an operating AFBC boiler on-site. There were three primary purposes for the collection and analysis of the data contained in this fluidized bed boiler survey: (1) To develop AFBC benchmarks on technical, cost, revenue, and environmental issues; (2) to inform AFBC owners and operators of contemporary concerns and issues in the industry; (3) to improve decision making in the industry with respect to current and future plant start-ups and ongoing operations.

Jack A. Fuller; Harvie Beavers; Robert Bessette [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). College of Business and Economics

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Experimental research on combustion characteristics of pulverized-coal fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, efficient clean coal combustion method, pulverized-coal fluidized bed combustion (PC-FBC) is proposed firstly in this paper. Research has been conducted on the combustion characteristics of PC-FBC on an experimental rig with 0.3 MW heat input. PC-FBC uses pulverized-coal as its fuel and integrates the characters of the pulverized coal boiler and the fluidized bed boiler. In 850 to 880 C fluidized-bed combustion zone (FBCZ) of PC-FBC, the pulverized coal can be ignited stably and releases 57.7 to 84.2% volatile substance. Seventy (70%) of the released volatile and a part of carbon are burnt in FBCZ. The highest and average gas temperatures are 1100 C and 950 to 1000 C respectively in PC-FBC. A combustion efficiency of 98 to 99% can be reached.

Cheng, H. [North China Electric Power Univ., Baoding, Hebei (China); Jin, B.; Xu, Y. [Southeast Univ., Nanjing, Jiangshu (China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

1981-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

185

Transient Simulations of Spouted Fluidized Bed for Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transient Simulations of Spouted Fluidized Bed for Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Combustion ... Instead of having air to support the combustion process, an oxygen compound (metal or non-metal based) is used as an oxidizer in the fuel reactor; thus, the fuel is chemically combusted by the metal oxide than the oxygen present in air in case of standard power plants. ... The CFD/DEM simulation approach has been used in various applications which require the modeling of particle/fluid interaction;(19-23) however, its application in the context of close-loop spouted fluidized bed system has so far been quite limited and preliminary. ...

Zheming Zhang; Ling Zhou; Ramesh Agarwal

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

186

Co-Gasification of Wood and Lignite in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixts. of coal and biomass were co-gasified in a jetting, ash-agglomerating, fluidized-bed, pilot scale-sized gasifier to provide steady-state operating data for numerical simulation verification. ... Downstream cleaning of gas by catalytic cracking and/or scrubbing is complex and/or expensive for small to medium gasification plants, so conversion of tar within the gasifier is preferred. ... Kern, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Hofbauer, H. Gasification of lignite in a dual fluidized bed gasifier - Influence of bed material particle size and the amount of steam. ...

Stefan Kern; Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Steam Gasification of Cellulose with Cobalt Catalysts in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic performance of Co/MgO catalysts for the treatment of tar derived from cellulose steam gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier of 22 mm i.d. and 500 mm height was investigated by means of two different methods:? hot gas cleaning in a fixed bed reactor after the fluidized bed gasifier (secondary method) and treatment inside the gasifier with catalyst as a fluidizing medium (primary method). ... From this perspective, developing a more effective catalyst is essential for scaling down the plant size while still facilitating high and stable catalytic performance. ... At 720-760°, space-times 0.10-0.20 s, catalyst sizes <1.0 ...

Kazuhiko Tasaka; Takeshi Furusawa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

188

Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Characterization of Biofilm in 200W Fluidized Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contaminated groundwater beneath the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington is currently being treated using a pump and treat system to remove organics, inorganics, radionuclides, and metals. A granular activated carbon-based fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been added to remove nitrate, hexavalent chromium and carbon tetrachloride. Initial analytical results indicated the microorganisms effectively reduced many of the contaminants to less than cleanup levels. However shortly thereafter operational upsets of the FBR include carbon carry over, over production of microbial extracellular polymeric substance (biofilm) materials, and over production of hydrogen sulfide. As a result detailed investigations were undertaken to understand the functional diversity and activity of the microbial community present in the FBR over time. Molecular analyses including terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were performed on the microbial community extracted from the biofilm within the bed and from the inoculum, to determine functional dynamics of the FBR bed over time and following operational changes. Findings from these analyses indicated: 1) the microbial community within the bed was completely different than community used for inoculation, and was likely from the groundwater; 2) analyses early in the testing showed an FBR community dominated by a few Curvibacter and Flavobacterium species; 3) the final sample taken indicated that the microbial community in the FBR bed had become more diverse; and 4) qPCR analyses indicated that bacteria involved in nitrogen cycling, including denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria, were dominant in the bed. These results indicate that molecular tools can be powerful for determining functional diversity within FBR type reactors. Coupled with micronutrient, influent and effluent chemistry evaluations, a more complete understanding of the balance between system additions (nutrients, groundwater) and biology can be achieved, thus increasing long-term predictions of performance. These analyses uniquely provide information that can be used in optimizing the overall performance, efficiency, and stability of the system both in real time as well as over the long-term, as the system design is altered or improved and/or new streams are added.

Lee, Michelle H.; Saurey, Sabrina D.; Lee, Brady D.; Parker, Kent E.; Eisenhauer, Emalee ER; Cordova, Elsa A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

190

Filter system cost comparison for integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion power systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assess the relative cost of components and sub-systems for a hot gas particulate cleanup system a cost comparison between the filter systems for two advanced coal-based power plants was conducted. Assessing component and sub-system costs permits the most beneficial areas for product improvement to be identified. The results from this study are presented. The filter system is based on a Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filter Concept which is designed to operate with ceramic candle filters. The Foster Wheeler second Generation 453 MWe (net) Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) and the KRW 458 MWe (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants are used for the comparison. The comparison presents the general differences of the two power plants and the process related filtration conditions for PFBC and IGCC systems. The results present the conceptual designs for the PFBC and IGCC filter systems as well as a cost summary comparison. The cost summary comparison includes the total plant cost, the fixed operating and maintenance cost, the variable operating and maintenance cost and the effect on the cost of electricity for the two filter systems. The most beneficial areas for product improvement are identified.

Dennis, R.A.; McDaniel, H.M. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center; Buchanan, T.; Chen, H.; Harbaugh, L.B.; Klett, M.; Zaharchuk, R. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Materials performance in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of cogeneration systems that involve combustion of coal in a fluidized bed for the generation of electricity and process heat has been in progress for a number of years. This paper addresses some of the key components in these systems, materials requirements/performance, and areas where additional effort is needed to improve the viability of these concepts for electric power generation.

Natesan, K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Three-dimensional CFD simulation of hydrodynamics in an interconnected fluidized bed for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hydrodynamic model of an interconnected fluidized bed for chemical looping combustion was established based on the Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid model with the kinetic theory of granular flow. The effect of the drag model on the computational results was investigated and detailed hydrodynamics were predicted in the three-dimensional circulating fluidized bed (composed of a riser, bubbling bed, pot-seal and cyclone). Both qualitative and quantitative results indicated that the drag model had a significant effect on the flow behavior. The Gidaspow and the Syamlal & O'Brien drag models both produced accurate predictions in this study. The pressure balance of an interconnected fluidized bed revealed that the pressure in the bubbling bed was lower than that in the pot-seal and the riser, whilst still being higher than the pressure in the cyclone. The riser and bubbling bed were individually operated in fast and bubbling fluidization regions. The three distinct regions identified from the bottom to the top of the riser were: entrance region, bulk region and exit region. The solids volume fraction was higher in the near-wall region but lower in the center region for both the riser and bubbling bed. The coupled characteristics of the fluidized bed were predominantly identified by the strong effect of operational gas velocity in the riser on the hydrodynamics in the bubbling bed.

Yanjun Guan; Jian Chang; Kai Zhang; Baodong Wang; Qi Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Tar Reduction by Primary Measures in an Autothermal Air-Blown Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

mean size (?m) ... When some calcined dolomite (CaO·MgO) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. ...

Manuel Campoy; Alberto Go?mez-Barea; Diego Fuentes-Cano; Pedro Ollero

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Modeling Process Characteristics and Performance of Fixed and Fluidized Bed Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling Process Characteristics and Performance of Fixed and Fluidized Bed Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer ... (7)?Cheng, W.-H.; Chou, M.-S.; Lee, W.-S.; Huang, B.-J. Applications of Low-Temperature Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers to Treat Volatile Organic Compounds. ...

Pietropaolo Morrone; Francesco P. Di Maio; Alberto Di Renzo; Mario Amelio

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

Coke deposits formation and products selectivities for the MTG process in a fluidized bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out in a demonstrative scale fluidized bed reactor for methanol conversion to gasoline (MTG). We investigated the kinetics of the coke deposits formation and their influence on the products selectivities. New reaction indexes were advanced for on line monitoring of the catalyst activity.

Grigore Pop; Gavril Musca; Eleonora Chirila; Rodica Boeru; Gheorghe Niculae; Natalia Natu; Gheorghe Ignatescu; Sorin Straja

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1982-31 January 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W.E.; DeSaro, R.; Joshi, C.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery System development. Semiannual report, 1 August 1981-31 January 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry.

Cole, W. E.; DeSaro, R.; Joshi, C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Experimental study of fluidized bed combustion of feedlot manure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characteristics 2. 2 Gasification 2. 3 Combustion CHAPTER III OBJECTIVES CHAPTER IV THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS 4. 1 General Facility Layout 4. 2 Air Flow System 4. 3 Bed Chamber 4. 4 Fuel Feed System 1V V1 1X 12 14 19 21 21 23 25 25 TABLE... on the combustor performance. In the present research work, literature review is carried out on combustion and gasification of feedlot manure results (chapter II). Chapter III lists out the objectives and the tasks of this research work. The experimental setup...

Madan, Ajit M.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

The design of a fluidized bed for testing of a robotic burrowing device which mimics razor clams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reviews the design of a fluidized bed test setup for testing digging kinematics of RoboClam, a burrowing device based on Atlantic Razor Clams. This test bed allows for in-lab testing in an environment covered ...

Dorsch, Daniel Scott

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Calcined Dolomite, Magnesite, and Calcite for Cleaning Hot Gas from a Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier with Steam:? Life and Usefulness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calcined Dolomite, Magnesite, and Calcite for Cleaning Hot Gas from a Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasifier with Steam:? Life and Usefulness ... About the temperature effect, at low (800 °C) and medium (840 °C) temperatures, the calcite is soon deactivated. ...

Jesús Delgado; María P. Aznar; José Corella

1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Results of familiarization of and prospects for a procedure for the burning of wastes in a vortical fluidized bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems that have arisen during tune-up of the production line for the thermal processing of solid household waste by the method of burning in a vortical fluidized bed (principally,...

A. N. Tugov; G. A. Ryabov; V. I. Rodionov…

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Novel, Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production Research and Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Novel, Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Novel, Magnetically Fluidized-Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production Research and Development Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is committed to improving methods for co-producing power and chemicals, fuels, and hydrogen (H2). Gasification is a process by which fuels such as coal can be used to produce synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of H2, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon

203

Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Economics of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of three power plants rated at 250 MWe, 150 MWe and 4 MWe were developed. The 4 MWe facility was chosen to represent a distributed power source for a remote location and designated to co-fire coal with MSW, TDF and sewage sludge while producing electricity for a small town. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant and costs determined including capital costs, operating costs and cost of electricity. With the PFBCs operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Since PFBCs have not been tested co-firing wastes, other critical performance factors were addressed and recommendations were provided for resolving potential technical issues. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center; DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

EA-0646: Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustor Development Thermochem, Inc.  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to develop a more economical, efficient, and environmentally acceptable coal-fired combustion technology in Baltimore, Maryland that can be...

206

Small-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system for heat and power in remote areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand for heating and electric power has steadily increased in remote areas. The use of locally available fuel to achieve self sufficiency has become an important objective. Energy demands may require steam generation for district heating, power generation and process consumption. In addition, the steam generation unit can also be required to burn waste that includes MSW and sewage sludge. To meet these demands, new systems must be installed that use local fuel. This paper describes a lower cost CFBC for use in remote areas. With the support of DOE METC, in late summer 1994, DONLEE performed a test burn at its 10 MM btu/hr pilot CFBC using subbituminous coal from Wyoming. The Wyoming coal`s sulfur dioxide emissions were very low due to the low sulfur content of the Wyoming coal and the excellent efficiency at temperatures as low as 1,500 F thereby indicating no limestone addition was needed for sulfur capture. The CFBC testing indicated emissions met all of the environmental requirements, both Federal and state. These requirements include: particulates, SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, opacity, chlorinated dioxins/furans, etc. The unit can be fabricated in modules, making the installation easier and less expensive for use in remote areas. The design is highly reliable and can be fully automated thereby requiring limited staffing.

Stuart, J.M.; Korenberg, J. [DONLEE Technologies Inc., York, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Fuel characteristics and theoretical performance of a fluidized bed combustor with manure as a fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removal and the temperature of gasification and (c) the heat of pyrolysis. The results are shown in Figures 3a, 3b, 3c. Figure 3a shows the results of apparently a wet fresh manure at a heating rate of 80'C/min, while Figure 3b, 3c shows 24 00 2200... ( 'K) Time ( sec ) Temperature at any time Temperature of heat exchanger wall Initial temperature Bubble temperature Mix temperature Environmental temperature Xii NOMENCLATURE (Continued ) tm umin ubub Ve Time at the end of pyrolysis Time...

Park, Joon Hwa

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

none,

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed heat exchanger in a 300 MW CFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE), a series of experiments was carried out in a commercial 300 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler with FBHE. The parameters of steam, solids and air in FBHE were measured at different boiler loads, based on which the absorbed heat and heat transfer coefficient were calculated. Further study indicates that when the calculated results are applied to the design of large-scale CFB boilers, the bed side heat transfer coefficient in FBHE can be simplified as the function of solids temperature and flow. Therefore, the empirical model of heat transfer coefficient at bed side is put forward. The deviation between calculated results and measured values is acceptable in engineering application. This model provides strong support for the FBHE design in 600 MW supercritical CFB boilers.

Man Zhang; Haibo Wu; Qinggang Lu; Yunkai Sun; Guoliang Song

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Catalyst deactivation by coking in the MTG process in fixed and fluidized bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The validity of a kinetic model for describing the deactivation of a catalyst based on a HZSM5 zeolite has been studied by carrying out reaction in fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The kinetic model takes into account that activity is dependent on the concentration of the lumps of oxygenates, of light olefins and of the remaining products and shows that coke formation capability follows this order. The difference between the deactivation kinetic constants calculated for the fixed and fluidized bed reactors is explained by the effect of the steam produced in the reaction, where coke stripping attenuates deactivation. Future improvements in the deactivation kinetic model must take into account coke stripping by the steam produced in the reaction.

Andrés T. Aguayo; Ana G. Gayubo; JoséM. Ortega; Martin Olazar; Javier Bilbao

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Operating Experience with a Large Fluidized-Bed Gasifier of Woodwaste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH A LARGE FLUIDIZED-BED GASIFIER OF WOODWASTE Robin F.W. Guard Omnifuel Gasification Systems Toronto, Ontario ABSTRACT The town of Hearst in northern Ontario is the lo cation of many forest product industries. One... Houston, TX, April 4-7, 1982 energy recovery systems before choosing gasification. The main reason for the choice was the need to be able to distribute the energy to four existing boilers in different locations, all working on natural gas. A secondary...

Guard, R. F. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Power plant computer aided design software char properties generated by a fluidized bed gasifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and process steam. The most reliable way to convert cotton gin trash to energy is through gasification. The carbon conversion of the fluidized bed gasification system developed by TAES is not efficient. The char collected by the cleanup subsystem contains... to thermochemical conversion of cotton gin waste including fuel analyses (Schacht ~ 1978), fuel feed, combustion (LePori et a 1. , 1981), gasification (Groves, 1979; Craig, 1980; LePori et al. , 1981), gas cleanup (Datin, 1983; Jones et al. , 1984) low energy...

Siebold, Walter Joachim

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

214

Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

none,

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Blend in a Dual Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

circulating flow/forestry, agricultural waste, industry wastes + coalcoke ... Whereas, a dual fluidized bed gasification technology enables production of the medium calorific value gas (12?18 MJ/Nm3) by separating the combustion and gasification zones in which steam is used as a gasifying agent. ... Since Quercus acutissima is widely used in building, pulp, and shipping industries, its demand and supply in Korea is high. ...

Myung Won Seo; Jeong Hoi Goo; Sang Done Kim; See Hoon Lee; Young Chan Choi

2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

216

Analysis and optimized design of airlocks for fluidized bed gasifier fuel feed systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the bottom center of a fluidized bed. A feed hopper with a feeder assembly, two pressure sealing rotary valves and an injector feeder were used, Problems experienced included uneven metering of the trash into the gasifier. In a report prepared... of cotton gin trash and the fact that feeding this material will be without preprocessing, the decision was made to study devices that provide mechanical pressure seals. Three concepts were chosen, lock hopper with door valves, lock hopper with knife gate...

Nuboer, Benito Frans

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Erosion of heat exchanger tubes in fluidized beds. Annual report, 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the activities of the 3-year project entitled ``Erosion of Heat Exchanger Tubes In Fluidized Beds.`` which was completed at the end of 1990. Project accomplishments include the collection of a substantial body of wear data In a 24in. {times} 24in. fluidized bed, comparative wear results In a 6in. {times} 6in. fluidized bed, the development of a dragometer and the collection of a comprehensive set of drag force data in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of bubble probe data to establish dominant bubble frequencies in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed, the use of a heat flux gauge for measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed and the modeling of the tube wear in the 24in. {times} 24in. bed. Analysis of the wear data from the 24in. square bed indicates that tube wear increases with increase in superficial velocity, and with increase in tube height. The latter effect is a result of the tubes higher up in the bed seeing greater movement of dense phase than tubes lower down In the bed. In addition, tube wear was found to decrease with increase in particle size, for constant superficial velocity. Three models of tube wear were formulated and provided acceptable prediction of wear when compared with the experimental data.

