Sample records for unavailable gdp unavailable

  1. Westinghouse Reactor Protection System Unavailability, 1984--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Calley, Michael Brennan; Gentillon, Cynthia Ann; Wierman, Thomas Edward; Rasmuson, D.; Marksberry, D.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U. S. Westinghouse commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System and Licensee Event Reports. A risk-based analysis was performed on the data to estimate the observed unavailability of the RPS, based on a fault tree model of the system. Results were compared with existing unavailability estimates from Individual Plant Examinations and other reports.

  2. Westinghouse Reactor Protection System Unavailability, 1984-1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. D. Gentillon; D. Marksberry (USNRC); D. Rasmuson; M. B. Calley; S. A. Eide; T. Wierman (INEEL)

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U.S. Westinghouse commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System and Licensee Event Reports. A risk-based analysis was performed on the data to estimate the observed unavailability of the RPS, based on a fault tree model of the system. Results were compared with existing unavailability estimates from Individual Plant Examinations and other reports.

  3. Abstract--The unavailability of a flexible system for real-time testing of decision-support algorithms in a pre-hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and showed that the platform can support a quick development cycle for real-time decision-support algorithms1 Abstract--The unavailability of a flexible system for real- time testing of decision for life-saving interventions and immediate evacuation, and advises on appropriate therapeutic actions [1

  4. Digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants. Risk-screening of environmental stressors and a comparison of hardware unavailability with an existing analog system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present a screening study to identify environmental stressors for digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) which can be potentially risk-significant, and compare the hardware unavailability of such a system with that of its existing analog counterpart. The stressors evaluated are temperature, humidity, vibration, radiation, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), and smoke. The results of risk-screening for an example plant, subject to some bounding assumptions and based on relative changes in plant risk (core damage frequency impacts of the stressors), indicate that humidity, EMI from lightning, and smoke can be potentially risk-significant. Risk from other sources of EMI could not be evaluated for a lack of data. Risk from temperature appears to be insignificant as that from the assumed levels of vibrations. A comparison of the hardware unavailability of the existing analog Safety Injection Actuation System (SIAS) in the example plant with that of an assumed digital upgrade of the system indicates that system unavailability may be more sensitive to the level of redundancy in elements of the digital system than to the environmental and operational variations involved. The findings of this study can be used to focus activities relating to the regulatory basis for digital I&C upgrades in NPPs, including identification of dominant stressors, data-gathering, equipment qualification, and requirements to limit the effects of environmental stressors. 30 refs., 8 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Sensitivity of risk parameters to component unavailability in reactor safety study (PSAP/PSAB computer codes). [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azarm, M.; Farahzad, P.; Tingle, A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis for Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactors (PSAP/PSAB) codes have been developed to update the WASH-1400 conclusions. The initial effort, reported in NUREG/CR-1879 Sensitivity of Risk Parameters to Human Errors in Reactor Safety Study for a PWR, concentrated on developing a code for system sensitivity to human errors based on an expanded version of the PWR fault trees from the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). The success of that effort and the insights gained from the code's use initiated the development of the PSAP/PSAB codes. The two codes allow the user to evaluate the impact of new data and system models on the conclusions drawn in WASH-1400. They are designed to be fast running and modular so that detailed sensitivity studies can be run efficiently.

  6. New Contract Helps Portsmouth GDP Cleanup

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To accelerate the Portsmouth GDP cleanup efforts left over from the Cold War, the Department of Energy made a huge step forward in our nuclear environmental cleanup efforts.

  7. Alternative methods for forecasting GDP Dominique Gugan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    analysis. Better forecast performance for macroeconomic variables will lead to Paris School of Economics the speed of computers that can develop search algorithms from appropriate selection criteria, Devroye. 1 Introduction Forecasting macroeconomic variables such as GDP and inflation play an important role

  8. GDP Jobs Direct Structure of Australian economy, employment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% GDP Jobs Direct emissions Inclusive emissions Structure Geothermal On-shore wind Afforestation, cropland Coal-to-gas shift Agriculture, waste Coal CCS retrofit are not additive to those of previous years Source: McKinsey Australia Climate Change Initiative #12;What might

  9. Beyond GDP: Measuring and achieving global genuine progress Ida Kubiszewski a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    's overall performance (Kuznets, 1934; Marcuss and Kane, 2007; McCulla and Smith, 2007). GDP's current role

  10. Crystal structure of a tetrameric GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase from a bacterial GDP-D-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, N.A.; Mulichak, A.M.; Lam, J.S.; Rocchetta, H.L.; Garavito, R.M. (MSU); (Guelph); (PG)

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    D-Rhamnose is a rare 6-deoxy monosaccharide primarily found in the lipopolysaccharide of pathogenic bacteria, where it is involved in host-bacterium interactions and the establishment of infection. The biosynthesis of D-rhamnose proceeds through the conversion of GDP-D-mannose by GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose, which is subsequently reduced to GDP-D-rhamnose by a reductase. We have determined the crystal structure of GMD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in complex with NADPH and GDP. GMD belongs to the NDP-sugar modifying subfamily of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes, all of which exhibit bidomain structures and a conserved catalytic triad (Tyr-XXX-Lys and Ser/Thr). Although most members of this enzyme subfamily display homodimeric structures, this bacterial GMD forms a tetramer in the same fashion as the plant MUR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The cofactor binding sites are adjoined across the tetramer interface, which brings the adenosyl phosphate moieties of the adjacent NADPH molecules to within 7 {angstrom} of each other. A short peptide segment (Arg35-Arg43) stretches into the neighboring monomer, making not only protein-protein interactions but also hydrogen bonding interactions with the neighboring cofactor. The interface hydrogen bonds made by the Arg35-Arg43 segment are generally conserved in GMD and MUR1, and the interacting residues are highly conserved among the sequences of bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs. Outside of the Arg35-Arg43 segment, residues involved in tetrameric contacts are also quite conserved across different species. These observations suggest that a tetramer is the preferred, and perhaps functionally relevant, oligomeric state for most bacterial and eukaryotic GMDs.

  11. Energy-GDP decoupling in a second best world -A case study on India Cline Guivarcha,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Energy-GDP decoupling in a second best world - A case study on India Céline Guivarcha best world ­ A case study on India. Climatic Change, Volume 113, Number 2, pages 339­ 356. Abstract India, energy intensity, second-best world, power sector, reference scenario. Introduction Reference

  12. Multiple Structural Breaks in India's GDP: Evidence from India's Service Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    of economists and policy makers. India was designated as an agricultural country with a highest share1 Multiple Structural Breaks in India's GDP: Evidence from India's Service Sector Purba Roy Choudhury1 Abstract: This paper takes a comprehensive investigation into India's service sector, the main

  13. The effects of energy policies in China on energy consumption and GDP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    policies have significant impacts on diesel oil, gasoline and natural gas consumption. However, some energy The effects of energy policies in China on energy consumption and GDP1 Ming-Jie Lu, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Song Chen Abstract This paper examines the effects of energy policies in China on energy

  14. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning (Performance Analysis. Grossmann #12;2 Motivation · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies HF REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL

  15. The Long-Run Relationship between Money, Nominal GDP, and the Price Level in Venezuela: 1950 to 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    The Long-Run Relationship between Money, Nominal GDP, and the Price Level in Venezuela: 1950 that structural breaks may be important. Since the economy depends heavily on oil revenue, oil price shocks have whether a significant long-run relationship exists between money and nominal GDP and between money

  16. All bids must be made via the Forestry Commission's online e-sales system ( www.esales.eforestry.gov.uk ) as detailed in the general conditions of sale at the front of this catalogue. In the event that the Forestry Commission's systems are unavailable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 101 102 WHAM WHAM Clearfell Clearfell Bryn Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 103 104 WHAM WHAM Thinning Thinning Hafod Fawr TYPE Species Est Vol m3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT

  17. All bids must be made via the Forestry Commission's online e-sales system ( www.esales.eforestry.gov.uk ) as detailed in the general conditions of sale at the front of this catalogue. In the event that the Forestry Commission's systems are unavailable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 101 102 WHAM WHAM Thinning Thinning Cgobs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 103 Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 105 WHAM Thinning Cg-Radnor 01/09/13 28

  18. All bids must be made via the Forestry Commission's online e-sales system ( www.esales.eforestry.gov.uk ) as detailed in the general conditions of sale at the front of this catalogue. In the event that the Forestry Commission's systems are unavailable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 101 102 WHAM WHAM Thinning Clearfell Cwrt m3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT m3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT

  19. All bids must be made via the Forestry Commission's online e-sales system ( www.esales.eforestry.gov.uk ) as detailed in the general conditions of sale at the front of this catalogue. In the event that the Forestry Commission's systems are unavailable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 1.01 1.02 WEST ARGYLL WEST ARGYLL SALE TYPE Species Est Vol m3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 1.05 NORTH HIGHLAND Thinning Morangie 5

  20. All bids must be made via the Forestry Commission's online e-sales system ( www.esales.eforestry.gov.uk ) as detailed in the general conditions of sale at the front of this catalogue. In the event that the Forestry Commission's systems are unavailable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 101 102 WHAM WHAM Clearfell Clearfell Bowling Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 103 104 WHAM WHAM Clearfell Clearfell Cc SALE TYPE Species Est Vol m3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT

  1. All bids must be made via the Forestry Commission's online e-sales system ( www.esales.eforestry.gov.uk ) as detailed in the general conditions of sale at the front of this catalogue. In the event that the Forestry Commission's systems are unavailable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT) 101 102 WHAM WHAM Clearfell Thinning Bryn TYPE Species Est Vol m3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT3obs Number of Trees Mean tree size dbh Tariff Method SUPPLY PERIOD AMOUNT OFFERED (EXCLUDING VAT

  2. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning Department of Chemical · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies on the accuracy of the CDU REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO

  3. Golgi GDP-mannose Uptake Requires Leishmania LPG2 A MEMBER OF A EUKARYOTIC FAMILY OF PUTATIVE NUCLEOTIDE-SUGAR TRANSPORTERS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    and mammalian cells lack a Golgi GDP-Man transporter, this activity may offer a new tar- get for chemotherapy include those for UDP-Gal, UDP-Glc, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-xylose, UDP-GalNAc, GDP-fucose, GDP-Man, and CMP-sialic acid (1). Three candidate NST genes have been reported recently: one

  4. U.S. Motor Vehicle Output and Other GDP, 1968-2007 Danilo J. Santini, Ph. D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    U.S. Motor Vehicle Output and Other GDP, 1968-2007 Danilo J. Santini, Ph. D. Senior Economist, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government. 1 #12;U.S. Motor Vehicle Output of motor vehicle output" on the rest of the economy over the period 1968-2007. We statistically assess

  5. CITI Program Website Downtime for Software Upgrade Starting Monday 29 July at 11 a.m. U.S. Eastern Daylight Time, the CITI Program website will be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Eastern Daylight Time, the CITI Program website will be unavailable for approximately two to three days

  6. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, Randolph L.

    ground sensor (UGS) CONOPS. This knowledge is unavailable at times due to the deployment mode or hostile

  7. The Structure of the MUR1 GDP-mannose 4,67-deydratase from A. thaliana: Implications for Ligand Binding Specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulichak, A.M.; Bonin, C.P.; Reiter, W.-D.; Garavito, R.M. (Michigan State University)

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase catalyzes the first step in the de novo synthesis of GDP-L-fucose, the activated form of L-fucose, which is a component of glycoconjugates in plants known to be important to the development and strength of stem tissues. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the MUR1 dehydratase isoform from Arabidopsis thaliana complexed with its NADPH cofactor as well as with the ligands GDP and GDP-D-rhamnose. MUR1 is a member of the nucleoside-diphosphosugar modifying subclass of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzyme family, having homologous structures and a conserved catalytic triad of Lys, Tyr, and Ser/Thr residues. MUR1 is the first member of this subfamily to be observed as a tetramer, the interface of which reveals a close and intimate overlap of neighboring NADP{sup +}-binding sites. The GDP moiety of the substrate also binds in an unusual syn conformation. The protein-ligand interactions around the hexose moiety of the substrate support the importance of the conserved triad residues and an additional Glu side chain serving as a general base for catalysis. Phe and Arg side chains close to the hexose ring may serve to confer substrate specificity at the O2 position. In the MUR1/GDP-D-rhamnose complex, a single unique monomer within the protein tetramer that has an unoccupied substrate site highlights the conformational changes that accompany substrate binding and may suggest the existence of negative cooperativity in MUR1 function.

  8. An active seismic reconnaissance survey of the Mount Princeton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author J.S. Crompton Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1976 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  9. affect business environment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    test environment configuration and utilization, lack of automation and comprehensive tooling, and the unavailability of test environments can impact the quality of testing and...

  10. Data:9ca64540-69c3-4b7a-838e-c463df078360 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kiwash Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 20100101 End date if known: Rate name: Distributed Generation Rider over 25 kW Remote Access Unavailable Sector: Description:...

  11. Data:44ffaf06-971c-4732-ae1f-248ec212ce33 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kiwash Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 20100101 End date if known: Rate name: Distributed Generation Rider 25 kW and smaller Remote Access Unavailable Sector: Description:...

  12. Because It's Not There: Verbal Visuality and the Threat of Graphics in Interactive Fiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashtan, Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the power of computer graphics, text still has access tothat are unavailable in graphics – including visual effects.Visuality and the Threat of Graphics in Interactive Fiction

  13. OSU Human Resources -1 -Revised: 02/14/13 trd EMPLOYEE INJURY REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    : __________________ Injured on employer's premises? ____YES ____NO Were others injured in this incident? ___YES ____NO protective equipment) unavailable __Work area set-up/arrangement __Floor/work surfaces __Ventilation

  14. Exploration and Development Techniques for Basin and Range Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Abstract unavailable. Authors David D. Blackwell, Mark Leidig, Richard P. Smith, Stuart D. Johnson and Kenneth W. Wisian Conference GRC Annual Meeting; Reno, NV;...

  15. The Thermal Conductivity of Rocks and Its Dependence Upon Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    unavailable. Authors F. Birch and H. Clark Published Journal American Journal of Science, 1940 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  16. Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    constraints are unavailable, or if only vertical deformation is known. The deformation source must be capable of causing broad vertical deformation with comparatively smaller...

  17. The pursuit of missing information in negotiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Maia J; Bauman, Christopher W; Chen, Ning; Bastardi, Anthony

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    more complete sets of information leads to better negotiatedfor unavailable information leads to better outcomes. Studyfor missing information about an issue ca n lead to higher

  18. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  19. Monthly Planner Printed by Calendar Creator for Windows on 3/23/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 1 Oracle Production Unavailable ODS Unavailable 2 ALL HR/ Payroll Resp. On Oracle Production Available @ 7AM ODS Available @ 7AM 3 ALL HR/ Payroll Resp. On 4 ALL HR/ Payroll Resp. On 5 ALL HR/ Payroll Resp. On 6 ALL HR/ Payroll Resp. On 7 ALL HR/ Payroll Resp. On 8 ALL HR/ Payroll

  20. Campus Profile The University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    --life is their laboratory. UC San Diego is an academic powerhouse and economic engine, recognized as one of the top 10 living in San Diego (38%) 18% live in the U.S. (non-CA 1% live abroad 15% address data unavailable degree 4% degree data unavailable Private Support The UC San Diego Foundation, a nonprofit 501(c)(3

  1. Campus Profile The University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    --life is their laboratory. UC San Diego is an academic powerhouse and economic engine, recognized as one of the top 10 6% address data unavailable · Gender 52% men 48% women · Degrees Awarded 51% received a B.A. 28% received a B.S. 20% received a graduate degree 1% degree data unavailable Private Support · The UC San

  2. Email Announcements Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subject Date Author Edison will be unavailable on 5202015 8:00-20:00 PDT for maintenance 2015-05-12 11:05:49 Zhengji Zhao Edison will be reserved for a...

  3. PDSF Selected Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pdsfdtn1 maintenance 3211, 0900-1700 PT February 28, 2011 by Eric Hjort | 0 Comments During the maintenance pdsfdtn1 will be down and unavailable. 0 comments | Read the full post...

  4. Handling Food and Supplies during Power Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication lists foods that are safe to eat without cooking or refrigeration. There is also a list of supplies you will need when gas and electrical service is unavailable....

  5. anexo 5e produccion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    missing from the sample, because of unavailability of data, are: Afghanistan, Albania, Bosnia 198 Eyx''i5e'vyQsw...ve''syxpy'''riEsxs9P33D'ytig'' F.Arqueros 1 ,...

  6. Slide03 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    information that cannot be found by Googling In fact, much of the information on the Web is inherently unavailable to Google and Yahoo This key limitation would come as a...

  7. A field-based study of alternative microbial indicator tests for drinking water quality in Northern Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Samantha F

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safe drinking water is essential for human survival, yet it is unavailable to over 1 billion of the world's people living in poverty (World Bank, 2009). The current methods used to identify drinking water sources are ...

  8. The form, function, and interrelationships of naval rams: a study of naval rams from antiquity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pridemore, Matthew Garnett

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of several naval rams from sites around the Mediterranean has given scholars a brief glimpse of one of the most widely used naval weapons of the ancient world. Examining these physical examples provides information that is unavailable...

  9. Heat Balance Analysis to Validate the Heat Dissipation Rate of a Man-Made Lake as a Heat Rejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Hayes, T.; Dawson, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power plants were originally designed to use convenient bodies of water and cooling towers due to unavailability of these sources. Though the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has been pushing regulation that requires all new generation created...

  10. DARPA looks beyond GPS for positioning, navigating, and timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold-atom interferometry, microelectromechanical systems, signals of opportunity, and atomic clocks are some of the technologies the defense agency is pursuing to provide precise navigation when GPS is unavailable.

  11. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information must be provided to customers and to the Virginia State Corporation Commission (SCC) at least once annually. If any portion of this information is unavailable, the electricity provide...

  12. Western Ledge Reef Wreck: The Analysis and Reconstruction of the Late 16th-Century Ship of the Spanish Empire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bojakowski, Piotr

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    periods of Spanish maritime history, the ship epitomizes the culture and technology identified with the celebrated fleets of the Carrera de Indias. By combining the new and previously unavailable data with that of the original reports, this dissertation...

  13. Making the clean available: Escaping India's Chulha Trap Kirk R. Smith a,n,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for electrification and biofuels, but at heart needs to be addressed as a health problem, not one of energy access is unavailable or unreliable. Biogas made from animal waste has a small, but still important niche among rural

  14. Glove Mouse Project The goal of this project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    premise for the house is to care for the pet when the owner is unavailable or away. "Smart"Home Project Quality and Ventilation System The system automatically detects and ventilates out hazardous indoor c

  15. 1455.ps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aug 14, 2006 ... Note that all calls car-. ried by a group are lost upon reassignment of the group and that the group. radio channels are unavailable during the ...

  16. Graceful Degradation Via Versions: Specifications and Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thekkath, Chandramohan A.

    Graceful Degradation Via Versions: Specifications and Implementations Lidong Zhou, Vijayan to degraded system behavior that deviates from the system's specification and even causing complete unavailability of the system. This paper advocates the notion of graceful degradation as a complementary

  17. Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Technology. 1. Development and Characterization of a Photovoltaic Hybrid Membrane System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Broeckmann, Andreas; Richards, Bryce

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only...

  18. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, thefrom petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the i sectoralGas Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Natural Gas “Other

  19. FRANTIC 5 (a version of FRANTIC II) : a computer code for evaluating system aging effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrijevic, Vesna B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FRANTIC 5 code is a modification of the FRANTIC II code for time dependent unavailability analysis. FRANTIC 5 is specially adapted for modeling the aging effects on system and component performance. The FRANTIC 5 code ...

  20. Jet Vetoes interfering with H ? WW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moult, Ian James

    Far off-shell Higgs production in H ? WW, ZZ, is a particularly powerful probe of Higgs properties, allowing one to disentangle Higgs width and coupling information unavailable in on-shell rate measurements. These measurements ...

  1. Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

  2. Unprocessed rice husk ash as a partial replacement of cement for low-cost concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Dorothy Kamilah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement is a very valuable commodity as it can be used to construct structurally sound buildings and infrastructure. However, in many developing countries cement is expensive due to the unavailability of local resources to ...

  3. Waterfowl population, habitat selection and diets on a large multipurpose reservoir in East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Fred Allen

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation, The major drawdowns in winter associated with this mode of operation destroy submerged vegetation and make edge vegetation unavailable because ducks will seldom cross open mudflats to feed (Wiebe 1946). Barstow (1963) reported...

  4. Achieving Superior Plant Energy Performance Utilizing Real-time Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanya, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . With the right Best Practices, however, using new methodologies and technologies unavailable only a few years ago, enterprises can achieve dramatic energy reductions and their resulting cost savings. These Best Practices are founded on 1) application of a...

  5. Development of an efficient off-grid pumping system and evaporation reduction strategies to increase access to irrigation for smallholder farmers in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorbaty, Emily

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the unavailability of electricity, about 85% of groundwater irrigation in eastern India employs fuel-powered surface pumps, which can have system efficiencies as low as 5%. As fuel prices continue to rise, impoverished ...

  6. BNL | Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) | Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Job Openings at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials The CFN Jobs List is currently unavailable. You may search for CFN positions in the Lab's job list. About CFN The...

  7. Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems (PhD thesis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajmani, Sameer

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributedsystems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in asystem at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting thesystem for an ...

  8. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.H. [comp.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  9. Economic evaluation of potential reuse of ORGDP equipment at Paducah GDP and Portsmouth GDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.C.

    1988-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The relocation of up to 36 000 and 19 00 cells of barrier to Portsmouth and Paducah can be economically justified. In addition, relocation of some compressors, control valves and other piping would be required to maximize the benefit and assure operability. Models developed to perform the analyses described herein are readily adaptable to evaluate any modifications to the economic criteria and/or cost data upon which these studies were based.

  10. Surveillance test interval optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B. [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljublijana (Slovenia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical specifications have been developed on the bases of deterministic analyses, engineering judgment, and expert opinion. This paper introduces our risk-based approach to surveillance test interval (STI) optimization. This approach consists of three main levels. The first level is the component level, which serves as a rough estimation of the optimal STI and can be calculated analytically by a differentiating equation for mean unavailability. The second and third levels give more representative results. They take into account the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculated by a personal computer (PC) based code and are based on system unavailability at the system level and on core damage frequency at the plant level.

  11. AES Southland, Inc. and Williams Energy Marketing & Trading Company, 94 FERC 61,248 (2001).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    markets power from the Alamitos and Huntington Beach plants, which AES owns, operates and maintains power to Williams from the Alamitos and Huntington Beach plants. Unit 4 at the Alamitos plant and Unit 2 with the Commission when two generation units located in Southern California were unavailable to be dispatched

  12. An assessment of subsea production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devegowda, Deepak

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and then proceeding to ensure flow for the life of the field comprises many situations where the production equipment can fail and falter or through external factors, be deemed unavailable. Some of the areas where most of the current developments in subsea production...

  13. Sensors 2013, 13, 7872-7883; doi:10.3390/s130607872 ISSN 1424-8220

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals excitation and emission wavelengths has made fluorescence a reliable proxy for phytoplankton biomass for over

  14. Activation Energies from Transition Path Sampling Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dellago, Christoph

    unavailable for processes occurring in complex systems. Since in this method activation energies diatomic immersed in a bath of repulsive soft particles. Keywords: Activation energy; Computer simulation on the transition path sampling methodology, our approach to determine activation energies does not require full

  15. Volume 8, Number 2, Fall 2011 RE S E A R C H

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , there are a lot of poor people in India. We can improve life and even save lives by providing a low cost power solu- tion for the masses in rural areas where grid power is unreliable and frequently unavailable this February between SFU, the City of Surrey and Luminous Power Technologies, a leading power solutions pro

  16. Towards an Evaluation Framework for Business Process Integration and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    is the unavailability of an evaluation frame- work which provides methods for the economic-oriented assessmentTowards an Evaluation Framework for Business Process Integration and Management Bela Mutschler is the accomplishment of economic-oriented assessments of such approaches. Currently, there exists no suitable eval

  17. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 740, pp. 16, 3 figs. Daubentonia madagascariensis. By Aleta Quinn and Don E. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayssen, Virginia

    name´E for Daubentonia . Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.´E Aye-aye Lace´pe`de, 1799:6. Unavailable name, non.1--Feistner and Sterling 1995). Despite reports that males are generally larger than females, a study of 20

  18. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling's personal copy Doped sulfone electrolytes for high voltage Li-ion cell applications Xiaoguang Sun, C. Austen unavailable as solvents for ambient temperature electrochemistry because of their high melting points

  19. Land Contamination Correction for Passive Microwave Radiometer Data: Demonstration of Wind Retrieval in the Great Lakes Using SSM/I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    Land Contamination Correction for Passive Microwave Radiometer Data: Demonstration of Wind, are typically unavailable within about 100km of any coastline. This paper presents methods of cor- recting land-contaminated radiometer data in order to extract the coastal information. The land contamination signals are estimated

  20. Efficient Deep Web Crawling Using Reinforcement Lu Jiang, Zhaohui Wu, Qian Feng, Jun Liu, Qinghua Zheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamos, Michael I.