Johnson, E.K.; Flemmer, R.L.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Experimental determination of agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass by measuring slip resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A method by measuring the slip resistance between particles was used to determine the agglomeration tendency in fluidized bed combustion of biomass. Solid particles were taken from different stages of biomass combustion in a fluidized bed and loaded into a bench-scale test apparatus with two concentric cylinders. A precision variable frequency motor and a torque sensor were employed to measure the torque driven by the inner cylinder at a constant speed, which is directly related to the slip resistance of the solid particles. The measurement results showed significant difference in the slip resistance of the bed solids taken from different stages of biomass combustion at different operating temperatures. A strong correlation was found between the onset of agglomeration and increase in the slip resistance, especially near the onset of agglomeration, due to the build-up of molten biomass ashes, presence of liquid bridges between particles and formation of incipient agglomerates. With further validation, the method developed in the present study can potentially be used to quantify agglomeration tendency in a fluidized bed reactor and characterize the dynamic process of agglomeration.

Chunjiang Yu; Zifeng Tang; Leiyun Zeng; Chen Chen; Bin Gong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Combustion of palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed: Optimization of biomass particle size and operating conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work presents a study on the combustion of palm kernel shell (PKS) in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina sand as the bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. Prior to combustion experiments, a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in nitrogen and dry air to investigate the effects of biomass particle size on thermal and combustion reactivity of PKS. During the combustion tests, the biomass with different mean particle sizes (1.5 mm, 4.5 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10.5 mm) was burned at a 45 kg/h feed rate, while excess air was varied from 20% to 80%. Temperature and gas concentrations (O2, CO, CxHy as CH4, and NO) were recorded along the axial direction in the reactor as well as at stack. The experimental results indicated that the biomass particle size and excess air had substantial effects on the behavior of gaseous pollutants (CO, CxHy, and NO) in different regions inside the reactor, as well as on combustion efficiency and emissions of the conical FBC. The CO and CxHy emissions can be effectively controlled by decreasing the feedstock particle size and/or increasing excess air, whereas the NO emission can be mitigated using coarser biomass particles and/or lower excess air. A cost-based approach was applied to determine the optimal values of biomass particle size and excess air, ensuring minimum emission costs of burning the biomass in the proposed combustor. From the optimization analysis, the best combustion and emission performance of the conical FBC is achievable when burning PKS with a mean particle size of about 5 mm at excess air of 40–50%. Under these conditions, the combustor can be operated with high (99.4–99.7%) combustion efficiency, while controlling the gaseous emissions at acceptable levels. No evidence of bed agglomeration was found in this conical FBC using alumina as the bed material for the entire time period of experimental tests.

Pichet Ninduangdee; Vladimir I. Kuprianov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Chaotic behavior control in fluidized bed systems using artificial neural network. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (FBC) are becoming very popular, efficient, and environmentally acceptable replica for conventional boilers in Coal-fired and chemical plants. In this paper, we present neural network-based methods for chaotic behavior monitoring and control in FBC systems, in addition to chaos analysis of FBC data, in order to localize chaotic modes in them. Both of the normal and abnormal mixing processes in FBC systems are known to undergo chaotic behavior. Even though, this type of behavior is not always undesirable, it is a challenge to most types of conventional control methods, due to its unpredictable nature. The performance, reliability, availability and operating cost of an FBC system will be significantly improved, if an appropriate control method is available to control its abnormal operation and switch it to normal when exists. Since this abnormal operation develops only at certain times due to a sequence of transient behavior, then an appropriate abnormal behavior monitoring method is also necessary. Those methods has to be fast enough for on-line operation, such that the control methods would be applied before the system reaches a non-return point in its transients. It was found that both normal and abnormal behavior of FBC systems are chaotic. However, the abnormal behavior has a higher order chaos. Hence, the appropriate control system should be capable of switching the system behavior from its high order chaos condition to low order chaos. It is to mention that most conventional chaos control methods are designed to switch a chaotic behavior to a periodic orbit. Since this is not the goal for the FBC case, further developments are needed. We propose neural network-based control methods which are known for their flexibility and capability to control both non-linear and chaotic systems. A special type of recurrent neural network, known as Dynamic System Imitator (DSI), will be used for the monitoring and control purposes.

Bodruzzaman, M.; Essawy, M.A.

1996-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

222

Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed height for both spherical and non-spherical particles. Further, it decrease with decreasing particle size and decreases with decreasing bed diameter. Shadow sizing, a non-intrusive imaging and diagnostic technology, was also used to visualize flow fields inside fluidized beds for both spherical and non- spherical particles and to detect the particle sizes.

Choudhuri, Ahsan

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Syngas methanation for substitute natural gas over Ni–Mg/Al2O3 catalyst in fixed and fluidized bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A comparative study was conducted for laboratory syngas methanation over a self-made Ni–Mg/Al2O3 catalyst to demonstrate the technical advantages of fluidized bed over fixed bed reactor. At different reaction temperatures, gas velocities and pressures, the CO conversion and selectivity to CH4 in fluidized bed were shown to be higher than in fixed bed, and much closer to the thermodynamic equilibriums. The spent catalysts from fluidized bed methanation had distinctively low and easy-oxidizing deposited carbon in comparison with that from fixed bed. The results were attributed to the bigger effective catalytic surface, better heat and mass transfer in fluidized bed reactor.

Jiao Liu; Wenlong Shen; Dianmiao Cui; Jian Yu; Fabing Su; Guangwen Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Pneumatic conveying of coal and coal-limestone mixtures as applied to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. [Effects of moisture, velocity, particle size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pneumatic conveying experiments with coal and coal-limestone mixtures were performed on a conveying system designed to represent the feed lines in the Tennessee Valley Authority 20 MW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. The experimental conditions were chosen to cover the anticipated combustor operating ranges. The results have led to a fundamental understanding of the operating limits associated with coal surface moisture, air velocity, coal and limestone fines, solids to air ratio, and limestone to coal ratio. Coal surface moisture was found to be the most important parameter affecting handling and transport. Specific upper limits for surface moisture were established. It was demonstrated that addition of dry limestone can reduce the conveying problems associated with wet coal. The air velocities causing saltation and surge flow were determined for a variety of conveying conditions. These velocities were related qualitatively to solids to air ratio, particle size, and surface moisture. Conveying pressure drop was also measured for a variety of conditions. In the absence of saltation, the horizontal, frictional pressure drop was only a function of the solids to air ratio and the air flow conditions. Comparison of the ORNL pressure drop data with the results of other investigators had led to the conclusion that there are two basic modes of flow in dilute-phase conveying; a primarily viscous mode and a primarily inertial mode. A general pressure drop model has been developed for the inertial mode.

Daw, C S; Thomas, J F

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Phase shift method to estimate solids circulation rate in circulating fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While solids circulation rate is a critical design and control parameter in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor systems, there are no available techniques to measure it directly at conditions of industrial interest. Cold flow tests have been conducted at NETL in an industrial scale CFB unit where the solids flow has been the topic of research in order to develop an independent method which could be applied to CFBs operating under the erosive and corrosive high temperatures and pressures of a coal fired boiler or gasifier. The dynamic responses of the CFB loop to modest modulated aeration flows in the return leg or standpipe were imposed to establish a periodic response in the unit without causing upset in the process performance. The resulting periodic behavior could then be analyzed with a dynamic model and the average solids circulation rate could be established. This method was applied to the CFB unit operated under a wide range of operating conditions including fast fluidization, core annular flow, dilute and dense transport, and dense suspension upflow. In addition, the system was operated in both low and high total solids inventories to explore the influence of inventory limiting cases on the estimated results. The technique was able to estimate the solids circulation rate for all transport circulating fluidized beds when operating above upper transport velocity, U{sub tr2}. For CFB operating in the fast fluidized bed regime (i.e., U{sub g}< U{sub tr2}), the phase shift technique was not successful. The riser pressure drop becomes independent of the solids circulation rate and the mass flow rate out of the riser does not show modulated behavior even when the riser pressure drop does.

Ludlow, James Christopher [U.S. DOE (retired); Panday, Rupen [REM; Shadle, Lawrence J. [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Circulating fluidized bed tehnology in biomass combustion-performance, advances and experiences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was started both in North America and in Europe in the 1960`s. In Europe and especially in Scandinavia the major driving force behind the development was the need to find new more efficient technologies for utilization of low-grade fuels like different biomasses and wastes. Both bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technologies were under intensive R&D,D efforts and have now advanced to dominating role in industrial and district heating power plant markets in Europe. New advanced CFB designs are now entering the markets. In North America and especially in the US the driving force behind the FBC development was initially the need to utilize different types of coals in a more efficient and environmentally acceptable way. The present and future markets seem to be mainly in biomass and multifuel applications where there is benefit from high combustion efficiency, high fuel flexibility and low emissions such as in the pulp and paper industry. The choice between CFB technology and BFB technology is based on selected fuels, emission requirements, plant size and on technical and economic feasibility. Based on Scandinavian experience there is vast potential in the North American industry to retrofit existing oil fired, pulverized coal fired, chemical recovery or grate fired boilers with FBC systems or to build a new FBC based boiler plant. This paper will present the status of CFB technologies and will compare technical and economic feasibility of CFB technology to CFB technology to BFB and also to other combustion methods. Power plant projects that are using advanced CFB technology e.g. Ahlstrom Pyroflow Compact technology for biomass firing and co-firing of biomass with other fuels will also be introduced.

Mutanen, K.I. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Varkaus (Finland)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Update of waste fuel firing experience in Foster Wheeler circulating fluidized bed boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the costs and availability of more conventional fuels continue to escalate, more and more customers are investigating and choosing operation with lower cost waste or alternative fuels. Details of units firing waste or alternative fuels which have been in active service for many years are summarized, and the fuel analyses are given. This chapter gives a general overview of the projects that are or will be firing waste or alternative fuels, namely, the Mt. Carmel Manitowoc, NISCO and HUNOSA units. The experience of the four operating units has demonstrated that waste and alternative fuels can be successfully and economically burned in an atmosphere circulating fluidized bed unit while meeting permitted emission requirements.

Abdulally, I.F.; Reed, K.A.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Tar Formation in Pressurized Fluidized Bed Air Gasification of Woody Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bark and sawdust with two different particle sizes were used during the gasification experiments. ... When some calcined dolomite (CaO·MgO) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. ... The influence of freeboard temperature, fluidization velocity, and particle size on tar production and composition during the air gasification of dried sewage sludge has been researched using a bench-scale gasifier. ...

Nader Padban; Wuyin Wang; Zhicheng Ye; Ingemar Bjerle; Ingemar Odenbrand

2000-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Simulation of Pressurized Ash Agglomerating Fluidized Bed Gasifier Using ASPEN PLUS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fluidized bed gasification is an effective means to convert small sized crushed coal into fuel or synthesis gas. ... Initially, the AFB gasifier was heated to 1073–1273 K by diesel oil; meanwhile the pressure was elevated to the required operating pressure, and then coal was fed into the gasifier by a screw feeder, while the gasifying agents as fluidizing medium were introduced from the jet orifice, annulus tube, and conical distributor at the bottom of the AFB gasifier. ... The particles are spherical, and any particle size reductions caused by friction among particles and particles with the walls of the gasifier are neglected. ...

Zheyu Liu; Yitian Fang; Shuping Deng; Jiejie Huang; Jiantao Zhao; Zhonghu Cheng

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

Characterization of Solid Emissions from Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Two Czech Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In fluidized-bed combustion, particles of coal burn within the bed of vigorously moving smaller inert particles with bed temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K. Due to intense heat transfer from the burning particle to bed particles and percolating gas, the temperature of a particle is on average 200 K above that of the bed (29, 30). ... Two lignites from the Centrum mine and the Vršany open pit mine (North Bohemian Coal Basin) were used in this study. ... The reactor is equipped with a supplementary natural gas burner, a feeding system, and measuring and control peripherals. ...

Ji?í Smolík; Jaroslav Schwarz; Václav Veselý; Ivana Sýkorová; Jan Kuc?era; Vladimír Havránek

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

MTG process in a fluidized bed with catalyst circulation: Operation and simulation of an experimental unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulation of the MTG process has been studied in a fluidized bed with circulation of the catalyst (prepared based on a HZSM-5 zeolite). The simulation has been carried out by taking into account the activity distribution of the catalyst particles in the bed and by using experimentally determined kinetic models for the reaction at zero time on stream and for the catalyst deactivation. The results of the simulation have been proven in an experimental laboratory unit by operating in the range between 380 and 420 C, with different values of space time and of average residence time of the catalyst.

Ortega, J.M.; Gayubo, A.G.; Aguayo, A.T.; Olazar, M.; Bilbao, J. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize the energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air for the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) system is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, recirculating alumina particles are heated by the flue gas in a raining bed. The hot particles are then removed from the bed and placed in a fluidized bed where they are fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is preheated. The cooled particles are then returned to the raining bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this final report, the design, development, fabrication, and installation of a full-scale FBWHR system is detailed.

Patch, K.D.; Cole, W.E.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration with in situ neutralization for radioactive mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two stage, low temperature, catalyzed fluidized bed incineration process is proving successful at incinerating hazardous wastes containing nuclear material. The process operates at 550{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C in its two stages. Acid gas neutralization takes place in situ using sodium carbonate as a sorbent in the first stage bed. The feed material to the incinerator is hazardous waste-as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-mixed with radioactive materials. The radioactive materials are plutonium, uranium, and americium that are byproducts of nuclear weapons production. Despite its low temperature operation, this system successfully destroyed poly-chlorinated biphenyls at a 99.99992% destruction and removal efficiency. Radionuclides and volatile heavy metals leave the fluidized beds and enter the air pollution control system in minimal amounts. Recently collected modeling and experimental data show the process minimizes dioxin and furan production. The report also discusses air pollution, ash solidification, and other data collected from pilot- and demonstration-scale testing. The testing took place at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a US Department of Energy facility, in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

Wade, J.F.; Williams, P.M.

1995-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

235

Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

Rue, D.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

Rue, D.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Experimental investigation of fluidized bed chemical looping combustion of Victorian brown coal using hematite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental investigation on chemical looping combustion (CLC) of Victorian brown coal is carried out in a fluidized bed of hematite. The aim of this study is to understand the feasibility of Victorian brown coal CLC as very little technical information is currently available on the process using these coals. The in situ CLC experiments are first performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA results show good performance of hematite as oxygen carrier over five multiple re-dox cycles under CO2 gasification environment. Therefore, further investigation is performed using a bench-scale fluidized bed that operates in a batch mode cyclically with reduction in CO2 environment, and oxidation in air. Several tests have been conducted to assess the impact of different temperatures, particle size of hematite and CO2 concentration in a flowing fluidizing gas medium. It is observed that the hematite particles of 100–150 ?m performed best with respect to carbon conversions that show an increasing trend with increasing temperature and CO2 concentration in the fluidizing gas.

Chiranjib Saha; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

An examination of the exothermic nature of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ashes from nine operational periods at the 183 \\{MWe\\} CFBC boiler at Point Aconi were examined for exothermic behaviour. Bed ashes and fly ashes were investigated using a Parr 1455 solution calorimeter. Limited tests were also carried out with additional samples from Point Aconi and from the 160 \\{MWe\\} TVA Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion boiler to evaluate the effects of particle size and aging on exothermic behaviour. For the Point Aconi ashes, heat release from the bed ash ranged from 11 to 52 J/g, and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.17 J/g/s. For the fly ash heat release varied from 114 to 187 J/g and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.8 to 1.9 J/g/s. In the fly ash samples, 50% or more of available CaO was converted to Ca(OH)2, while for the bed ash a third or less of the CaO was converted to Ca(OH)2. The exothermicity of the bed ash is directly proportional to the CaO content of the ash. However, this is not true for the fly ash. The exothermic behaviour of fresh FBC ash appeared to be greatly reduced by exposure in air over a 48-h period. Another conclusion of this work is that particle size effects the exothermic behaviour.

E.J Anthony; L Jia; M Caris; F Preto; S Burwell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

An examination of the exothermic nature of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ashes from nine operational periods at the 183 MWe CFBC boiler at Point Aconi were examined for exothermic behavior. Bed ashes and fly ashes were investigated using a Parr 1455 solution calorimeter. Limited tests were also carried out with additional samples from Point Aconi and from the 160 MWe TVA Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion boiler to evaluate the effects of particle size and aging on exothermic behavior. For the Point Aconi ashes, heat release from the bed ash ranged from 11 to 52 J/g, and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.17 g/s. For the fly ash heat release varied from 114 to 187 J/g and the maximum heat release rates ranged from 0.8 to 1.9 J/s. In the fly ash samples, 50% or more of available CaO was converted to Ca(OH)[sub 2], while for the bed ash a third or less of the CaO was converted to Ca(OH)[sub 2]. The exothermicity of the bed ash is directly proportional to the CaO content of the ash. However, this is not true for the fly ash. The exothermic behavior of fresh FBC ash appeared to be greatly reduced by exposure in air over a 48-h period. Another conclusion of this work is that particle size effects the exothermic behavior.

Anthony, E.J.; Jia, L.; Caris, M.; Preto, F.; Burwell, S. (Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, Ontario (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Simulation and experimental verification of a hydrodynamic model for a dual fluidized Bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We propose a revised 2-D energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model based on a two-fluid model to perform the hydrodynamic character analysis of a pilot-scale full-loop dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), which consists of a riser, a cyclone with a down-comer, a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB), and a loop-seal. The EMMS model is used to analyze the interaction force between the gas and solid phases in the DFBG. For comparison, O'Brien & Syamlal's drag heterogeneous force coefficient correction is also analyzed. The instantaneous particle profiles are described by the calculated results. The local and overall flow characteristics are determined by the solids concentration under different fluidization conditions. The effects of the gas velocities in the riser and the recycle gas velocities in the U loop seal on the axial solids concentration and solids circulation profiles, as well as the flow heterogeneity in sub-zones of the riser are investigated. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the EMMS model is appropriate to simulate the heterogeneous gas–solids two-phase flow in DFBG.

Xueyao Wang; Jing Lei; Xiang Xu; Zhengzhong Ma; Yunhan Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Analysis/control of in-bed tube erosion phenomena in the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system. Technical progress report No. 14, [January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The material wastage tests were continued to analyze erosion phenomena under the simulated erosion conditions of in-bed tubes in fluidized bed combustors. AISI 1018 steel and three thermal sprayed coating specimens were tested at an elevated temperature (300{degrees}C) using nozzle type erosion tester. Bed ashes retrieved from the operating biomass-fired boiler were used for erodent particles at a particle loading of 375 g, at particle impact angle of 30{degrees}, at particle velocity 60 m/s for exposure periods of 4 hours. The specimens were water-cooled on the backside. The material wastage of specimens was determined by thickness measurements. Test results can be seen that the cooled specimen had greater material wastage than that of the uncooled specimens. In addition, all of thermal-sprayed coating specimens for both cooled and uncooled specimens could reduce the erosion wastage rates as compared with 1018 steel. Among the three thermal-sprayed coatings, a DS-105 specimen of high velocity oxygen fuel spraying exhibited the lowest erosion wastage rate. When tested a higher particle velocity (60 m/s), but at the same elevated temperature (300{degrees}C), the material wastage rate of all three coatings was about 6 to 18 times higher than that of the material wastage at a low particle velocity (2.5 m/s).

Lee, Seong W.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Improving the performance of the Y-12 fluidized bed contactors: Final report on investigations at the University of Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent tests at The University of Tennessee in Knoxville (UT) have demonstrated improved fluidization performance in a mockup of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant fluidized bed with a modified gas distributor. Combining the modified distributor with the recently developed fluidization intensity module is expected to result in substantial operational improvements for the fluidized beds in Building 9212 at Y-12. Important additional benefits coming from the improved operation of the Y-12 fluidized beds will be a reduction in the consumption of reactant gases, a reduction in scrubber waste production, and a reduced need for manual cleaning of the particulate removal system. UT tests have also demonstrated that the tapered wall design traditionally used for the Y-12 fluidized beds does not provide a sufficient improvement in fluidization quality to justify the continued use of this design in place of a more conventional straight-wall configuration. The straight-wall design for replacement beds is expected to result in substantial equipment cost savings. Other operating scenarios that could potentially be used to reduce reactant gas consumption and scrubber waste production have also been considered. These scenarios are documented here for future reference.

Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

arXiv:cond-mat/0511322v114Nov2005 Glass transition in a fluidized bed of hard spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Fluid flow rate fluctuations are smaller than 0.3%. To obtain a uniform flow, fluid passes. Goldman and Harry L. Swinney Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University motion arrested) by application of a small increase in flow rate. Thus a fluidized bed can serve

Weeks, Eric R.

244

Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Trioxide and Mercury Emissions during Oxy-Fuel Fluidized Bed Combustion of Victorian Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates, for the first time, the NOX, N2O, SO3 and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOX emissions and higher N2O ...

Bithi Roy; Luguang Chen; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Flow Regime Study in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser with an Abrupt Exit: Fully Developed Flow in CFB Riser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flow regime study was conducted in a 0.3 m diameter, 15.5 m height circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser with an abrupt exit at the...2001a) as: The radial solids distribution in the riser no longer changes with ...

J. S. Mei; G. T. Lee; S. M. Seachman…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

In Situ Catalytic Ceramic Candle Filtration for Tar Reforming and Particulate Abatement in a Fluidized-Bed Biomass Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Situ Catalytic Ceramic Candle Filtration for Tar Reforming and Particulate Abatement in a Fluidized-Bed Biomass Gasifier ... In fact, the complications resulting from the requirement to obtain a tar-free product often contribute significantly to the overall investment and operating costs of small- to medium-scale gasification units. ...

Sergio Rapagnà; Katia Gallucci; Manuela Di Marcello; Pier Ugo Foscolo; Manfred Nacken; Steffen Heidenreich

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

Simulation on Operating Conditions of Chemical Looping Combustion of Methane in a Continuous Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simulation on Operating Conditions of Chemical Looping Combustion of Methane in a Continuous Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Process ... Lyon, R. K.; Cole, J. A. Combust. ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (1996), 35 (7), 2469-2472 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ...

Djamila Brahimi; Jeong-Hoo Choi; Pil Sang Youn; Young-Wook Jeon; Sang Done Kim; Ho-Jung Ryu

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Deposition of high-density silicon carbide coatings by fluidized-bed pyrolysis of chlorinated silane derivatives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparative analysis of the processes for preparation of high-density silicon carbide coatings by the fluidized-bed pyrolysis of the SiCl4 + CH4 + H2 + Ar and CH3SiCl3 + H2 + Ar mixtures on pyrocarboncoated zirco...

S. D. Kurbakov; T. A. Mireev

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Calculation and modelling to the brown coal drying fluidized bed specialized for Greek lignite of west Macedonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brown coal is considered to be a competitive primary energy source for power generation in parts of Central and Eastern Europe due to the economically recoverable reserves of this fuel in these regions. Specifically for Greece lignites is the main fuel ... Keywords: brown coal, electric energy, energy source, fluidized bed, lignites

John Karmalis; Nikolaos Asimopoulos; Dimitrios Zissopoulos; Natsos Kouvatsis

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A study of cellulose gasification in a fluidized bed using a high-temperature solar furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 4.2-meter solar furnace was used to study the gasification of cellulose with steam in a fluidized bed. The heating value of the high-temperature equilibrium products is about twenty percent higher than that of the reactants. The increase represents stored solar energy; and the product, synthesis gas, is valuable as a chemical feedstock or pipeline gas. All experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Pure tabular alumina as well as crushed automotive exhaust was used as a bed material. Microcrystalline {alpha}-cellulose, entrained in argon, entered the fluidized bed just above the distributor. Steam heated to the operating temperature in a 10 cm packed bed section below the fluidized bed. In all cases, the process ran with more steam than required to produce an equimolar mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. We used a quartz reactor between 1100 and 1430 K; a steel reactor at 1500 K and an Inconel reactor at 1600 K. Reactor inside diameter, nominally 5 cm, varied slightly; the bed height was adjusted to keep the gas residence time constant. Hydrogen production rate was measured before and after experiments with steam alone, with this amount subtracted. Equilibrium mixtures were not achieved. Catalysts improved hydrogen yields with higher than expected concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and lighter hydrocarbons such as ethylene and acetylene. Experiments performed without catalyst at 1300 K, achieved a mixture (dry, argon-free) of 46 mole% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 14% CH{sub 4} 5% CO{sub 2} and 5% C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. An equilibrium mixture at this temperature would have contained 39% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 7% CO{sub 2} and no CH{sub 4} or C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. With the catalyst, the CO and CH{sub 4} decreased to 40% and 2% respectively, the H{sub 2} increased to 47%, and CO{sub 2} remained the same. No ethylene was formed. The hydrocarbon-rich mixtures achieved are typical of rapid-pyrolysis processes.

Murray, J.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Concept Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wolfmeyer et al. APFBC Repowering Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station Wolfmeyer et al. APFBC Repowering Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station paper 970561 Page 1 of 36 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Concept Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station John C. Wolfmeyer, P.E., and Cal Jowers, P.E. Duke Energy / Charlotte, North Carolina Richard E. Weinstein, P.E., Harvey N. Goldstein, P.E., and Jay S. White Parsons Power Group Inc. / Reading, Pennsylvania Robert W. Travers, P.E. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy / Germantown, Maryland electronic mail addresses/phone no. electronic mail addresses/phone no. Wolfmeyer { JCWolfme@Duke-Energy.COM 704 / 382-4017 Goldstein { Harvey_N_Goldstein@Parsons.COM 610 / 855-3281 Jowers { -- 704 / 382-9577 White { Jay_S_White@Parsons.COM

252

Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

253

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Indiana New Albany shale in batch and continuous units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work is being conducted at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for the production of oil from Eastern oil shales. The PFH process, using smaller particle sizes than the moving-bed hydroretorting process, offers higher oil yields and greater reactor mass fluxes through higher selectivity of organic carbon to oil and shorter residence times, respectively. Batch PFH tests have been conducted to study the effects of shale preheat time (15 to 30 min) and temperature (25{degree} to 320{degree}C), retorting temperature (450{degree} to 710{degree}C), hydrogen pressure (2.8 to 7.0 MPa), particle size (65 to 330 microns), and residence time (5 to 30 min) on the product yields from Indiana New Albany shale. Oil yield has been found to increase with increasing hydrogen pressure. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Roosmagi, C. (USDOE Laramie Energy Technology Center, WY (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numerical results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.

Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-Francois; Shahnam, Mehrdad

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

Circulating fluidized bed hydrodynamics experiments for the multiphase fluid dynamics research consortium (MFDRC).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental program was conducted to study the multiphase gas-solid flow in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB). This report describes the CFB experimental facility assembled for this program, the diagnostics developed and/or applied to make measurements in the riser section of the CFB, and the data acquired for several different flow conditions. Primary data acquired included pressures around the flow loop and solids loadings at selected locations in the riser. Tomographic techniques using gamma radiation and electrical capacitance were used to determine radial profiles of solids volume fraction in the riser, and axial profiles of the integrated solids volume fraction were produced. Computer Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking was used to measure solids velocities, fluxes, and residence time distributions. In addition, a series of computational fluid dynamics simulations was performed using the commercial code Arenaflow{trademark}.

Oelfke, John Barry; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John; Tortora, Paul Richard; Bhusarapu, Satish (; ); Trujillo, Steven Mathew

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Experimental–numerical design of a biomass bubbling fluidized bed gasifier for paper sludge energy recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the application of a comprehensive approach to the design of small scale sustainable distributed generation systems with special focus on energy recovery from paper production process sludge. The methodology integrates a detailed fluid-dynamic analysis tool with preliminary experimental analysis on a laboratory scale to guide the design of a prototype bubbling fluidized bed gasifier in the 85 kW power range fitting with small and medium size paper production industries. Preliminary tests show stable operation even for this rather small power scale, and deviation from chemical equilibrium concentration in agreement with literature available data. Energy content in the sludge may be recovered along with a significant reduction of residual volume and mass. The concept may then be used to increase the overall sustainability of paper production.

S. Cordiner; G. De Simone; V. Mulone

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data of ash-particles attrition in a fluidized bed is presented, and also the results of modeling. Five sizes of ash particles (1.02-1.25; 1.25-1.6; 1.6-2.0; 2.0-5.0; 5.0-10.0 mm) produced in an industrial CFB boiler were examined. A new model of mechanical attrition has been proposed which incorporates new parameters: the shape factor of particles and the ratio of the bed height to bed diameter, strongly influencing the rate of bed mass loss. The model describes very well experimental data for coal-ash particles attrition. The attrition-rate coefficient for ash particles was evaluated.

Tomeczek, J.; Mocek, P. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Air-blown gasification of woody biomass in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Air-blown gasification of woody biomass was investigated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Air was used as the gasifying agent as well as a fluidizing gas. Fuel was fed into the top of the gasifier and air was introduced from the bottom through a distributor. In order to control the composition of the product gas, the amounts of feedstock and gasifying agent being fed into the gasifier were varied, and the temperature distribution in the gasifier and the composition of the syngas were monitored. It was shown that the distribution of the reaction zones in the gasifier could be controlled by the air injection rate, and the composition of the syngas by the equivalence ratio of the reactants. Although the obtained syngas had a low caloric value, its heating value is adequate for power generation using a syngas engine.

Young Doo Kim; Chang Won Yang; Beom Jong Kim; Kwang Su Kim; Jeung Woo Lee; Ji Hong Moon; Won Yang; Tae U Yu; Uen Do Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Investigation of Multistage Circulating Fast Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformers for Production of Ultraclean Hydrogen and Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Multistage Circulating Fast Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformers for Production of Ultraclean Hydrogen and Syngas ... In order to distinguish between the two catalysts employed in this study, the catalyst over which the CSRM and CPOM reactions take place is considered catalyst 1 and that over which the CDRM reaction takes place is considered catalyst 2. The physical significance of catalyst 1 is that both reaction schemes of the CSRM and CPOM are catalyzed by this catalyst to produce hydrogen and syngas and to supply the necessary energy for the heat integration, though catalyst 2 plays an important role to steer the quality of the syngas and to enhance the hydrogen yield. ... In order to check the quality of the corresponding syngas produced in the reaction side, the hydrogen to carbon monoxide feed ratio (H2/CO) profile is presented in Figure 15. ...

Mohamed E. E. Abashar; Said S. E. H. Elnashaie

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fluidized bed combustion of alternative solid fuels: Status, successes and problems of the technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper surveys the literature on some of the more important alternative fuels for fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and also makes specific recommendations about problems or major issues with those fuels. Particular attention is given to the use of FBC for coal wastes, wood pulp sludges, petroleum coke and biomass residues. These fuels are emphasized because of their current economic importance, particularly in North America. Such fuels, which are often described as {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}opportunity{close_quotes} fuels, also lend themselves to FBC applications if they are to be combusted in an environmentally benign way. Further, waste or low grade fuels are normally available at low or even negative costs. This factor is particularly important in North America, where an essentially flat energy market exists, and low electricity prices mean that considerations other than energy sales must often drive the project economics. 57 refs., 2 tabs.

Anthony, E.J. [CETC, Natural Resources (Canada)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fluidized bed combustion of low-rank coals: (Task 4. 1)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results obtained in the second year of a second three-year program are described. Two 1000-hour tests were completed to evaluate corrosion/erosion effects on boiler materials. The coals tested were Kentucky {number sign}9 from the Pyro mine and Gibbons Creek, Texas, lignite. Of the variety of stainless and carbon steels tested, several meet commercial requirements despite a wide range in ash compositions of the test coals. In Fluidized Bed Combustion characterization, the River King Illinois {number sign}6 and Jacobs Ranch, Wyoming, subbituminous coals were extensively tested under a wide range of operating conditions and with and without limestone addition. The Jacobs Ranch coal was also successfully and satisfactorily fired as a coal/water fuel slurry. The low-rank coal slurry provided excellent ignition and combustion efficiency, and without ash agglomeration or accumulation. Continued progress was made in expanding the data base on FBC of low- rank coals. 11 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Zobeck, B.J.; Kalmanovitch, D.P.; Potas, T.A.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Fluidized-bed boiler assessment for Navy applications. Final report, October 1983-September 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the assessment of one of the most-promising coal-firing technologies - Fluidized-Bed Combustion(FBC) - for Navy stationary boilers. The working principles, physical construction, major and auxiliary components, and system performance of an FBC boiler are described and compared with the conventional stoker and pulverized-coal fired boilers. The advantages of the FBC boiler based on fuel flexibility, operational reliability, economic feasibility, and environmental acceptability are identified, state-of-development and FBC manufacturers are also noted. The problems with the Great Lakes FBC boiler plant were studied and possible remedial measures are given. Considerations for FBC retrofitting have been examined based on boiler size, age, configuration, accessory components, and available space. Recommendations on how to achieve the Navy's goal of coal utilization by the FBC approach are outlined.

Fu, T.T.; Maga, G.F.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is nearly completed. The erection of the CFBC facility is expected to start in the second week of February, 2006. Second, effect of flue gas components on mercury oxidation was investigated in a drop tube reactor. As a first step, experiment for mercury oxidation by chlorine was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Assessment of sorbent reactivation by water hydration for fluidized bed combustion application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) solid residues currently represents one of the major issues in FBC design and operation, and contributes significantly to its operating cost. This issue has triggered research activities on the enhancement of sorbent utilization for in situ sulfur removal. The present study addresses the effectiveness of the reactivation by liquid water hydration of FB spent sorbents. Two materials are considered in the study, namely the bottom ash from the operation of a full-scale utility FB boiler and the raw commercial limestone used in the same boiler. Hydration-reactivation tests were carried out at temperatures of 40{sup o}C and 80{sup o}C and for curing times ranging from 15 minutes to 2d, depending on the sample. The influence of hydration conditions on the enhancement of sulfur utilization has been assessed. A combination of methods has been used to characterize the properties of liquid water-hydrated materials

Fabio Montagnaro; Piero Salatino; Fabrizio Scala; Yinghai Wu; Edward J. Anthony; Lufei Jia [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant'Angelo, Naples (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Performance Characteristics of Fluidized Bed Syngas Methanation over Ni-Mg/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The performance characteristics of isothermal fluidized bed syngas methanation for substitute natural gas is investigated over a self-made Ni-Mg/Al2O3 catalyst. Via atmospheric methanation in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor it was clarified that the CO conversion varied in 5% when changing the space velocity in 40-120 L · g- 1 · h- 1 but the conversion increased obviously by raising the superficial gas velocity from 4 to 12.4 cm · s- 1. The temperature 823 K is suitable for syngas methanation while obvious deposition of uneasy-oxidizing C? occurs on the catalyst at temperatures around 873 K. From kinetic aspect, the lowest reaction temperature is suggested to be 750 K when the space velocity is 60 L · g- 1 · h- 1. Raising the H2/CO ratio of the syngas increased proportionally the CO conversion and CH4 selectivity, showing that at enough high H2/CO ratios the active sites on the catalyst are sufficient for CO adsorption and in turn the reaction with H2 for forming CH4. Introducing CO2 into the syngas feed increased H2 consumption but suppressed water gas shift and Boudouard reactions. The ratio of CO2/CO in syngas should be better below 0.52 because varying the ratio from 0.52 to 0.92 resulted in negligible increases in the H2 conversion and CH4 selectivity but decreased the CH4 yield. Introducing steam into the feed gas affected little the CO conversion but decreased the selectivity to CH4. The tested Ni-Mg/Al2O3 catalyst manifested good stability in structure and activity even in syngas containing water vapor.

Jiao Liu; Dianmiao Cui; Jian Yu; Fabing Su; Guangwen Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A cold model experimental study on the flow characteristics of bed material in a fluidized bed bottom ash cooler in a CFB boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A cold model experimental study on the flowing characteristics of bed material between a fluidized bed ash cooler and a furnace of CFB boiler were discussed in this paper. The research results showed that flowing...