    Efficient Deep Web Crawling Using Reinforcement Learning Lu Jiang, Zhaohui Wu, Qian Feng, Jun Liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, qhzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Abstract. Deep web refers to the hidden part of the Web that remains unavailable for standard Web crawlers. To obtain content of Deep Web is challenging and has been acknowledged

  1. Skill-based Resource Allocation using Genetic Algorithms and Ontologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, John

    to tutorials; - Budget (integer) ­ specifies the allocated salary budget per module. 2. Knowledge Sciences, University College London, U.K E-mail: nammuni@hotmail.com 2 Artificial Intelligence Applications and afternoons each week when a tutor is (un)available. · Module / Tutorials ­ defined by skill requirements

  2. TREE -RING RESEARCH, Vol. 59(2), 2003, pp. 63 -79 A MANUAL AND TUTORIAL FOR THE PROPER USE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    et al. 1999). When dead trees are unavailable, timbers from historic structures can be sampled® (made in Sweden), Suunto® (Fin- land), Mattson® (United Kingdom), and Timber- line® (China). High -quality increment borers were once manufactured in Sweden by two companies, Djos® and Sandvik ®, neither

  3. Response Submittal to the EPA Enclosure 1 1-23-6 EPA Follow-up Comment #8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the EPA Enclosure 1 2 EPA Comment 4-C-35 A review of the recent literature regarding aqueous thorium al., 2009) is the most consistent with the available data. The thorium effort because Pitzer parameters are unavailable for the thorium-hydroxycarbonate species identified

  4. Risks of using AP locations discovered through war driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kotz, David

    Risks of using AP locations discovered through war driving Minkyong Kim, Jeffrey J. Fielding the actual locations are often unavailable, they use estimated locations from war driving estimated through war driving. War driving is the process of collecting Wi-Fi beacons by driving or walking

  5. Not Quickly, Just in Time: Improving the Timeliness and Reliability of Control Traffic in Utility Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correia, Miguel

    networks, that interconnect the CI facil- ities (e.g., transformation substations). This communication company (e.g., transformation substations), but in a distributed way with systems and applications often] and unavailability may become even more frequent due to denial-of-service attacks (DoS), e.g., ex- ecuted as cyber

  6. Pandemic Flu: What To Know and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    cough or sneeze Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it Ifor sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. If a tissue is unavailable, cough or sneeze into your shoulder or elbow instead sick children at home. ­ If you have flu-like symptoms (fever with cough or sore throat), stay home

  7. CORBA-JS: An Open-Standards Framework for Distributed Object Computing over the Web Tejal B. Parulekar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    CORBA-JS: An Open-Standards Framework for Distributed Object Computing over the Web Tejal B technological limitations, DOC was traditionally unavailable in Web-based applications (i.e., stateful applications that communicate over HTTP, and are accessible via a Web browser) without the use of proprietary

  8. University of Aberdeen Information Security Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    University of Aberdeen Information Security Policy December 2007 #12;1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT IS INFORMATION SECURITY AND WHY DO WE NEED TO THINK ABOUT IT? 1.1.1 Information Security is the practice of Information Security includes: Systems being unavailable Bad publicity and embarrassment Fraud

  9. A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage systems can become unavailable due to system failures or damage to the system; in both cases, system the more specific availability studies take battlefield damage into account. This paper aims to define

  10. Between a Rock and a Soft Place: Investigating prima facie irrationality and farmers' decision-making in the cotton region of south-western Chad 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnier, Matthias

    2012-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    access to inputs and credit that are systemically unavailable via other crops. It will also show that social factors such as inedibility of cotton or applied informal peer-pressure to grow cotton form irrefutable elements of farmer’s agricultural decision...

  11. Using Seasonal Monitor Data to Assess Aviation Sherman Lo, Stanford University, Robert Wenzel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Greg Johnson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    applications such as aviation. As part of the ongoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Loran evaluation unavailable for the desired operation. As such, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Loran TechnicalUsing Seasonal Monitor Data to Assess Aviation Integrity Sherman Lo, Stanford University, Robert

  12. Mitigating Atmospheric Noise for Loran C.O. Lee Boyce Jr., Sherman C. Lo, J. David Powell, Per K. Enge, Stanford University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Administration (FAA) is charged with the task of examining potential backup systems for GPS for aviation outage and to deter potential attacks on GPS since a backup is available. The Federal Aviation. An aviation backup should allow an aircraft to land safely when GPS is unavailable. Hence, one desire

  13. Single-machine scheduling with periodic and exible periodic maintenance to minimize maximum tardiness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    periods often appear in industry due to a machine breakdown (stochastic) or preventive maintenance of machine unavailability. However, in some cases (e.g. preventive maintenance), the maintenance of a machineSingle-machine scheduling with periodic and exible periodic maintenance to minimize maximum

  14. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  15. 76 Scientific AmericAn June 2009 georgeretseck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robins, Gabriel

    , and online libraries of songs, movies, books and photo- graphs--were unavailable just a few years ago. We owe-speed communications, data processing and--perhaps most important of all but least ap- preciated--digital data storage. Each type of data storage has its Achilles' heel, however, which is why computers use several types

  16. Numerical likelihood analysis of cosmic ray anisotropies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Hojvat et al.

    2003-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical likelihood approach to the determination of cosmic ray anisotropies is presented which offers many advantages over other approaches. It allows a wide range of statistically meaningful hypotheses to be compared even when full sky coverage is unavailable, can be readily extended in order to include measurement errors, and makes maximum unbiased use of all available information.

  17. FLASH: A rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices Andres W. Martinez, Scott T. Phillips, Benjamin J. Wiley, Malancha Gupta and George M. Whitesides*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    -defined hydro- phobic barriers of photoresist (as small as 200 mm); the hydro- phobic barriers extend through and hotplate are unavailable). The method provides channels in paper with dimensions as small as 200 mm). The method is compatible with small pieces of paper (i.e., 0.5 in2 ) as well as large (8.5 in Ã? 11 in

  18. Materiel Command and the Materiality of Commands: An Historical Examination of the US Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Materiel Command and the Materiality of Commands: An Historical Examination of the US Air Force, University of Minnesota Abstract: In the late 1960s the US Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) engaged unavailable CDC documents, and documentation and an oral history from a leading external Air Force advisor

  19. Administration and Finance Financial Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Administration and Finance Financial Services P.O. Box 6808, Fullerton, CA 92834 / T 657. Jenkins Associate Vice President of Finance SUBJECT: Finance System Oracle Upgrade The CSUF Finance System is scheduled for an Oracle upgrade in September 2009. The CMS Finance System will be unavailable beginning

  20. Wake-on-WLAN Nilesh Mishra, Kameswari Chebrolu, Bhaskaran Raman, Abhinav Pathak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Bhaskaran

    is available from the grid or through solar panels [10,11]. However since power can be unavailable from the grid for several days at a stretch, and large solar panels for extended operation can be an expen- sive of Technology, Kanpur ABSTRACT In bridging the digital divide, two important criteria are cost

  1. Advanced Applications for e-ID Cards in Flanders ADAPID Deliverable D2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verbrugge, Clark

    CHUM Centre Hospitalier de lUniversit´e de Montreal CHUQ Centres Hospitaliers affili´es Universitaires Belgian Data Protection Act DRM Digital Rights Management DU Data Unavailability EBR Event Based Retention Technologies ID Identity 7 #12;IDA Information Dispersal Algorithm IDM Identity Management IOI Item Of Interest

  2. Approximations for Explanations of Inconsistency in Partially Known Multi-Context Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Michael

    of Technology Favoritenstrasse 11, A-1040 Vienna, Austria {eiter,fink,schueller}@kr.tuwien.ac.at Abstract. Multi such systems useless. In addition, it is likely that complete knowledge about all system parts is unavailable renders an MCS useless. To make bridge rules defeasible, similarly as in [5], may help to avoid inconsis

  3. Job-Scheduling with Resource Availability Prediction for Volunteer-Based Grid Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    Job-Scheduling with Resource Availability Prediction for Volunteer-Based Grid Computing Jun Zhang environment, one big challenge for effective job allocation is resource availability. As resources in this environment are volatile and may become frequently unavailable, matching guest jobs to suitable resources

  4. (Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 1996. Two companies in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on world production of primary gallium were unavailable because data on the output of the few producers62 GALLIUM (Data in kilograms of gallium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production in optoelectronic devices, which include light-emitting diodes (LED's), laser diodes, photodetectors, and solar

  5. Growth of GaN on porous SiC by molecular beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    growth of high quality GaN thin films is the unavailability suitable substrates. The lack of suitable matched between the GaN and the substrate are the lattice parameter and the coefficient of thermal to the absence of high quality, large area GaN substrates. Therefore one has to resort to the heteroepitaxial

  6. Mechanism of water oxidation by [Ru(bda)(L)?]: The return of the "blue dimer"

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Concepcion, Javier J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhong, Diane K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Szalda, David J. [Baruch College, New York, NY (United States); Muckerman, James T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fujita, Etsuko [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe here a combined solution-surface-DFT calculations study for complexes of the type [Ru(bda)(L)?] including X-ray structure of intermediates, their reactivity, as well as pH-dependent electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. These studies shed light on the mechanism of water oxidation by [Ru(bda)(L)?], revealing key features unavailable from solution studies with sacrificial oxidants.

  7. Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Multiparty Applications in the Presence of Clock Drifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsigas, Philippas

    S attack themselves. Here we study the case where the communicating parties have clocks with rate drift. The situa- tion is even worse with distributed denial of service(DDoS) attacks, where multiple compromised in order to make the service unavail- able [7]. Common methods to protect systems from DoS and DDoS attacks

  8. Abstract--This paper proposes a stochastic wind power model based on an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    of one year from the Nysted offshore wind farm in Denmark. The proposed limited-ARIMA (LARIMA) model be applied to planning of future wind farms in the power system. However, both approaches entail wind speed measurements and an accurate wind farm model, which is usually unavailable. The accurate wind farm model

  9. Centre International de Recherches sur l'Environnement et le Dveloppement ENPC & CNRS (UMR 8568) / EHESS / AGROPARISTECH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    show that when the risk that the CO2 price drops to zero and the political unavailability of a CO2 tax an additional instrument encouraging the reduction of emissions, for instance a renewable energy subsidy. Our uncertainty on energy demand and focus on instruments for emission reduction. · We analyze the economic

  10. The Effect of State Health Insurance Selection on the Pediatricral Health Benefit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orynich, Catherine Ashley

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    consumers purchasing insurance with greater protections.3,4 States chose to implement one of three types of Exchanges, depending on varying preferred levels of control. The three Exchange categories fall within a regulatory spectrum of state and federal... collection, providing answers to regulatory and plan design characteristics unavailable through public records. In each state, there was a minimum of four expert interviews conducted, including the state’s representing American Academy of Pediatric...

  11. Single domain strain relaxed PrScO3 template on miscut substrates C. M. Folkman, R. R. Das, and C. B. Eoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eom, Chang Beom

    , PrScO3, on miscut 001 SrTiO3 and 001 LaAlO3 0.3­ Sr2AlTaO3 0.7 substrates by pulsed laser deposition the performance of ox- ide devices.1­3 The lattice parameters of REScO3 substrates can be tuned with the selection of high melting temperatures.3 These unavailable REScO3's allow us to study transition temperature versus

  12. Accounting for Adsorbed gas and its effect on production bahavior of Shale Gas Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mengal, Salman Akram

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    pressures )( p by conventional well tests due to very low permeabilities. Decline curves for conventional gas, when applied on shale gas reservoirs, can not be validated by material balance due to unavailability of average reservoir pressure. However...* variable rate gas BDF including adsorbed gas exhibiting exponential decline (b = 1)................. 25 4.6 Plot of [m(pi )? m(pwf )] / qg(t) vs material balance pseudo time tca*, xii FIGURE...

  13. Spatially variable fertility in a psammentic paleustalf of western Niger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, James Bronson

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conducted to test for nutrient deficiencies, and a dramatic plant response to heavy aoplicatlon of monocalcium phosphate was obtained. Laboratory incubations and analyses bore out that ganggani soil is severely depleted in P, and has a substantial... capacity to fix applied P in forms unavailable for plant uptake. Incubations performed according to the procedure of Fox and Kamprath (1970) showed 1) sorption of solution P continues well beyond the six days expected, and 2) applications of P at a rate...

  14. A comparison of nuclear reactor control room display panels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, Frances Renae

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Evaluation Procedure 14 15 16 17 28 Analysis. 35 III RESULTS. 37 Discussion. 43 IV CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations REFERENCES 50 51 54 APPENDIX A: REACTOR OPERATOR INFORMATION PACKAGE. . . . . 57 APPENDIX B: AGN-201 STANDARD... related to human factors included poor training, inaccessibility or unavailability of pertinent information, copious amounts of unusable information and obscured displays. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. The Lack of Long Range Correlations is a Necessary Condition for a Functional Biologically Active Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Sh. Mamasakhlisov; V. F. Morozov; M. S. Shahinian

    1998-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study random heteropolymer chain with gaussian distribution of kinds of monomers. The long-range correlations between kinds of monomers were introduce. The mean-field analysis of such heteropolymer indicates the existence of infinite energetic barrier between heteropolymer random coil and frozen states. Thus, the frozen state is kinetically unavailable for the random heteropolymer with power-law correlations in monomers' sequence. The relationship between our results and some early obtained results for the DNA intrones sequences are discussed.

  16. Contributions to an Improved Oxygen and Thermal Transport Model and Development of Fatigue Analysis Software for Asphalt Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xin

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 3-1 Schematic heat transfer model of pavement .............................................. 49 3-2 Comparison of sinusoidal model calculation with measured air temperature profile... are unavailable, data can be predicted using models. Several models for this purpose had been presented in literature ( 10~13). One method ( 10) uses a heat transfer model with a surface periodic temperature boundary condition assuming that daily and annual...

  17. Comparison of quantitative and qualitative duodenal fluid versus duodenal mucosa cultures in German Shepherd Dogs with spontaneous small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delles, Edward Kevin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a combination of maldigestion, malabsorption and bacterial fermentation in the upper small intestine. ~' Bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates makes them unavailable to the host and contributes to diarrhea through the osmotic effects... of the chemical byproducts, particularly fatty acids. 3~ Anaerobic bacterial proteases destroy brush border enzymes that aid in digestion of carbohydrates in the small boweL"' Incompletely digested carbohydrates are fermented in the colon to alcohols and fatty...

  18. The effect of direct foreign investment and gross domestic investment on Indian development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Sushrut Jitendra

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    development. On the one hand, multinationals are viewed as agents of change. They provide valuable technology and resources unavailable in the developing country. They invest human and capital resources (DFI) that help local economies develop. On the other... hand, several theorists wrongly attribute the role of multinationals as increasing inequalities by retarding NIC development. These theorists contend that multinationals use their resources as a means to enhance the well-being of industrialized...

  19. The US as the “demander of last resort” and its implications on China’s current account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reserves (% of GDP) GDP per capita, PPP (thousand) Growthof GDP, PPP (annual %) Age dependency ratio Populationof GDP) GDP per capita, PPP (thousand) Growth of GDP, PPP (

  20. Globalization and Developing Countries - a Shrinking Tax Base ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VAT/GDP Seigniorage/GDP Tariff/GDP Repression/GDP Total Tax/S.D. Min Max Correlations: Taxes VAT Seign. Tariff RepressSeigniorage/GDP Tariff/GDP Repression/GDP Total Tax/GDP

  1. A Decomposition Method for Synthesizing Complex Column Configurations Using Tray-by-Tray GDP Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    , complex distillation columns, initialization, discrete decision. Abstract This paper describes on the Reversible Distillation Sequence Model (RDSM) is proposed embedding all possible alternative designs using applied mathematical programming tools to rigorously solve the distillation design problem

  2. Mutations in GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase B Cause Congenital and Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    Willer,7 Monique van Scherpenzeel,5 Steven A. Moore,8 Sonia Messina,9 Enrico Bertini,10 Carsten G. Bo or within the first few months of life. A major subgroup of CMD is associated with mutations in genes

  3. Economics Letters 60 (1998) 335341 Scaling the volatility of GDP growth rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Canning , L.A.N. Amaral , Y. Lee , M. Meyer , H.E. Stanley a Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK b links between agents. For example, in network models with interactions between neighbors (see Stanley

  4. The effects of energy policies in China on GDP, industrial output and new energy profits1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    include those involving environmental protection or financial incentives. Ever since the 1978 reform

  5. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  6. Multi-Scale Conservation in an Altered Landscape: The Case of the Endangered Arroyo Toad in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treglia, Michael Louis

    2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    and Maxie Richmond, Adam Siade, Colleen Wisinski, and Dustin Wood also became good friends during my time in California. My doctoral work would not have been possible without extensive financial support. I owe great thanks to the Applied Biodiversity.../pseudoabsence data (e.g., Hernandez et al. 2008, Senay et al. 2013). Pseudoabsences are used when true absence data are unavailable, and they are acquired by sampling locations from the study region that lack locality records (Peterson et al. 2011). In my models I...

  7. Second Line of Defense: Electronic Maintenance Reports, Local Maintenance Provider User Guide, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, Richard J.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electronic Maintenance Report forms allow Local Maintenance Providers (LMP) and other program staff to enter maintenance information into a simple and secure system. This document describes the features and information required to complete the Maintenance Report forms. It is expected that all Corrective Maintenance Reports from LMPs will be submitted electronically into the SLD Portal. As an exception (e.g., when access to the SLD Portal is unavailable), Maintenance Reports can be submitted via a secure Adobe PDF form available through the Sustainability Manager assigned to each country.

  8. Reconstructing Interaction Potentials in Thin Films from Real-Space Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gienger, Jonas; Rabe, Jürgen P; Sokolov, Igor M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that an inverse Monte Carlo approach allows to reconstruct effective interaction potentials from real-space images. The method is exemplified on monomolecular ethanol-water films imaged with scanning force microscopy (SFM), which provides the spatial distribution of the molecules. Direct Monte Carlo simulations with the reconstructed potential allow for obtaining characteristics of the system which are unavailable in the experiment, such as the heat capacity of the monomolecularly thin film, and for a prediction of the critical temperature of the demixing transition.

  9. Bus transfer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weronick, R.; Hassan, I.D. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Lyndhurst, NJ (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses bus transfer schemes and the methodology used in modeling and analysis. Due to the unavailability of generic acceptance criteria, simulations were performed to analyze the actual fast bus transfer operations at four operating nuclear power generating stations. Sample simulation results illustrating the transient variations in motors currents and torques are included. The analyses were performed to ensure that motors and other rotating parts are not subjected to excessive or accumulated stresses caused by bus transfer operations. A summary of the experience gained in the process of performing this work and suggested bus transfer acceptance criteria are also presented.

  10. Cs2Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun) is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs2Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  11. Mutable Detector Array Software for the Detection of Gamma Emissions in Classrooms and the Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hearn, Gentry Charles

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Tainer, that provides such a function[9, 10], the data regarding background, minimum detectible activity, and common operating events is unavailable in published literature. The VeriTainer system is based on an array of eight sodium iodide radiation detectors built... in the radiation background. The advantages of multiple detectors are many.[1] 1 The digiBASE-E from ORTEC (Figure 1) is a relatively new piece of hardware that encapsulates many of the electronic devices used to receive and interpret signal from a radiation...

  12. Engineering study - installation of new risers in Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magruder, W.J.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling program is being developed to characterize the 149 underground SSTs on the Hanford Site. The sampling effort will require access to the tank interior in a minimum of two locations per tank. Some of the risers suitable for sampling are either unavailable or are not in locations for proper characterization of the tank contents. Additional risers will be required in the SSTs to support the tank characterization sampling program. The purpose of this engineering study is to review alternatives for installation of new riser in the SSTs.

  13. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  14. A comparison of an analytical and two electric analogy methods of hydraulic flow analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Joe Douglas

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in available energy, The heat, Q, entering or leaving the system is also a loss of available mechanical energy from the system. Defining K , the increase in unavailable energy, as follows, EL-- (u2-ul) -Q, the energy balance now becomes V 2 V 2 Pl P2...=AV where Q is the volumetric rate of flow, and A is the cross sec- tional area of the pipe, Hence, A 2 x D Substituting this value of V, the following results. ~6. ) ~ ~. g), Defining k in the following manner ~6?(g(u) the relationship between...

  15. Azygos Tip Placement for Hemodialysis Catheters in Patients with Superior Vena Cava Occlusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Jeffrey J.; Kinney, Thomas B. [University of California, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: tbkinney@ucsd.edu

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chronic central venous access is necessary for numerous life-saving therapies. Repeated access is complicated by thrombosis and occlusion of the major veins, such as the superior vena cava (SVC), which then require novel vascular approaches if therapy is to be continued. We present two cases of catheterization of the azygos system in the presence of an SVC obstruction. We conclude that the azygos vein may be used for long-term vascular access when other conduits are unavailable and that imaging studies such as magnetic resonance venography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or conventional venography can be employed prior to the procedure to aid with planning and prevent unforeseen complications.

  16. VM-based infrastructure for simulating different cluster and storage solutions used on ATLAS tier3 sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KUTOUSKI, M; The ATLAS collaboration; PETROSYAN, A; KADOCHNIKOV, I; BELOV, S; KORENKOV, V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment on Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data every year. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centres to be able to operate such large volume of data. With the formation of small computing centres, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier3 sites. The experiment supplies all necessary software to operate typical Grid-site, but Tier3 sites do not support Grid services of the experiment or support them partially. Tier3 centres comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, thus, monitoring of storage and analysis software used on Tier2 sites becomes unavailable for Tier3 site system administrator and, also, Tier3 sites activity becomes unavailable for virtual organization of the experiment. In this paper we present ATLAS off-Grid sites monitoring software suite, which enables monitoring on sites, which are not unde...

  17. ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier 3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PETROSYAN, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BELOV, S; ANDREEVA, J; KADOCHNIKOV, I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment on Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data every year. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centres to be able to operate such large volume of data. With the formation of small computing centres, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier3 sites. The experiment supplies all necessary software to operate typical Grid-site, but Tier3 sites do not support Grid services of the experiment or support them partially. Tier3 centres comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, thus, monitoring of storage and analysis software used on Tier2 sites becomes unavailable for Tier3 site system administrator and, also, Tier3 sites activity becomes unavailable for virtual organization of the experiment. In this paper we present ATLAS off-Grid sites monitoring software suite, which enables monitoring on sites, which are not unde...

  18. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  19. Remote creation of a one-qubit mixed state through a short homogeneous spin-1/2 chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. I. Zenchuk

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a method of remote mixed state creation of a one-qubit subsystem (receiver) in a spin-1/2 chain governed by the nearest-neighbor $XY$-Hamiltonian. Owing to the evolution of the chain along with the variable local unitary transformation of the one- or two-qubit sender, a large variety of receiver states can be created during some time interval starting with a fixed initial state of the whole quantum system. These states form the creatable region of the receiver's state-space. It is remarkable that, having the two-qubit sender, a large creatable region may be covered at a properly fixed time instant $t_0$ using just the variable local unitary transformation of the sender. In this case we have completely local control of the remote state creation. In general, for a given initial state, there are such receiver's states that may not be created using the above tool. These states form the unavailable region. In turn, this unavailable region might be the creatable region of another sender. Thus, in future, we have a way to share the whole receiver's state-space among the creatable regions of several senders. The effectiveness of remote state creation is characterized by the density function of the creatable region.

  20. TAUOVERSUPERMON: LOW-OVERHEAD ONLINE PARALLEL PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOTTILE, MATTHEW JOSEPH [Los Alamos National Laboratory; NATARAJ, AROON [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MALONY, ALLEN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MORRIS, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SHENDE, SAMEER [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Online or Real-time application performance monitoring allows tracking performance characteristics during execution as opposed to doing so post-mortem. This opens up several possibilities otherwise unavailable such as real-time visualization and application performance steering that can be useful in the context of long-running applications. Two fundamental components that constitute such a performance monitor are the measurement and transport systems. The former captures performance metrics of individual contexts (processes, threads). The latter enables querying the parallel/distributed state from the different contexts and also allows measurement control. As HPC systems grow in size and complexity, the key challenge is to keep the online performance monitor scalable and low overhead while still providing a useful performance reporting capability. We adapt and combine two existing, mature systems - Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) and Supermon - to address this problem. Tau performs the measurement while Supermon is used to collect the distributed measurement state. Our experiments show that this novel approach of using a cluster-monitor, Supermon, as the transport for online performance data from Tau leads to very low-overhead application monitoring as well as other beneits unavailable from using a traditional transport such as NFS.

  1. The structure of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3-dehydratase: A unique coenzyme B6-dependent enzyme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, Hazel

    such as Escherichia coli and in marine bacteria such as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis. The focus of this investigation from the O-antigens of Gram- negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (Edstrom and Heath 1965-ray structure of this enzyme isolated from E. coli Strain 5a, type O55:H7. The two subunits of the protein form

  2. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-STORM 100 Storage Modules at Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal analysis is being undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of inspections of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States, as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development. This report documents pre-inspection predictions of temperatures for two modules at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI identified as candidates for inspection. These are HI-STORM 100 modules of a site-specific design for storing PWR 17x17 fuel in MPC-32 canisters. The temperature predictions reported in this document were obtained with detailed COBRA-SFS models of these storage systems, with the following boundary conditions and assumptions. • storage module overpack configuration based on FSAR documentation of HI-STORM100S-218, Version B; due to unavailability of site-specific design data for Diablo Canyon ISFSI modules • Individual assembly and total decay heat loadings for each canister, based on at-loading values provided by PG&E, “aged” to time of inspection using ORIGEN modeling o Special Note: there is an inherent conservatism of unquantified magnitude – informally estimated as up to approximately 20% -- in the utility-supplied values for at-loading assembly decay heat values • Axial decay heat distributions based on a bounding generic profile for PWR fuel. • Axial location of beginning of fuel assumed same as WE 17x17 OFA fuel, due to unavailability of specific data for WE17x17 STD and WE 17x17 Vantage 5 fuel designs • Ambient conditions of still air at 50°F (10°C) assumed for base-case evaluations o Wind conditions at the Diablo Canyon site are unquantified, due to unavailability of site meteorological data o additional still-air evaluations performed at 70°F (21°C), 60°F (16°C), and 40°F (4°C), to cover a range of possible conditions at the time of the inspection. (Calculations were also performed at 80°F (27°C), for comparison with design basis assumptions.) All calculations are for steady-state conditions, on the assumption that the surfaces of the module that are accessible for temperature measurements during the inspection will tend to follow ambient temperature changes relatively closely. Comparisons to the results of the inspections, and post-inspection evaluations of temperature measurements obtained in the specific modules, will be documented in a separate follow-on report, to be issued in a timely manner after the inspection has been performed.