Xiaofeng Lu; Yourong Li

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) Na-Al-Si (NAS) Waste Form Qualification C.M. Jantzen and E.M. Pierce November 18, 2010 2 Participating Organizations 3 Incentive and Objectives FBSR sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form has been identified as a promising supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Objectives: Reduce the risk associated with implementing the FBSR NAS waste form as a supplemental treatment technology for Hanford LAW Conduct test with actual tank wastes Use the best science to fill key data gaps Linking previous and new results together 4 Outline FBSR NAS waste form processing scales FBSR NAS waste form data/key assumptions FBSR NAS key data gaps FBSR NAS testing program 5 FBSR NAS Waste Form Processing

270

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LWO-SPT-2007-00249 LWO-SPT-2007-00249 Rev. 1 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) For Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) November, 2007 Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) LWO-SPT-2007-00249 Rev. 1 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared by Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DEA-AC09-96SR18500 and is an account of work performed under that contract. Neither the United States Department of Energy, nor WSRC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, or product or process

271

Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in fluidized-bed combustion systems (FBCS). Topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The successful design and operation of advanced combustion systems require the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems are slag flow control, slag attack on the refractory, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, corrosion and erosion of equipment materials, and emissions control. These problems are the result of physical and chemical interactions of the fuels, bed materials, and system components. The interactions that take place and ultimately control ash behavior in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems are controlled by the abundance and association of the inorganic components in coal and by the system conditions. Because of the complexity of the materials and processes involved, the design and operations engineer often lacks the information needed to predict ash behavior and reduce ash-related problems. The deposition of ashes from the fluidized bed combustion of lignite and petroleum coke is described in this paper.

Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Allan, S.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble fractions of the product solids. Radioanalytical measurements were performed on the Tank 48H feed material and on the dissolved products in order to estimate retention of Cs-137 in the process. All aspects of prior crucible scale testing with simulant Tank 48H slurry were demonstrated to be repeatable with the actual radioactive feed. Tetraphenylborate destruction was shown to be >99% and the final solid product is sodium carbonate crystalline material. Less than 10 wt% of the final solid products are insoluble components comprised of Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn containing sludge components and Ti from monosodium titanate present in Tank 48H. REDOX measurements on the radioactive solid products indicate a reducing atmosphere with extremely low oxygen fugacity--evidence that the sealed crucible tests performed in the presence of a reductant (sugar) under constant argon purge were successful in duplicating the pyrolysis reactions occurring with the Tank 48H feed. Soluble anion measurements confirm that using sugar as reductant at 1X stoichiometry was successful in destroying nitrate/nitrite in the Tank 48H feed. Radioanalytical measurements indicate that {approx}75% of the starting Cs-137 is retained in the solid product. No attempts were made to analyze/measure other potential Cs-137 in the process, i.e., as possible volatile components on the inner surface of the alumina crucible/lid or as offgas escaping the sealed crucible. The collective results from these crucible scale tests on radioactive material are in good agreement with simulant testing. Crucible scale processing has been shown to duplicate the complex reactions of an actual fluidized bed steam reformer. Thus this current testing should provide a high degree of confidence that upcoming bench-scale steam reforming with radioactive Tank 48H slurry will be successful in tetraphenylborate destruction and production of sodium carbonate product.

Crawford, C

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

3D Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Natural Coke Steam Gasification in General and Improved Fluidized Beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal characteristics of natural coke steam gasification in a fluidized bed were three-dimensionally (3D) simulated based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using Fluent code. ... However, this technology seems difficult to carry out due to its abradability, hard ignition, hot burst, and so on. ... In short, all the results in this work have a significance to provide the theoretical basis for the design, operational optimization, and scale-up of the natural coke steam gasification process. ...

Ya-li Tang; Dai-jun Liu; Yu-hong Liu; Qian Luo

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system development. Semiannual report, February 1, 1983-July 31, 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major energy loss in industry is the heat content of the flue gases from industrial process heaters. One effective way to utilize this energy, which is applicable to all processes, is to preheat the combustion air from the process heater. Although recuperators are available to preheat this air when the flue gases are clean, recuperators to recover the heat from dirty and corrosive flue gases do not exist. The Fluidized-Bed Waste-Heat Recovery (FBWHR) System is designed to preheat this combustion air using the heat available in dirty flue gas streams. In this system, a recirculating medium is heated by the flue gas in a fluidized bed. The hot medium is then removed from the bed and placed in a second fluidized bed where it is fluidized by the combustion air. Through this process, the combustion air is heated. The cooled medium is then returned to the first bed. Initial development of this concept is for the aluminum smelting industry. In this report, the accomplishments of the proceeding six-month period are described.

Cole, W. E.; De Saro, R.; Joshi, C.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VI. FBC-Data Base-Management-System (FBC-DBMS) development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base, (FBCDB), situated in MIT's Energy laboratory, is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. It is anticipated that the FBCDB would play an active and a direct role in the development of FBC technology as well as in the FBC commercial application. After some in-house experience and after a careful and extensive review of commercially available database systems, it was determined that the Model 204 DBMS by Computer Corporation of America was the most suitable to our needs. The setup of a prototype in-house database also allowed us to investigate and understand fully the particular problems involved in coordinating FBC development with a DBMS. Various difficult aspects were encountered and solutions had been sought. For instance, we found that it was necessary to rename the variables to avoid repetition as well as to increase usefulness of our database and, hence, we had designed a classification system for which variables were classified under category to achieve standardization of variable names. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the database from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results.

Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Modeling of fluidized-bed combustion of coal: Phase II, final reports. Volume VII. FBC Data-Base-Management System (FBC-DBMS) users manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of the Fluidized Bed Combustor Data Base (FBCDB) is to establish a data repository for the express use of designers and research personnel involved in FBC development. FBCDB is implemented on MIT's 370/168 computer, using the Model 204 Data Base Management System (DBMS) developed by Computer Corporation of America. DBMS is a software that provides an efficient way of storing, retrieving, updating and manipulating data using an English-like query language. The primary content of FBCDB is a collection of data points defined by the value of a number of specific FBC variables. A user may interactively access the data base from a computer terminal at any location, retrieve, examine, and manipulate the data as well as produce tables or graphs of the results. More than 20 program segments are currently available in M204 User Language to simplify the user interface for the FBC design or research personnel. However, there are still many complex and advanced retrieving as well as applications programs to be written for this purpose. Although there are currently 71 entries, and about 2000 groups reposited in the system, this size of data is only an intermediate portion of our selection. The usefulness of the system at the present time is, therefore, limited. This version of FBCDB will be released on a limited scale to obtain review and comments. The document is intended as a reference guide to the use of FBCDB. It has been structured to introduce the user to the basics of FBCDB, summarize what the available segments in FBCDB can do, and give detailed information on the operation of FBCDB. This document represents a preliminary draft of a Users Manual. The draft will be updated when the data base system becomes fully implemented. Any suggestions as to how this manual may be improved will be appreciated.

Louis, J.F.; Tung, S.E.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Final report, June 1992--January 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in September 1987 by the US Department of Energy was to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program was divided into the following active tasks: Task 3 -- Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4 -- Beneficiation Research; Task 6 -- Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; and Task 9 -- Information Required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, tho Institute of Gas Technology (ICT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed by IGT from June 1, 1992 through January 31, 1993.

Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Erekson, E.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Hatcher, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Air and steam coal partial gasification in an atmospheric fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the mixture of air and steam as gasification medium, three different rank coal partial gasification studies were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed with the various operating parameters. The effects of air/coal (Fa/Fc) ratio, steam/coal (Fs/Fc) ratio, bed temperature, and coal rank on the fuel gas compositions and the high heating value (HHV) were reported in this paper. The results show that there is an optimal Fa/Fc ratio and Fs/Fc ratio for coal partial gasification. A rise of bed temperature favors the semigasification reaction of coal, but the concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane and the HHV decrease with the rise of bed temperature, except hydrogen. In addition, the gas HHVs are between 2.2 and 3.4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The gas yield and carbon conversion increase with Fa/Fc ratio, Fs/Fc ratio, and bed temperature, while they decrease with the rise of the rank of coal. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jing; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang; Rui Xiao [Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China). Department of Environmental Science & Engineering

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

NONE

1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Pressurized fluidized bed reactor and a method of operating the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

Isaksson, J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

282

Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Study of Vertical Gas Jets in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed experimental study of a vertical gas jet impinging a fluidized bed of particles has been conducted with the help of Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements. Mean and fluctuating velocity profiles of the two phases have been presented and analyzed for different fluidization states of the emulsion. The results of this work would be greatly helpful in understanding the complex two-phase mixing phenomenon that occurs in bubbling beds, such as in coal and biomass gasification, and also in building more fundamental gas-solid Eulerian/Lagrangian models which can be incorporated into existing CFD codes. Relevant simulations to supplement the experimental findings have also been conducted using the Department of Energyâ??s open source code MFIX. The goal of these simulations was two-fold. One was to check the two-dimensional nature of the experimental results. The other was an attempt to improve the existing dense phase Eulerian framework through validation with the experimental results. In particular the sensitivity of existing frictional models in predicting the flow was investigated. The simulation results provide insight on wall-bounded turbulent jets and the effect frictional models have on gas-solid bubbling flows. Additionally, some empirical minimum fluidization correlations were validated for non-spherical particles with the idea of extending the present study to non-spherical particles which are more common in industries.

Steven Ceccio; Jennifer Curtis

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

284

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter January--March 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, plans for the renovation of space for a new Combustion Laboratory for the CFBC Facility have progressed smoothly. Second, the design calculations, including the mass balances, energy balances, heat transfer, and strength calculations have been completed. Third, considerable modifications have been made on the draft design of the CFBC Facility based on discussions conducted during the project kick-off meeting held on January 13, 2004 at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Comments received from various experts were also used to improve the design. Finally, the drawings of all assembly parts have been completed in order to develop specifications for the fabrication of individual parts. At the same time, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, July--September 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the eighth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1989.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, October--December 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fifth program quarter from October 1 through December 31, 1988.

Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M. [and others

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Gasification of a solid recovered fuel in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper investigates the technical feasibility of an air gasification process of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) obtained from municipal solid waste. A pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a feedstock capacity of about 70 kg/h and a maximum thermal output of about 400 kW, provided the experimental data: the complete composition of the syngas (including the tar, particulate and acid/basic gas contents), the chemical and physical characterization of the bed material and that of entrained fines collected at the cyclone. The experimental runs were carried out by reaching a condition of thermal and chemical steady state under values of equivalence ratio ranging from 0.25 to 0.33. The results indicate that the selected SRF can be conveniently gasified, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications. The rather high content of tar in the syngas indicates that the more appropriate plant configuration should be that of a “thermal gasifier”, with the direct combustion of the syngas in a burner ad hoc designed, coupled with an adequate energy-conversion device.

Umberto Arena; Fabrizio Di Gregorio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, several candidates for secondary waste immobilization at the Hanford site in the State of Washington, USA are being considered. To demonstrate the durability of the product in the unsaturated Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the site, a series of tests have been performed one of the candidate materials using the Pressurized Unsaturated Flow (PUF) system. The material that was tested was the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) granular product and the granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix. The FBSR product is composed primarily of an insoluble sodium aluminosilicate matrix with the dominant phases being feldspathoid minerals mostly nepheline, sodalite, and nosean. The PUF test method allows for the accelerated weathering of materials, including radioactive waste forms, under hydraulically unsaturated conditions, thus mimicking the open-flow and transport properties that most likely will be present at the IDF. The experiments show a trend of decreasing tracer release as a function of time for several of the elements released from the material including Na, Si, Al, and Cs. However, some of the elements, notably I and Re, show a steady release throughout the yearlong test. This result suggests that the release of these minerals from the sodalite cage occurs at a different rate compared with the dissolution of the predominant nepheline phase.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Rod, Kenton A.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.; Pierce, Eric M.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion systems in urban areas: The local government role  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was two-fold: to review the critical technical and institutional considerations which must underlie any decision to invest in Fluidized-Bed Combustion technology and to gauge the market for FBC technology within the City of Indianapolis. To achieve these purposes extensive research into the state-of-the-art of FBC technology was performed, including a review of alternate design configurations and an assessment of the remaining technical and operational difficulties associated with this new technology. At the same time a number of key financing and regulatory issues were investigated which directly affect the marketability of FBC boilers to local industries and institutions. Some of the largest Indianapolis energy users were surveyed to determine their long-term thermal energy requirements and whether FBC technology could help to meet these requirements. On the basis of this survey data, a comparative cost-benefit analysis of investment in a FBC boiler compared with investment in other types of boilers was undertaken. The analysis was done for specific Indianapolis industries and institutions. This report summarizes the project activities and makes specific recommendations that should help to facilitate the commercialization of FBC boilers in Indianapolis.

Jacobs, L.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Extractors manual for Fluidized-Bed Combustion Data Base System: Test Data Data Base. [FBC; planning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology is rapidly emerging as an acceptable alternative to conventional coal-fired boiler technology. To satisfy the engineering public's need for experimental data and to assist in the study of technical uncertainties in FBC technology, the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the development of a data system to store the results of Government-sponsored research. To capture the results of Government-sponsored FBC research programs, documents have been written for the TDDB and MPDB to specify the data that contractors need to report and the procedures for reporting them. The FBC documents identify and define the data that need to be reported for FBC projects so that the data entered into the TDDB and MPDB will meet the needs of the users of the FBC data system. This document addresses what information is needed and how it must be formatted so that it can be entered into the TDDB for FBC. The level of detail needed to satisfy the wide variety of potential users' needs is the primary consideration in determining the types and amounts of data to be stored. The TDDB was designed so that data could be stored at any level of detail. 3 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new particulate filtration technologies. Major tasks during this period of the funded project's timeframe included: (1) Conducting pretests on a laboratory-scale simulated FBC system; (2) Completing detailed design of the bench-scale CFBC system; (3) Contracting potential bidders to fabricate of the component parts of CFBC system; (4) Assembling CFBC parts and integrating system; (5) Resolving problems identified during pretests; (6) Testing with available Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and co-firing of PRB coal with first wood pallet and then chicken wastes; and (7) Tuning of CFBC load. Following construction system and start-up of this 0.6 MW CFBC system, a variety of combustion tests using a wide range of fuels (high-sulfur coals, low-rank coals, MSW, agricultural waste, and RDF) under varying conditions were performed to analyze and monitor air pollutant emissions. Data for atmospheric pollutants and the methodologies required to reduce pollutant emissions were provided. Integration with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) slipstream unit did mimic the effect of flue gas composition, including trace metals, on the performance of the SCR catalyst to be investigated. In addition, the following activities were also conducted: (1) Developed advanced mercury oxidant and adsorption additives; (2) Performed laboratory-scale tests on oxygen-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion; and (3) Conducted statistical analysis of mercury emissions in a full-scale CFBC system.

Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 °C (900-1000 °F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 °C (650 °F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 °C (650-1000 °F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 °C (700 °F) to 538 °C (1000 °F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 °C (1400 °F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

DOE/EIS-0289, Final Environmental Impact Statement for the JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project (June 1, 2000)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

33(1',;$ 33(1',;$ &2168/7$7,21/(77(5681'(56(&7,21 2)7+((1'$1*(5('63(&,(6$&7 )LQDO -XQH  $ -($ (,6 $ APPENDIX B CONSULTATION LETTERS UNDER SECTION 106 OF THE NATIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACT Final: June 2000 B-3 JEA EIS B-4 Final: June 2000 B-5 JEA EIS B-6 $33(1',;& &2168/7$7,21/(77(56$662&,$7(':,7+7+( )/25,'$67$7(&/($5,1*+286( )LQDO -XQH  & -($ (,6 & )LQDO -XQH  & -($ (,6 & )LQDO -XQH  & -($ (,6 & )LQDO -XQH  & -($ (,6 & )LQDO -XQH 

296

Characterization of Combustion and Emission of Several Kinds of Herbaceous Biomass Pellets in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterizations of combustion and emission of four kinds of herbaceous biomass pellets were investigated in a 0.15 ... and king grass, which are typical herbaceous biomass in China, were chosen for this study ....

S. Y. Li; H. P. Teng; W. H. Jiao…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Evaluation of a fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system. A technical case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R&D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. Large amounts of heat escape regularly through the waste-gas streams of industrial processes, particularly those processes that use furnaces, kilns, and calciners. Recovering this waste heat will conserve energy; however, the extremely high temperatures and corrosive nature of many flue and exhaust gases make conventional heat recovery difficult. One solution is a waste-heat recovery system that can withstand the high temperatures and rids itself of corrosion-causing particulates. OIT and Aerojet Energy Conversion Company recently completed a joint project to develop just such a system and to evaluate its long-term operation. This technology, called fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR), offers several advantages over conventional heat recovery, including high gas-side heat-transfer coefficients and a self-cleaning capability. The FBWHR system can recover heat from high-temperature, dirty waste-gas streams, such as those found in the metals, glass, cement, chemical, and petroleum-refining industries. In this multiyear R&D project, Aerojet designed and fabricated an FBWHR system that recovers heat from the corrosive flue gases of aluminum melt furnaces to produce process steam for the plant. The system was installed on a 34-million-Btu/h furnace used to melt aluminum scrap at ALCOA`s Massena, New York plant. During a successful one-year field test, the system produced 26 million lb of 175-psig saturated steam, recovering as much as 28% of the fuel energy input to the furnace.

Not Available

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Evaluation of a fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. Large amounts of heat escape regularly through the waste-gas streams of industrial processes, particularly those processes that use furnaces, kilns, and calciners. Recovering this waste heat will conserve energy; however, the extremely high temperatures and corrosive nature of many flue and exhaust gases make conventional heat recovery difficult. One solution is a waste-heat recovery system that can withstand the high temperatures and rids itself of corrosion-causing particulates. OIT and Aerojet Energy Conversion Company recently completed a joint project to develop just such a system and to evaluate its long-term operation. This technology, called fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR), offers several advantages over conventional heat recovery, including high gas-side heat-transfer coefficients and a self-cleaning capability. The FBWHR system can recover heat from high-temperature, dirty waste-gas streams, such as those found in the metals, glass, cement, chemical, and petroleum-refining industries. In this multiyear R D project, Aerojet designed and fabricated an FBWHR system that recovers heat from the corrosive flue gases of aluminum melt furnaces to produce process steam for the plant. The system was installed on a 34-million-Btu/h furnace used to melt aluminum scrap at ALCOA's Massena, New York plant. During a successful one-year field test, the system produced 26 million lb of 175-psig saturated steam, recovering as much as 28% of the fuel energy input to the furnace.

Not Available

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboartory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for {approx}50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R&D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant.