  3. Universal Higher Order Grammar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gluzberg, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the class of languages that can be defined entirely in terms of provability in an extension of the sorted type theory (Ty_n) by embedding the logic of phonologies, without introduction of special types for syntactic entities. This class is proven to precisely coincide with the class of logically closed languages that may be thought of as functions from expressions to sets of logically equivalent Ty_n terms. For a specific sub-class of logically closed languages that are described by finite sets of rules or rule schemata, we find effective procedures for building a compact Ty_n representation, involving a finite number of axioms or axiom schemata. The proposed formalism is characterized by some useful features unavailable in a two-component architecture of a language model. A further specialization and extension of the formalism with a context type enable effective account of intensional and dynamic semantics.

  4. Reconfigureable network node

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderveen, Keith B. (Tracy, CA); Talbot, Edward B. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Laurence E. (Davis, CA)

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  5. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO[sub 3]/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  6. Predicting viscosities of aqueous salt mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M.R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity plays an important role in quantifying heat and mass transfer rates as depicted in theoretical and semi-empirical correlations. In practical problems where extreme temperatures and solute concentrations are encountered, viscosity data is usually unavailable. At these conditions, no dependable correlation appears to exist in the literature. This paper uses the hole type model to predict the viscosity of aqueous electrolytes containing single and mixed salts up to the molten salt regime. This model needs two parameters which can be evaluated from sparse data. For LiBr/water and (Li, K, na) NO{sub 3}/water mixtures, it is shown that the agreement between predicted and experimental values is very good over wide temperature and concentration ranges. The deviation between these two values was found to be less than 9%.

  7. RELAP5 posttest calculation of IAEA-SPE-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Parzer, I.; Prosek, A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (IAEA-SPE-4) was performed at the PMK-2 facility. The PMK-2 facility is designed to study processes following small- and medium-size breaks in the primary system and natural circulation in VVER-440 plants. The IAEA-SPE-4 experiment represents a cold-leg side small break, similar to the IAEA-SPE-2, with the exception of the high-pressure safety injection being unavailable, and the secondary side bleed and feed initiation. The break valve was located at the dead end of a vertical downcomer, which in fact simulates a break in the reactor vessel itself, and should be unlikely to happen in a real nuclear power plant (NPP). Three different RELAP5 code versions were used for the transient simulation in order to assess the calculations with test results.

  8. Systematic studies of molecular vibrational anharmonicity and vibration-rotation interaction by self-consistent-field higher derivative methods: Applications to asymmetric and symmetric top and linear polyatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clabo, D.A. Jr.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusion of the anharmonicity normal mode vibrations (i.e., the third and fourth (and higher) derivatives of a molecular Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface) is necessary in order to theoretically reproduce experimental fundamental vibrational frequencies of a molecule. Although ab initio determinations of harmonic vibrational frequencies may give errors of only a few percent by the inclusion of electron correlation within a large basis set for small molecules, in general, molecular fundamental vibrational frequencies are more often available from high resolution vibration-rotation spectra. Recently developed analytic third derivatives methods for self-consistent-field (SCF) wavefunctions have made it possible to examine with previously unavailable accuracy and computational efficiency the anharmonic force fields of small molecules.

  9. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-17, Ookayama, Meguro-ku 152-8550 (Japan)

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and {sup 208}Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  10. Modeling and analysis of thermal-hydraulic response of uranium- aluminum reactor fuel plates under transient heatup conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.; Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkhan, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fuketa, T.; Soyama, Kk.; Ishijima, K.; Kodaira, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 3-D model to predict the thermal behavior of ANS (Advanced Neutron Source) fuel miniplates has been developed. Possibility of explosive boiling was considered, and it was concluded that the heating rates (existant in NSRR tests) are not large enough for this to occur. However, transient boiling effects were pronounced. Because of the complexity of transient pool boiling and the unavailability of experimental data for the situations studied, an approximation was made that predicted the data very well within the uncertainties present. If pool boiling from the miniplates had been assumed to be steady during the heating pulse, the experimental data would have been greatly overestimated. This shows the importance of considering the transient nature of heat transfer in analysis of reactivity excursion accidents. An additional contribution of this work is that it provided data on highly subcooled steady nucleate boiling from the cooling portion of the thermocouple traces.

  11. Use of fiber optics and laser-induced fluorescence for remote measurements of UF/sub 6/ in strong rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Magnuson, D.W.; Cates, M.R.; Gentry, R.A.; Caldwell, S.E.; Franks, L.A.; Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and other laser-based techniques are being employed in an increasing number of gas and flow field diagnostic applications. In some instances, the necessary instrumentation requires unavailable space and is not portable. Sometimes the process region of interest is relatively inaccessible. These factors complicate and hinder deployment of laser diagnostic techniques. A fiber optics based method for delivering the laser and for returning optical signals can be used to circumvent these problems. Reported here is a demonstration of a fiber optics system for remote monitoring of UF/sub 6/ density and temperature by the LIF method. The description consists of a discussion of a fiber system that conveys the laser beam to the points of interest and a fiber system which transmits the LIF signal to a photomultiplier tube. Representative results from a static gas cell and a centrifuge are presented.

  12. Characterization of liquefied natural gas tanker steel from cryogenic to fire temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dempsey, J. Franklin (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wellman, Gerald William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antoun, Bonnie R.; Connelly, Kevin; Kalan, Robert J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased demand for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel source in the U.S. has prompted a study to improve our capability to predict cascading damage to LNG tankers from cryogenic spills and subsequent fire. To support this large modeling and simulation effort, a suite of experiments were conducted on two tanker steels, ABS Grade A steel and ABS Grade EH steel. A thorough and complete understanding of the mechanical behavior of the tanker steels was developed that was heretofore unavailable for the span of temperatures of interest encompassing cryogenic to fire temperatures. This was accomplished by conducting several types of experiments, including tension, notched tension and Charpy impact tests at fourteen temperatures over the range of -191 C to 800 C. Several custom fixtures and special techniques were developed for testing at the various temperatures. The experimental techniques developed and the resulting data will be presented, along with a complete description of the material behavior over the temperature span.

  13. Common-Cause Failure Analysis in Event Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana L. Kelly; Dale M. Rasmuson

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the approach taken by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the treatment of common-cause failure in probabilistic risk assessment of operational events. The approach is based upon the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, and examples are illustrated using the alpha-factor parameterization, the approach adopted by the NRC in their Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models. The cases of a failed component (with and without shared common-cause failure potential) and a component being unavailable due to preventive maintenance or testing are addressed. The treatment of two related failure modes (e.g., failure to start and failure to run) is a new feature of this paper. These methods are being applied by the NRC in assessing the risk significance of operational events for the Significance Determination Process (SDP) and the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program.

  14. Evaluation of station blackout accidents at nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to unresolved safety issue A-44: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the fequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite AC power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of AC power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without AC power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events.

  15. Effect of nonuniform inlet air flow on air-cooled heat-exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soler, A.I.; Singh, K.P.; Ng, T.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blowers used to propel air across tube bundles generate a non-uniform flow field due to their construction details. A formalism to evaluate heat transfer degradation due to non-uniform airflow has been developed. Certain symmetry relations for cross flowheat exchangers, heretofore unavailable in the open literature, have been derived. The solution presented here was developed to model a 4 tube pass air blast heat exchanger for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project. This case is utilized to show how this method can be used as a design tool to select the most suitable blower construction for a particular application. A numerical example is used to illustrate the salient points of the solution.

  16. aMCfast: automation of fast NLO computations for PDF fits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerio Bertone; Rikkert Frederix; Stefano Frixione; Juan Rojo; Mark Sutton

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the interface between MadGraph5_aMC@NLO, a self-contained program that calculates cross sections up to next-to-leading order accuracy in an automated manner, and APPLgrid, a code that parametrises such cross sections in the form of look-up tables which can be used for the fast computations needed in the context of PDF fits. The main characteristic of this interface, which we dub aMCfast, is its being fully automated as well, which removes the need to extract manually the process-specific information for additional physics processes, as is the case with other matrix element calculators, and renders it straightforward to include any new process in the PDF fits. We demonstrate this by studying several cases which are easily measured at the LHC, have a good constraining power on PDFs, and some of which were previously unavailable in the form of a fast interface.

  17. Second Law Comparisons of Volumetric and Flame Combustion in an Ideal Engine with Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We summarize the results of a theoretical second law (exergy) analysis of an idealized internal combustion engine operating in flame versus volumetric (e.g., HCCI-like) combustion modes. We also consider the impact of exhaust heat recovery. Our primary objective is to better understand the fundamental differences (if any) in thermodynamic irreversibility among these different combustion modes and the resulting impact on engine work output. By combustion irreversibility, we mean that portion of the fuel energy that becomes unavailable for producing useful work due to entropy generation in the combustion process, exclusive of all other heat and friction losses. A key question is whether or not volumetric combustion offers any significant irreversibility advantage over conventional flame combustion. Another key issue is how exhaust heat recovery would be expected to change the net work output of an ideal piston engine. Based on these results, we recommend specific research directions for improving the fuel efficiency of advanced engines.

  18. Bent-housing turbodrills improve hard-formation directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koot, L.; Koole, K. (Shell U.K. Exploration and Production, Lowestoft (United Kingdom)); Gaynor, T. (Neyrfor-Weir Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in the design of turbine-powered downhole motors allowed steerable drilling in a hard formation at a high rate of penetration (ROP). Drilling in this dolomite formation with the rotary or with positive-displacement motors (PDMs) was slow during steering operations. Shell's solution to the steering penetration rate problems was to change the well plans if suitable directional drilling tools weren't available. Where possible, the wells were designed with the Zechstein interval drilled as a tangent section with non-steerable turbodrills. However, a better solution was the use of a steerable turbodrill-a tool unavailable on the market at that time. The paper describes motor development, a field test, and the design and operation of the motor.

  19. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pfitzner, Rene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  20. Theoretical studies of the atomic transitions in boron-like ions: Mg VIII, Si X and S XII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. S. Nataraj; B. K. Sahoo; B. P. Das; R. K. Chaudhuri; D. Mukherjee

    2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have carried out the calculations of the weighted oscillator strengths and the transition probabilities for a few low-lying transitions of boron-like ions: Mg VIII, Si X and S XII which are astrophysically important, particularly, in the atmospheres of the solar corona. We have employed an all-order relativistic many-body theory called the relativistic coupled-cluster theory to calculate very precisely these atomic quantities of astrophysical interest. We have reported for the first time the transition probabilities for some forbidden transitions which are unavailable in the literature; either theoretically or experimentally. We also discuss the physical effects associated with these transitions. Our data can be used for the identification of spectral lines arising from the coronal atmospheres of Sun and Sun-like stars having an extended corona.

  1. Secure password-based authenticated key exchange for web services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Fang; Meder, Samuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Siebenlist, Frank

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses an implementation of an authenticated key-exchange method rendered on message primitives defined in the WS-Trust and WS-SecureConversation specifications. This IEEE-specified cryptographic method (AuthA) is proven-secure for password-based authentication and key exchange, while the WS-Trust and WS-Secure Conversation are emerging Web Services Security specifications that extend the WS-Security specification. A prototype of the presented protocol is integrated in the WSRF-compliant Globus Toolkit V4. Further hardening of the implementation is expected to result in a version that will be shipped with future Globus Toolkit releases. This could help to address the current unavailability of decent shared-secret-based authentication options in the Web Services and Grid world. Future work will be to integrate One-Time-Password (OTP) features in the authentication protocol.

  2. Changing nature of equipment and parts qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucci, R.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ideally, the original supplier of a piece of nuclear safety-related equipment has performed a qualification program and will continue to support that equipment throughout the lifetime of the nuclear power plants in which in equipment is installed. The supplier's nuclear quality assurance program will be maintained and he will continue to offer all necessary replacement parts. These parts will be identical to the original parts, certified to the original purchase order requirements, and the parts will be offered at competitive prices. Due to the changing nature of the nuclear plant equipment market, however, one or more of those ideal features are frequently unavailable when safety-related replacement equipment or parts are required. Thus, the process of equipment and parts qualification has had to adjust in order to ensure obtaining qualified replacements when needed. This paper presents some new directions taken in the qualification of replacement equipment and parts to meet changes in the marketplace.

  3. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridges, Robert A [ORNL] [ORNL; Jones, Corinne L [ORNL] [ORNL; Iannacone, Michael D [ORNL] [ORNL; Testa, Kelly M [ORNL] [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  4. System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiles, David C. (Ames, IA); Sipahi, Levent B. (Ames, IA)

    1994-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

  5. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  6. Optimizing Center Performance through Coordinated Data Staging, Scheduling and Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Wang, Chao [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Ma, Xiaosong [ORNL; Pike, Gregory [ORNL; Cobb, John W [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Procurement and optimized utilization of Petascale supercomputers and centers is a renewed national priority. Sustained performance and availability of such large centers is a key technical challenge significantly impacting their usability. As recent research shows, storage systems can be a primary fault source leading to unavailability of even today's supercomputer. Due to data unavailability, jobs are frequently resubmitted resulting in reduced compute center performance as well as in a lack of coordination between I/O activities and job scheduling. In this work, we explore two mechanisms, namely the coordination of job scheduling and data staging/offloading and on-demand job input data reconstruction to address the availability of job input/output data and to improve center-wide performance. Fundamental to both mechanisms is the efficient management of transient data: in the way it is scheduled and recovered. Collectively, from a center standpoint, these techniques optimize resource usage and increase its data/service availability. From a user job standpoint, they reduce job turnaround time and optimize the usage of allocated time. We have implemented our approaches within commonly used supercomputer software tools such as the PBS scheduler and the Lustre parallel file system. We have gathered reconstruction data from a production supercomputer environment using multiple data sources. We conducted simulations based on the measured data recovery performance, the job traces and staged data logs from leadership-class supercomputer centers. Our results indicate that the average waiting time of jobs is reduced. This trend increases significantly for larger jobs and also as data is striped over more I/O nodes.

  7. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gce/kWh) in 2020 Installed capacity of wind, solar, andto 307 (gce/kWh) in Installed capacity of wind, solar, andnuclear power) in total installed capacity under E3 in 2020,

  8. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring theand improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring thethe coal share of total electricity generation will drop to

  9. A Spectral Analysis of World GDP Dynamics: Kondratieff Waves, Kuznets Swings, Juglar and Kitchin Cycles in Global Economic Development, and the 2008–2009 Economic Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korotayev, Andrey V; Tsirel, Sergey V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Significance of Kuznets Cycles. Economic Development andUniversity Press. Kuznets S. 1930. Secular Movements inSchumpeter and Kuznets: Trend Periods Revisited. Journal of

  10. A Structural Study of GDP-4-Keto-6-Deoxy-D-Mannose-3-Dehydratase: Caught in the Act of Geminal Diamine Formation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, Hazel

    such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Vibrio cholerae, among others-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (6), Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (7), Salmonella enterica (8), Vibrio cholerae (9), and in marine bacteria such as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis (9) and Pseudoalteromonas

  11. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of space heating and cooling technologies can also result intechnologies like OLED TVs, LED lighting and efficient heating andTechnology E3 Total Lighting Savings Cooking Savings Space Heating

  12. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation Growth Demand Side Management Industrial Sectortechnology and demand side management. For electricity

  13. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heater Residential CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) 2020 ResidentialEnergy Industrial Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) IndustrialFigure 5. Power Sector CO2 Emissions by Scenario E3 Max Tech

  14. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2) % of Installed Capacity Decarbonization (Fuel Switching) & Coal Tech Switching Demand Reduction

  15. Behavioral Aspects in Simulating the Future US Building Energy Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forecast of floorspace is driven by GDP GDP and Population Population. Accurately representing the elasticities of Natural gas

  16. Trade Productivity Upgrading, Trade Fragmentation, and FDI in Manufacturing: The Asian Development Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar; Mora, Jesse

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Tables Figure II.1: PPP Converted GDP per capita, 1984-per capita (see Figure II.1). PPP converted GDP per capitaexceed $100,000 per year. The PPP adjusted GDP per capita

  17. Immigration Control in the Age of Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Tak Kei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the average GDP per capita (PPP) was $41,330. The averagethe average GDP per capita ( PPP) was $32,441. The averagethe average GDP per capita (PPP) was $33,750. The average

  18. Fact #564: March 30, 2009 Transportation and the Gross Domestic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2007 is related to transportation. Housing, health care, and food are the only categories with greater shares of the GDP. GDP by...

  19. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity, 2005-06 8India's GDP, with 54% in 2005-06 (MOSPI, 2007b) and is alsoby Economic Activity, 2005-06 GDP Share AAGR (billion of GDP

  20. The dollars and sense of cofiring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demeter, C.P.; Lindsey, C.A.; Coemr, K.S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous power producers are actively pursuing the cofiring of multiple fuels at boiler installations, and for several reasons: (1) Cofiring provides fuel flexibility--if one fuel is unavailable or less economic, a power plant manager has an alternative; (2) Cofiring can be accomplished with minimal permitting changes--often existing permits at an existing site require only minor modification; (3) Minimal capital outlay is needed--this a real benefit if financial resources are being allocated elsewhere; (4) Cofiring can use a renewable or a ``green'' energy fuel, which may qualify for a green price premium or satisfy a renewable set-aside provision; (5) Operational cost reductions--sometimes the alternative cofiring fuel can be obtained at lower cost, helping to minimize fuel O and M cost and perhaps contributing to increased unit dispatch; (6) Cofiring can often solve a customer's problem with waste disposal. This paper will discuss these values and quantify their benefit to a power plant using an example unit. The paper will show how in the restructured market environment, the power plant manager can make ``dollars and sense'' of cofiring. The paper concludes that cofiring can help the bottom line in the short term and establish the groundwork for new technology improvements such as repowering and gasification.

  1. Combustion-Assisted CO2 Capture Using MECC Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Steven R [ORNL; Gray, Dr. Joshua R. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Huang, Dr. Kevin [University of South Carolina, Columbia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO2 from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO2 capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO2 driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO2 in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO2 product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO2 capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE s goal that deployment of a CO2 capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  2. Infrared Emission from Interstellar Dust. I. Stochastic Heating of Small Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. T. Draine; Aigen Li

    2000-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for calculating the infrared emission from a population of dust grains heated by starlight, including very small grains for which stochastic heating by starlight photons results in high temperature transients. Because state-to-state transition rates are generally unavailable for complex molecules, we consider model PAH, graphitic, and silicate grains with realistic vibrational mode spectra and realistic radiative properties. The vibrational density of states is used in a statistical-mechanical description of the emission process. Unlike previous treatments, our approach fully incorporates multiphoton heating effects, important for large grains or strong radiation fields. We discuss how the "temperature" of the grain is related to its vibrational energy. By comparing with an "exact" statistical calculation of the emission process, we determine the conditions under which the "thermal" and the "continuous cooling" approximations can be used to calculate the emission spectrum. We present results for the infrared emission spectra of PAH grains of various sizes heated by starlight. We show how the relative strengths of the 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3um features depend on grain size, starlight spectrum and intensity, and grain charging conditions. We show results for grains in the "cold neutral medium", "warm ionized medium", and representative conditions in photodissociation regions. Our model results are compared to observed ratios of emission features for reflection nebulae and photodissociation regions, the Milky Way, normal spiral galaxies, and starburst galaxies.

  3. Using a complete spectroscopic survey to find red quasars and test the KX method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell J. Jurek; Michael J. Drinkwater; Paul J. Francis; Kevin A. Pimbblet

    2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an investigation of quasar colour-redshift parameter space in order to search for radio-quiet red quasars and to test the ability of a variant of the KX quasar selection method to detect quasars over a full range of colour without bias. This is achieved by combining IRIS2 imaging with the complete Fornax Cluster Spectroscopic Survey to probe parameter space unavailable to other surveys. We construct a new sample of 69 quasars with measured bJ - K colours. We show that the colour distribution of these quasars is significantly different from that of the Large Bright Quasar Survey's quasars at a 99.9% confidence level. We find 11 of our sample of 69 quasars have signifcantly red colours (bJ - K >= 3.5) and from this, we estimate the red quasar fraction of the K KX method variant used here is more effective than the UVX selection method, and has less colour bias than optical colour-colour selection methods.

  4. Interfacial Modification of Silica Surfaces Through gamma-Isocyanatopropyl Triethoxy Silane-Amine Coupling Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel,B.; DeLongchamp, D.; Mahoney, C.; Lucas, L.; Fischer, D.; Lin, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of robust, cost-effective methods to modify surfaces and interfaces without the specialized synthesis of unique coupling agents could provide readily accessible routes to optimize and tailor interfacial properties. We demonstrate that -isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane (ISO) provides a convenient route to functionalize silica surfaces through coupling reactions with readily available reagents. ISO coupling agents layers (CALs) can be prepared from toluene with triethylamine (TEA), but the coupling reaction of an amine to the ISO CAL does not proceed. We use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and sessile drop contact angle to demonstrate the isocyanate layer is not degraded under coupling conditions. Access to silanes with chemical functionality is possible with ISO by performing the coupling reaction in solution and then depositing the product onto the surface. Two model CAL surfaces are prepared to demonstrate the ease and robust nature of this procedure. The surfaces prepared using this method are the ISO reacted with octadecylamine to produce a hydrocarbon surface of similar quality to octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) CALs and with 9-aminofluorene (AFL), an aromatic amine functionality whose silane is otherwise unavailable commercially.

  5. Monitoring MWD torque improved pdc bit penetration rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koskie, E.T. Jr. (Diamant Boart, Stratabit, Houston, TX (US)); Slagel, P. (Anadrill Schlumberger, New Orleans, LA (US)); Lesso, W. Jr. (Anadrill Schlumberger, Sugar Land, TX (US))

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement while drilling tools were used to monitor and adjust downhole torque, which resulted in faster drilling and longer bit life. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have changed drilling strategies in the sand shale sequences of the Gulf of Mexico, increasing both rate of penetration and bit run lengths, and decreasing drilling costs, particularly in directional wells. While these important results have been achieved using the best drilling information available, little attention has been paid to downhole operating conditions since this information was unavailable during realtime drilling operations. In an effort to learn what benefits could be realized through applying MWD drilling technology to directional drilling with PDC bits, Tenneco teamed up with Anadrill Schlumberger for MWD downhole drilling measurements, and Diamant Boart Stratabit with their PD-11 series bits, to see what could be gained by the close cooperation of these three parties in drilling a typical offshore well. The result was a well drilled on target and under budget, and a new record bit run.

  6. Extending RISMC Capabilities for Real-Time Diagnostics and Prognostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    curtis smith; Mandelli, Diego

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quick and effective accident management is essential in any industry in order to limit and contain possible threats to both people and environment/assets. This is in particular relevant in the nuclear industry where accidents may have major impacts from an economic, health and societal point of view. As an example, the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident highlighted the importance of the ability of plant operators and plant staff to react quickly and effectively in accident conditions. This particular event showed the importance of being able to: • Determine/estimate the actual status of the plant (i.e., diagnosis) when the monitoring system is corrupted or partially unavailable, and, • Forecast its future evolution (i.e., prognosis). In this paper we want to describe a research direction geared toward the development of a new set of advanced diagnosis and prognosis tools. We employ innovative data mining and machine learning techniques that are able to infer plant status and mimic the plant’s full temporal behavior in order to assist the reactor operators during an accident scenario.

  7. Using a Balun Transformer Combiner for High Power Microwave Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, Michael C [ORNL; Pesavento, Philip V [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel coaxial power combiner design has been duplicated that has distinct advantages over other combiner geometries that can handle high power. This design is being applied to combine four 3 kW power supplies to obtain a 10 kW, 5 MHz system for an ICRF antenna on HSX. In the past, Wilkinson type combiners have had limited application to high power systems because of the lack of non-inductive, high power, 100 Omega balance loads. With this new design, standard 50 Omega dummy loads can be used instead for the balance load. The cost is considerably lower than lumped element combiner designs which are dominated by capacitor costs. At such a relatively low frequency, a 3-dB quarter-wave coupled-line coupler becomes impractically long, and a conventional branch-line hybrid requires 35 Omega-line, which is commercially unavailable. The balun combiner uses less transmission line than a ring hybrid and has good bandwidth characteristics even away from its best line impedance. Theoretical calculations and modeling were performed for line impedances from 65 Omega to 75 Omega. Measurements from a low-power test device show excellent agreement with theory, and construction of the high power system is underway.

  8. Geologic Analysis of Priority Basins for Exploration and Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, H.B.; Reeves, T.K.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a substantial decline in both exploratory drilling and seismic field crew activity in the United States over the last 10 years, due primarily to the declining price of oil. To reverse this trend and to preserve the entrepreneurial independent operator, the U.S. DOE is attempting to encourage hydrocarbon exploration activities in some of the under exploited regions of the United States. This goal is being accomplished by conducting broad regional reviews of potentially prospective areas within the lower 48 states. Data are being collected on selected areas, and studies are being done on a regional scale generally unavailable to the smaller independent. The results of this work will be made available to the public to encourage the undertaking of operations in areas which have been overlooked until this project. Fifteen criteria have been developed for the selection of study areas. Eight regions have been identified where regional geologic analysis will be performed. This report discusses preliminary findings concerning the geology, early tectonic history, structure and potential unconventional source rocks for the Black Mesa basin and South Central states region, the two highest priority study areas.

  9. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staph, H.E.; Staudt, J.J.

    1982-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    If diesel fuel becomes unavailable for any reason, can diesel powered farm equipment function on alternate fuels from energy crops that are available on the farm. This project sought to gain some insight into this question through the use of once-refined cottonseed oil as fuel in a typical unmodified agricultural diesel engine. The engine used for test was an International Harvester Model DT-436B 6 cylinder, inline, direct injection, turbocharged engine of approximately 175 brake horsepower at 2500 rpm. The engine was run on a stationary stand using blends of reference diesel fuel (DF-2), once-refined cottonseed oil (CSO), and transesterified cottonseed oil (ESCO). The latter is cottonseed oil which has been processed to give a methyl ester instead of a glyceride. The volume percent blends of fuels used in the tests ranged from 100% DF-2, to 20/80 DF-2/CSO, 50/50 DF-2/ESCO, 50/50 CSO/ESCO, and 100% ESCO. The test procedures and results are presented in this volume. The results suggest that ESCO would probably be a satisfactory substitute for diesel fuel, but more testing is required. None of the fuels tested is a cost effective alternative to diesel fuels. ESCO presently costs four to five times as much as commercial diesel fuel.

  10. Challenges in defining a radiologic and hydrologic source term for underground nuclear test centers, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compilation of a radionuclide inventory for long-lived radioactive contaminants residual from nuclear testing provides a partial measure of the radiologic source term at the Nevada Test Site. The radiologic source term also includes potentially mobile short-lived radionuclides excluded from the inventory. The radiologic source term for tritium is known with accuracy and is equivalent to the hydrologic source term within the saturated zone. Definition of the total hydrologic source term for fission and activation products that have high activities for decades following underground testing involves knowledge and assumptions which are presently unavailable. Systematic investigation of the behavior of fission products, activation products and actinides under saturated or Partially saturated conditions is imperative to define a representative total hydrologic source term. This is particularly important given the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides within testing centers. Data quality objectives which emphasize a combination of measurements and credible estimates of the hydrologic source term are a priority for near-field investigations at the Nevada Test Site.

  11. Binary and recycled pulsars: 30 years after observational discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G S Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2006-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Binary radio pulsars, first discovered by Hulse and Taylor in 1974 [1], are a unique tool for experimentally testing general relativity (GR), whose validity has been confirmed with a precision unavailable in laboratory experiments. In particular, indirect evidence of the existence of gravitational waves has been obtained. Radio pulsars in binary systems (which have come to be known as recycled) have completed the accretion stage, during which neutron star spins reach millisecond periods and their magnetic fields decay 2 to 4 orders of magnitude more weakly than ordinary radio pulsars. Among about a hundred known recycled pulsars, many have turned out to be single neutron stars. The high concentration of single recycled pulsars in globular clusters suggests that close stellar encounters are highly instrumental in the loss of the companion. A system of one recycled pulsar and one 'normal' one discovered in 2004 is the most compact among binaries containing recycled pulsars [2]. Together with the presence of two pulsars in one system, this suggests new prospects for further essential improvements in testing GR. This paper considers theoretical predictions of binary pulsars, their evolutionary formation, and mechanisms by which their companions may be lost. The use of recycled pulsars in testing GR is discussed and their possible relation to the most intriguing objects in the universe, cosmic gamma-ray bursts, is examined.

  12. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  13. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  14. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  15. TBM tunnel friction values for the Grizzly Powerhouse Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutsman, R.D. [Ensign & Buckley Consulting Engineers, Larkspur, CA (United States); Rothfuss, B.D. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunnel boring machine (TBM) driven water conveyance tunnels are becoming increasingly more common. Despite advances in tunnel engineering and construction technology, hydraulic performance data for TBM driven tunnels remains relatively unavailable. At the Grizzly Powerhouse Project, the TBM driven water conveyance tunnel was designed using friction coefficients developed from a previous PG&E project. A range of coefficients were selected to bound the possible hydraulic performance variations of the water conveyance system. These friction coefficients, along with the water conveyance systems characteristics, and expected turbine characteristics, were used in a hydraulic transient analysis to determine the expected system pressure fluctuations, and surge chamber performance. During startup test data, these performance characteristics were measured to allow comparison to the original design assumptions. During construction of the tunnel, plaster casts were made of the actual excavated tunnel unlined and fiber reinforced shotcrete lined surfaces. These castings were used to measure absolute roughness of the surfaces so that a friction coefficient could be developed using the Moody diagram and compare them against the design values. This paper compares the assumed frictional coefficient with computed coefficients from headlosses measured during startup testing, and plaster cast measurement calculations. In addition, a comparison of coefficients will be presented for an other TBM driven water conveyance tunnel constructed in the 1980`s.

  16. Letter of intent: a muon to electron conversion experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, R.M.; Lynch, K.R.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; /Boston U.; Marciano, W.J.; Semertzidis, Y.; Yamin, P.; /Brookhaven; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; /UC, Berkeley; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Bernstein, R.H.; Bogert, D.; /Fermilab /Idaho State U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Moscow, INR /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MUONS Inc., Batavia /Syracuse U. /Virginia U.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are writing this letter to express our interest in pursuing an experiment at Fermilab to search for neutrinoless conversion of muons into electrons in the field of a nucleus, which is a lepton flavor-violating (LFV) reaction. The sensitivity goal of this experiment represents an improvement of more than a factor of 10,000 over existing limits. It would provide the most sensitive test of LFV, a unique and essential window on new physics unavailable at the high energy frontier. We present a conceptual scheme that would exploit the existing Fermilab Accumulator and Debuncher rings to generate the required characteristics of the primary proton beam. The proposal requires only modest modifications to the accelerator complex beyond those already planned for the NOvA experiment, with which this experiment would be fully compatible; however, it could also benefit significantly from possible upgrades such as the 'Project X' linac. We include the conceptual design of the muon beam and the experimental apparatus, which use the previously proposed MECO experiment as a starting point.

  17. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  18. Methyl viologen mediated oxidation-reduction across dihexadecylphosphate vesicles involves transmembrane diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, B.C.; Thompson, D.H.; Hurst, J.K.

    1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous reports have appeared describing oxidation-reduction across bilayer membranes. Mechanisms proposed for specific systems include the following: (i) electron tunneling across the hydrocarbon barrier between interfacially bound redox partners, (ii) molecular diffusion of bound redox components across the barrier, and (iii) formation of barrier-penetrating aggregates, or electron-conducting channels, across the bilayer. Nonetheless, the actual reaction mechanisms remain obscure due to the general unavailability of transverse diffusion rates, possible loss of compartmentation of reactants, particularly in photochemical systems, and the ambiguities inherent in deducing reaction mechanisms from rate data, which form the primary evidence in most systems studied. The reactions of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) vesicle-bound methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) describes in this report are unique in allowing deduction of molecular details of a transmembrane redox event from the product composition and microphase distribution. Specifically, they have found that MV/sup 2 +/ bound at the outer vesicle interface mediates reduction of inner-localized MV/sup 2 +/ by dithionite ion in bulk solution in a manner that requires comigration of MV/sup +/ with the electron transferred across the membrane barrier.

  19. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database : wind plant reliability benchmark.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems' ORAPWind%C2%AE (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREW's reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  20. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  1. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  2. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  3. Oxidation of PCEA nuclear graphite by low water concentrations in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Mee, Robert [University of Tennessee (UT); Wang, Peng [ORNL; Romanova, Anna V [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated oxidation tests were performed to determine kinetic parameters of the chronic oxidation reaction of PCEA graphite in contact with helium coolant containing low moisture concentrations in high temperature gas-cooled reactors. To the authors best knowledge such a study has not been done since the detailed analysis of reaction of H-451 graphite with steam [Velasquez, Hightower, Burnette, 1978]. Since that H-451 graphite is now unavailable, it is urgently needed to characterize chronic oxidation behavior of new graphite grades under qualification for gas-cooled reactors. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism of carbon oxidation by water results in a non-linear reaction rate expression, with at least six different parameters. They were determined in accelerated oxidation experiments that covered a large range of temperatures (800 to 1100 oC), and partial pressures of water (15 to 850 Pa) and hydrogen (30 to 150 Pa) and used graphite specimens thin enough (4 mm) in order to avoid diffusion effects. Data analysis employed a statistical method based on multiple likelihood estimation of parameters and simultaneous fitting of non-linear equations. The results show significant material-specific differences between graphite grades PCEA and H-451 which were attributed to microstructural dissimilarity of the two materials. It is concluded that kinetic data cannot be transferred from one graphite grade to another.

  4. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  5. CityLab, a biotechnology learning laboratory for high school teachers and students at the Boston University School of Medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franblau, C.; Phillips, C.; Zook, D. [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CityLab is a fully equipped biotechnology learning laboratory for high school students and teachers funded by the National Institutes of Health and located at the Boston University School of Medicine. The aim of CityLab is to provide access to state-of-the-art laboratory facilities and curriculum in biotechnology otherwise unavailable to most school systems. Teachers bring their classes to CityLab where they are challenged to solve problems by applying the same techniques and concepts of genetics and molecular biology. Each topic is presented in a mystery format. Some popular investigations include The Mystery of the Crooked Cell (sickle cell anemia), The Case of the Crown Jewels (DNA restrictions analysis), and Entangled in the Web (transformation). In addition to regular class visits, CityLab offers two after school enrichment activities, the Biotechnology Club and BioCity. The club provides eighty young people with the opportunity to work more extensively in the laboratory investigating topics such as genetic engineering, gene cloning, and AIDS. BioCity is a mock biotechnology company run by and for students. Since 1992, more than 2,000 high school students and 300 teachers have used CityLab.

  6. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  7. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  8. The application of Plant Reliability Data Information System (PRINS) to CANDU reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, S. W.; Lim, Y. H.; Park, H. C. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Naah-ri 260, Yangnam-myun, Gyeongju-si, Gyeong Buk (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As risk-informed applications (RIAs) are actively implanted in the nuclear industry, an issue associated with technical adequacy of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) arises in its modeling and data sourcing. In Korea, PSA for all Korean NPPs has been completed and KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Plant Company) developed the database called the Plant Reliability Data Information System (PRinS). It has several characteristics that distinguish it from other database system such as NPRDs (INPO,1994), PRIS (IAEA), and SRDF (EdF). This database has the function of systematic data management such as automatic data-gathering, periodic data deposition and updating, statistical analysis including Bayesian method, and trend analysis of failure rate or unavailability. In recent PSA for CANDU reactor, the component failure data of EPRI ALWR URD and Component Reliability Database were preferentially used as generic data set. The error factor for most component failure data was estimated by using the information NUREG/CR-4550 and NUREG/CR-4639. Also, annual trend analysis was performed for the functional losses of components using the statistical analysis and chart module of PRinS. Furthermore, the database has been updated regularly and maintained as a living program to reflect the current status. This paper presents the failure data analysis using PRinS which provides Bayesian analysis on main components in the CANDU reactor. (authors)

  9. Columbia River Coordinated Information System (CIS); Information Needs, 1992 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrosky, Charlie (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Kinney, William J. (Washington Department of Fishereis, Olympia, WA); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful application of adaptive management to rebuilding the Columbia Basin`s anadromous fish resources requires that available information and experience be organized and shared between numerous organizations and individuals. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin`s collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases and recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognize these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project is now completing the process of scoping and identification of information needs. Construction of prototype systems will begin in 1992. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information on System scoping and needs identification phase.

  10. Systems Description; Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System - Phase I and Phase II; Final Report, Volume III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Volume should be considered the introductory volume to the series of six volumes even though numbered out of sequence. Volumes I and II were completed first and released in 1981 while a staff member was available to do the work. Volumes III through VI are being written and released some two years later as DOE funding became available for the purpose. They are as complete as possible considering that almost all the people involved in the program are now unavailable. This Volume III is an overview of the entire program, and many of the items presented herein briefly will be found in expanded form in one of the other five volumes. It will be noticed that assumptions and parameters such as well flow, well temperature, wet bulb temperatures, etc., involved in the several different performance calculations in the volume vary somewhat. These calculations were made at different times for different purposes and no attempt has been made to bring them into exact agreement.

  11. Time Delays in the Gravitationally Lensed Quasar H1413+117 (Cloverleaf)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goicoechea, Luis J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quadruple quasar H1413+117 (z_s = 2.56) has been monitored with the 2.0 m Liverpool Telescope in the r Sloan band from 2008 February to July. This optical follow-up leads to accurate light curves of the four quasar images (A-D), which are defined by 33 epochs of observation and an average photometric error of \\sim 15 mmag. We then use the observed (intrinsic) variations of \\sim 50-100 mmag to measure the three time delays for the lens system for the first time (1\\sigma confidence intervals): \\Delta \\tau_{AB} = -17 +/- 3, \\Delta \\tau_{AC} = -20 +/- 4, and \\Delta \\tau_{AD} = 23 +/- 4 days (\\Delta \\tau_{ij} = \\tau_j - \\tau_i; B and C are leading, while D is trailing). Although time delays for lens systems are often used to obtain the Hubble constant (H_0), the unavailability of the spectroscopic lens redshift (z_l) in the system H1413+117 prevents a determination of H_0 from the measured delays. In this paper, the new time delay constraints and a concordance expansion rate (H_0 = 70 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}) allow...

  12. WriteSmoothing: Improving Lifetime of Non-volatile Caches Using Intra-set Wear-leveling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL] [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Dong [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by the trends of increasing core-count and bandwidth-wall problem, the size of last level caches (LLCs) has greatly increased. Since SRAM consumes high leakage power, researchers have explored use of non-volatile memories (NVMs) for designing caches as they provide high density and consume low leakage power. However, since NVMs have low write-endurance and the existing cache management policies are write variation-unaware, effective wear-leveling techniques are required for achieving reasonable cache lifetimes using NVMs. We present WriteSmoothing, a technique for mitigating intra-set write variation in NVM caches. WriteSmoothing logically divides the cache-sets into multiple modules. For each module, WriteSmoothing collectively records number of writes in each way for any of the sets. It then periodically makes most frequently written ways in a module unavailable to shift the write-pressure to other ways in the sets of the module. Extensive simulation results have shown that on average, for single and dual-core system configurations, WriteSmoothing improves cache lifetime by 2.17X and 2.75X, respectively. Also, its implementation overhead is small and it works well for a wide range of algorithm and system parameters.

  13. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Milestones and progress, Quarter 8 (April 1--June 30, 1998)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, W.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overall, this project is on schedule and proceeding as planned. Two approach changes are recommended. One is to rely on commercially developed software, in particular that developed by OLI Systems, Inc., and now being expanded in a collaborative effort between OLI Systems, Inc. and IPST to provide a simulation package for the pulp and paper industry and to integrate it with existing process simulation tools used by that industry. The second is the development of a detailed brownstock/bleached fiber washer model as a tool to evaluate the data and methods developed in this study, and to demonstrate its utility to industry. Both of these are discussed in more detail in the Approach Changes section of this report. Two tasks are behind schedule. They are Task A-2.3, Measurement of stability constants for wood organics with metal ions (scheduled completion date: 6/98), and Task C-1.2, Estimation of unavailable thermodynamic parameters (scheduled completion date: 12/97). The reasons and expected completion dates for these tasks are discussed in the Performance Variances and Open Items section of this report. All other tasks are either completed, or on or ahead of schedule.

  14. Understanding Spreading Patterns on Social Networks Based on Network Topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Akrati; Gupta, Yayati

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ever since the proposal of first epidemic model, scientists have been attempting to estimate the growth of a disease/contagion while in its premature stage. Despite being the focus of researchers for a long time, understanding epidemiology remains as error prone as a weather forecast, mainly because of the unavailability of large amount of data. An epidemic spread is analogous to the diffusion of memes in social networking sites. Diffusion of memes can be easily studied provided large datasets and computational powers to extract information from online networks. So, studying a meme spreading pattern can help us in understanding epidemiology. In this paper, we analyse the impact of the topology of a social network, specifically its meso scale properties- community structure and core-periphery structure, on a meme traversing over it. We propose a meme propagation model for synthetic scale free graphs which resemble real world graphs and observe the process of a meme going viral on such a network. We also valida...

  15. Solar buildings program summary: Volume 2: Research summaries, fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Buildings Technology Program was initiated in 1975 to provide focus, direction, and funding for the development of solar technologies for buildings as an energy option for the United States. The program's progress has been impressive: active solar water and passive space heating systems are now widely available and have operated reliably throughout the United States. The efficiency of flat-plate collectors has increased 35%, and the incidence of system problems has decreased markedly. Whereas design tools for passive solar homes were once unavailable. DOE-sponsored research has led to the development of widely accepted guidelines, suitable for designing passive solar homes for any region of the country. Under DOE sponsorship, researchers have developed new window glazing materials such as low-emissivity films that significantly reduce heat loss over standard windows. Proven strategies also have been developed for using daylight to provide 50% of the lighting needs for small nonresidential buildings, substantially reducing electricity and cooling requirements. The Solar Buildings Technology Program Summary, Fiscal Year 1988 is a two-volume reference set describing the technological advances and future research and development (R and D) directions of the Solar Buildings Technology Program for the Fiscal Year 1988 (October 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988).

  16. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Prediction of heat of melting and heat capacity of inorganic liquids by the method of group contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Eakman, J.M. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Montoya, M.M. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex salts and salt/oxide combinations are being considered for the immobilization and storage or disposal of hazardous or radioactive wastes. There is very little information concerning such fundamental properties as heat of fusion and heat capacities for many of these inorganic materials. This work focuses on the use of elements or simple functional groups to estimate some of these fundamental thermodynamic properties for a variety of inorganic compounds. The major emphasis will be on properties for a variety of inorganic compounds. The major emphasis will be on properties for which some ancillary information may be easily measured, but which may be very difficult to measure directly. An example of such a property is the heat of fusion (or melting). The melting temperature for most pure materials is relatively easy to measure. However, the actual amount of energy required to liquefy, or conversely, the amount of energy which must be removed to solidify those same materials has not been measured. Similarly, important properties such as heat capacities of liquids are unavailable for many compounds. Such information is essential in the chemical industry and are paramount for chemical engineers if they are to design, build and operate plants and facilities in an economical and efficient manner.

  18. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Digitizing rocks: Standardizing the process of geologic description with workstations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, M.R.; Shields, J.A.; Taylor, M.R. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the drive to squeeze the most value from every dollar spent on exploration and development, increasing use is being made of stored data through methods that rely on the completeness and accuracy of the database for their usefulness. Although many types of engineering data are available to the process, geologic data, especially those collected at a sufficiently detailed level to show reservoir heterogeneity, are often unavailable to later workers in any useful form. Traditionally, most wellsite geologic data are recorded on worksheets or notebooks, from which summary data are often transferred to computers. The only changes in recent years have been related to the process by which computer-drafted lithology logs have superseded hand-drawn logs; in some exceptions, some of the plotting data may be held in a simple database. These descriptions and analyses, gathered at considerable cost and capable of showing significant petrological detail, are not available to the whole field-development process. The authors set out to tackle these problems of limited usefulness and development a system that would deliver quality geologic data deep into the field of play in a form that was easy to select and integrated with existing models.

  20. Evaluation of residual shale oils as feedstocks for valuable carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, You Qing; Derbyshire, F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale represents one of the largest fossil fuel resources in the US and in other pans of the world. Beginning in the 1970s until recently, there was considerable research and development activity directed primarily to technologies for the production of transportation fuels from oil shale. Due to the low cost of petroleum, as with other alternate fuel strategies, oil shale processing is not economically viable at present. However, future scenarios can be envisaged in which non-petroleum resources may be expected to contribute to the demand for hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals, with the expectation that process technologies can be rendered economically attractive. There is potential to improve the economics of oil shale utilization through broadening the spectrum of products that can be derived from this resource, and producing added-value materials that are either unavailable or more difficult to produce from other sources. This concept is by no means original. The history of oil shale development shows that most attempts to commercialize oil shale technology have relied upon the marketing of by-products. Results are presented on carbonization and the potential for generating a pitch that could serve as a precursur material.

  1. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume III; Washington Subbasin Below McNary Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Hymer, Joe (Washington Department of Fisheries, Battleground, WA); Wastel, Mike (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  2. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume V; Idaho Subbasins, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keifer, Sharon (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  3. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  4. Reliability Results of NERSC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petascale Data Storage Institute (PDSI); Mokhtarani, Akbar; Mokhtarani, Akbar; Kramer, William; Hick, Jason

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to address the needs of future scientific applications for storing and accessing large amounts of data in an efficient way, one needs to understand the limitations of current technologies and how they may cause systeminstability or unavailability. A number of factors can impact system availability ranging from facility-wide power outage to a single point of failure such as network switches or global file systems. In addition, individual component failure in a system can degrade the performance of that system. This paper focuses on analyzing both of these factors and their impacts on the computational and storage systems at NERSC. Component failure data presented in this report primarily focuses on disk drive in on of the computational system and tape drive failure in HPSS. NERSC collected available component failure data and system-wide outages for its computational and storage systems over a six-year period and made them available to the HPC community through the Petascale Data Storage Institute.

  5. Los Alamos PWR feed-and-bleed studies summary results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyack, B.E.; Henninger, R.J.; Lime, J.F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adequacy of shutdown decay heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators was unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performances of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Babcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss-of-secondary heat sink.

  6. Novel fluctuations at constrained interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Chaudhuri

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we try to answer the qustion : What happens when explicit constraints are introduced such that the low energy, long wavelength modes of a system are unavailable ? This question has assumed some importance in recent years due to the advent of nano technology and the growing use of nanometer scale devices and structures. In a small system, the size limits the scale of the fluctuations and makes it imperative for us to understand how the response of the system is altered in such a situation. In this thesis, this question is answered for the special case of interfacial fluctuations in two dimensions (2d). The energy of an interface between two phases in equilibrium is invariant with respect to translations perpendicular to the plane (or line in 2d) of the interface. We study the consequence of breaking this symmetry explicity using an external field gradient. One expects that since low energy excitations are suppressed, the interface would be flat and inert at all times. We show that surprisingly there are novel fluctuations and phenomena associated with such constrained interfaces which have static as well as dynamic consequences. The Ising interface on a square lattice is shown to undergo a multitude of structural transitions as a function of velocity and the orientation. Liquid solid interfaces show coherent addition and removal of atomic layers providing novel mechanisms of stress relaxation in a nanosized single crystal without defects. We study momentum and energy transfer across the liquid solid interface in the presence of this ``layering'' transition.

  7. Jet Vetoes Interfering with H->WW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian Moult; Iain W. Stewart

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Far off-shell Higgs production in $H \\rightarrow WW,ZZ$, is a particularly powerful probe of Higgs properties, allowing one to disentangle Higgs width and coupling information unavailable in on-shell rate measurements. These measurements require an understanding of the cross section in the far off-shell region in the presence of realistic experimental cuts. We analytically study the effect of a $p_T$ jet veto on far off-shell cross sections, including signal-background interference, by utilizing hard functions in the soft collinear effective theory that are differential in the decay products of the $W/Z$. Summing large logarithms of $\\sqrt{\\hat s}/p_T^{veto}$, we find that the jet veto induces a strong dependence on the partonic centre of mass energy, $\\sqrt{\\hat s}$, and modifies distributions in $\\sqrt{\\hat s}$ or $M_T$. The example of $gg\\rightarrow H \\rightarrow WW$ is used to demonstrate these effects at next to leading log order. We also discuss the importance of jet vetoes and jet binning for the recent program to extract Higgs couplings and widths from far off-shell cross sections.

  8. Earth resistivity measurement near substation ground grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodwig, S.G.; Mateja, S.A. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper substation grounding grid design requires good, accurate soil resistivity measurements. This data is essential to model the substation ground grid to design a safe ground grid with a satisfactory ground grid resistance at minimum cost. For substations with several decades of service, there is some concern that a grid may have deteriorated, been damaged during equipment installation or excavation, or that initial soil resistivity measurements were lost or may not have been correctly performed. Ground grid conductors change the substation surface voltage distribution. Any voltage measurements taken at the complete substation will also vary from the tests made without conductors present. During testing, current was injected in the soil by probes placed near the ground grid. The current tends to follow the ground grid conductors since copper is a far better conductor than the soil it is placed in. Resistance readings near grids will be lower than readings in undisturbed soil. Since computer models were unavailable for many years, analyzing the effect of the grid conductors on soil resistivity measurements was very difficult. As a result, soil resistivity measurements made close to substations were of little use to the engineer unless some means of correcting the measured values could be developed. This paper will present results of soil resistivity measurements near a substation ground grid before and after a ground grid has been installed and describes a means of calculating the undisturbed soil model.