Jantzen, C

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Extractors manual for Fluidized-Bed Combustion Data Base System: Major Plants Data Base. [FBC; planning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology is rapidly emerging as an acceptable alternative to conventional coal-fired boiler technology. To satisfy the engineering public's need for experimental data and to assist in the study of technical uncertainties in FBC technology, the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the development of a data system to store the results of Government-sponsored research. The FBC Data System consists of FBC data stored in the MPDB, TDDB, and MMDB; it will contain both atmospheric and pressurized FBC facilities. To capture the results of Government-sponsored FBC programs, documents have been written for the MPDB and TDDB to specify the data that contractors need to report and the procedures for reporting them. The FBC documents identify and define the data that need to be reported for FBC projects so that the data entered into the MPDB and TDDB will meet the needs of the users of the FBC Data System. This document identifies what information is needed and how it must be formatted so that it can be entered into the MPDB for FBC demonstration and commercial plants. The structure of the MPDB is shown in Figure 1-1. Section 2.0 describes the needs of potential users of the FBC Data System. Section 3.0 explains how the contractor should report and format this data so that it can be entered into the MPDB. Section 4.0 explains the quality control procedures that should be used to ensure the integrity of the data that is stored in the MPDB. 2 figs., 28 tabs.

Not Available

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

DOE cost comparison study: industrial fluidized bed combustion vs conventional coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study compares the capital and operating costs of two different industrial boiler technologies, each producing 250,000 lbs steam/hr: Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) and Pulverized Coal (PC) combustion used in conjunction with a limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Three separate turnkey plant designs have been completed. Two of these plant designs incorporate FBC technology and have been designated FBA-16 and FBV-16. The first FBC design (FBA-16) contains two shop assembled, rail-shippable, fluid-bed boilers capable of producing 125,000 lbs/h each. The second plant design (FBV-16) utilizes a single fluid bed boiler shipped by rail in large sections for field assembly. This single unit is capable of producing 250,000 lbs/h. The third plant design utilizes a conventional pulverized coal (PC) boiler used in conjunction with a C-E Air Quaity Control System (AQCS) limestone scrubber. The FBA-16 and FBV-16 fluid bed designs were found to be competitive with the conventional unit. Capital costs were generated for the three turnkey plant designs just described. The FBA-16, FBV-16, and Conventional Unit plant designs have associated capital costs of $24.4, $22.8, and $24.7 million, respectively. A substantial cost reduction can be realized for plant capacities less than 180,000 lbs steam/h by incorporating a single FBA-16 type boiler. The operating costs for the bed designs are close enough to be considered similar when considering the nature of the study. The efficiency of the fluid bed plant designs can be increased and required capital equipment reduced by improvements to the plant design. Some potential design modifications are outlined. Extensive design and background research was prformed to increase the validity and relevance of this report.

Myrick, D.T.

1980-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

302

DOE cost comparison study industrial fluidized bed combustion vs conventional coal technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study compares the capital and operating costs of two different industrial boiler technologies, each producing 250,000 lbs steam/hr. These technologies are: Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) and Pulverized Coal (PC) combustion used in conjunction with a limestone Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Three separate turnkey plant designs have been completed. Two of these plant designs incorporate FBC technology and have been designated FBA-16 and FBV-16. The first FBC design (FBA-16) contains two shop assembled, rail shippable fluid bed boilers capable of producing 125,000 lbs/hr each. The second plant design (FBV-16) utilizes a single 250,000 lbs/hr fluid bed boiler shipped by rail in large sections for field assembly. The third plant design utilizes a conventional pulverized coal (PC) boiler in conjunction with a C-E Air Quality Control System (AQCS) limestone scrubber. Capital costs were generated for the three turnkey plant designs just described. The FBA-16, FBV-16, and Conventional Unit plant designs have associated capital costs of $24.4, $22.8, and $24.7 million, respectively. Comparisons between plant capital cost estimates are valid and informative. The total operational costs, which include contingencies on new product design for the Fluid Bed Units, were found to vary between four and seven percent higher than the Conventional Unit. When contingencies are not included, the operating costs were found to be between one and three percent higher than the Conventional Unit. As can be seen, the operating costs for the bed designs are close enough to be considered similar when considering the nature of the study. The efficiency of the fluid bed plant designs can be increased and required capital equipment reduced by improvements to the plant design with time and more development. Some potential design modifications are outlined.

Myrick, D.T.

1980-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

303

CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

Zhen Fan

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Energy recovery from municipal solid waste and sewage sludge using multi-solid fluidized bed combustion technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was initiated to investigate the recovery of energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) and domestic sewage sludge (DSS) simultaneously by using Battelle's multi-solid fluidized-bed combustion (MS-FBC) technology. The concept was to recover energy as high and low pressure steam, simultaneously. High pressure steam would be generated from flue gas using a conventional tubular boiler. Low pressure steam would be generated by direct contact drying of DSS (as 4% solids) with hot sand in a fluidized bed that is an integral part of the MS-FBC process. It was proposed that high pressure steam could be used for district heating or electricity generation. The low pressure steam could be used for close proximity building heat. Alternatively, low pressure steam could be used to heat wastewater in a sewage treatment plant to enhance sedimentation and biological activity that would provide a captive market for this part of the recovered energy. The direct contact drying or tubeless steam generation eliminates fouling problems that are common during heat exchange with DSS. The MS-FBC process was originally developed for coal and was chosen for this investigation because its combustion rate is about three times that of conventional fluidized beds and it was projected to have the flexibility needed for accomplishing tubeless steam generation. The results of the investigation show that the MS-FBC process concept for the co-utilization of MSW and DSS is technically feasible and that the thermal efficiency of the process is 76 to 82% based on experiments conducted in a 70 to 85 lb/h pilot plant and calculations on three conceptual cases.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Co-gasification of Plastics and Biomass in a Dual Fluidized-Bed Steam Gasifier: Possible Interactions of Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of Plastics and Biomass in a Dual Fluidized-Bed Steam Gasifier: Possible Interactions of Fuels ... Temperatures of up to 1000 °C were measured with high-temperature thermocouples, while high-quality flow meters (Krohne) were employed for the adjustment of process media inputs, such as the fluidization agents, steam and air. ... A GC–MS device (gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer) was used to measure the content of 50 different tar species of medium molecular weight in the product gas. ...

Veronika Wilk; Hermann Hofbauer

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

306

Gasification and Chemical-Looping Combustion of a Lignite Char in a Fluidized Bed of Iron Oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasification and Chemical-Looping Combustion of a Lignite Char in a Fluidized Bed of Iron Oxide ... Taking reactions R1 and R2 together, the fuel has been combusted but resulting CO2 has been separated from N2 in the air, while the total heat evolved is the same as for the direct combustion of the fuel in air. ... The amount of carbon in the bed at the end of each feeding period could then be determined by combusting the char in air and measuring the total amount of CO2 and CO produced. ...

T. A. Brown; J. S. Dennis; S. A. Scott; J. F. Davidson; A. N. Hayhurst

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

307

Steam Gasification of Bio-Oil and Bio-Oil/Char Slurry in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, the steam gasification of bio-oil/char slurry was investigated using a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor filled with either Ni-based naphtha steam reforming catalyst or silica sand. ... LOI: Loss on ignition after a 30 min fusion at 1000 °C. ... Table 5. Product Gas Composition (in Mol %) and Heating Value from Steam Gasification of the Bio-Oil and the Slurry with the Catalyst and the Sand at T ? 800°C, H2O/C ? 5.5, and GC1HSV ? 340 h?1; Wet with Nitrogen and Dry Nitrogen Free Basisa ...

Masakazu Sakaguchi; A. Paul Watkinson; Naoko Ellis

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Simulation of Syngas Production from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Aspen Plus  

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Simulation of Syngas Production from Municipal Solid Waste Gasification in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Using Aspen Plus ... When the reaction kinetics is not known, a rigorous reactor and multiphase equilibrium based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the product mixture (an RGibbs block) is preferred to predict the equilibrium composition of the produced syngas. ... Catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce hydrogen-rich gas or syngas (H2 + CO) with calcined dolomite as a catalyst in a bench-scale downstream fixed bed reactor was investigated. ...

Miaomiao Niu; Yaji Huang; Baosheng Jin; Xinye Wang

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

309

Burning mill sludge in a fluidized-bed incinerator and waste-heat-recovery system; Ten years of successful operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on burning mill sludge in a fluidized-bed incinerator and waste-heat-recovery system. In the late 1970s, the Lielahti sulfite mill of G.A. Serlachius Corp. (now Metsa Serla Oy) began investigating alternative methods of sludge disposal. The mill had an annual capacity of 100,000 tons of bleached pulp, generated 80,000 tons of by-product lignin sulfonates, and specialized in dissolving pulps. Because of the end product's high quality requirements, the mill had a low pulp yield and high losses in the form of both dissolved and suspended solids.

Nickull, O. (Metsa Serla, Oy (FI)); Lehtonen, O. (Tampella Ltd., Tampere (FI)); Mullen, J. (Tampella Keeler, Williamsport, PA (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Electrostatic Precipitator Collection Efficiency and Trace Element Emissions from Co-Combustion of Biomass and Recovered Fuel in Fluidized-Bed Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrostatic Precipitator Collection Efficiency and Trace Element Emissions from Co-Combustion of Biomass and Recovered Fuel in Fluidized-Bed Combustion ... In this investigation, electrostatic precipitator fractional collection efficiency and trace metal emissions were determined experimentally at a 66 MW biomass-fueled bubbling fluidized-bed combustion plant. ... The solid fuel combustion-generated particle emissions typically consist of two types of particles:? fine particles approximately 0.1?1 ?m in diameter that are formed from the ash-forming species that are volatilized during combustion and residual ash particles larger than 1 ?m in diameter that are formed from mineral impurities in the fuels (4). ...

Terttaliisa Lind; Jouni Hokkinen; Jorma K. Jokiniemi; Sanna Saarikoski; Risto Hillamo

2003-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

311

Leachability of automotive shredder residues burned in a fluidized bed system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the study of a combustible fraction of automotive shredder residues (CASRs) and the corresponding ashes generated by combustion on a fluidized bed pilot with the aim to understand the influence of thermal treatment regarding properties for final disposal, such as landfilling. The chemical composition was evaluated and the leachability behaviour of ashes and CASR was investigated using the three more commonly used tests: the European Standard EN 12457, the US TCLP-EPA 1311 and the Dutch availability test EA NEN 7371. Different results were obtained depending on the specific conditions of the methods employed. It was found that both the CASR and the ashes contained large amounts of toxic metals and other undesirable elements, such as Cl and S. For the CASR, in addition to the leachability of organic matter above the limit set for hazardous materials, the release of heavy metals, either under alkaline and acidic conditions was significant, revealing the serious risks associated to the landfilling practices still being undertaken worldwide. Release of organic matter from ashes was insignificant, but solubility of sulphates increased and chlorides exceed the hazardous limits in the case of fly ashes. Toxic metals were found to leach from the ashes only under acidic conditions, except Pb and Cu which also leached from finer ashes at alkaline pH. Cr also leached from ashes at alkaline pH values. Both the Dutch availability and TCLP revealed much higher leaching intensities than the European Standard due to the acidity of leachants. However, it was found that ashes may be more resistant to acidification because they exhibit much higher acid neutralization capacity (ANC) than the untreated CASR. The study undertaken shows that thermal valorisation of the combustible fraction of ASR may avoid the risks associated with their landfilling; however, care has to be taken with the ashes because they also behave as hazardous residues. Although, the mass reduction provided by thermal treatment may make landfilling less expensive, a more profitable reutilization of the ashes should be developed.

M.H. Lopes; M. Freire; M. Galhetas; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many studies have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. DOE desired further experimental data, with regard to steam reforming technology, to make informed decisions concerning selection of treatment technology for SBW. Mineralizing steam reforming technology, offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC would produce a denitrated, granular mineral waste form using a high-temperature fluidized bed process. A pilot scale demonstration of the technology was performed in a 15-cm-diameter reactor vessel September 27 through October 1, 2004. The pilot scale equipment is owned by the DOE, and located at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID. Flowsheet chemistry and operational parameters were defined through a collaborative effort involving Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and THOR Treatment Technologies personnel. Personnel from Science Applications International Corporation, owners of the STAR Center, operated the pilot plant. The pilot scale test was terminated as planned after achieving a total of 100 hrs of cumulative/continuous processing operation. About 230 kg of SBW surrogate were processed that resulted in about 88 kg of solid product, a mass reduction of about 62%. The process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Acidic soil amendment with a magnesium-containing fluidized bed combustion by-product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of SO{sub 2} from the emissions of coal-fired boilers produces by-products that often consist of CaSO{sub 4}, residual alkalinity, and coal ash. These by-products could be beneficial to acidic soils because of their alkalinity and the ability of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center{underscore}dot}2H{sub 2}O) to reduce Al toxicity in acidic subsoils. A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the liming efficacy of a fluidized bed combustion boiler by-product (FBC) that contained 129 g Mg kg{sup {minus}1} as CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgO and its effects on surface and subsurface soil chemistry. The FBC was mixed in the surface 10 cm of two acidic soils (Wooster silt loam, an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf, and Coshocton silt loam, an Aquultic Hapludalf) at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 times each soil's lime requirement (LR). Soils were sampled in 10-cm increments to depths ranging from 20 to 110 cm, and corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were grown. Application of Mg-FBC increased alfalfa yields in all six site-years, whereas it had no effect on corn grain yield in five site-years and decreased grain yield in one site-year. Plant tissue concentrations of Mg, S, and Mo were increased by Mg-FBC, while most trace elements were either unaffected or decreased. Application of Mg-FBC at one or two times LR increased surface soil pH to near 7 within 1 wk. Although surface soil pH remained near 7 for 2 yr, there was minimal effect on subjacent soil pH. Application of Mg-FBC increased surface soil concentrations of Ca, Mg, and S, which promoted downward movement of Mg and SO{sub 4}. This had different effects on subsoil chemistry in the two soils: in the high-Ca-status Wooster subsoil, exchangeable Ca was decreased and exchangeable Al was increased, whereas in the high-Al-status Coshocton subsoil, exchangeable Al was decreased and exchangeable Mg was increased. The Mg-FBC was an effective liming material and, because of the presence of both Mg and SO{sub 4}, may be more effective than gypsum in ameliorating subsoil Al phytotoxicity.

Stehouwer, R.C.; Dick, W.A.; Sutton, P.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermodynamic and economic analysis of polygeneration system integrating atmospheric pressure coal pyrolysis technology with circulating fluidized bed power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignite-based polygeneration system has been considered as a feasible technology to realize clean and efficient utilization of coal resources. A newly polygeneration system has been proposed, featuring the combination of a 2 × 300 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plant and atmospheric pressure fluidized bed pyrolyzers. Xiaolongtan lignite is pyrolyzed in pyrolyzers. Pyrolyzed volatiles are further utilized for the co-generation of methanol, oil, and electricity, while char residues are fired in CFB boilers to maintain the full load condition of boilers. Detailed system models were built, and the optimum operation parameters of the polygeneration plant were sought. Technical and economic performances of optimum design of the polygeneration plant were analyzed and compared with those of the conventional CFB power plant based on the evaluation of energy and exergy efficiency, internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period. Results revealed that system efficiency and the IRR of the polygeneration plant are ca. 9% and 14% points higher than those of the power plant, respectively. The study also analyzed the effects of market fluctuations on the economic condition of the polygeneration plant, and found that prices of fuel, material, and products have great impacts on the economic characteristics of the polygeneration plant. Polygeneration plant is more economic than CFB power plant even when prices fluctuate within a wide range. This paper provides a thorough evaluation of the polygeneration plant, and the study indicates that the proposed polygeneration plant has a bright prospect.

Zhihang Guo; Qinhui Wang; Mengxiang Fang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Numerical study of hydrogen production by the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process with online CO2 capture as operated in fluidized bed reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) Eulerian two-fluid model with an in-house code was developed to simulate the gas-particle two-phase flow in the fluidized bed reactors. The CO2 capture with Ca-based sorbents in the steam

Yuefa Wang; Zhongxi Chao; Hugo A. Jakobsen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Role of Ettringite in the Reuse of Hydrated Fly Ash from Fluidized-Bed Combustion as a Sulfur Sorbent:? A Hydration Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Waste from fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) has a low potential for reuse. One possibility for its recycling lies in a hydration process aimed at reactivating the SO2 sorption ability of the unconverted lime. The formation of ettringite, as well as calcium ...

Graziella Bernardo; Antonio Telesca; Gian Lorenzo Valenti; Fabio Montagnaro

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) Test Results of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms used for LAW Immobilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One such immobilization technology being considered is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) tests at various flow rates have been conducted with the granular products fabricated using these two methods. Results show that the materials exhibit a relatively low forward dissolution rate on the order of 10-3 g/(m2d) with the material made in the laboratory giving slightly higher values.

Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Benjamin D.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Strandquist, Sara C.; Dage, DeNomy C.; Brown, Christopher F.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

320

MTG fluidized bed reactor–regenerator unit with catalyst circulation: process simulation and operation of an experimental setup  

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Simulation of the MTG process carried out in a fluidized bed reactor–regenerator system with catalyst circulation is studied by using the kinetic results obtained in an experimental unit. Data considered covered a wide range of operating conditions including temperature, space time and average residence times in both reactor and regenerator. This simulation is based on the use of adequate kinetic equations for the main MTG reaction, for the catalyst deactivation and for catalyst regeneration. In addition, a third stage in the process allowing for coke equilibration, prior to its combustion, is also included. Catalyst loss due to attrition has also been taken into account. An objective function based on relative production rate is optimized by changing systematically the process parameters such as temperature, space time and catalyst activity. Results are also validated in the experimental unit and demonstrate the simplicity of the reactor–regenerator system with catalyst circulation and the versatility of this configuration for carrying out the MTG process.