  9. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume IV; Washington Subbasin Above McNary Dam, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymer, Joe (Washington Department of Fishereis, Battleground, WA); Wastel, Mike (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  10. SuperB Technical Design Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baszczyk, M; Kolodziej, J; Kucewicz, W; Sapor, M; Jeremie, A; Pous, E Grauges; Bruno, G E; De Robertis, G; Diacono, D; Donvito, G; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giordano, F; Loddo, F; Loparco, F; Maggi, G P; Manzari, V; Mazziotta, M N; Nappi, E; Palano, A; Santeramo, B; Sgura, I; Silvestris, L; Spinoso, V; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Zhuo, Z; Jenkovszky, L; Balbi, G; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Cafaro, V; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Di Sipio, R; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Gabrielli, A; Galli, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giorgi, F M; Grandi, C; Lax, I; Meo, S Lo; Marconi, U; Montanari, A; Pellegrini, G; Piccinini, M; Rovelli, T; Cesari, N Semprini; Torromeo, G; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Vagnoni, V M; Valentinetti, S; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Caron, J -F; Hearty, C; Lu, P F -T; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; So, R Y -C; Barnyakov, M Yu; Blinov, V E; Botov, A A; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Levichev, E B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Shtol, D A; Skovpen, Y I; Solodov, E P; Cardini, A; Carpinelli, M; Chao, D S -T; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Flood, K; Hanson, J; Hitlin, D G; Ongmongkolkul, P; Porter, F C; Zhu, R Y; Randazzo, N; Burelo, E De La Cruz; Zheng, Y; Campos, P; De Silva, M; Kathirgamaraju, A; Meadows, B; Pushpawela, B; Shi, Y; Sokoloff, M; Castro, G Lopez; Ciaschini, V; Franchini, P; Giacomini, F; Paolini, A; Polania, G A Calderon; Laczek, S; Romanowicz, P; Szybinski, B; Czuchry, M; Flis, L; Harezlak, D; Kocot, J; Radecki, M; Sterzel, M; Szepieniec, T; Szymocha, T; Wójcik, P; Andreotti, M; Baldini, W; Calabrese, R; Carassiti, V; Cibinetto, G; Ramusino, A Cotta; Evangelisti, F; Gianoli, A; Luppi, E; Malaguti, R; Manzali, M; Melchiorri, M; Munerato, M; Padoan, C; Santoro, V; Tomassetti, L; Beretta, M M; Biagini, M; Boscolo, M; Capitolo, E; de Sangro, R; Esposito, M; Felici, G; Finocchiaro, G; Gatta, M; Gatti, C; Guiducci, S; Lauciani, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Raimondi, P; Rama, M; Sanelli, C; Tomassini, S; Fabbricatore, P; Delepine, D; Santos, M A Reyes; Chrzaszcz, M; Grzymkowski, R; Knap, P; Kotula, J; Lesiak, T; Ludwin, J; Michalowski, J; Pawlik, B; Rachwal, B; Stodulski, M; Wiechczynski, J; Witek, M; Zawiejski, L; Zdybal, M; Aushev, V Y; Ustynov, A; Arnaud, N; Bambade, P; Beigbeder, C; Bogard, F; Borsato, M; Breton, D; Brossard, J; Burmistrov, L; Charlet, D; Chaumat, V; Dadoun, O; Berni, M El; Maalmi, J; Puill, V; Rimbault, C; Stocchi, A; Tocut, V; Variola, A; Wallon, S; Wormser, G; Grancagnolo, F; Ben-Haim, E; Sitt, S; Baylac, M; Bourrion, O; Deconto, J -M; Martinez, Y Gomez; Monseu, N; Muraz, J -F; Real, J -S; Vescovi, C; Cenci, R; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D; Twedt, E W; Cheaib, R; Lindemann, D; Nderitu, S; Patel, P; Robertson, S H; Swersky, D; Warburton, A; Flores, E Cuautle; Sanchez, G Toledo; Biassoni, P; Bombelli, L; Citterio, M; Coelli, S; Fiorini, C; Liberali, V; Monti, M; Nasri, B; Neri, N; Palombo, F; Sabatini, F; Stabile, A; Berra, A; Giachero, A; Gotti, C; Lietti, D; Maino, M; Pessina, G; Prest, M; Martin, J -P; Simard, M; Starinski, N; Taras, P; Drutskoy, A; Makarychev, S; Nefediev, A V; Aloisio, A; Cavaliere, S; De Nardo, G; Della Pietra, M; Doria, A; Giordano, R; Ordine, A; Pardi, S; Russo, G; Sciacca, C; Bigi, I I; Jessop, C P; Wang, W; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Corvo, M; Crescente, A; Corso, F Dal; Dosselli, U; Fanin, C; Gianelle, A; Longo, S; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Morandin, M; Pengo, R; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simi, G; Stroili, R; Gaioni, L; Manazza, A; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Re, V; Traversi, G; Zucca, S; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Cecchi, C; Germani, S; Lebeau, M; Lubrano, P; Manoni, E; Papi, A; Rossi, A; Scolieri, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Casarosa, G; Cervelli, A; Fella, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M; Lilli, L; Lusiani, A; Oberhof, B; Paladino, A; Pantaleo, F; Paoloni, E; Perez, A L Perez; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Beck, G; Berman, M; Bevan, A; Gannaway, F; Inguglia, G; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Bocci, V; Capodiferro, M; Chiodi, G; Dafinei, I; Drenska, N V; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Gargiulo, C; Gauzzi, P; Luci, C; Lunadei, R; Martellotti, G; Pellegrino, F; Pettinacci, V; Pinci, D; Recchia, L; Ruggeri, D; Zullo, A; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; De Santis, C; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Felice, V; Di Palma, F; Di Simone, A; Marcelli, L; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Sparvoli, R; Tammaro, S; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Bussino, S; Ciuchini, M; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Ruggieri, F; Spiriti, E; Wilson, F; Monzon, I Leon; Millan-Almaraz, J R; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Aston, D; Dey, B; Fisher, A; Jackson, P D; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; MacFarlane, D; McCulloch, M; Metcalfe, S; Novokhatski, A; Osier, S; Prepost, R; Ratcliff, B; Seeman, J; Sullivan, M; Va'vra, J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W; Altschul, B D; Purohit, M V; Baudot, J; Ripp-Baudot, I; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Bezshyyko, O; Dolinska, G; Soffer, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the SuperB detector that was to be installed on the SuperB e+e- high luminosity collider. The SuperB asymmetric collider, which was to be constructed on the Tor Vergata campus near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, was designed to operate both at the Upsilon(4S) center-of-mass energy with a luminosity of 10^{36} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and at the tau/charm production threshold with a luminosity of 10^{35} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. This high luminosity, producing a data sample about a factor 100 larger than present B Factories, would allow investigation of new physics effects in rare decays, CP Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation. This document details the detector design presented in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2007. The R&D and engineering studies performed to arrive at the full detector design are described, and an updated cost estimate is presented. A combination of a more realistic cost estimates and the unavailability of funds due of the global economic ...

  11. SuperB Technical Design Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SuperB Collaboration; M. Baszczyk; P. Dorosz; J. Kolodziej; W. Kucewicz; M. Sapor; A. Jeremie; E. Grauges Pous; G. E. Bruno; G. De Robertis; D. Diacono; G. Donvito; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; F. Giordano; F. Loddo; F. Loparco; G. P. Maggi; V. Manzari; M. N. Mazziotta; E. Nappi; A. Palano; B. Santeramo; I. Sgura; L. Silvestris; V. Spinoso; G. Eigen; J. Zalieckas; Z. Zhuo; L. Jenkovszky; G. Balbi; M. Boldini; D. Bonacorsi; V. Cafaro; I. D'Antone; G. M. Dallavalle; R. Di Sipio; F. Fabbri; L. Fabbri; A. Gabrielli; D. Galli; P. Giacomelli; V. Giordano; F. M. Giorgi; C. Grandi; I. Lax; S. Lo Meo; U. Marconi; A. Montanari; G. Pellegrini; M. Piccinini; T. Rovelli; N. Semprini Cesari; G. Torromeo; N. Tosi; R. Travaglini; V. M. Vagnoni; S. Valentinetti; M. Villa; A. Zoccoli; J. -F. Caron; C. Hearty; P. F. -T. Lu; T. S. Mattison; J. A. McKenna; R. Y. -C. So; M. Yu. Barnyakov; V. E. Blinov; A. A. Botov; V. P. Druzhinin; V. B. Golubev; S. A. Kononov; E. A. Kravchenko; E. B. Levichev; A. P. Onuchin; S. I. Serednyakov; D. A. Shtol; Y. I. Skovpen; E. P. Solodov; A. Cardini; M. Carpinelli; D. S. -T. Chao; C. H. Cheng; D. A. Doll; B. Echenard; K. Flood; J. Hanson; D. G. Hitlin; P. Ongmongkolkul; F. C. Porter; R. Y. Zhu; N. Randazzo; E. De La Cruz Burelo; Y. Zheng; P. Campos; M. De Silva; A. Kathirgamaraju; B. Meadows; B. Pushpawela; Y. Shi; M. Sokoloff; G. Lopez Castro; V. Ciaschini; P. Franchini; F. Giacomini; A. Paolini; G. A. Calderon Polania; S. Laczek; P. Romanowicz; B. Szybinski; M. Czuchry; L. Flis; D. Harezlak; J. Kocot; M. Radecki; M. Sterzel; T. Szepieniec; T. Szymocha; P. Wójcik; M. Andreotti; W. Baldini; R. Calabrese; V. Carassiti; G. Cibinetto; A. Cotta Ramusino; F. Evangelisti; A. Gianoli; E. Luppi; R. Malaguti; M. Manzali; M. Melchiorri; M. Munerato; C. Padoan; V. Santoro; L. Tomassetti; M. M. Beretta; M. Biagini; M. Boscolo; E. Capitolo; R. de Sangro; M. Esposito; G. Felici; G. Finocchiaro; M. Gatta; C. Gatti; S. Guiducci; S. Lauciani; P. Patteri; I. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; P. Raimondi; M. Rama; C. Sanelli; S. Tomassini; P. Fabbricatore; D. Delepine; M. A. Reyes Santos; M. Chrzaszcz; R. Grzymkowski; P. Knap; J. Kotula; T. Lesiak; J. Ludwin; J. Michalowski; B. Pawlik; B. Rachwal; M. Stodulski; J. Wiechczynski; M. Witek; L. Zawiejski; M. Zdybal; V. Y. Aushev; A. Ustynov; N. Arnaud; P. Bambade; C. Beigbeder; F. Bogard; M. Borsato; D. Breton; J. Brossard; L. Burmistrov; D. Charlet; V. Chaumat; O. Dadoun; M. El Berni; J. Maalmi; V. Puill; C. Rimbault; A. Stocchi; V. Tocut; A. Variola; S. Wallon; G. Wormser; F. Grancagnolo; E. Ben-Haim; S. Sitt; M. Baylac; O. Bourrion; J. -M. Deconto; Y. Gomez Martinez; N. Monseu; J. -F. Muraz; J. -S. Real; C. Vescovi; R. Cenci; A. Jawahery; D. Roberts; E. W. Twedt; R. Cheaib; D. Lindemann; S. Nderitu; P. Patel; S. H. Robertson; D. Swersky; A. Warburton; E. Cuautle Flores; G. Toledo Sanchez; P. Biassoni; L. Bombelli; M. Citterio; S. Coelli; C. Fiorini; V. Liberali; M. Monti; B. Nasri; N. Neri; F. Palombo; F. Sabatini; A. Stabile; A. Berra; A. Giachero; C. Gotti; D. Lietti; M. Maino; G. Pessina; M. Prest; J. -P. Martin; M. Simard; N. Starinski; P. Taras; A. Drutskoy; S. Makarychev; A. V. Nefediev; A. Aloisio; S. Cavaliere; G. De Nardo; M. Della Pietra; A. Doria; R. Giordano; A. Ordine; S. Pardi; G. Russo; C. Sciacca; I. I. Bigi; C. P. Jessop; W. Wang; M. Bellato; M. Benettoni; M. Corvo; A. Crescente; F. Dal Corso; U. Dosselli; C. Fanin; A. Gianelle; S. Longo; M. Michelotto; F. Montecassiano; M. Morandin; R. Pengo; M. Posocco; M. Rotondo; G. Simi; R. Stroili; L. Gaioni; A. Manazza; M. Manghisoni; L. Ratti; V. Re; G. Traversi; S. Zucca; S. Bizzaglia; M. Bizzarri; C. Cecchi; S. Germani; M. Lebeau; P. Lubrano; E. Manoni; A. Papi; A. Rossi; G. Scolieri; G. Batignani; S. Bettarini; G. Casarosa; A. Cervelli; A. Fella; F. Forti; M. Giorgi; L. Lilli; A. Lusiani; B. Oberhof; A. Paladino; F. Pantaleo; E. Paoloni; A. L. Perez Perez; G. Rizzo; J. Walsh; A. Fernández Téllez; G. Beck; M. Berman; A. Bevan; F. Gannaway; G. Inguglia; A. J. Martin; J. Morris; V. Bocci; M. Capodiferro; G. Chiodi; I. Dafinei; N. V. Drenska; R. Faccini; F. Ferroni; C. Gargiulo; P. Gauzzi; C. Luci; R. Lunadei; G. Martellotti; F. Pellegrino; V. Pettinacci; D. Pinci; L. Recchia; D. Ruggeri; A. Zullo; P. Camarri; R. Cardarelli; C. De Santis; A. Di Ciaccio; V. Di Felice; F. Di Palma; A. Di Simone; L. Marcelli; R. Messi; D. Moricciani; R. Sparvoli; S. Tammaro; P. Branchini; A. Budano; S. Bussino; M. Ciuchini; F. Nguyen; A. Passeri; F. Ruggieri; E. Spiriti; F. Wilson; I. Leon Monzon; J. R. Millan-Almaraz; P. L. M. Podesta-Lerma; D. Aston; B. Dey; A. Fisher; P. D. Jackson; D. W. G. S. Leith; S. Luitz; D. MacFarlane; M. McCulloch; S. Metcalfe; A. Novokhatski; S. Osier; R. Prepost; B. Ratcliff; J. Seeman; M. Sullivan; J. Va'vra; U. Wienands; W. Wisniewski; B. D. Altschul

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Technical Design Report (TDR) we describe the SuperB detector that was to be installed on the SuperB e+e- high luminosity collider. The SuperB asymmetric collider, which was to be constructed on the Tor Vergata campus near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory, was designed to operate both at the Upsilon(4S) center-of-mass energy with a luminosity of 10^{36} cm^{-2}s^{-1} and at the tau/charm production threshold with a luminosity of 10^{35} cm^{-2}s^{-1}. This high luminosity, producing a data sample about a factor 100 larger than present B Factories, would allow investigation of new physics effects in rare decays, CP Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation. This document details the detector design presented in the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) in 2007. The R&D and engineering studies performed to arrive at the full detector design are described, and an updated cost estimate is presented. A combination of a more realistic cost estimates and the unavailability of funds due of the global economic climate led to a formal cancelation of the project on Nov 27, 2012.

  12. Mars in this century: The Olympia Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, R.A.; Ishikawa, M.Y.; Wood, L.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manned exploration of the inner solar system --- typified by a manned expedition to Mars --- this side of the indefinite future involves fitting a technical peg into the political hole. If Apollo-level resources are assumed unavailable for such exploratory programs, then non-Apollo means and methods must be employed, involving greater technical and human risks, or else such exploration must be deferred indefinitely. Sketched here is an example of such a relatively high-risk alternative, one which could land men on Mars in the next decade, and return them to earth. Two of its key features are a teleoperated rocket fuel-generating facility on the lunar surface and an interplanetary mission-staging space station at L{sub 4}, which would serve to enable a continuing solar system exploratory program, with annual mission commencements to points as distant as the Jovian moons. The estimated cost-to-execute this infrastructure-building manned Mars mission is $3 billion, with follow-on missions estimated to cost no more than $1 billion each. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Criticality Safety Code Validation with LWBR’s SB Cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putman, Valerie Lee

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first set of critical experiments from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Program included eight, simple geometry critical cores built with 233UO2-ZrO2, 235UO2-ZrO2, ThO2, and ThO2-233UO2 nuclear materials. These cores are evaluated, described, and modeled to provide benchmarks and validation information for INEEL criticality safety calculation methodology. In addition to consistency with INEEL methodology, benchmark development and nuclear data are consistent with International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project methodology.Section 1 of this report introduces the experiments and the reason they are useful for validating some INEEL criticality safety calculations. Section 2 provides detailed experiment descriptions based on currently available experiment reports. Section 3 identifies criticality safety validation requirement sources and summarizes requirements that most affect this report. Section 4 identifies relevant hand calculation and computer code calculation methodologies used in the experiment evaluation, benchmark development, and validation calculations. Section 5 provides a detailed experiment evaluation. This section identifies resolutions for currently unavailable and discrepant information. Section 5 also reports calculated experiment uncertainty effects. Section 6 describes the developed benchmarks. Section 6 includes calculated sensitivities to various benchmark features and parameters. Section 7 summarizes validation results. Appendices describe various assumptions and their bases, list experimenter calculations results for items that were independently calculated for this validation work, report other information gathered and developed by SCIENTEC personnel while evaluating these same experiments, and list benchmark sample input and miscellaneous supplementary data.

  14. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Andersen, M; Anderson, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Austin, L; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Bergmann, G; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brückner, F; Buchman, S; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannon, K C; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Castiglia, A; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S S Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corpuz, A; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Donath, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dossa, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Endr?czi, G; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grover, K; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Hooper, S; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hu, Y; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karlen, J; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, N G; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from LIGO and Virgo. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Omega_GW(f)=Omega_alpha*(f/f_ref)^alpha, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of alpha=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Omega_GW(f)<5.6x10^-6. For the 600-1000...

  15. Managing discovery risks--A Tevatron case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakul Banerjee

    2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the increasing need for higher performance, Management of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken various projects to improve systems associated with the Tevatron high-energy particle collider located at Batavia, Illinois. One of the larger projects is the Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. The objective of this project is to replace the existing BPM electronics and software system that was originally installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron.The original system consists of 236 beam position monitors located around the underground tunnel of the accelerator. Above ground control systems are attached to these monitors using pickup cables. When the Tevatron collider is operational, signals received from the BPMs are used to perform a number of control and diagnostic tasks. The original system can only capture the proton signals from the collider. The new system, when fully operational, will be able to capture combined proton and antiproton signals and will be able to separate the antiproton signal from the combined signal at high resolution. This significant enhancement was beyond the range of technical capabilities when the Tevatron was constructed about two decades ago. To take advantage of exceptional progress made in the hardware and software area in past two decades, Department of Energy approved funding of the BPM electronics and software replacement project. The approximate length of the project is sixteen months with a budget of four million dollars not including overhead, escalation, and contingencies. Apart from cost and schedule risks, there are two major risks associated with this research and development project. The primary risk is the risk of discovery. Since the Tevatron beam path is highly complex, BPMs have to acquire and process a large amount of data. In this environment, analysis of data to separate antiproton signals is even more complex. Finding an optimum algorithm that can be implemented with current state of the art hardware and software technology is even more complex. The second most important risk is the risk of unavailability of the premiere high energy physics scientific facility to worldwide users. This paper presents a model of minimizing these risks using a phased model of project management. To complete the project successfully, it is essential to keep track of the constraints imposed by uncertainties in the discovery phase while maintaining the highest possible availability of the Tevatron. In this paper, a methodology based on earned value management system is explained to measure and manage discovery risks. Metrics based on the initial basis of estimate and familiar earned value measures are used to monitor risks of discovery. Subsequently, these metrics are used to refine the project and adjust tasks and resource assignments to minimize the unavailability of the user facility. One of the measures is the variance at phase completion. From the phased model of the WBS, variance at completion is examined for various project baselines at the end of project phases. This allowed for understanding the risk of not only cost and schedule, but also the discovery risks. Since similar risk measurement data is not available within the organization, these metrics will also allow us to define risk baselines for future scientific projects that involve discovery along with state of the art system development.

  16. Finial Scientific/Technical Report: Application of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Process for the Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Wei-Ping Pan; Dr. John T. Riley

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Looping Combustion is a novel combustion technology for the inherent separation of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}. In 1983, Richter and Knoche proposed reversible combustion, which utilized both the oxidation and reduction of metal. Metal associated with its oxidized form as an oxygen carrier was circulated between two reactors--oxidizer and reducer. In the reducer, the solid oxygen carrier reacts with the fuel to produce CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and elemental metal only. Pure CO{sub 2} will be obtained in the exit gas stream from the reducer after H{sub 2}O is condensed. The pure CO{sub 2} is ready for subsequent sequestration. In the oxidizer, the elemental metal reacts with air to form metal oxide and separate oxygen from nitrogen. Only nitrogen and some unused oxygen are emitted from the oxidizer. The advantage of CLC compared to normal combustion is that CO{sub 2} is not diluted with nitrogen but obtained in a relatively pure form without any energy needed for separation. In addition to the energy-free purification of CO{sub 2}, the CLC process also provides two other benefits. First, NO{sub x} formation can be largely eliminated. Secondly, the thermal efficiency of a CLC system is very high. Presently, the CLC process has only been used with natural gas. An oxygen carrier based on an energy balance analysis and thermodynamics analysis was selected. Copper (Cu) seems to be the best choice for the CLC system for solid fuels. From this project, the mechanisms of CuO reduction by solid fuels may be as follows: (1) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are available, reduction of CuO could start at about 400 C or less. (2) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is lower, reduction of CuO could occur at an onset temperature of about 500 C, char gasification reactivity in CO{sub 2} was lower at lower temperatures. (3) If pyrolysis products of solid fuels are unavailable and the reduction temperature is higher than 750 C, all reaction reactivities were improved, especially the CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity of char. Thus, the reduction of CuO by the gasification product CO could proceed quickly. Based on the results obtained, the following coal characteristics would be desirable for the Chemical Looping Combustion process: high volatile matter with a high reactivity of the char produced. PRB coal meets these criteria while being comparatively less expensive and also very abundant. The high moisture content present in PRB coal might also increase the reactivity for char gasification through the development of pore structure and specific surface area in the char during pyrolysis. Biomass materials are also suitable, considering the reaction mechanism of CLC system of solid fuels. The feasibility of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels was verified by focusing on PRB coal and biomass. Based on PRB coal as the preferred solid fuel in the development of the CLC system, the mass, energy and system in a dual reactor recirculation system has been determined. In the Cu oxidation tests, it was confirmed that the heating rate is the most important effect on the Cu oxidation process. Lower heating rates and lower operational temperatures would result in incomplete conversion of Cu to CuO. Cu{sub 2}O may be the intermediate product. The operating temperature did not affect the reaction rate of the oxidation process. Under any operating conditions, the exothermic properties are clearly shown.

  17. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to meet the targets. The interviews were supplemented with information from past Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports, previous assessments that were conducted in 2004, and literature on magnet technology. The results of the assessment validated the DOE strategy involving three parallel paths: (1) there is enough of a possibility that RE magnets will continue to be available, either from sources outside China or from increased production in China, that development of IPM motors using RE magnets should be continued with emphasis on meeting the cost target. (2) yet the possibility that RE magnets may become unavailable or too expensive justifies efforts to develop innovative designs for permanent magnet (PM) motors that do not use RE magnets. Possible other magnets that may be substituted for RE magnets include samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co), Alnico, and ferrites. Alternatively, efforts to develop motors that do not use PMs but offer attributes similar to IPM motors also are encouraged. (3) New magnet materials using new alloys or processing techniques that would be less expensive or have comparable or superior properties to existing materials should be developed if possible. IPM motors are by far the most popular choice for hybrid and EVs because of their high power density, specific power, and constant power-speed ratio (CPSR). Performance of these motors is optimized when the strongest possible magnets - i.e., RE neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets - are used.

  18. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Cannell (EMTEC); Adrian S. Sabau (ORNL)

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in the shell mold. A model for thermal radiation within the shell mold was developed, and the thermal model was successfully validated using ProCAST. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The prefiring of the empty shell mold was considered in the model, and the shell mold was limited to a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulations only with coupled shell-alloy systems. The alloy dimensions were in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data, validating the deformation module. For actual parts, however, the creep properties of the shell molds must also be obtained, modeled, and validated.

  19. Use of High-Frequency Jet Ventilation for Percutaneous Tumor Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denys, Alban, E-mail: alban.denys@chuv.ch; Lachenal, Yann; Duran, Rafael [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Chollet-Rivier, Madeleine [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology (Switzerland); Bize, Pierre [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    PurposeTo report feasibility and potential benefits of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in tumor ablations techniques in liver, kidney, and lung lesions.MethodsThis prospective study included 51 patients (14 women, mean age 66 years) bearing 66 tumors (56 hepatic, 5 pulmonary, 5 renal tumors) with a median size of 16 ± 8.7 mm, referred for tumor ablation in an intention-to-treat fashion before preoperative anesthesiology visit. Cancellation and complications of HFJV were prospectively recorded. Anesthesia and procedure duration, as well as mean CO{sub 2} capnea, were recorded. When computed tomography guidance was used, 3D spacial coordinates of an anatomical target <2 mm in diameter on 8 slabs of 4 slices of 3.75-mm slice thickness were registered.ResultsHFJV was used in 41 of 51 patients. Of the ten patients who were not candidate for HFJV, two patients had contraindication to HFJV (severe COPD), three had lesions invisible under HFJV requiring deep inspiration apnea for tumor targeting, and five patients could not have HFJV because of unavailability of a trained anesthetic team. No specific complication or hypercapnia related to HFJV were observed despite a mean anesthetic duration of 2 h and ventilation performed in procubitus (n = 4) or lateral decubitus (n = 6). Measured internal target movement was 0.3 mm in x- and y-axis and below the slice thickness of 3.75 mm in the z-axis in 11 patients.ConclusionsHFJV is feasible in 80 % of patients allowing for near immobility of internal organs during liver, kidney, and lung tumor ablation.

  20. Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

    2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the Materia/Cargill relationship. This project exceeded expectations and is having immediate impact on DOE success by replacing petroleum products with renewables in a large volume application today.

  1. Iron optimization for Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott G. Huling; Patrick K. Jones; Tony R. Lee [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States). Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was accomplished through the addition of iron (Fe) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) (15.9 g/L; pH 3). The GAC used was URV, a bituminous-coal based carbon. The Fe concentration in GAC was incrementally varied (1020-25 660 mg/kg) by the addition of increasing concentrations of Fe solution (FeSO4{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O). MTBE degradation in Fe-amended GAC increased by an order of magnitude over Fe-unamended GAC and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was predominantly (99%) attributed to GAC-bound Fe within the porous structure of the GAC. Imaging and microanalysis of GAC particles indicated limited penetration of Fe into GAC. The optimal Fe concentration was 6710 mg/kg (1020 mg/kg background; 5690 mg/kg amended Fe) and resulted in the greatest MTBE removal and maximum Fe loading oxidation efficiency (MTBE oxidized (g)/Fe loaded to GAC(mg/Kg)). At lower Fe concentrations, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was Fe limited. At higher Fe concentrations, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction was not entirely Fe limited, and reductions in GAC surface area, GAC pore volume, MTBE adsorption, and Fe loading oxidation efficiency were measured. Results are consistent with nonuniform distribution of Fe, pore blockage in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} transport, unavailable Fe, and limitations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} diffusive transport, and emphasize the importance of optimal Fe loading. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Preliminary prediction of inflow into the D-holes at the Stripa Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.C.S.; Karasaki, K.; Davey, A.; Peterson, J.; Landsfeld, M.; Kemeny, J.; Martel, S.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is contracted by the US Department of Energy to provide an auxiliary modeling effort for the Stripa Project. Within this effort, we are making calculations of inflow to the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE), i.e. inflow to six parallel, closely spaced D-holes, using a preliminary set of data collected in five other holes, the N- and W-holes during Stages 1 and 2 of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. Our approach has been to focus on the fracture zones rather than the general set of ubiquitous fractures. Approximately 90% of all the water flowing in the rock is flowing in fracture zones which are neither uniformly conductive nor are they infinitely extensive. Our approach has been to adopt the fracture zone locations as they have been identified with geophysics. We use geologic sense and the original geophysical data to add one zone where significant water inflow has been observed that can not be explained with the other geophysical zones. This report covers LBL's preliminary prediction of flow into the D-holes. Care should be taken in interpreting the results given in this report. As explained below, the approach that LBL has designed for developing a fracture hydrology model requires cross-hole hydrologic data. Cross-hole tests are planned for Stage 3 but were unavailable in Stage 1. As such, we have inferred from available data what a cross-hole test might show and used this synthetic data to make a preliminary calculation of the inflow into the D-holes. Then using all the Stage 3 data we will calculate flow into the Validation Drift itself. The report mainly demonstrates the use of our methodology and the simulated results should be considered preliminary.

  3. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. [Kentort II process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of April 1, 1992 through June 30, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The raw oil shale sample for the program was mined, prepared, characterized and stored this quarter. The shale that was chosen was from the high-grade zone of the Devonian Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The shale was mined and then transported to the contractor's crushing facility where it was crushed, double-screened, and loaded into 85 55-gal barrels. The barrels, containing a total of 25-30 tons of shale, were transported to the (CAER) Center for Applied Energy Research where the shale was double-screened, analyzed and stored. A major objective of the program is the study of solid-induced secondary coking and cracking reactions. A valved fluidized bed reactor has been the primary apparatus used for this study prior to this quarter, but two additional techniques have been initiated this quarter for the study of other aspects of this issue. First, the two-stage hydropyrolysis reactor at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, was used to study the coking tendency of shale oil vapors under a wide range of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis conditions. This work enabled us to examine secondary reactions under high pressure conditions (up to 150 bar) which were previously unavailable. Second, the development of a fixed bed reactor system was initiated at the CAER to study the coking and cracking characteristics of model compounds. A fixed bed apparatus was necessary because the conversion of model compounds was too low in the fluidized bed apparatus.

  4. The development of an integrated multistage fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made on the development of an integrated multistage fluidized bed retorting process (KENTORT II) during the period of April 1, 1992 through June 30, 1992. The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The raw oil shale sample for the program was mined, prepared, characterized and stored this quarter. The shale that was chosen was from the high-grade zone of the Devonian Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale in Montgomery County, Kentucky. The shale was mined and then transported to the contractor`s crushing facility where it was crushed, double-screened, and loaded into 85 55-gal barrels. The barrels, containing a total of 25-30 tons of shale, were transported to the (CAER) Center for Applied Energy Research where the shale was double-screened, analyzed and stored. A major objective of the program is the study of solid-induced secondary coking and cracking reactions. A valved fluidized bed reactor has been the primary apparatus used for this study prior to this quarter, but two additional techniques have been initiated this quarter for the study of other aspects of this issue. First, the two-stage hydropyrolysis reactor at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, was used to study the coking tendency of shale oil vapors under a wide range of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis conditions. This work enabled us to examine secondary reactions under high pressure conditions (up to 150 bar) which were previously unavailable. Second, the development of a fixed bed reactor system was initiated at the CAER to study the coking and cracking characteristics of model compounds. A fixed bed apparatus was necessary because the conversion of model compounds was too low in the fluidized bed apparatus.

  5. Microbial dissolved organic phosphorus utilization in the Hudson River Estuary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Angel, D.L. (City College of New York, NY (United States))

    1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hudson River Estuary has large inputs of phosphorus and other nutrients from sewage discharge. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) reach at least 4 uM during the summer low-flow period. Biological utilization of phosphorus and other nutrients is usually minimal because of the high turbidity and short residence time of the water. Therefore SRP is normally a conservative tracer of salinity, with maximum concentrations found off Manhattan and decreasing to the north. Despite this abundance of SRP, some components of the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appear to be rapidly cycled by microbes. The objective of this study was to measure this DIP cycling during both the high- and low-flow periods. We measured the concentrations of SRP and DOP, the SRP turnover rate, algal and bacterial biomass, and the substrate turnover rates of two microbial cell-surface phosphatases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 5[prime] - nucleotidase (5PN). SRP concentrations ranged from about 0.5-4 uM, DOP was usually less than 1 uM. SRP and AP turnover were slow (generally < 5%/h), but 5PN substrate turnover was high with a median rate of 100%/h. Furthermore, over 30% of the phosphate hydrolyzed by 5PN was immediately taken up. If the nucleotide-P concentration is conservatively assumed to be 5 nM, than the rate of phosphate utilization from DOP is nearly equal to that from SRP. That is paradoxical considering the large SRP concentration, but suggests that much of this SRP may be biologically unavailable due to complexation with iron or other processes.

  6. Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber L. induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Miaoxian [Biology Programme (Formally Biology Dept.), School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)] [Biology Programme (Formally Biology Dept.), School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chung, Hau Yin, E-mail: anthonychung@cuhk.edu.hk [Biology Programme (Formally Biology Dept.), School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Yaolan [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China) [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Pharmacodynamic Constituents of TCM and New Drug Research, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} Deoxyelephantopin (ESD) inhibited cell proliferation in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. {yields} ESD induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases via modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. {yields} ESD triggered apoptosis by dysfunction of mitochondria and induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. {yields} ESD also triggered Akt, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. -- Abstract: Deoxyelephantopin (ESD), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in the Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber L. exerted anticancer effects on various cultured cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanisms by which it controls the development of the cancer cells are unavailable, particularly the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. In this study, we found that ESD inhibited the CNE cell proliferation. Cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases was also found. Western blotting analysis showed that modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins was responsible for the ESD-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, ESD also triggered apoptosis in CNE cells. Dysfunction in mitochondria was found to be associated with the ESD-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ({Delta}{Psi}m), the translocation of cytochrome c, and the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Despite the Western blotting analysis showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways (cleavage of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and -10) were triggered in the ESD-induced apoptosis, additional analysis also showed that the induction of apoptosis could be achieved by the caspase-independent manner. Besides, Akt, ERK and JNK pathways were found to involve in ESD-induced cell death. Overall, our findings provided the first evidence that ESD induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in CNE cells. ESD could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).

  7. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  8. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for a HLMC reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J. J.; Spencer, B. W.

    2000-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small (300 MWt) reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100%+ natural circulation heat removal from the low power density/low pressure drop ultra-long lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the Reactor Exterior Cooling System (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

  9. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for an HLMC reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The secure transportable autonomous reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small [300-MW(thermal)] reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100% + natural-circulation heat removal from the low-power-density/low-pressure-drop ultralong lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the reactor exterior cooling system (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink.

  10. Calcium accumulated by sickle cell anemia red cells does not affect their potassium (86Rb+) flux components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, O.E.; Lew, V.L.; Bookchin, R.M.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate here the hypothesis that the high Ca content of sickle cell anemia (SS) red cells may produce a sustained activation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ permeability (Gardos effect) and that the particularly high Ca levels in the dense SS cell fraction rich in irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs) might account for the Na pump inhibition observed in these cells. We measured active and passive 86Rb+ influx (as a marker for K+) in density-fractionated SS cells before and after extraction of their excess Ca by exposure to the Ca ionophore (A23187) and ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid and with or without adenosine triphosphate depletion or addition of quinine. None of these maneuvers revealed any evidence of a Ca2+-dependent K leak in SS discocytes or dense cells. Na pump inhibition in the dense SS cells was associated with normal activation by external K+ and a low Vmax that persisted after Ca extraction from the cells. These results are consistent with our recent findings that the excess Ca in these cells is compartmentalized in intracellular inside-out vesicles and unavailable as free Ca2+ to the inner membrane surface. Although the steady-state free cytoplasmic Ca2+ in oxygenated SS cells must be below the levels needed to activate the K+ channel, possible brief activation of the channels of some SS cells resulting from transient elevations of cell Ca2+ during deoxygenation-induced sickling cannot be excluded. The dense, ISC-rich SS cell fraction showed a Ca2+-independent increase in the ouabain-resistant, nonsaturable component of 86Rb+ influx that, if uncompensated by Na+ gain, could contribute to the dehydration of these cells.

  11. Use of Influence Diagrams and Fuzzy Theory to Develop Assessment Method of Organizational Influences on Component Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoonik Kim; Kwang-Won Ahn; Chang-Hyun Chung [Seoul National University, San56-1 Shinrim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kil Yoo Kim; Joon-Eon Yang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organization can make influences on all the systems. Especially in case of nuclear power plants in which safety is established to be one of the most important operating goals, there have been a lot of research efforts for the hardware advancement. However in recent years, it has been widely recognized that organizational factors in nuclear power plants have an important influence on the safety attitudes and the safe behavior of individuals. Until now, any means to include assessments of organizational structure in probabilistic risk assessments have not been universally accepted. The objective of this work is to develop a method to assess organizational influences on component maintenance. Influence diagrams are introduced in this method as a decision making tool and fuzzy theory is used to reflect the vagueness in considering relevance of human activities in maintenance tasks. Introducing fuzzy theory to assess the organizational factors is deemed to a somewhat new trial, which makes it possible to convert linguistic vague descriptions into mathematical ones. Fuzzy linguistic descriptions offer an alternative and often complementary language to conventional, i.e., analytic approaches to modeling systems. Among the existing methodologies to assess organizational factors, the concept of the {omega}-factor model is utilized and the mechanism that organizational factors have influences on component maintenance is evaluated through composing influence diagrams. These influences go to failure rates and eventually affect component unavailability. Further study will make it possible that the influences of organizational factors on human error probabilities are incorporated into human reliability analysis and furthermore probabilistic safety assessment. (authors)

  12. Proceedings of the DOE standards managers workshop, Gaithersburg, Maryland, October 26--28, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 19, 1992, the Secretary of Energy signed the revised DOE Order 1300.2A, Department of Energy Technical Standards Program, which set the policy and assigned responsibility for activities within the program. The purpose of the revision to the order was to place greater emphasis on the use of technical standards for design, construction, testing, modification, operation, decommissioning, decontamination, and remediation of DOE`s facilities and activities. Within the context of this order, Standards Managers have been assigned for each DOE Secretarial office, each DOE Field Office, and each management and operating (M&O) contractor or site manager to be responsible for and provide the appropriate amount of emphasis on consistent use of standards at DOE facilities. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-119 also stresses the importance of the use of standards within Government facilities and directs that activities first attempt to locate and adopt non-Government standards (NGSs) for DOE use. If an NGS is not complete enough for the intended application, it should be adopted for the activity and tailored for the need by development of a Government (DOE) standard. When these NGS documents are unavailable, DOE components will develop an appropriate Government standard to satisfy the need. This expanded DOE program will provide all the information necessary to adopt, tailor, or develop these standards and track the activities. A key to the proper implementation of technical standards and governing requirements is establishing a culture of knowledge and commitment. The workshop provided an in-depth orientation on the Technical Standards Program to participating DOE and M&O Standards Managers.

  13. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  14. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase 1 and Phase II. Final report. Volume III. Systems description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, H.B.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major fraction of hydrothermal resources that have the prospect of being economically useful for the generation of electricity are in the 300/sup 0/F to 425/sup 0/F temperature range. Cost-effective conversion of the geothermal energy to electricity requires the conception and reduction to practice of new ideas to improve conversion efficiency, enhance brine flow, reduce plant costs, increase plant availability, and shorten the time between investment and return. The problems addressed during past activities are those inherent in the geothermal environment, in the binary fluid cycle, in the difficulty of efficiently converting the energy of a low-temperature resource, and in geothermal economics. Explained in detail in this document, some of these problems are: the energy expended by the down-hole pump; the difficulty in designing reliable down-hole equipment; fouling of heat-exchanger surfaces by geothermal fluids; the unavailability of condenser cooling water at most geothermal sites; the large portion of the available energy used by the feed pump in a binary system; the pinch effect - a loss in available energy in transferring heat from water to an organic fluid; flow losses in fluids that carry only a small amount of useful energy to begin with; high heat-exchanger costs - the lower the temperature interval of the cycle, the higher the heat exchanger costs in $/kW (actually, more than inversely proportional); the complexity and cost of the many auxiliary elements of proposed geothermal plants; and the unfortunate cash flow vs. investment curve caused by the many years of investment required to bring a field into production before any income is realized.

  15. Measurement of the elastic scattering cross section of neutrons from argon and neon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. MacMullin; M. Kidd; R. Henning; W. Tornow; C. R. Howell; M. Brown

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: The most significant source of background in direct dark matter searches are neutrons that scatter elastically from nuclei in the detector's sensitive volume. Experimental data for the elastic scattering cross section of neutrons from argon and neon, which are target materials of interest to the dark matter community, were previously unavailable. Purpose: Measure the differential cross section for elastic scattering of neutrons from argon and neon in the energy range relevant to backgrounds from (alpha,n) reactions in direct dark matter searches. Method: Cross-section data were taken at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) using the neutron time-of-flight technique. These data were fit using the spherical optical model. Results: The differential cross section for elastic scatting of neutrons from neon at 5.0 and 8.0 MeV and argon at 6.0 MeV was measured. Optical-model parameters for the elastic scattering reactions were determined from the best fit to these data. The total elastic scattering cross section for neon was found to differ by 6% at 5.0 MeV and 13% at 8.0 MeV from global optical-model predictions. Compared to a local optical-model for 40Ar, the elastic scattering cross section was found to differ from the data by 8% at 6.0 MeV. Conclusions: These new data are important for improving Monte-Carlo simulations and background estimates for direct dark matter searches and for benchmarking optical models of neutron elastic scattering from these nuclei.

  16. Control of the accumulation of non-process elements and organic compounds in pulp mills with bleach filtrate reuse. Milestones and progress, Quarter 9 (July 1--September 30, 1998)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Laver, M.L.; Rorrer, G.L.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, W.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The two approach changes that were discussed and recommended in the Quarter 8 (April 1--June 30, 1998) progress report have been implemented in the current project plan. The OLI software has been used to develop a preliminary process model for predicting the distribution of NPE`s in a two stage brownstock washer, and the OLI database has been upgraded to include improved chemical equilibrium data for metal-organic interactions. This exercise served as a tool to evaluate the data and methods developed in this study, and to demonstrate its utility to industry. The Weyerhaeuser-NAELS software has also been applied to predicting inorganic solubility behavior. Task C-1.2, Estimation of unavailable thermodynamic parameters (scheduled completion date: 12/97), has been combined with Task D-2.1, Evaluation of the estimation procedure (scheduled completion date: 3/99) with a new scheduled completion date of 8/99. A model for the adsorption of metal ions on wood pulp fibers will include transport effects as well as adsorption equilibrium, and will be combined with a brownstock washer model to evaluate its predictive capability in comparison with mill data, and to demonstrate the applicability of the results obtained in this project. Three tasks are behind schedule: Task A-2.3, Measurement of stability constants for wood organics with metal ions (scheduled completion date: 6/98), Task B-2.1, Measure metal adsorption isotherms on wood pulp (scheduled completion date: 9/97), and Task B-2.3, Measure metal ion adsorption kinetics for strongly adsorbing metal species (scheduled completion date: 3/98). The reasons and expected completion dates are discussed in the Performance Variances and Open Items section. All other tasks are either completed, on, or ahead of schedule.

  17. The relationship of angiosperms and oleanane in petroleum through geologic time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldowan, J.M.; Dahl, J.E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Jacobson, S.R.; Taylor, D.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological marker oleanane has been suggested as an indicator of angiosperm (flowering plant) input into source rocks and their derived oils. Parallels should therefore be evident between the angiosperm fossil record and oleanane occurrence and abundance. A global selection of more than 50 core samples from marine rocks of different ages and from different locations was quantitatively analyzed for oleanane to determine its abundance over geologic time relative to the bacterial marker hopane. Oleanane was recognized using Metastable Reaction Monitoring (MRM) GC-MS. A parallel was observed between the oleanane/hopane ratio and angiosperm diversity in the fossil record through time. The first fossil evidence of angiosperms is during the Early Cretaceous with radiation during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Occurrences of oleanane are confirmed throughout the Cretaceous system. Early-to-middle Cretaceous (Berriasian-Cenomanian) occurrences are sporadic and oleanan/hopane ratios are less than 0.07. Late Cretaceous (Turonian-Maastrichtian) oleanane/hopane ratios range up to 0.15 with higher ratios in many Tertiary samples. It appears that oleanane/hopane ratios of oils can restrict the age of their unavailable or unknown source rocks. High ratios indicate Tertiary age and lower ratios can indicate Cretaceous or Tertiary age, depending on depositional environment. While these data do not rule out pre-Cretaceous oleanane, preliminary data show that oleanane/hopane ratios for Jurassic and older rock extracts are typically below our detection limits (<0.03). While oleanane precursors are abundant in angiosperms, they also occur, rarely, in other modern plant groups. We identified oleanane in low abundances in three Early Cretaceous fossil benettitialeans, an extinct plant group (Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous) thought to be related to angiosperms. These findings suggest that oleanane could be present in low abundance in some pre-Cretaceous rocks and oils.

  18. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

  19. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  20. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  1. Three-dimensional finite-difference modeling of non-linear ground notion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, K.B. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Crustal Studies

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a hybrid finite-difference technique capable of modeling non-linear soil amplification from the 3-D finite-fault radiation pattern for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method is applied to model non-linear effects in the soils of the San Fernando Valley (SFV) from the 17 January 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. 0-7 Hz particle velocities are computed for an area of 17 km by 19 km immediately above the causative fault and 5 km below the surface where peak strike-parallel, strike-perpendicular, vertical, and total velocities reach values of 71 cm/s, 145 cm/s, 152 cm/s, and 180 cm/s, respectively. Selected Green`s functions and a soil model for the SFV are used to compute the approximate stress level during the earthquake, and comparison to the values for near-surface alluvium at the U.S. Nevada Test Site suggests that the non-linear regime may have been entered. We use selected values from the simulated particle velocity distribution at 5 km depth to compute the non-linear response in a soil column below a site within the Van Norman Complex in SFV, where the strongest ground motion was recorded. Since site-specific non- linear material parameters from the SFV are currently unavailable, values are taken from analyses of observed Test Site ground motions. Preliminary results show significant reduction of spectral velocities at the surface normalized to the peak source velocity due to non-linear effects when the peak velocity increases from 32 cm/s (approximately linear case) to 64 cm/s (30-92%), 93 cm/s (7-83%), and 124 cm/s (2-70%). The largest reduction occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz.

  2. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  3. Preliminary results of the radiological survey at the former Dow Chemical Company site, Madison, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Williams, J.K.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the former Dow Chemical Company plant, now owned and operated by Spectrulite Consortium Inc., supplied materials and provided services for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) under purchase orders issued by the Mallinckrodt Chemical Company, a primary AEC contractor. Information indicates that research and development work involving gamma-phase extrusion of uranium metal was conducted at the Dow Chemical plant. Because documentation establishing the current radiological condition of the property was unavailable, a radiological survey was conducted by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1989. The survey included: measurement of indoor gamma exposure rates; collection and radionuclide analysis of dust and debris samples; and measurements to determine alpha and beta-gamma surface contamination. The results of the survey demonstrate that Building 6, the area uranium extrusion and rod-straightening work occurred, is generally free of radioactive residuals originating from former DOE-sponsored activities. However, {sup 238}U- and {sup 232}Th-contaminated dust was found on overhead beams at the south end of Building 6. These findings suggest that past DOE-supported operations were responsible for uranium-contaminated beam dust in excess of guidelines in Building 6. However, the contamination is localized and limited in extent, rendering it highly unlikely that under present use an individual working in or frequenting these remote areas would receive a significant radiation exposure. We recommend that additional scoping survey measurements and sampling be performed to further define the extent of indoor uranium contamination southward to include Building 4 and northward throughout Building 6. 5 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Improved Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Aasi; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; A. Ain; P. Ajith; A. Alemic; B. Allen; A. Allocca; D. Amariutei; M. Andersen; R. Anderson; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. Arceneaux; J. Areeda; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; L. Austin; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. T. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. W. Ballmer; J. C. Barayoga; M. Barbet; B. C. Barish; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; A. Basti; J. C. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; C. Belczynski; A. S. Bell; C. Bell; G. Bergmann; D. Bersanetti; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; S. Biscans; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; S. Bloemen; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; M. Boer; G. Bogaert; C. Bogan; C. Bond; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; Sukanta Bose; L. Bosi; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; D. D. Brown; F. Brückner; S. Buchman; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; R. Burman; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. Calderón Bustillo; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; K. C. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; A. Castiglia; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglià; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; C. Celerier; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; R. Chakraborty; T. Chalermsongsak; S. J. Chamberlin; S. Chao; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. S. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; Q. Chu; S. S. Y. Chua; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; J. A. Clark; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; A. Colla; C. Collette; M. Colombini; L. Cominsky; M. Constancio Jr.; A. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corpuz; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. W. Coughlin; S. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; S. Countryman; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; R. Coyne; K. Craig; J. D. E. Creighton; S. G. Crowder; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; K. Dahl; T. Dal Canton; M. Damjanic; S. L. Danilishin; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; G. S. Davies; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; G. Debreczeni; J. Degallaix; S. Deléglise; W. Del Pozzo; T. Denker; T. Dent; H. Dereli; V. Dergachev; R. De Rosa; R. T. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; M. Díaz; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; A. Di Virgilio; A. Donath; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; S. Doravari; S. Dossa; R. Douglas; T. P. Downes; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; T. Edo; M. Edwards; A. Effler; H. Eggenstein; P. Ehrens; J. Eichholz; S. S. Eikenberry; G. Endr?czi; R. Essick; T. Etzel; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Q. Fang; S. Farinon; B. Farr; W. M. Farr; M. Favata; H. Fehrmann; M. M. Fejer; D. Feldbaum; F. Feroz; I. Ferrante; F. Ferrini; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; J. -D. Fournier; S. Franco; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; P. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; L. Gammaitoni; S. Gaonkar; F. Garufi; N. Gehrels; G. Gemme; E. Genin; A. Gennai; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; R. Goetz; L. Gondan; G. González; N. Gordon; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Gossan; S. Goßler; R. Gouaty; C. Gräf; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; P. Groot; H. Grote; K. Grover; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; K. Gushwa; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; M. Hanke; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. Hart; M. T. Hartman; C. -J. Haster; K. Haughian; A. Heidmann; M. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; G. Hemming; M. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; M. Heurs; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; S. Hooper; P. Hopkins; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; Y. Hu; E. Huerta; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; M. Huynh; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; B. R. Iyer; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; H. Jang; P. Jaranowski; Y. Ji; F. Jiménez-Forteza; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; R. Jones; R. J. G. Jonker; L. Ju; Haris K; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; J. Karlen; M. Kasprzack; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; F. Kawazoe; F. Kéfélian; G. M. Keiser; D. Keitel; D. B. Kelley; W. Kells; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from LIGO and Virgo. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of Omega_GW(f)=Omega_alpha*(f/f_ref)^alpha, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of alpha=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be Omega_GW(f)<5.6x10^-6. For the 600-1000 Hz band, Omega_GW(f)<0.14*(f/900 Hz)^3, a factor of 2.5 lower than the best previously reported upper limits. We find Omega_GW(f)<1.8x10^-4 using a spectral index of zero for 170-600 Hz and Omega_GW(f)<1.0*(f/1300 Hz)^3 for 1000-1726 Hz, bands in which no previous direct limits have been placed. The limits in these four bands are the lowest direct measurements to date on the stochastic background. We discuss the implications of these results in light of the recent claim by the BICEP2 experiment of the possible evidence for inflationary gravitational waves.