Ana G. Gayubo; Jose M. Ortega; Andres T. Aguayo; Jose M. Arandes; Javier Bilbao

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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321

(Fluidized bed combustion of high-ash Indian coals): Foreign trip report, January 5, 1988--March 16, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The foreign research assignment at BHEL, Trichy, was undertaken to participate in the ongoing USAID/BHEL joint program in fluidized bed combustion (FBC). As part of this program, an experimental FBC research test facility has been designed, erected and commissioned at BHEL, Trichy, to conduct experiments on the combustion of high-ash Indian coals and coal washery rejects. The data will be used to optimize the design and to select the operational parameters for large scale industrial and utility FBC boilers. ORNL has been providing technical assistance to BHEL since the initiation of the project in November 1983. The US team visited at 10 MW(e) FBC boiler fired with coal washery rejects at the Tata Iron and Steel Company (supplied by BHEL). The tour was very informative and gave the US team a good first-hand perspective of the Indian experience and concerns with FBC technology.

Krishnan, R.P.; Daw, C.S.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Leaching behavior and possible resource recovery from air pollution control residues of fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash residues are generated at several points during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Such residues are of a complex physical and chemical nature and are often enriched in soluble salts and heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Zn. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of MSW is a relatively new technique and very little information is available about the leaching behavior of its residues. In this study, the total elemental composition, mineralogy and leaching behavior of cyclone and bag-house filter ashes from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler fired with municipal solid waste have been investigated. In addition, the possibilities of recovery heavy metals from these ashes were studied. The long-term leaching behavior of the ash constituents was evaluated using a two-step batch leaching test known as the CEN-test, whereas short and medium term leaching behavior was evaluated using a Column test. The extraction of elements from cyclone and filter ashes with various acidic solutions was also investigated. The leaching behavior of acid washed ashes was evaluated using the CEN test. The cyclone ash was mainly composed of aluminosilicate minerals, whereas the filter ash consisted of chlorides and hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was higher in the filter ash than in the cyclone ash. The leached amounts of sulfates and Pb from the cyclone ash decreased with leaching test contact time, indicating the formation of secondary mineral phases. Large amounts of chlorides, sulfates, Ca, Cu and Pb were leached from the filter ash. Acid extraction removed large amounts ({gt}50%) of Zn, Pb and Cu from the filter ash and approximately 56% of the total amount of Zn present in the cyclone ash. An efficient removal of heavy metal species from these types of ashes can probably be achieved by application of a recycling or multi-step process.

Abbas, Z.; Andersson, B.A.; Steenari, B.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

324

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

325

An experimental study of the hydrodynamics and cluster formation in a circulating fluidized bed. Topical report, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research program involves two major aspects. First, to evaluate techniques to effectively probe the polydisperse gas-solid flows and second, to apply these techniques to study the gas-solid flow structure and clusters in the riser of a circulating fluidized bed riser. Amongst the non-intrusive techniques a modified laser Doppler technique based on the fluorescence-emission concept has been adopted and the other techniques involve pitot-static pressure probes. A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) facility has been designed, built and is currently operational at West Virginia University. The design provides for maximum versatility in investigating the hydrodynamics of the CFB riser. Two stage cyclones are employed to capture the particles exhausted from the riser. Measurements of gas velocity distribution were carried out in the circulating fluidized bed riser. with particles having a mean diameter of 112 {mu}m and a density of 2305 kg/m{sup 3} and another set of particles with a mean diameter of 145 {mu}m and a density of 2245 kg/m{sup 3}. The experimental results showed that the local gas velocity varied with the radial position, elevation, solids circulation rate, superficial velocity and particle size. A general formula for gas velocity distribution in the circulating fluidized bed riser was obtained based on the particle circulation, superficial velocity and particle diameter. The pressure drops across the L-valve were also studied for different particle sizes, L-valve diameters and aeration. The solids flowrate was found to be a function of the L-valve geometry, operating parameters and solids properties. Pressure drop of L-valve increases with increasing solids diameter and decreasing diameter of the L-valve. Pressure drop across standpipe increases as the solids diameter and diameter of the standpipe decrease.

Gautam, M.; Jurewicz, J.; Heping, Y.; Clifton, K.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Experimental and Modeling Study of Sulfur Capture by Limestone in Selected Conditions of Air-Fired and Oxy-fuel Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Liu et al.(5) noticed the influence of the system itself, noting that SO2 is enriched in the furnace of oxy-fuel combustion systems because the flue gas is recycled. ... This work has also been supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 124368 and Foster Wheeler Energia Oy. ... In this study, the influence of CO2 on sulfur capture efficiency was studied during fluidized-bed desulfurization by experiments and modeling. ...

Sirpa Takkinen; Timo Hyppänen; Jaakko Saastamoinen; Toni Pikkarainen

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Parametric performance studies on fluidized-bed heat exchangers. Task I. Fouling characteristics. Yearly technical progress report, 28 July 1981-31 July 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analyses and experiments are being performed in this program to investigate the heat transfer performance of single and multi-stage shallow fluidized beds for application to the recovery of heat from sources such as waste heat, and coal combustion or coal gasification. The work, which is an extension of that done previously under contracts EC-77-C-03-1433 and DE-AC03-79-ET11348, consists of three tasks. In Task 1, tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of liquid condensate fouling on fluidized bed heat exchanger performance. Liquid condensates used in these tests were water and glycerol (which is more viscous than water). The tests showed that fluidized bed heat exchanger performance is degraded by condensation within the bed and the degradation is caused by bed particles adhering to the heat exchanger surface, not by particle agglomeration. Liquid condensate did not continuously build up within the bed. After a period of dry-out, heat transfer equal to that obtained prior to condensation was again obtained. 8 figures, 1 table.

None

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Integrating coal cleaning with pulverized coal and fluidized bed boilers to meet the Clean Air Act Amendment and for new plant construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrating coal cleaning into a two boiler, pulverized coal-fired/fluidized bed (PC/FBC) power plant can reduce emissions at low cost for both retrofit projects and new power plants. The technology, because it relies on proven equipment and practices, albeit in a novel context, is low risk and near term. Its low cost makes it particularly suitable to retrofit many of the older coal- fired power plants in the US, and also for retrofitting power plants in the less affluent Eastern European and Asian countries that rely on coal for power generation and need to reduce emission but cannot afford scrubbers. In retrofit applications the technology involves a simple coal cleaning plant and the addition of a small fluidized bed boiler with its steam circuitry integrated into the plant's steam cycle. The clean coal stream will be fired in the existing boiler while the fluidized bed will use the low grade (waste) stream from the coal cleaning plant. This paper reports that this approach is particularly applicable to the many power plants along the Ohio River.

Miliaras, E.S.; Lawrence, D.W. (Energotechnology Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Numerical simulations of particle growth in a silicon-CVD fluidized bed reactor via a CFD–PBM coupled model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid model coupled with population balance equations was applied to simulate the evolution of silicon particle growth by chemical vapor deposition of silane pyrolysis in a three-dimensional slugging fluidized bed reactor using FLUENT. The simulation of the particle growth considering surface deposition, cluster scavenging, aggregation and wall deposition was carried out after the verification of flow and heat transfer characteristics based on the well-accepted correlations. The results showed that the scavenging effect was responsible for the particle growth, and the growth rate agreed well with the experimental data by Tejero-Ezpeleta et al. (2004) when the scavenging factor was set to 0.1 under the condition of 923 K and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the formation of light silicon hydrides by silane homogeneous pyrolysis in the dilute phase was also investigated in the form of CHMEKIN mechanism, which showed that disilane turned to be the main silicon hydride and the silane conversion was underestimated by 12.5%. Finally, the effects of operating conditions on the growth rate were studied in detail with the observation of defluidization phenomenon during the evolution of particle growth.

Si-Si Liu; Wen-De Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

Holzman, M.I.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rattanasak, Ubolluk, E-mail: ubolluk@buu.ac.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Development of Solid Particle Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Plants that Use Fluidized Bed Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is developing a thermal energy storage (TES) system that uses solid particles as the storage medium for a concentrating solar power plant. This paper focuses on the particle-TES performance in terms of three efficiency metrics: first-law efficiency, second-law efficiency, and storage effectiveness. The paper presents the derivation of the efficiency expression and their application in assessing the particle-TES performance and design. The particle-TES system uses low-cost stable materials that withstand high temperature at a fraction of the cost of the salt and metal containment vessels for high-temperature TES. Cost analysis indicates that particle TES costs less than $10/kWhth, which is less than half the cost of the current molten-salt-based TES and just a fraction of liquid heat transfer fluid storage at a similar high temperature of >700 °C, due to its low cost of storage medium and containment. The fluidized-bed TES can hold hot particles of > 800 °C with >95% exergetic efficiency, storage effectiveness, and thermal efficiency.

Z. Ma; G.C. Glatzmaier; M. Mehos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Air–steam gasification of biomass in fluidized bed with CO2 absorption: A kinetic model for performance prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Significance of decarbonized energy production in the context of a foreseeable hydrogen economy has called for the need of extensive research in biomass gasification-carbon dioxide capture technique. The feasibility of calcium oxide as a sorbent for CO2 in syngas is studied for air–steam fluidized bed (FB) gasification through a reaction kinetic modeling approach. Arrhenius rate equations are employed for primary and secondary pyrolysis, gasification and carbonation reactions. Devolatilization product yields are predicted using available correlations for FB gasification and cracking of tar is incorporated. Parametric performance analysis is carried out highlighting the significance of equivalence ratio (ER), gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and sorbent to biomass ratio (SOBR). The effects of various gasifying media on H2 concentration and performance indicators such as heating value and efficiencies are analyzed. The simulation results are validated with the reported experimental results. The kinetic study reveals that air–steam gasification significantly reduces the unreacted steam but at a lower H2 concentration than steam gasification. A maximum of 53% hydrogen rich gas mixture is predicted at ER = 0.25, SBR = 1.5, SOBR = 2.7 and 1000 K. Against fossil fuel expended steam gasification, pure oxygen gasification is suggested by the study.

C.C. Sreejith; C. Muraleedharan; P. Arun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Modeling and simulation of co-gasification of coal and petcoke in a bubbling fluidized bed coal gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we discuss the modeling and simulation of a fluidized bed coal gasifier which uses a mixture of coal and petcoke as its feed. A two phase model consisting of the bubble phase and the emulsion phase is used to describe the coal gasification process. We consider a non-isothermal model taking into account the effect of four heterogeneous reactions and four homogeneous reactions. We analyse the effect of various operating parameters such as composition of feed, location of feed point and ash content on the performance of the gasifier. The results of predictions of the simulations have been found to be in good agreement with the experimental results in the literature. It has been found that increase in petcoke content in the feed mixture tends to lower the efficiency and carbon conversion but increases the amount of syngas produced. Also, from the simulations, it has been found that increase in ash content of coal decreases the carbon conversion. We have concluded that the feed point of the solids should be above the point where O2 that is present in the bed gets exhausted, in order to obtain the maximum carbon conversion and efficiency.

Anshul Goyal; S. Pushpavanam; Ravi Kumar Voolapalli

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

Unknown

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

Unknown

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

Unknown

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

Unknown

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into four major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report reports on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

Unknown

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fluidized-bed combustion: effectiveness of an SO/sub 2/ control technology for industrial boilers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boilers have developed rapidly over recent years and are now offered commercially in several different configurations. SO/sub 2/ reduction levels of 90% and above have been achieved by coal-fired AFBC boilers in the industrial size category. Based on the data available, industrial FBC NOx emissions have been consistently below 0.5 lb/million Btu. PM emissions of less than 0.5 lb/million Btu have been routinely achieved with fabric filters. AFBC boiler system costs were compared with costs for a conventional boiler equipped with an FGD system and with costs for a conventional boiler using low-sulfur compliance coal. The conclusions drawn from the economic analyses are that (1) studied cost difference between AFBC Technology, conventional boiler/FGD systems, and compliance coal combustion are projected to be small over the SO/sub 2/ emission range of 1.7 to 0.8 lb/million Btu and SO/sub 2/ reduction range of 65 to 90%, and (2) that cost competitiveness among these technologies is not expected to change significantly as the emission limitations change over this range. Absolute economic competitiveness among these options will be sensitive to site-specific parameters and decided on a case-by-case basis.

Aul, E.F.; Owen, M.L.; Jones, A.F.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

\\{NOx\\} emission characteristics of fluidized bed combustion in atmospheres rich in oxygen and water vapor for high-nitrogen fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study examines the influence of water vapor in combustion atmosphere on \\{NOx\\} emission from oxygen-enriched combustion of air-dried distilled spirit lees and its char in a laboratory fluidized bed of 760 mm high and 68 mm in inner diameter. Steam was added into the fluidizing gas to vary the vapor content in the combustion atmosphere. At a combustion temperature of 950 °C and a steam-to-fuel mass ratio (S/F) of 0.5, the presence of water vapor reduced the \\{NOx\\} concentration in the flue gas for low O2 contents (?30 vol.%) in the combustion agent but increased the \\{NOx\\} emission for high O2 contents (?40 vol.%). The possible causes were clarified for this shift from suppression to promotion of fuel-N conversion into \\{NOx\\} with raising O2 concentration in the combustion agent. Varying temperature from 850 °C to 1150 °C resulted in a peak conversion of fuel-N to \\{NOx\\} in the temperature range of 950–1050 °C for all the tested O2 concentrations. Increasing the O2 concentration tended to lower the critical temperature corresponding to such a peak fuel-N conversion. Testing results also suggested that the presence of excessive water vapor in the combustion atmosphere would inhibit the release of fuel-N in the devolatilization stage and promote the formation of some reducing gases. In addition to the anticipated diluting effect, the steam addition also shortened the reaction time for homogeneous and heterogeneous \\{NOx\\} reduction by the reducing gases and char. It is postulated that the formation of OH radicals at high O2 content and high temperature could cause the observed increase in the \\{NOx\\} emission.

Chuanqiang Zhu; Shuyuan Liu; Huan Liu; Juan Yang; Xiaoxing Liu; Guangwen Xu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effects of the ship motion on gas–solid flow and heat transfer in a circulating fluidized bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of experiments on a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was performed to investigate the effects of ship motion on gas–solid flow and heat transfer in the CFB. Rolling period, rolling amplitude, inclination angle, superficial velocity, particle diameter range, and solid circulation flux were varied in the experiments. The following results were obtained: (1) When the CFB undergoes rolling motion, the downflow of particles changes periodically and the solid volume fraction increases at the riser bottom. As a result, the time-averaged total pressure drop of the CFB in rolling motion becomes larger than that at the upright attitude. Similarly, the total pressure drop of the CFB at an inclined attitude is larger than that at the upright attitude. (2) The total pressure drop of the CFB in rolling motion is hardly affected by rolling period. As rolling amplitude increases, on the other hand, the effects of rolling motion become more remarkable. From these results, it is concluded that gravity dominantly affects gas–solid flow in the system. (3) At an inclined attitude, the symmetry of the flow field with respect to the riser center plane breaks, and heat transfer at the lower wall of the riser is promoted. As inclination angle increases, heat transfer augmentation becomes more remarkable. Similarly, the heat transfer coefficient in rolling motion is larger than that at the upright attitude. (4) Heat transfer augmentation by ship motion is concluded to be caused by the direct contact between solid particles and the heater surface owing to the vertical component of gravity to the surface.

Hiroyuki Murata; Hideyuki Oka; Masaki Adachi; Kazuyoshi Harumi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

346

Disposal of Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash in an Underground Mine to Control Acid Mine Drainage and Subsidence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. YO void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase Ill the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the spring of 1998 and monitored for following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during the winter of 1997. This document will report on progress made during Phase Ill. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase Ill tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase Ill (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

NONE

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Biomass Gasification with Steam in Fluidized Bed:? Effectiveness of CaO, MgO, and CaO?MgO for Hot Raw Gas Cleaning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The upgrading of the raw hot gas from a bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier is studied using cheap calcined minerals or rocks downstream from the gasifier. ... Gasification with steam (with or without O2 added) is another process which produces a medium heating (10?16 MJ/m3n) value gas with a 30?60 vol % H2 content. ... The effect of the particle diameter has been studied at 794 ± 9 °C (T2) with sizes between 1.0 and 4.0 mm (dp,mean = 1.30?3.25 mm). ...

Jesús Delgado; María P. Aznar; José Corella

1997-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

348

Experimental Investigation of Natural Coke Steam Gasification in a Bench-Scale Fluidized Bed: Influences of Temperature and Oxygen Flow Rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, natural coke was restricted in application and research due to its hot burst, difficult ignition, and abradability. ... disordering as a cause is now a real possibility on the basis of correlated optical and x-ray diffraction data from samples analyzed from within a thermal aureole of a Tertiary dyke emplaced in Permian coal-bearing strata. ... The thermal characteristics of natural coke steam gasification in a fluidized bed were three-dimensionally (3D) simulated based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using Fluent code. ...

Wen-guo Xiang; Chang-sui Zhao; Ke-liang Pang

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

349

MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to date and how they compare to testing performed on LAW glasses. Other details about vitreous waste form durability and impacts of REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) on durability are given in Appendix A. Details about the FBSR process, various pilot scale demonstrations, and applications are given in Appendix B. Details describing all the different leach tests that need to be used jointly to determine the leaching mechanisms of a waste form are given in Appendix C. Cautions regarding the way in which the waste form surface area is measured and in the choice of leachant buffers (if used) are given in Appendix D.

Jantzen, C

2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

350

Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

354

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

355

Task II: evaluation of heat-exchanger and turbine materials for use in a coal-fired fluidized-bed-combustion environment. Final report, July 1, 1976-July 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Specific alloys were tested as in-bed and above-bed heat exchanger materials in the fireside environment of a pressurized fluidized bed coal combustor (PFBCC). Corrosion conditions on the alloys exposed to normal and very low oxygen pressures in the presence of calcium sulfate deposits were simulated. Bayonet-type specimen probes of selected alloys were exposed in the Exxon Miniplant at probe control temperatures representative of conventional steam, advanced steam, helium and liquid metal energy conversion cycles. Corrosion/erosion testing of the air cooled, welded samples consisted of a 117-hour shakedown run followed by an incremental 1000-hour exposure. Metallurgical analyses were run on removed specimens. The test matrix for in-bed and above-bed exposure was: 1050/sup 0/F (566/sup 0/C): 2.25 Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels (in-bed only); 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C): 304 SS and Incoloy-800; 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C): Incoloy-800 and Hastelloy-X; and 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C); Hastelloy-X and Haynes-188. Subscale sulfides formed in most of the alloys. The most severe corrosion was noted in the ferritic 2.25Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo steels at a nominal control temperature of 1050/sup 0/F (566/sup 0/C) and in Hastelloy-X at 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) exposed in-bed. The best overall behavior of in-bed alloys was observed for Incoloy-800, which had a maximum metal loss of about .007 in (.18 mm) in 1117 hours of exposure at both 1200/sup 0/F (649/sup 0/C) and 1400/sup 0/F (760/sup 0/C) but averaged more nearly .001 in (.025 mm) to .002 in (.051 mm) and in Haynes-188 which showed maximum wall thinning of less than .003 in (.076 mm) at 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C) in the longest time exposure.