  5. Second Order draft Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group III Do Not Cite or Quote 1 Summary for Policy Makers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -2003 Decade GtCO2 CO2/Energy Energy/GDP(PPP) GDP(PPP)/POP POP Net change -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 1973-1983 1983-1993 1993-2003 Decade GtCO2 CO2/Energy Energy/GDP(PPP) GDP(PPP)/POP POP Net change Figure SPM.2 from a growing population and an increasing share of relative wealth per capita (GDP/POP). GDP(PPP

  6. Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purchasing Power Parity (GDP ppp ) 6 , and accounted for 46%period [9.2.1]. The GDP ppp metric is used for illustrativereport. For an explanation of PPP and Market Exchange Rate (

  7. Media Freedom, Bureaucratic Incentives, and the Resource Curse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egorov, Georgy; Guriev, Sergei; Sonin, Konstantin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GDP per capita, PPP Log oil reserves Democracy Log land areaGDP per capita PPP, Log oil reserves, Log land area, and Logfrom Polity IV, and oil reserves and oil production from BP.

  8. The Greening of the Middle Kingdom: The Story of Energy Efficiency in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Consumption FIGURE 2 Actual energy demand in China isvery much lower than energy demand at constant energyGDP Energy FIGURE 3a Energy demand grew twice as fast as GDP

  9. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    share of total energy use, CO2 emissions per 2005 dollar of GDP decline more rapidly than energy use per 2005 dollar of GDP, falling by 56 percent from 2005 to 2040, at an annual...

  10. Economic Growth in the Mid Atlantic Region: Conjectural Estimates for 1720 to 1800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenbloom, Joshua L.; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct decadal estimates of GDP per capita for the colonies and states of the Mid Atlantic region between 1720 and 1800. They show that the region likely achieved modest improvements in per capita GDP over this period ...

  11. Extractive Economies, Growth, and the Poor Graham A. Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , poverty, or per capita gross domestic product (GDP) relative to the level of that same indicator in a group of peer economies; and their growth in human devel- opment, poverty, or per capita GDP relative

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Topics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The rate of growth in real GDP depends on assumptions about labor force growth and productivity. In the Reference case, growth in real GDP averages 2.7 percent per year due to a...

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gross domestic product (GDP) depends on assumptions about labor force growth and productivity. In the Reference case, growth in real GDP averages 2.7 percent per year due to a...

  14. Macroeconomic Activity Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    explain the growth in GDP: the growth rate of nonfarm employment and the rate of productivity change associated with employment. As Table 2.1 indicates, real GDP growth slows...

  15. Energy and Security in Northeast Asia: Supply and Demand, Conflict and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Banaszak, Sarah; WU, Kang; Valencia, Mark J.; Dorian, James P.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scenario, China's primary energy consumption is forecast toChina and Period Historical GDP Oil Coal Gas Fossil Energy Total Forecast:China Period Historical GDP Oil Coal Gas Nuclear Power Hydroelectricity Primary Energy Total Forecast:

  16. Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest Industrial Enterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprise Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry Constraining Energy Consumption of China’s Largestone-to-one ratio of energy consumption to GDP – given China’goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20%

  17. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gross world product, E is global energy consumption, Authorworld GDP, f = F/E is carbon intensity of energy consumption,

  18. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    corrected for purchase power parity), electrification,GDP is corrected for Purchase Power Parity (PPP). The PPP

  19. Modeling Clean and Secure Energy Scenarios for the Indian Power Sector in 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhyankara, Nikit

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Energy Potential .GDP growth. 2 Renewable Energy Potential In recent months,17 Renewable Energy Resource Potential and Levelized

  20. Energy Department Selects Deactivation Contractor for Paducah...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Delease Planning and Facility Transfer); Facility Modification and Infrastructure Optimization (including Stabilization and Deactivation of GDP Facilities); Decontamination and...

  1. Gallium-67 complexes as radioactive markers to assess gastric and colonic transit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellen, J.C.; Chatterton, B.E.; Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C. [Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constipation and gastroparesis are gastrointestinal tract disorders that can be assessed by using radioactive markers in conjunction with scintigraphic techniques. Indium-111-DTPA is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for treating colonic transit in constipated patients, but it is an expensive product and its availability has been unreliable. Indium-113m-DTPA was the tracer used in our study to determine the liquid gastric emptying rate in dual-isotope solid-liquid emptying studies, however, cessation of the {sup 113}Sn/{sup 113m}In generator production makes it unavailable. Thus, development of alternative tracers to {sup 111}In-DTPA and {sup 113m}In-DTPA was essential. Gallium-67-citrate and {sup 67}Ga-EDTA were compared to {sup 111}In-DTPA to assess their efficacy for exclusive retention in the GI tract. These markers were orally administered into rats and their three-day cumulative fecal excretion, urine excretion and carcass retention were measured. An in vitro gastric emptying model was used to determine liquid phase partitioning of {sup 113m}In-DTPA, {sup 67}Ga-citrate and {sup 67}Ga-EDTA at 37{degrees}. Gallium-67-citrate was predominantly excreted in the feces (97.2% {+-} 0.2%) after three days, with negligible urine excretion (0.1% {+-} 0.0%) and carcass retention (0.6% {+-} 0.2%). These results are analogous to those obtained for {sup 111}In-DTPA for fecal excretion (96.7% {+-} 2.6%), urine excretion (0.6% {+-} 0.0%) and retention in the carcass (0.2% {+-} 0.0%). Gallium-67-EDTA showed similar partitioning in the liquid phase of the gastric emptying model compared with {sup 113m}In-DTPA. Gallium-67-citrate is an economical and readily available alternative to {sup 111}In-DTPA as a colonic transit radiopharmaceutical. Gallium-67-EDTA is also an alternative to {sup 113m}In-DTPA for assessing liquid-phase emptying in a dual-isotope solid/liquid gastric emptying study. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Micro-Grids for Colonias (TX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean Schneider; Michael Martin; Renee Berry; Charles Moyer

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of the final implementation and testing of a hybrid micro-grid system designed for off-grid applications in underserved Colonias along the Texas/Mexico border. The project is a federally funded follow-on to a project funded by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office in 2007 that developed and demonstrated initial prototype hybrid generation systems consisting of a proprietary energy storage technology, high efficiency charging and inverting systems, photovoltaic cells, a wind turbine, and bio-diesel generators. This combination of technologies provided continuous power to dwellings that are not grid connected, with a significant savings in fuel by allowing power generation at highly efficient operating conditions. The objective of this project was to complete development of the prototype systems and to finalize and engineering design; to install and operate the systems in the intended environment, and to evaluate the technical and economic effectiveness of the systems. The objectives of this project were met. This report documents the final design that was achieved and includes the engineering design documents for the system. The system operated as designed, with the system availability limited by maintenance requirements of the diesel gensets. Overall, the system achieved a 96% availability over the operation of the three deployed systems. Capital costs of the systems were dependent upon both the size of the generation system and the scope of the distribution grid, but, in this instance, the systems averaged $0.72/kWh delivered. This cost would decrease significantly as utilization of the system increased. The system with the highest utilization achieved a capitol cost amortized value of $0.34/kWh produced. The average amortized fuel and maintenance cost was $0.48/kWh which was dependent upon the amount of maintenance required by the diesel generator. Economically, the system is difficult to justify as an alternative to grid power. However, the operational costs are reasonable if grid power is unavailable, e.g. in a remote area or in a disaster recovery situation. In fact, avoided fuel costs for the smaller of the systems in use during this project would have a payback of the capital costs of that system in 2.3 years, far short of the effective system life.

  3. Boosting CSP Production with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage shows promise for increasing grid flexibility by providing firm system capacity with a high ramp rate and acceptable part-load operation. When backed by energy storage capability, CSP can supplement photovoltaics by adding generation from solar resources during periods of low solar insolation. The falling cost of solar photovoltaic (PV) - generated electricity has led to a rapid increase in the deployment of PV and projections that PV could play a significant role in the future U.S. electric sector. The solar resource itself is virtually unlimited; however, the actual contribution of PV electricity is limited by several factors related to the current grid. The first is the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal electricity demand patterns. The second is the limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate this highly variable generation resource. At high penetration of solar generation, increased grid flexibility will be needed to fully utilize the variable and uncertain output from PV generation and to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. Energy storage is one way to increase grid flexibility, and many storage options are available or under development. In this article, however, we consider a technology already beginning to be used at scale - thermal energy storage (TES) deployed with concentrating solar power (CSP). PV and CSP are both deployable in areas of high direct normal irradiance such as the U.S. Southwest. The role of these two technologies is dependent on their costs and relative value, including how their value to the grid changes as a function of what percentage of total generation they contribute to the grid, and how they may actually work together to increase overall usefulness of the solar resource. Both PV and CSP use solar energy to generate electricity. A key difference is the ability of CSP to utilize high-efficiency TES, which turns CSP into a partially dispatchable resource. The addition of TES produces additional value by shifting the delivery of solar energy to periods of peak demand, providing firm capacity and ancillary services, and reducing integration challenges. Given the dispatchability of CSP enabled by TES, it is possible that PV and CSP are at least partially complementary. The dispatchability of CSP with TES can enable higher overall penetration of the grid by solar energy by providing solar-generated electricity during periods of cloudy weather or at night, when PV-generated power is unavailable. Such systems also have the potential to improve grid flexibility, thereby enabling greater penetration of PV energy (and other variable generation sources such as wind) than if PV were deployed without CSP.

  4. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying resistances to ionizing radiation - aromatic polymers such as polyimide Vespel (TM) and the elastomer EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) have been found to be more resistant to degradation in tritium than other polymers. This report presents information to help select replacement pumps for Normetex pumps in tritium systems. Several pumps being considered as Normetex replacement pumps are discussed.

  5. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND2010-0714.

  6. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

  7. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for NSRL experiments, reducing delays due to the interference with RHIC injection operations, and allowing enhanced mixed field radiation studies. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  8. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions in its price as seen at the wellhead (Wiser 2007). The magnitude of the effect on price relative to the demand reduction, and the mechanism through which it occurs, is less well established. This report attempts to quantify the potential effects of reduced demand for natural gas in the residential sector, in response to the implementation of an energy efficiency standard for water heaters.

  9. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr. (.; .); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and reconnaissance, part inspection, geometric modeling, laser-based 3D volumetric imaging, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), aiding first responders, and supporting soldiers with helmet-mounted LADAR for 3D mapping in urban-environment scenarios. The technology developed in this LDRD overcomes the limitations of current laser-based 3D sensors and contributes to the realization of intelligent machine systems reducing manpower need.

  10. Radioisotopes for heat-source applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoisington, J.E.

    1982-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential DOD requirements for noninterruptable power sources could total 1 MW thermal by FY 1990. Of the three isotopes considered, (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 238/Pu) /sup 90/Sr is the only one available in sufficient amounts to meet this requirement. To meet the DOD FY 1990 requirements, it would be necessary to undertake /sup 90/Sr recovery operations from spent fuel reprocessing at SRP, Hanford, and the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP). /sup 90/Sr recovery from the existing alkaline high level waste (HLW) at Hanford and SRP is not attractive because the isotopic purity of the /sup 90/Sr is below that required for DOD applications. Without reprocessing LWR spent fuel, SRP and Hanford could not supply the demand of 1 MW thermal until FY 1996. Between FY 1983 and FY 1996, SRP and Hanford could supply approximately 0.70 MW of /sup 90/Sr and 0.15 MW of /sup 147/Pm. SRP could supply an additional 0.15 MW from the production and recovery of /sup 238/Pu. Strontium-90 is the most economical of the three heat source radionuclides considered. The /sup 90/Sr unit recovery cost from SRP fresh acid waste would be $180/watt. The BNFP /sup 90/Sr recovery cost would be $130/watt to $235/watt depending on the age and burnup of the LWR spent fuel. Hanford /sup 90/Sr recovery costs form Purex fresh acid waste are unavailable, but they are expected to be comparable to the SRP costs. /sup 147/Pm and /sup 238/Pu are considerably more expensive heat source materials. /sup 147/Pm recovery costs at SRP are estimated to be $450/watt. As with /sup 90/Sr, the Hanford /sup 147/Pm recovery costs are expected to be comparabl to the SRP costs. Production of high assay (93.5%) /sup 238/Pu at SRP from excess /sup 231/Np would cost about $1160/watt, while recovery of low assay (27%) /sup 238/Pu from the waste stream is estimated at $1850/watt.

  11. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  12. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even selling price for the baseline assumption is about $11/GJ, however it may be possible to reduce this value by 20-30% depending on other factors evaluated in the non-baseline scenarios. Assuming a value for the char co-product improves the analysis. Significantly lower break-even costs are possible in an international setting, as labor is the dominant production cost.

  13. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W. [New Plants Engineering, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, M/CA 75, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event. Beyond 7 days, only a few simple actions are needed to cope with the SBO for an indefinite amount of time. The operation of the ICS as the primary success path for mitigation of an SBO, allows for near immediate plant restart once power is restored. (authors)

  14. Application of Gaussian Process Modeling to Analysis of Functional Unreliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Youngblood

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper applies Gaussian Process (GP) modeling to analysis of the functional unreliability of a “passive system.” GPs have been used widely in many ways [1]. The present application uses a GP for emulation of a system simulation code. Such an emulator can be applied in several distinct ways, discussed below. All applications illustrated in this paper have precedents in the literature; the present paper is an application of GP technology to a problem that was originally analyzed [2] using neural networks (NN), and later [3, 4] by a method called “Alternating Conditional Expectations” (ACE). This exercise enables a multifaceted comparison of both the processes and the results. Given knowledge of the range of possible values of key system variables, one could, in principle, quantify functional unreliability by sampling from their joint probability distribution, and performing a system simulation for each sample to determine whether the function succeeded for that particular setting of the variables. Using previously available system simulation codes, such an approach is generally impractical for a plant-scale problem. It has long been recognized, however, that a well-trained code emulator or surrogate could be used in a sampling process to quantify certain performance metrics, even for plant-scale problems. “Response surfaces” were used for this many years ago. But response surfaces are at their best for smoothly varying functions; in regions of parameter space where key system performance metrics may behave in complex ways, or even exhibit discontinuities, response surfaces are not the best available tool. This consideration was one of several that drove the work in [2]. In the present paper, (1) the original quantification of functional unreliability using NN [2], and later ACE [3], is reprised using GP; (2) additional information provided by the GP about uncertainty in the limit surface, generally unavailable in other representations, is discussed; (3) a simple forensic exercise is performed, analogous to the inverse problem of code calibration, but with an accident management spin: given an observation about containment pressure, what can we say about the system variables? References 1. For an introduction to GPs, see (for example) Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning, C. E. Rasmussen and C. K. I. Williams (MIT, 2006). 2. Reliability Quantification of Advanced Reactor Passive Safety Systems, J. J. Vandenkieboom, PhD Thesis (University of Michigan, 1996). 3. Z. Cui, J. C. Lee, J. J. Vandenkieboom, and R. W. Youngblood, “Unreliability Quantification of a Containment Cooling System through ACE and ANN Algorithms,” Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 85, 178 (2001). 4. Risk and Safety Analysis of Nuclear Systems, J. C. Lee and N. J. McCormick (Wiley, 2011). See especially §11.2.4.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated cost of decommissioning a PWR is lowest for ENTOMB and highest for SAFSTOR • the estimated cost of decommissioning a BWR is lowest for OECON and highest for SAFSTOR. In all cases, SAFSTOR has the lowest occupational radiation dose and the highest cost.

  16. Initial Evaluation of a New Electromechanical Cooler for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, RL

    2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) constitutes the current state of the art in cryogenic cooling for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are widely used for {gamma}-ray and characteristic X-ray spectroscopy because of their excellent energy discrimination. Use of LN{sub 2} requires a liquid nitrogen supply, cumbersome storage tanks and plumbing, and the frequent attention of personnel to be sure that nitrogen levels are sufficient to maintain the detectors at a sufficiently low operating temperature. Safety hazards also are associated with the use of LN{sub 2}, both because of the potential for severe frostbite on exposure to skin and because it displaces ambient oxygen when it evaporates in closed spaces. Existing electromechanical coolers have, until now, been more expensive to procure and maintain than LN{sub 2} systems. Performance and reliability have also been serious issues because of microphonic degradation of photon energy peak resolution and cooler failures due to compressor oil becoming entrained in the refrigerant. This report describes the results of tests of a new HPGe detector cooling technology, the PerkinElmer ORTEC{reg_sign} Products X-Cooler{trademark} that, according to the manufacturer, significantly reduces the lifetime cost of the cooling system without degradation of the output signal. The manufacturer claims to have overcome cost, performance and reliability problems of older-generation electromechanical coolers, but the product has no significant history of use, and this project is the first independent evaluation of its performance for Total cost savings for the DOE and other agencies that use HPGe systems extensively for safeguards monitoring is expected to be quite significant if the new electromechanical cooler technology is shown to be reliable and if performance characteristics indicate its usefulness for this application. The technology also promises to make HPGe monitoring, characterization and detection available for unattended or covert operation and in remote or inaccessible locations where the unavailability of LN{sub 2} and signal degradation from existing mechanical coolers prevent its use at the present time.

  17. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  18. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ?143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations’ activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises’ reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations.

  19. www.vics.org1 Council of Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    .vics.org5 Logistics Costs $1.343 t $1.097 t $1.211 t 10.4% % of GDP 9.4% 7.8% 8.3% 6.4% Trans Costs $872 b of Logistics #12;www.vics.org6 Logistics Costs have risen 184% Average annual increase = $28b 2010 increase.... #12;www.vics.org7 Global Comparison of Logistics Expenditures Asia 13-20% GDP China 15% GDP Europe 12

  20. Understanding Sequestration as a Means of Carbon Management Howard Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IN&OUT'ACC CO2'POPx GDP POP x BTU GDP x CO2 BTU 1 (1) (2) Understanding Sequestration as a Means and is a measure of fuel combustion and cement production (5.5 standard of living, BTU/GDP is energy Gt to as "deforestation" (1.6 GtC/yr). By energy intensity, and CO2/BTU is the amount of 1994, the fossil fuel

  1. Essays on International Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wlasiuk, Juan Marcos

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of countries with pc GDP PPP (2000USD) PPP $2005) and total employedmeasured as deviations from PPP) ii is positively associated

  2. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consumption per $ GDP or $ PPP), are used to measure energyexchange rate (MER) or using purchasing power parity (PPP).The idea is that PPP conversion factors equalize the

  3. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    household GDP was corrected for Purchase Power Parity (PPP).The PPP factor adjusts currency market exchange rates (MER)20% for countries with average PPP adjusted incomes below $

  4. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    household GDP is corrected for Purchase Power Parity (PPP).The PPP factor adjusts currency market exchange rates (MER)20% for countries with average PPP adjusted incomes below $

  5. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    purchasing power parity (PPP) factors of 2 for Egypt and 78University Press. 21. (2011) PPP conversion factor, GDP.Purchasing power parties (PPP) conversion factor, local

  6. Profitable Biodiesel Potential from Increased Agricultural Yields Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Profitable Biodiesel Potential from Increased Agricultural Yields Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume (liters) Total Export Profits ($) HDI Rank GDP/ cap Corrupt Rank FDI

  7. Lubricants Market to Record 44,165.11 Kilo Tons Volume by 2020...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Automotive oils sector is further segmented into hydraulic oil, engine oil, and gear oil. Improving GDP in developing nations such as India and China has significantly spurred...

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 EOR - Enhanced oil recovery EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency GDP - Gross domestic product NGL - Natural gas liquids NHTSA -...

  9. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soviet Union (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia),kg CO 2 /$GDP FSS Ukraine Kazakhstan Iran East Asia BelarusAsia China South Africa Kazakhstan Malaysia Russia Thailand

  10. The Theory and Practice of Decoupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, J.H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sales on costs. customer (SPC).2° This regression yields thei::i:i:::::! ::::! :! ::!.. Intercept % A SPC - Expected %A SPC- Unexpected % A Customers % A Capital % A GDP % A

  11. Chapter 2: Sustainable and Unsustainable Developments in the U.S. Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion by Sector (MtCO2/$ GDP Source: EIA, AER 2006; IEA, Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion;

  12. Chapter 2: Sustainable and Unsustainable Developments in the U.S. Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cheap and abundant fossil fuel energy. As fossil fuels havefrom Fossil Fuel Combustion; total final energy use; GDP isfrom Fossil Fuel Combustion; total final energy use; 2006

  13. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changedenergy consumption has grown more rapidly than GDP in the last five years. If the recent trend

  14. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium Disposition Services' (UDS) contract has ended and BWCS assumed operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) facilities at the Portsmouth GDP, and the Paducah...

  15. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. I.. 1996. China's Energy A forecast to 2015, U.S. DOEChina’s energy/GDP elasticity remains at 1 and economic growth unfolds as forecast,

  16. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. I.. 1996. China's Energy A forecast to 2015, U.S. DOEChina’s energy/GDP elasticity remains at 1 and economic growth unfolds as forecast,

  17. Table of Contents for the Site-Wide Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration FTLB Field Test Laboratory Building EA Environmental Assessment EIS Environmental Impact Statement FY Fiscal Year (Oct. 1 to Sept. 30) GDP General Development...

  18. DOE/EA-1607: Final Environmental Assessment for Disposition of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    domestic and one foreign). The U.S. enrichment facilities are (1) the currently operating United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) in Paducah,...

  19. DOE/EA-1607 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DISPOSITION OF DOE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    domestic and one foreign). The U.S. enrichment facilities are (1) the currently operating United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) in Paducah,...

  20. Tourism's Impact on Economic Growth and Development in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Tourism's Impact on Economic Growth and Development in Spain Jessica Dennis #12;Spanish Civil War as a % of Spain's GDP #12;50,000,000 5,050,000,000 10,050,000,000 15,050,000,000 20,050,000,000 25,050,000,000 30 International Tourism Receipts, Foreign Direct Investment Reciepts & Remittances as % of Spain's GDP Int

  1. Energy Efficiency Supporting Policy and Heat Pumping Technology in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    % improvement energy consumption per real GDP of Japan> Ref: METI/ Energy Data Modeling Centre, comprehensive energy statistics *Total consumption of primary energy (tons in crude oil equivalent) / real GDP heating , 25% Cooling, 2% Water heating, 29% Power, etc., 36% cooking , 8% Energy consumption by end- use

  2. Detailed search S&T key figures reveal China breathing down EU's neck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , revealing stagnation in research and development (R&D) investment in the EU, which Science and Research in the proportion of GDP that it spends on research) was around 0.7 per cent between 2000 and 2003. 'If this trend at the Barcelona European Council to raise R&D spending to 3 per cent of EU GDP by 2010. Yet according

  3. Energy saving policy and emission decreasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the correction of electro intensity and consumption of electricity (a medium optimistic variant) 7,9648,2787,4016,6985,9Electricity consumption E (TWh)3 13,8510,858,1085,7814,32GDP (bill. LVL)2 56765GDP grows (% per year)1 ­ electricity consumption (TWh) 3 ­ electricity consumption after correction (TWh) 4 6 8 10 12 14 2000 2005 2010

  4. IDEAS from IBM 23 July 2007 IDEAS from IBM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Care in Australia The Children's Hospital at Westmead (PDF, 397K) Melbourne Health (PDF, 34.8K of health in Australia · Total health expenditure in 2004/05 (latest figures) was $87.3 billion or $4,319 per person and 9.8% of GDP 2 · 11th highest health expenditure to GDP percentage for OECD countries2

  5. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  6. APS Science 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge of sustainable energy provides an opportunity for expanded involvement with industrial research. We were privileged to recruit several outstanding new leaders at the APS. Linda Young, from Argonne's Chemical Sciences Division, became the new Director of the X-ray Science Division (XSD). Chris Jacobsen (from Stony Brook University) has been added to Linda's team as an XSD Associate Division Director, joining George Srajer. Alexander (Sasha) Zholents (formerly of Berkeley Lab) became Director of the Accelerator Systems Division. Sasha is the inventor of the short-pulse x-ray scheme that we plan to implement in the APS-U to obtain very high average brightness, broadband, 1-ps x-ray pulses. Walter Lowe (formerly of Howard University) has taken a new position as senior advisor for outreach and development of the user community. Walter's role is to increase the diversity of the user community (with diversity read broadly to include users, institutions, and technical disciplines that are underrepresented at APS). Walter is also leading an effort to increase access for industrial users. I am confident that we have in place a great team to help our users and the APS take fullest advantage of the APS-U opportunity. In planning with users for the proposed APS-U, we focused on the need to study 'real materials under real conditions in real time' on spatial and temporal scales unavailable today. Only by studying materials as they are made-or as they perform-in difficult environments can we solve the grand challenge of higher-performance, sustainable materials for energy and health. The proposed APS-U will improve the brightness of penetrating x-rays produced by the APS over 100 times, and support our efforts in developing state-of-the-art instruments to address these challenges.