Not Available

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

Catalytic Air Gasification of Plastic Waste (Polypropylene) in a Fluidized Bed. Part II: Effects of Some Operating Variables on the Quality of the Raw Gas Produced Using Olivine as the In-Bed Material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic Air Gasification of Plastic Waste (Polypropylene) in a Fluidized Bed. ... Wu et al.(11) reported a process involving pyrolysis combined with catalytic steam gasification for postconsumer plastic wastes, mixed plastics, and real-world plastic wastes. ... In this case, the plastic waste was composed of a mixture of PE and PP (50 wt %) from the car industry. ...

José M. Toledo; María P. Aznar; Jesús A. Sancho

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

357

Record of Decision; JEA Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project, Jacksonville, Duval County, FL (DOE/EIS-0289) (12/7/00)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

614 614 Federal Register / Vol. 65, No. 236 / Thursday, December 7, 2000 / Notices Recordkeeping burden. OMB invites public comment. Dated: December 1, 2000. John Tressler, Leader Regulatory Information Management, Office of the Chief Information Officer. Office of Educational Research and Improvement Type of Review: New. Title: Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS 2002). Frequency: Annually. Affected Public: Not-for-profit institutions; State, Local, or Tribal Gov't, SEAs or LEAs. Reporting and Recordkeeping Hour Burden: Responses: 51,597. Burden Hours: 59,497. Abstract: Year 2001 field test of 50 schools in five states, students, parents, teachers, and librarians. The main study in Spring 2002 in all 50 states and District of Columbia will constitute the baseline of a longitudinal study of

358

Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Technical progress report No. 13, October 1996--December 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report summarizes the research conducted and progress achieved during the period from October 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. Numerical simulation was acquired from the particle trajectories by means of the Reynolds Stress Model (REM) with general algebraic expressions. The typical particle trajectories for bunch particle injection were predicted by the top view, the side view, and the isolated 3-dimensional view. The simulation of particle trajectories showed top view, side view, and isolated 3-dimensional view. Numerical simulation for the bunch particle injection will be continued to understand the particle characteristics in the combustion chamber. The system test was conducted on the exploratory hot model. Thermal performance and combustion products of the test results were analyzed and predicted. The effect of cooling water on the combustion chamber was studied using the natural gas as a one of firing fuel. Without a providing of cooling water, overall combustion temperatures are increased. A computer-assisted data acquisition system was employed to measure the flue gas compositions/stack temperature. The measurement of combustion products was conducted by the gas analyzer.

Lee, Seong W.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

360

Scramjet combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a scramjet combustor having a longitudinal axis and two spaced-apart, generally opposing, and generally longitudinally extending walls, with at least one of the walls having an aft-facing step. The combustor also having a fuel injector disposed proximate the step at an acute positive angle with respect to the longitudinal axis, and wherein the improvement comprises means for varying the fuel injector angle during supersonic flight.

Harshman, D.L.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed McIntosh Unit 4 Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project, March 25, 1999  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

10 10 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 58 / Friday, March 26, 1999 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed McIntosh Unit 4 Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and the DOE NEPA regulations (10 CFR Part 1021), to assess the potential environmental and human health impacts of a proposed project to expand the C. D. McIntosh, Jr. Power

362

Multi-stage biomass gasification in Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG): Test operation of animal-waste-derived biomass and parametric investigation at low temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the design, construction and operation of an Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Gasifier (ICFG) are introduced in detail. ICFG design provides a multi-stage gasification process, with bed material acting as the medium for char combustion and heat exchange by its internal circulation. And it is used for the steam gasification of animal waste at low temperature in view of producing fuel gas. The effects of pressure balance, pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature and steam/feedstock ratio on the gasifier performance (e.g. product gas yield, gas composition, tar content) are also discussed. Hydrogen-rich and low-tar product gas can be produced from the low-calorific feedstock, in the properly designed process together with high-performance catalyst.

Xianbin Xiao; Duc Dung Le; Kayoko Morishita; Shouyu Zhang; Liuyun Li; Takayuki Takarada

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Identification of data gaps found during the development of a zero-order model for a fluidized-bed retort/combustion process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical note (TN) reports on the development of a zero-order ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) model for the fluidized-bed retort/combustion of an eastern oil shale. The objective of the work described was to identify data needs and to create a structure for future, more definitive models. New Albany shale was the initial reference eastern shale at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). A literature search on this shale was conducted to find the physical property data required for the ASPEN model. This TN discusses the types of missing or incomplete data, the process being modeled, and how process variables are affected by varying input parameters. The TN also presents recommendations for increasing the reliability of the simulation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Ammer, J.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Evaluation of the Performance of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) for Low-Ash Coal Beneficiation. Part 2: Characteristics of the Beneficiated Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of the Performance of Air Dense Medium Fluidized Bed (ADMFB) for Low-Ash Coal Beneficiation. ... The slagging and fouling decrease the efficiency of heat-exchange surfaces in conventional coal-firing furnaces, while in slagging gasifiers, where ash is intentionally converted into liquid slag (better operation, control particulate matter emission, and trap trace elements and heavy metals in a unleachable glass phase), to achieve free flux toward the bottom of the gasifier (tapping system), the higher slagging propensity and lower viscosity at the operating temperature are required. ... These samples include two clean coal products, which exhibited minimum ash content (B and C), two tests that offered maximum organic material recovery (D and E) from the middle particle size fraction, and two tests with fine and coarse particle sizes (A and F, respectively). ...

Ebrahim Azimi; Shayan Karimipour; Moshfiqur Rahman; Jozef Szymanski; Rajender Gupta

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.

Bruce G. Miller; Curtis Jawdy

2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Application of an internally circulating fluidized bed for windowed solar chemical reactor with direct irradiation of reacting particles - article no. 014504  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar thermochemical processes require the development of a high-temperature solar reactor operating at 1000-1500{sup o}C, such as solar gasification of coal and the thermal reduction of metal oxides as part of a two-step water splitting cycle. Here, we propose to apply 'an internally circulating fluidized bed' for a windowed solar chemical reactor in which reacting particles are directly illuminated. The prototype reactor was constructed in a laboratory scale and demonstrated on CO{sub 2} gasification of coal coke using solar-simulated, concentrated visible light from a sun simulator as the energy source. About 12% of the maximum chemical storage efficiency was obtained by the solar-simulated gasification of the coke.

Kodama, T.; Enomoto, S.I.; Hatamachi, T.; Gokon, N. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

Evaluation of packed-bed and fluidized-bed cell technology for the destruction and removal of contaminants in alkaline waste solutions. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposing of the large quantity of nuclear waste that has been produced within the DOE complex is an area of active research and development. Electrochemical processes have been reported for the treatment of alkaline wastes including the destruction of nitrate and nitrite and the removal of metals such as Tc and Ru. Electrolytic recovery of metals from dilute solution has been reported using conventional porous electrodes such as felt electrode and reticulated electrode, but use of such electrodes is limited. The pores of such electrodes become blocked as a consequence of metal deposition. If an attempt is made to regenerate these electrodes by dissolution of the deposited metals, oxygen evolution on the matrix competes with dissolution of metals deposited within the pores. On the other hand, the use of three dimensional packed-bed and fluidized-bed electrodes having large surface area per unit volume would offer an improvement on felt or reticulated system because of the greater ease of regeneration.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bockris, J.O.M.; Kim, Jinseong [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Surface Electrochemistry Laboratory

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Site Considerations for Repowering With Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) from the L.V. Sutton Station Concept Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tonnemacher et al., Site Considerations for Repowering With APFBC from the L.V. Sutton Station Concept Assessment Tonnemacher et al., Site Considerations for Repowering With APFBC from the L.V. Sutton Station Concept Assessment paper 970562 Page 1 of 36 Site Considerations for Repowering with Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) from the L.V. Sutton Station Concept Assessment Gary C. Tonnemacher, P.E., and David C. Killen, P.E. Carolina Power & Light Company Raleigh, North Carolina Richard E. Weinstein, P.E., Harvey N. Goldstein, P.E., and Jay S. White Parsons Power Group Inc. Reading, Pennsylvania Robert W. Travers, P.E. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy / Germantown, Maryland electronic mail addresses/phone no. electronic mail addresses/phone no. Tonnemacher{ Gary.Tonnemacher@CPLC.COM 919 / 546-6091 Goldstein { Harvey_N_Goldstein@Parsons.COM

371

Scramjet combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a scramjet combustor having a longitudinal axis and two spaced-apart, generally opposing, and generally longitudinally extending walls, with each of the walls having an aft-facing step, the steps being a longitudinal distance apart, the combustor also having a fuel injector disposed proximate a the step at an acute positive angle with respect to the longitudinal axis. The improvement comprises: means for varying the longitudinal distance during supersonic flight; means for varying the fuel injector angle during supersonic flight; and means for varying the transverse distance between the walls during supersonic flight.

Harshman, D.L.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending 31 December 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The test plan is designed to demonstrate that oil shale co-combusted with municipal solid waste (MSW) can reduce gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2}, CO) to acceptable levels (90%+ reduction) and produce a cementitious ash which will, at a minimum, be acceptable in normal land fills. The small-scale combustion testing will be accomplished in a 6-in. circulating fluid bed combustor (CFBC) at Hazen Research Laboratories. This work will be patterned after the study the authors conducted in 1988 when coal and oil shale were co-combusted in a program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The specific purpose of the test program will be to: determine the required ratio of oil shale to MSW by determining the ratio of absorbent to pollutant (A/P); determine the effect of temperature and resident time in the reactor; and determine if kinetic model developed for coal/oil shale mixture is applicable.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development and Implementation of 3-D, High Speed Capacitance Tomography for Imaging Large-Scale, Cold-Flow Circulating Fluidized Bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed understanding of multiphase flow behavior inside a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) requires a 3-D technique capable of visualizing the flow field in real-time. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) is a newly developed technique that can provide such measurements. The attractiveness of the technique is in its low profile sensors, fast imaging speed and scalability to different section sizes, low operating cost, and safety. Moreover, the flexibility of ECVT sensors enable them to be designed around virtually any geometry, rendering them suitable to be used for measurement of solid flows in exit regions of the CFB. Tech4Imaging LLC has worked under contract with the U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to develop an ECVT system for cold flow visualization and install it on a 12 inch ID circulating fluidized bed. The objective of this project was to help advance multi-phase flow science through implementation of an ECVT system on a cold flow model at DOE NETL. This project has responded to multi-phase community and industry needs of developing a tool that can be used to develop flow models, validate computational fluid dynamics simulations, provide detailed real-time feedback of process variables, and provide a comprehensive understating of multi-phase flow behavior. In this project, a complete ECVT system was successfully developed after considering different potential electronics and sensor designs. The system was tested at various flow conditions and with different materials, yielding real-time images of flow interaction in a gas-solid flow system. The system was installed on a 12 inch ID CFB of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Labs. Technical and economic assessment of Scale-up and Commercialization of ECVT was also conducted. Experiments conducted with larger sensors in conditions similar to industrial settings are very promising. ECVT has also the potential to be developed for imaging multi-phase flow systems in high temperature and high pressure conditions, typical in many industrial applications.

Qussai Marashdeh

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) containing flame retardants using a fluidized bed reactor: The effects of Ca-based additives on halogen removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the thermal degradation of a waste fraction of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene containing brominated flame retardants was performed to reduce halogen content in the pyrolysis oil. Thermal degradation was completed using Ca-based additives (calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and oyster shells) in a bench-scale pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char separation system. Pyrolysis was carried out in a temperature range of 430–510 °C. In the absence of any additive, the oil yield amounted to about 77 wt.%. With the additives, the oil yield was markedly reduced to within a range of 45–64 wt.%. The principle compounds in the oils were toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, ?-methylstyrene, phenol and heteroatom-containing compounds. When Ca(OH)2 was applied, total bromine and chlorine contents in the oil decreased to 0.05 and 0.04 wt.%, respectively. In addition, Ca(OH)2 reduced the antimony content in the oil to below 0.001 ppm. Most of the halogens and antimony in the feed material were present in the char obtained after pyrolysis.

Su-Hwa Jung; Seon-Jin Kim; Joo-Sik Kim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

An experimental study of the hydrodynamics and cluster formation in a circulating fluidized-bed riser. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel gas-solid flow measuring technique is being developed and tested for studying the hydrodynamics inside the riser of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB). First of the two aims of the overall program, namely, design, development and testing of the technique to characterize the particle and gas velocities in two-phase flows was accomplished in the past year. The second objective, that of making detailed measurements of gas and solid phases in the rises of a cold CFB model to investigate the phenomena of clusters and streamers for different bed operating parameters is being accomplished in the current year. The differential pressure fluctuations were in order to study the solids cluster formation. Of the several factors which lead to differential pressure fluctuations, the solids cluster formation in CFB riser is by far the most important of all. Simultaneously, theoretical formulation of the two-phase flow in the CFB riser was initiated. The concept of entropy maximization is being applied to explain the hydrodynamics inside the riser. The results from this study will present a unique detailed description of the complex gas-solid behavior in the CFB riser.

Gautam, M.; Jurewicz, J.T.; Johnson, E.K.; Heping, Y.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Influence of operating conditions and coal properties on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in pressurized fluidized bed combustion of subbituminous coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This experimental study is aimed at finding effects of operating conditions in PFBC on nitrogen oxide emissions for subbituminous coals differing in ash content/composition, combustion/gasification reactivities and in particle size distribution. The experiments have been done on a smaller laboratory apparatus with ID=8 cm. The effects of operating pressure (0.1–1 MPa), temperature of the fluidized bed (800–900 °C), freeboard temperature and oxygen concentration (3–10 vol.%) on the nitrogen oxides emissions are relatively complex, coupled with temperature of burning coal particles. The coal ash content/composition (esp. CaO and Fe2O3) and fly ash freeboard concentration play an important role in formation/destruction chemistry of both NO and N2O. The \\{NOx\\} emissions decrease with increasing operating pressure at the same volumetric oxygen concentration and temperature. Temperature, volatile content, reactivities of coals and ash composition are the most important factors for N2O emissions. The N2O emissions are either almost constant or can exhibit a maximum at increasing operating pressure. Influence of increasing oxygen concentration on \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions is more pronounced at lower operating pressures, esp. for the less reactive, medium ash coal. The particle size distribution of the coal (influence of coal dust) can cause characteristic changes in \\{NOx\\} and N2O emissions in PFBC, esp. at lower combustion temperatures (800–840 °C). The emission changes are dependent on ash properties/composition.

Karel Svoboda; Michael Poho?elý

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion, FBC, ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach, cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 of the project was completed in September 1995 and was concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. These models were verified through the Phase 2 field phase and will be further verified in the large scale field demonstration of Phase 3. The verification will allow the results to be packaged in such a way that the technology can be easily adapted to different site conditions. Phase 2 was successfully completed with 1,000 cubic yards of grout being injected into Anker Energy`s Fairfax mine. The grout flowed over 600 feet from a single injection borehole. The grout achieved a compressive strength of over 1,000 psi (twice the level that is needed to guarantee subsidence control). Phase 3 is to take 26 months and will be a full scale test at Anker`s eleven acre Longridge mine site.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 5. Appendix G. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Appendix G, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Williamson, H.J.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Dunn, J.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 3. Appendices D and E. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Appendices D and E, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Minear, R.A.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Little, W.M.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 6. Appendix H. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Appendix H, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes underlaboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Williamson, H.J.; Heinrich, D.L.; Grimshaw, T.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 7. Appendix I. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Appendix 1, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Eklund, A.G.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Minear, R.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 2. Appendices A through C. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report Appendices A through C, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Little, W.M.; Gibson, T.S.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Eklund, A.G.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 1. Final report. Report for June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, including 10 appendices, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Grimshaw, T.W.; Minear, R.A.; Eklund, A.G.; Little, W.M.; Dunn, J.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 4. Appendix F. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Appendix F, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Eklund, A.G.; Grimshaw, T.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Assessment of fluidized-bed-combustion solid wastes for land disposal. Volume 8. Appendix J. Final report, June 1980-June 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Appendix J, gives results of: (1) an analysis of representative samples of fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) wastes, (2) an assessment of the characteristics of leachates generated from the wastes under laboratory and field (landfill) conditions, (3) a characterization of the attenuation of the leachates by earth materials that are typical of disposal settings, (4) development of a way to predict the leachate generation behavior of FBC wastes under landfill conditions on the basis of laboratory test results by establishing a rigorous statistical relationship between the laboratory and field-leaching results, and (5) assessment of the compatibility of commonly used landfill-liner materials with FBC waste leachates. FBC is an emerging energy technology that holds promise for both high efficiency of energy conversion and minimization of adverse air-quality impacts. A major advantage of FBC is that high-sulfur coal can be burned without the use of flue-gas desulfurization equipment to meet air-quality standards. The solid residues that are generated in an FBC unit are usually larger in volume and have different properties than the typical bottom ash from a conventional boiler.

Williamson, H.J.; South, R.C.; Grimshaw, T.W.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105 And AN-103) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the immobilization technologies under consideration as a Supplemental Treatment for Hanford’s Low Activity Waste (LAW) is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). The FBSR technology forms a mineral waste form at moderate processing temperatures thus retaining and atomically bonding the halides, sulfates, and technetium in the mineral phases (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite). Additions of kaolin clay are used instead of glass formers and the minerals formed by the FBSR technology offers (1) atomic bonding of the radionuclides and constituents of concern (COC) comparable to glass, (2) short and long term durability comparable to glass, (3) disposal volumes comparable to glass, and (4) higher Na2O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings than glass. The higher FBSR Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 4} waste loadings contribute to the low disposal volumes but also provide for more rapid processing of the LAW. Recent FBSR processing and testing of Hanford radioactive LAW (Tank SX-105 and AN-103) waste is reported and compared to previous radioactive and non-radioactive LAW processing and testing.

Jantzen, Carol; Herman, Connie; Crawford, Charles; Bannochie, Christopher; Burket, Paul; Daniel, Gene; Cozzi, Alex; Nash, Charles; Miller, Donald; Missimer, David

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effect of application of fluidized bed combustion residue to reclaimed mine pastures on forage yield, composition, animal performance, and mineral status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reclaimed surface mined soils in Appalachia are typically infertile and must be amended for optimum vegetative growth. Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) has high levels of Ca, S, Zn, Fe, and Al, and 50% of the neutralizing capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three replicated 0.81 ha reclaimed mine pastures: (A) control (no amendment), (B) 6760 kg FBCR/ha, and (C) 3380 kg limestone/ha. Based on forage availability, six steers were rotationally grazed on pastures receiving each treatment. Steers were weighed and blood samples collected at 14-d intervals and all animals were sacrificed for tissue sampling at the end of the 114-d trial. B and C increased soil pH above control levels. Forage yield and steer gain were not significantly affected by treatment. Forage samples collected during the trial indicated that B and C amendments elevated forage ash, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Ca:P ratio and depressed cellulose and NDF. The forage sampled the following spring was lower in hemicellulose, Zn, Mn and Ni; and higher in ash, Ca, S, the Ca:P ratio in the B and C pastures. Mean serum mineral levels of steers were not affected by pasture treatment. The blood packed cell volume was higher in cattle grazing pastures. Liver levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Na and bile levels of Mn were depressed in cattle grazing B and C and serum was at deficiency levels and was not detectable in bile, regardless of treatment. Kidney levels of Ca, Mg and P were higher, hair Zn was higher, rib Cr and long bone Cd levels were lower in animals grazing the pastures. This study suggests that FBCR amendment enhances nutrient quality of forage and minerals status of animals at least as well as limestone application to acidic reclaimed mine pastures.

Smedley, K.O.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, September 1--November 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e., % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the spring of 1998 and monitored for following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during the winter of 1997. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine. The Gantt Chart on the following page details progress by task.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence. Quarterly report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion -- FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase 3 the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the summer of 1997 and monitored for the following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2,000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during Summer 1997, as well. This document will report on progress made during Phase 3. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase 3 tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase 3 (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising combustion technology for gaseous and solid fuel with efficient use of energy and inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. The concept of a coal-fueled CLC system using, calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) as oxygen carrier is proposed in this study. Reduction tests of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier with simulated coal gas were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor in the temperature range of 890-950{degree}C. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained at the initial reduction period. CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier exhibited high reactivity initially and decreased gradually at the late period of reduction. The sulfur release during the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} as oxygen carrier was also observed and analyzed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} conversions were greatly influenced by reduction temperature. The oxygen carrier conversion and mass-based reaction rates during the reduction at typical temperatures were compared. Higher temperatures would enhance reaction rates and result in high conversion of oxygen carrier. An XRD patterns study indicated that CaS was the dominant product of reduction and the variation of relative intensity with temperature is in agreement with the solid conversion. ESEM analysis indicated that the surface structure of oxygen carrier particles changed significantly from impervious to porous after reduction. EDS analysis also demonstrated the transfer of oxygen from the oxygen carrier to the fuel gas and a certain amount of sulfur loss and CaO formation on the surface at higher temperatures. The reduction kinetics of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier was explored with the shrinking unreacted-core model. The apparent kinetic parameters were obtained, and the kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data. Finally, some basic considerations on the use of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a CLC system for solid fuels were discussed.

Song, Q.L.; Xiao, R.; Deng, Z.Y.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, M.Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure:? The Effect of Inorganic Species. 1. Literature Review and Comments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

2,3 Apart from optimizing the design (topology) of the gasifier, its operating conditions, and the composition, moisture, and particle size of the feedstock, there is another operation variable that can be used to achieve the above said objectives:? the presence of some inorganic species (ISs) in the gasifier. ... bed?composition?(AAEM?solids?and?particle?sizes) ... When some calcined dolomite (CaO·MgO) is used in the bed of a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type the raw gas produced is cleaner than when only silica sand is used in it as fluidizing medium. ...

Jose Corella; Jose M. Toledo; Gregorio Molina

2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

394

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. 2. Results and Recommendations for Scaling Up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam Gasification of Coal at Low?Medium (600?800 °C) Temperature with Simultaneous CO2 Capture in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed at Atmospheric Pressure. ... Once the existence of segregation in the bed of the gasifier with the particles' sizes used for coal and for the CaO in the preliminary tests are confirmed and analyzed, the particle size of the coal was increased to 0.4?2.0 ... In general small differences in d. readily lead to segregation while quite differently sized particles are fairly easily mixed. ...

Jose Corella; Jose M. Toledo; Gregorio Molina

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Multicycle study on chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas with a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cyclic test of a CaSO{sub 4}-based oxygen carrier (natural anhydrite) in alternating reducing simulated coal gas and oxidizing conditions was performed at 950{degree}C in a fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained in the reduction. The H{sub 2} and CO conversions and CO{sub 2} yield increased initially and final decreased significantly. The release of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S during the cyclic test was found to be responsible for the decrease of reactivity of a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier. The oxygen carrier conversion after the reduction reaction decreased gradually in the cyclic test. Through the comparison of mass-based reaction rates as a function of mass conversion at typical cycles, it was also evident that the reactivity of a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier increased for the initial cycles but finally decreased after around 15 cycles. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the presence and intensity of the reduction sulfur species was in accordance with the results of gas conversion. The content of CaO was higher than expected, suggesting the formation of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S during the cycles. Surface morphology analysis demonstrates that the natural anhydrite particle surface varied from impervious to porous after the cyclic test. It was also observed that the small grains on the surface of the oxygen carrier sintered in the cyclic tests. Energy-dispersive spectrum analysis also demonstrated the decrease of oxygen intensity after reduction, and CaO became the main component after the 20th oxidation. Pore structure analysis suggested that the particles agglomerated or sintered in the cyclic tests. The possible method for sulfur mitigation is proposed. Finally, some basic consideration on the design criteria of a CLC system for solid fuels using a CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier is discussed by the references and provides direction for future work. 49 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Qilei Song; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Wenguang Zheng; Laihong Shen; Jun Xiao [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermoenergy Engineering Research Institute

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Corrosion evaluation of weldments exposed in TVA and Rocketdyne AFB (Atmospheric Fluid-Bed) Combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of experimental iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-based weldment materials were exposed in TVA 20MW and Rocketdyne Atmospheric Fluid-bed Combustors at 849{degree}C for 1261 h and 871{degree}C for 1000 h, respectively. The post-exposure analyses were conducted in Argonne National Laboratory. All specimens experienced different degrees of internal oxidation/sulfidation. Among eight filler materials, Marathon 25/35R and Haynes 188 showed the least corrosion attack, which was less than 0.5 mmpy. The high nickel content in the weldment turned out to be unfavorable for the corrosion resistance in AFBC environment. The differences in the coal/bed chemistry induced different corrosion behavior in materials exposed in TVA and Rocketdyne systems. Calcium sulfate deposit on the specimens showed significant effects on the internal oxidation/sulfidation of the alloys. The results of this study would supplement the material database, in particular weldment performance, and aid in materials selection for atmospheric fluidized bed combustor applications. 10 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Wang, D.Y.; Natesan, K.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Fluidized Bed Fuel Cell Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... smoothed the electrolyte flow through the bed. The mesh acted as bed support and electrical contactor to the beads. In the case of the hydrogen peroxide electrode the nickel mesh ... at the top 'of the bed for the hydrogen peroxide electrode and close to the contactor for the methanol electrode. In both cases polarization measurements were carried out at 20 ...

T. BERENT; I. FELLS; R. MASON

1969-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

398

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

399

Steam gasification of coal at low-medium (600-800{sup o}C) temperature with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture in fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure: The effect of inorganic species. 1. Literature review and comments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the H{sub 2} production with simultaneous CO{sub 2} capture by steam gasification of coal in a fluidized bed, at low/medium temperatures (600-800{sup o}C) and atmospheric pressure. This work is mainly aimed at reviewing the effects of the inorganic species present in the matrix of the coal or added to the gasifier bed. The most promising species seems to be the calcined limestone (CaO), which intervenes in the overall gasification reaction network in at least five different types of reactions. The effectiveness of the CaO for CO{sub 2} capture in the coal gasifier is, therefore, affected/influenced by the other four simultaneous or competitive types of reactions in the gasifier. The effects of the temperature in the gasifier and of the (CaO/coal) ratio fed to the gasifier are finally reviewed and discussed in detail.

Corella, J.; Toledo, J.M.; Molina, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Gas turbine combustor transition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

402

Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

In situ catalytic conversion of tar using rice husk char/ash supported nickel–iron catalysts for biomass pyrolytic gasification combined with the mixing-simulation in fluidized-bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A catalytic gasification technology has been proposed for tar in situ conversion using the rice husk char (RHC) or rice husk ash (RHA) supported nickel–iron catalysts. Biomass tar could be converted effectively by co-pyrolysis with the RHC/RHA supported nickel–iron catalysts at 800 °C, simplifying the follow-up tar removal process. Under the optimized conditions, the tar conversion efficiency could reach about 92.3% by the RHC Ni–Fe, which exhibited more advantages of easy preparation and energy-saving. In addition, the tar conversion efficiency could reach about 93% by the RHA Ni. Significantly, partial metal oxides (e.g., NiO, Fe2O3) in the carbon matrix of RHC could be in-situ carbothermally reduced into the metallic state (e.g., Ni0) by reducing gases (e.g., CO) or carbon atom, thereby enhancing the catalytic performance of tar conversion. Furthermore, mixing with other solid particles such as sand and RHA Ni, can also improve biomass (e.g., RH) fluidization behavior by optimizing the operation parameters (e.g., particle size, mass fraction) in the mode of fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). After the solid–solid mixing simulation, the RH mass fraction of 0.5 and the particle diameter of 0.5 mm can be employed in the binary mixture of RH and RHA.

Yafei Shen; Peitao Zhao; Qinfu Shao; Fumitake Takahashi; Kunio Yoshikawa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

Beer, Janos (Winchester, MA); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL); Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fields, and enormous amounts of hydrocarbons are locked in unconventional reservoirs (oil shale, heavy oil, tar sands). * Economic extraction of these resources will require...

406

Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory Committee | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Unconventional Resources Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory Committee Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory Committee The Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory Committee advises DOE on its research in unconventional oil and natural gas resources, such as shale gas. The Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory Committee advises DOE on its research in unconventional oil and natural gas resources, such as shale gas. Mission The Secretary of Energy, in response to provisions of Subtitle J, Sec. 999 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, must carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of technologies for ultra-deepwater and onshore unconventional natural gas and other petroleum resource exploration and production, as well as addressing the technology

407

Obama Administration Announces New Partnership on Unconventional...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Obama Administration Announces New Partnership on Unconventional Natural Gas and Oil Research Obama Administration Announces New Partnership on Unconventional Natural Gas and Oil...

408

Gas turbine topping combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ceramic combustor mounting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor for a gas turbine engine includes a metal engine block including a wall portion defining a housing for a combustor having ceramic liner components. A ceramic outlet duct is supported by a compliant seal on the metal block and a reaction chamber liner is stacked thereon and partly closed at one end by a ceramic bypass swirl plate which is spring loaded by a plurality of circumferentially spaced, spring loaded guide rods and wherein each of the guide rods has one end thereof directed exteriorly of a metal cover plate on the engine block to react against externally located biasing springs cooled by ambient air and wherein the rod spring support arrangement maintains the stacked ceramic components together so that a normal force is maintained on the seal between the outlet duct and the engine block under all operating conditions. The support arrangement also is operative to accommodate a substantial difference in thermal expansion between the ceramic liner components of the combustor and the metal material of the engine block.

Hoffman, Melvin G. (Speedway, IN); Janneck, Frank W. (Danville, IN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Fluidized bed gasification of agricultural residue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studied to develop a process which can convert organic waste matter into fuel gas. Hammond et al. (1974) described a fixed bed gasifier which operated at 1800 F (1256 K) and atmos- pheric pressure. When woodchips were used as the feed material...

Groves, John David

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or turndown so we delayed consideration of installation of a FBC boil r. CIRCULATING FBC In early 1980 we became aware of the work by the Ahlstrom Company of Helsinki, Finland in the development of the circulating FBC boiler design. The PYROFLOW... layer is a lightweight insulating refractory. In 1979, Ahlstrom started up a 45,000 pound per hour PYROFLOW unIt at Pihlava, Finland. In 1981, 200,000 pound per hour boiler was started up 1 Kauttua, Finland as le b se load steam supply for paper...

Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Fluidized bed paint stripping and sludge burning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High volume automated painting, as encountered in the painting of automobiles and appliances, requires that the item being painted be positioned in a conveying frame or fixture so that the painting machine or robot achieves a reproducible, high quality paint job. These conveying frames or fixtures are extensive fabrications carefully designed to position and support the item being painted. In the case of automotive painting, they are rather large and involve substantial weights, because they must be capable of supporting and positioning auto bodies and large sub-assemblies.

Bhatia, J.; Staffin, H.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Mathematical modeling of fluidized bed reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III-B. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). 26 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER III-8-1. BBM with Constant Bubble Size III-B-2. BBM with Variable Bubble Size III-C. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM). Page 28 29 30 III-C-1. CCBM with Constant... IV NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. IV-A. Langmuir-Hinshelwood Type of Kinetics. IV-B. First Order Kinetics . 57 IV-B-1. Davidson and Harrison Model (DHM) . . 57 IV-8-2. Bubbling Bed Model (BBM). IV-B-3. Countercurrent Backmixing Model (CCBM...

Nasif, Nilufer Havva

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Solar Energy Assisted Fluidized-Bed Dryer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural sun drying is a wide-spread technology practised since the early times of mankind. However this process presents several problems such as infestation by insects and long periods of drying. To avoid suc...

B. Kilki?

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

138 Chemical Engineering Education FLUIDIZED BED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] and to characterize the gas-solid flow regimes.[5,6] This experiment is compact and cost-effective; the cost at the precollege and freshman level, the fluid motion of the gas and the brightly colored particles attracts processes used for chemical production of materials to fabrication processes needed to transform

Hesketh, Robert

416

State of Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new combustion technique has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly...

Mesko, J. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fluidized-bed combustion: Technical status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of METC's FBC program is to establish, by the early 1990s, an engineering technology base that the utility, industrial, commercial, and residential sectors can use to build and operate coal-fired FBC systems. These systems would generate process steam, direct and indirect heat, and electric power from coals of all ranks and sulfur content in an economical and environmentally-acceptable manner. First-generation AFBC technology is already considered commercial and a number of US boiler manufacturers are offering commercial units. However, there are greater opportunities for improvement in economics, performance, and reliability. In order to resolve the remaining technical issues and to broaden the market sector served by AFBC, the DOE is pursuing advanced concepts. This second-generation AFBC technology is directed toward small industrial, commercial, and residential applications. Penetration of these potential markets will require 20- to 30-percent reduction in capital and operating costs over first-generation technology, significant improvements in performance and reliability, and compliance with existing and proposed New Source Performance Standards for environmental emissions. PFBC technology, on the other hand, is less developed and is not yet commercial. Sufficient R and D has been carried out, however, to establish its advantages and to demonstrate the viability of the technology for displacing imported oil and for improving the economics of conventional coal-fired systems.

Not Available

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Cogeneration using a thermionic combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermionic energy conversion is well adapted to cogeneration with high temperature processes which require direct heating. Such processes are found in the metals, glass and petroleum industries. A case study has been made for applying thermionic energy converters to a walking beam steel slab reheat furnace. The objective is to replace the present burners with thermionic combustors which provide electricity while supplying direct heat at the same temperature and heat release conditions as the original burners. The combustor utilizes a thermionic converter design which has demonstrated stable output for long periods using a natural gas burner. Combustion air is used to cool the collectors. A computer program was formulated to facilitate the analysis of the thermionic combustor. The design of the thermionic combustor is described. The performance of the thermionic modules is calculated based on varying furnace production rates.

Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory Committee | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and environmental mitigation (including reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration of carbon). The Department's Unconventional Resources Technology Advisory...

420

" "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" 3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," " " "," " ," " "NAICS Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Establishments(b)","Establishments with Any Cogeneration Technology in Use(c)","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know","In Use(d)","Not in Use","Don't Know"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "unconventional fluidized-bed combustors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Probabilistic aerothermal design of gas turbine combustors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a probability-based framework for assessing the impact of manufacturing variability on combustor liner durability. Simplified models are used to link combustor liner life, liner temperature variability, ...

Bradshaw, Sean D. (Sean Darien), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Pulse combustor with controllable oscillations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulse combustor having thermally induced pulse combustion in a continuously flowing system is described. The pulse combustor is fitted with at lease one elongated ceramic body which significantly increases the heat transfer area in the combustion chamber of the combustor. The ceramic body or bodies possess sufficient mass and heat capacity to ignite the fuel-air charge once the ceramic body or bodies are heated by conventional spark plug initiated combustion so as to provide repetitive ignition and combustion of sequentially introduced fuel-air charges without the assistance of the spark plug and the rapid quenching of the flame after each ignition in a controlled manner so as to provide a selective control over the oscillation frequency and amplitude. Additional control over the heat transfer in the combustion chamber is provided by employing heat exchange mechanisms for selectively heating or cooling the elongated ceramic body or bodies and/or the walls of the combustion chamber.

Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Welter, Michael J. (Columbiana, OH); Morris, Gary J. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

Methanol tailgas combustor control method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for controlling the power and temperature and fuel source of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to supply heat to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual fuel inlet streams including a first fuel stream, and a second fuel stream of anode effluent from the fuel cell and reformate from the fuel processor. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is determined by regulating the amount of the first and/or second fuel streams and the quantity of the first air flow stream to support fuel processor power requirements.

Hart-Predmore, David J. (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William H. (Rochester, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

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Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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