  7. Control system options and strategies for supercritical CO2 cycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Kulesza, K. P.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Oregon State Univ.

    2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton Cycle is a promising alternative to Rankine steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle energy converters for use with Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors (LFRs), as well as other advanced reactor concepts. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle offers higher plant efficiencies than Rankine or recuperated gas Brayton cycles operating at the same liquid metal reactor core outlet temperatures as well as reduced costs or size of key components especially the turbomachinery. A new Plant Dynamics Computer Code has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for simulation of a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter coupled to an autonomous load following liquid metal-cooled fast reactor. The Plant Dynamics code has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of a control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for the STAR-LM 181 MWe (400 MWt) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor. The strategy, which involves a combination of control mechanisms, is found to be effective for controlling the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle over the complete operating range from 0 to 100 % load for a representative set of transient load changes. While the system dynamic analysis of control strategy performance for STARLM is carried out for a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter incorporating an axial flow turbine and compressors, investigations of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle have identified benefits from the use of centrifugal compressors which offer a wider operating range, greater stability near the critical point, and potentially further cost reductions due to fewer stages than axial flow compressors. Models have been developed at Argonne for the conceptual design and performance analysis of centrifugal compressors for use in the SCO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle. Steady state calculations demonstrate the wider operating range of centrifugal compressors versus axial compressors installed in a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle as well as the benefits in expanding the range over which individual control mechanisms are effective for cycle control. However, a combination of mechanisms is still required for control of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle between 0 and 100 % load. An effort is underway to partially validate the Argonne models and codes by means of comparison with data from tests carried out using the small-scale Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL) recuperated gas closed Brayton cycle facility. The centrifugal compressor model has been compared with data from the SBL operating with nitrogen gas and good agreement is obtained between calculations and the measured data for the compressor outlet pressure versus flow rate, although it is necessary to assume values for certain model parameters which require information about the configuration or dimensions of the compressor components that is unavailable. Unfortunately, the compressor efficiency cannot be compared with experiment data due to the lack of outlet temperature data. A radial inflow turbine model has been developed to enable further comparison of calculations with data from the SBL which incorporates both a radial inflow turbine as well as a radial compressor. Preliminary calculations of pressure ratio and efficiency versus flow rate have been carried out using the radial inflow turbine model.

  8. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mark S. [EnergySolutions: 140 Stoneridge Drive, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation and disposal regulations and criteria or if special authorizations must be granted to transport and/or dispose. The U.S. DOT routinely issues special permits for large components where compliance with regulatory or acceptance criteria is impractical or impossible to meet. Transportation and disposal safety must be maintained even under special permits or authorizations. For example, if transported un-packaged, performance analysis must still be performed to assess the ability of the large component's outer steel shell to contain the internal radioactive contamination under normal transportation conditions and possibly incidence normal to transportation. The dimensions and weight of a large component must be considered when determining the possible modes of transportation (rail, water, or highway). At some locations, rail and/or barge access is unavailable. Many locations that once had an active rail spur to deliver new construction materials and components have let the spur deteriorate to the point that repair and upgrade of the spur is no longer economically feasible. Barge slips that have not been used since new plant construction require significant repair and/or dredging. Short on-site haul routes must be assessed for surface and subsurface conditions, as well as longer off-site routes. Off-site routes require clearance approvals from the regulatory authorities or, in the case of rail transport, the rail lines. Significant engineering planning and analysis must be performed during the pre-mobilization. In conclusion, the packaging, transportation, and disposal of large, oversized radioactively contaminated components removed during plant decommissioning is complex. However, over the last 15 years, a 100 or more components have been safely and compliantly packaged and transported for processing and/or disposal.

  9. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have exhibited durability issues, stripping away under conditions less demanding than 750,000 miles in service on the road. Failed coatings compound the problem by contaminating the lubricant with hard particles. Under the most severe conditions, super finished surfaces may polish further, reaching a surface roughness unable to support the critical oil film thickness. Low viscosity and low friction lubricants may not protect the gears and bearings adequately leading to excessive pitting, wear and noise. Additives in low friction oils may not stay in solution or suspended thus settling to the bottom and unavailable when they are needed most. Technical barriers and risks can be overcome through engineering, but two barriers remain formidable: (1) cost of the technology and (2) convincing fleet owners that the technology provides a tangible benefit. Dry sumps lower lubricant operating temperatures so the removal of heat exchangers and hoses and reduced demand on engine cooling systems justify their use. The benefits of surface texturing are varied and remain unproven. Lubricant costs seem manageable, but the cost of super finishing and gear coating are high. These are issues of scale and processing technology. Going across the board with gear super finishing and coating will reduce costs. Pushing the envelope to applications with higher torque and higher power density should drive the adoption of these technologies. Fleet owners are an educated and seasoned lot. Only technology measureable in dollars returned is used on truck fleets. To convince fleet owners of the benefit of these technologies, new precision in measuring fuel efficiency must be introduced. Legislation for a minimum standard in truck miles per gallon would also enable the use of these technologies. Improving the efficiency of truck transmissions and axle will make a noticeable impact on the fuel consumption by heavy vehicles in the United States. However, the greatest benefit will come when all the individual efficiency technologies like hybrid power, aerodynamic fairings, auxiliary power units, super

  10. A Computational Approach to Understanding Aerosol Formation and Oxidant Chemistry in the Troposphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Dang, Liem X.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Du, Shiyu; Dixon, David A.; Bianco, Roberto; Wang, Shuzhi; Hynes, James T.; Morita, Akihiro; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of aerosol formation and ozone production in the troposphere is currently a high priority because these phenomena are recognized as two major effects of energy-related air pollution. Atmospheric aerosols are of concern because of their effect on visibility, climate, and human health. Equally important, aerosols can change the chemistry of the atmosphere, in dramatic fashion, by providing new chemical pathways (in the condensed phase) unavailable in the gas phase. The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inorganic compounds (e.g., sulfuric acid, ammonia, nitric acid, ions, and mineral) can produce precursor molecules that act as nucleation seeds. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP) has identified the need to evaluate the causes of variations in tropospheric aerosol chemical composition and concentrations, including determining the sources of aerosol particles and the fraction of such that are of primary and secondary origin. In particular, the ACP has called for a deeper understanding into aerosol formation because nucleation creates substantial concentrations of fresh particles that, via growth and coagulation, influence the Earth's radiation budget. Tropospheric ozone is also of concern primarily because of its impact on human health. Ozone levels are controlled by NOx and by VOCs in the lower troposphere. The VOCs can be either from natural emissions from such sources as vegetation and phytoplankton or from anthropogenic sources such as automobiles and oil-fueled power production plants. The major oxidant for VOCs in the atmosphere is the OH radical. With the increase in VOC emissions, there is rising concern regarding the available abundance of HOx species needed to initiate oxidation. Over the last five years, there have been four field studies aimed at initial measurements of HOx species (OH and HO? radicals). These measurements revealed HOx levels that are two to four times higher than expected from the commonly assumed primary sources. Such elevated abundances of HOx imply a more photochemically active troposphere than previously thought. This implies that rates of ozone formation in the lower region of the atmosphere and the oxidation of SO? can be enhanced, thus promoting the formation of new aerosol properties. Central to unraveling this chemistry is the ability to assess the photochemical product distributions resulting from the photodissociation of by-products of VOC oxidation. We propose to use state-of-the-art theoretical techniques to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of aerosol formation in multicomponent (mixed chemical) systems and the photochemistry of atmospheric organic species. The aerosol studies involve an approach that determines homogeneous gas-particle nucleation rates from knowledge of the molecular interactions that are used to define properties of molecular clusters. Over the past several years we developed Dynamical Nucleation Theory (DNT), a novel advance in the theoretical description of homogeneous gas-liquid nucleation, and applied it to gas-liquid nucleation of a single component system (e.g., water). The goal of the present research is to build upon these advances by extending the theory to multicomponent systems important in the atmosphere (such as clusters containing sulfuric acid, water, ions, ammonia, and organics). In addition, high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations will be used to unravel the chemical reactivity of the OH radical and water clusters.

  11. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) for low-level waste disposal facilities. In fulfillment of these requirements, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area burial grounds and the 200 West Area burial grounds. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area low-level burial grounds be written and approved by the Richland Operations Office. As a result of a record of decision for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Program and acceptance of the Hanford Site Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement, the use of the low-level burial ground (LLBG) as a disposal facility for low-level and mixed low-level wastes has been restricted to lined trenches and the Navy reactor-compartment trench only. Hence, as of July 2004, only the two lined trenches in burial ground 218-W-5 (trenches 31 and 34, see Appendix A) and the Navy reactor-compartment trench in burial ground 218 E 12B (trench 94) are allowed to receive waste. When the two lined trenches are filled, the LLBG will cease to operate except for reactor compartment disposal at trench 94. Remaining operational lifetime of the LLBG is dependent on waste volume disposal rates. Existing programs for air sampling and analyses and subsidence monitoring are currently adequate for performance assessment at the LLBG. The waste disposal authorization for the Hanford Site is based (in part) on the post-closure performance assessments for the LLBG. In order to maintain a useful link between operational monitoring (e.g., Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA], Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, and State Waste Discharge Permits), constituents, monitoring frequencies, and boundaries require regular review and comparison. The annual reports discussed here are the primary sources for these reviews. The pathways of interest are air and groundwater for both operational and post-closure conditions at the LLBG, with groundwater considered to be the most significant long-term exposure pathway. Constituents that contributed at least 0.1% of the total relative hazard were selected as target analytes for monitoring. These are technetium-99, uranium, and iodine-129. Because of its environmental unavailability, carbon 14 was removed from the list of constituents. Given the potential uncertainties in inventories at the 200 Area LLBG and the usefulness of tritium as a contaminant indicator, tritium will be monitored as a constituent of concern at all burial grounds. Preexisting contamination plumes in groundwater beneath low-level waste management areas are attributed to other past-practice liquid waste disposal sites. Groundwater and air will be sampled and analyzed for radiogenic components. Subsidence monitoring will also be performed on a regular basis. The existing near-facility and surveillance air monitoring programs are sufficient to satisfy the performance assessment monitoring. Groundwater monitoring will utilize the existing network of wells at the LLBG, and co-sampling with RCRA groundwater monitoring, to be sampled semiannually. Installation of additional wells is currently underway to replace wells that have gone dry.

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report, USDOE Award DE-FG-02ER54684, Recipient: CompX, Project Title: Fokker-Planck/Ray Tracing for Electron Bernstein and Fast Wave Modeling in Support of NSTX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.W. Harvey, CompX, Del Mar, CA 92014

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. Magnetic fusion, exemplified by confinement of very hot ionized gases, i.e., plasmas, in donut-shaped tokamak vessels is a leading approach for this energy source. Thus far, a mixture of hydrogen isotopes has produced 10's of megawatts of fusion power for seconds in a tokamak reactor at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey. The research grant under consideration, ER54684, uses computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at PPPL. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak. CompX further developed and applied models for radiofrequency (rf) heating and current drive for applications to NSTX. These models build on a 30 year development of rf ray tracing (the all-frequencies GENRAY code) and higher dimensional Fokker-Planck rf-collisional modeling (the 3D collisional-quasilinear CQL3D code) at CompX. Two mainline current-drive rf modes are proposed for injection into NSTX: (1) electron Bernstein wave (EBW), and (2) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) modes. Both these current drive systems provide a means for the rf to access the especially high density plasma--termed high beta plasma--compared to the strength of the required magnetic fields. The CompX studies entailed detailed modeling of the EBW to calculate the efficiency of the current drive system, and to determine its range of flexibility for driving current at spatial locations in the plasma cross-section. The ray tracing showed penetration into NSTX bulk plasma, relatively efficient current drive, but a limited ability to produce current over the whole radial plasma cross-section. The actual EBW experiment will cost several million dollars, and remains in the proposal stage. The HHFW current drive system has been experimentally implemented on NSTX, and successfully drives substantial current. The understanding of the experiment is to be accomplished in terms of general concepts of rf current drive, and also detailed modeling of the experiment which can discern the various competing processes which necessarily occur simultaneously in the experiment. An early discovery of the CompX codes, GENRAY and CQL3D, was that there could be significant interference between the neutral beam injection fast ions in the machine (injected for plasma heating) and the HHFW energy. Under many NSTX experimental conditions, power which could go to the fast ions would then be unavailable for current drive by the desired HHFW interaction with electrons. This result has been born out by experiments; the modeling helps in understanding difficulties with HHFW current drive, and has enabled adjustment of the experiment to avoid interaction with neutral beam injected fast ions thereby achieving stronger HHFW current drive. The detailed physics modeling of the various competing processes is almost always required in fusion energy plasma physics, to ensure a reasonably accurate and certain interpretation of the experiment, enabling the confident design of future, more advanced experiments and ultimately a commercial fusion reactor. More recent work entails detailed investigation of the interaction of the HHFW radiation for fast ions, accounting for the particularly large radius orbits in NSTX, and correlations between multiple HHFW-ion interactions. The spherical aspect of the NSTX experiment emphasized particular physics such as the large orbits which are present to some degree in all tokamaks, but gives clearer clues on the resulting physics phenomena since competing physics effects are reduced.

  13. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

  14. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

  15. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  16. Energy Dense, Lighweight, Durable, Systems for Storage and Delivery of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacky Pruez; Samir Shoukry; Gergis William; Thomas Evans; Hermann Alcazar

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented in this report summarizes the current state-of-the-art in on-board storage on compressed gaseous hydrogen as well as the development of analysis tools, methods, and theoretical data for devising high performance design configurations for hydrogen storage. The state-of-the-art in the area of compressed hydrogen storage reveals that the current configuration of the hydrogen storage tank is a seamless cylindrical part with two end domes. The tank is composed of an aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers. Such a configuration was proved to sustain internal pressures up to 350 bars (5,000 psi). Finite-element stress analyses were performed on filament-wound hydrogen storage cylindrical tanks under the effect of internal pressure of 700 bars (10,000 psi). Tank deformations, stress fields, and intensities induced at the tank wall were examined. The results indicated that the aluminum liner can not sustain such a high pressure and initiate the tank failure. Thus, hydrogen tanks ought to be built entirely out of composite materials based on carbon fibers or other innovative composite materials. A spherical hydrogen storage tank was suggested within the scope of this project. A stress reduction was achieved by this change of the tank geometry, which allows for increasing the amount of the stored hydrogen and storage energy density. The finite element modeling of both cylindrical and spherical tank design configurations indicate that the formation of stress concentration zones in the vicinity of the valve inlet as well as the presence of high shear stresses in this area. Therefore, it is highly recommended to tailor the tank wall design to be thicker in this region and tapered to the required thickness in the rest of the tank shell. Innovative layout configurations of multiple tanks for enhanced conformability in limited space have been proposed and theoretically modeled using 3D finite element analysis. Optimum tailoring of fiber orientations and lay-ups are needed to relieve the high stress in regions of high stress concentrations between intersecting tanks/ tank sections. Filament winding process is the most suitable way for producing both cylindrical and spherical hydrogen storage tanks with high industrial quality. However, due to the unavailability of such equipment at West Virginia University and limited funding, the composite structures within this work were produced by hand layup and bag molding techniques. More advanced manufacturing processes can significantly increase the structural strength of the tank and enhances its performance and also further increase weight saving capabilities. The concept of using a carbon composite liner seems to be promising in overcoming the low strength of the aluminum liner at internal high pressures. This could be further enhanced by using MetPreg filament winding to produce such a liner. Innovative designs for the polar boss of the storage tanks and the valve connections are still needed to reduce the high stress formed in these zones to allow for the tank to accommodate higher internal pressures. The Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) approach was applied for fault-tolerant design and efficient maintenance of lightweight automotive structures made of composite materials. Potential effects of damage initiation and accumulation are formulated for various design configurations, with emphasis on lightweight fiber-reinforced composites. The CDM model considers damage associated with plasticity and fatigue.

  17. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  18. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Holz, Barbara A [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Goldenberg, nancy G [Carey & Co; Ashbaough, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the summer of 2011. It was discovered that major modifications to the terrain have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to the tests and experiments, and construction of drill pads and retention ponds. Six large trenches for exploring across the Boundary geologic fault are also present. The U15 Complex, designated historic district 143 and site 26NY15177, is eligible to the National Register of Historic Places under Criteria A, C, and D of 36 CFR Part 60.4. As a historic district and archaeological site eligible to the National Register of Historic Places, the Desert Research Institute recommends that the area defined for the U15 Complex, historic district 143 and site 26NY15117, be left in place in its current condition. The U15 Complex should also be included in the NNSS cultural resources monitoring program and monitored for disturbances or alterations.

  19. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron microscopy techniques in strongly correlated electron systems and nanostructured materials. As a first step, with the support of Materials Science Division, Office of Basic Energy Science, US Department of Energy, and the New York State Office of Science, Technology, and Academic Research, recently we acquired three aberration-corrected electron microscopes from the three major microscope manufacturers, i.e., JEOL, Hitachi, and FEI. The Hitachi HD2700C is equipped with a probe corrector, the FEI Titan 80-300 has an imaging corrector, while the JEOL2200MCO has both. All the correctors are of the dual-hexapole type, designed and manufactured by CEOS GmbH based on the design due to Rose and Haider [3, 18]. All these three are one-of-a-kind in the US, designed for specialized capabilities in characterizing nanoscale structure. In this chapter, we review the performance of these state-of-the art instruments and the new challenges associated with the improved spatial resolution, including the environment requirements of the laboratory that hosts these instruments. Although each instrument we describe here has its own strengths and drawbacks, it is not our intention to rank them in terms of their performance, especially their spatial resolution in imaging.

  20. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal loads can be tolerated. During the solar swing-by, much more power will be produced by the solar panels, allowing the spacecraft's velocity to be increased significantly. The outbound leg of the journey can, therefore, be made much more quickly than with the classical trajectory. For the purposes of a Jupiter mission, it is assumed that 20 km/sec total delta-v would be required. For a payload envelope of 17,304 kg, a 1,900 sec Isp capability means that 11,386 kg of propellant would have to be consumed, leaving 5,917 kg for the mass of the probe plus dry mass of the upper stage. The thruster subsystem would require 765 kg of thruster subsystem mass, and probably less. Assuming tanks, regulators and valves amount to 10% of the propellant mass (very likely a pessimistic assumption), it is possible to assign a mass of 1,150 kg for the tankage subsystem. This results in a mass allowance of at least 4,000 kg for the probe. This compares favorably with the dry mass of 1,637 kg for Galileo, for example, and suggests that more than adequate margin exists. If the payload margin is used for battery storage, flyby missions to the outer planets may be possible.

  1. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.; Franklin, M.R. [University of Central Florida, P.O. Box. 162450, Orlando, FL, 32816-2450 (United States); Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R. [Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - 22795-090 (Brazil); Sharma, V. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Daly, L.J. [Ferrate Treatment Technologies, LLC, 6432 Pine Castle Blvd. Unit 2C, Orlando, FL, 32809 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redox potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to treating acid mining drainage generating materials. The objective of the present study was to investigate a methodology of preventing the generation of acid drainage by applying ferrate (VI) to acid generating materials prior to the disposal in impoundments or piles. Oxidizing the pyritic material in mining waste could diminish the potential for acid generation and its related environmental risks and long-term costs at disposal sites. The effectiveness of toxic metals removal from acid mine drainage by applying ferrate (VI) is also examined. Preliminary results presented in this paper show that the oxidation of pyrite by ferrate is a first-order rate reaction in Fe(VI) with a half-life of about six hours. The stability of Fe(VI) in water solutions will not influence the reaction rate in a significant manner. New low-cost production methods for making liquid ferrate on-site makes this technology a very attractive option to mitigate one of the most pressing environmental problems in the mining industry. (authors)

  2. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake is subjected to pressure for a short time, the free water present is released from the filter cake. Laboratory studies have shown that depending on the coal type a filter cake containing about 15% moisture could be obtained using the two-stage filtration technique. It was also noted that applying intermittent breaks in vacuum force during cake formation, which disturbed the cake structure, helped in removing moisture from the filter cakes. In this project a novel approach of cleaning coal using column flotation was also developed. With this approach the feed capacity of the column is increased significantly, and the column was also able to recover coarser size coal which usually gets lost in the process. The outcome of the research benefits the coal industry, utility industry, and indirectly the general public. The benefits can be counted in terms of clean energy, cleaner environment, and lower cost power.

  3. Impact of a Mixed Oxide’s Surface Composition and Structure on Its Adsorptive Properties: Case of the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) Termination of the ?-(Fe,Cr)2O3(0001) Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of an ?-(Fe0.75,Cr0.25)2O3(0001) mixed oxide single crystal surface was conducted using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). After sputter/anneal cleaning in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), the mixed oxide surface became terminated with a magnetite-(111) structure based on the presence of (2x2) spots in LEED and Fe2+ in XPS. The composition of the surface was close to that of M3O4 based on XPS, with the metal (M) content of Fe2+/3+ and Cr3+ being close to 1.4:1, despite the fact that the film’s bulk was 3:1 with respect to the metal cations. The enrichment of the surface with Cr was not altered by high temperature oxidation in UHV, but could be returned to that of the bulk film composition by exposure to the ambient. Adsorption of various probe molecules (NO, O2, CO2 and H2O) was used to identify the active cation sites present in the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) terminated surface. Although XPS and SIMS both indicated that the near-surface region was enriched in Cr3+, no adsorption states typically associated with Cr3+ sites on ?-Cr2O3 single crystal surfaces were detected. Instead, the TPD behaviors of O2 and CO2 pointed toward the main active sites being Fe2+ and Fe3+, with O2 preferentially adsorbing at the former and CO2 at the latter. NO was observed to bind at both Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites, and H2O TPD looked nearly identical to that for H2O on the Fe3O4(111) surface. Competition for adsorption sites between coadsorbed combinations of CO2, O2, H2O and NO corroborated these assignments. These results indicate that the surface composition of a mixed oxide can vary significantly from its bulk composition depending on the treatment conditions. Even then, the surface composition does not necessarily provide direct insight into the active adsorption sites. In the case of the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) termination of the ?-(Fe0.75,Cr0.25)2O3(0001) surface, Cr3+ cations in the near-surface region appear to be fully coordinated and unavailable for adsorbing molecules. The authors thank Drs. Sara Chamberlin and Scott Chambers for supplying the film used in this work. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, April Z [Northeastern University; Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern Univeristy

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell-surface interactions is essential for the field. To tackle this, we have developed a number of new Bio-nanomechanical techniques, including reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) and bio-AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), for cell adhesion-detachment measurement of the long-range surface interactions, in combination with mathematical modeling, which would allow us to characterize the mechanical behavior from single cell to multi-cell aggregate, critical thresholds for large scale coaggregation and transportation of cells and aggregates in the presence of long range inter-surface forces etc. Although some technical and mathematical challenges remain, the preliminary results promise great breakthrough potential. In this study, we investigated the cellular surface characteristics of representative bio-remediating microorganisms relevant to DOE IFRC (Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenges) sites and their transport behaviors in porous media, aiming to draw a groundbreaking correlation between the micro-scale genetic and biological origin-based cell surface properties, the consequent mechanical adhesion and aggregation behaviors, and the macro-scale microbial mobility and retention in porous media, which are unavailable in the literature. The long-term goal is to significantly improve the mechanistic and quantitative understanding of microbial mobility, sorption, and transport within reactive transport models as needed to manipulate subsurface contaminant fate and transport predictions.

  5. Summary of Booster Development and Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francois, Elizabeth G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harry, Herbert H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartline, Ernest L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, Daniel E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Novak, Alan M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, Kyle J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanders, Victor E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, Christina A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lorenz, Thomas [LLNL; Wright, Mark [AWE; Botcher, Tod [PANTEX; Marx, Erin [NSWC-IHDIV; Gibson, Kevin [NSWC-IHDIV

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines booster development work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory from 2007 to present. The booster is a critical link in the initiation train of explosive assemblies, from complex devices like nuclear weapons to conventional munitions. The booster bridges the gap from a small, relatively sensitive detonator to an insensitive, but massive, main charge. The movement throughout the explosives development community is to use more and more insensitive explosive components. With that, more energy is needed out of the booster. It has to initiate reliably, promptly, powerfully and safely. This report is divided into four sections. The first provides a summary of a collaborative effort between LANL, LLNL, and AWE to identify candidate materials and uniformly develop a testing plan for new boosters. Important parameters and the tests required to measure them were defined. The nature of the collaboration and the specific goals of the participating partners has changed over time, but the booster development plan stands on its own merit as a complete description of the test protocol necessary to compare and qualify booster materials, and is discussed in its entirety in this report. The second section describes a project, which began in 2009 with the Department of Defense to develop replacement booster formulations for PBXN-7. Replacement of PBXN-7 was necessary because it contained Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), which was becoming unavailable to the DoD and because it contained Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), which was sensitive and toxic. A LANL-developed explosive, Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF), was an important candidate. This project required any replacement formulation be a drop-in replacement in existing munitions. This project was timely, in that it made use of the collaborative booster development project, and had the additional constraint of matching shock sensitivity. Additionally it needed to be a safety improvement, and a performance improvement, especially at cold temperatures. The requirements of this project necessitated novel test development and a different approach to ranking booster qualities. Results of this project have been documented to the DoD and the relevant portions are included within. The third section of this booster report outlines testing related to main charge initiation merit. Initiability can be evaluated by looking at critical diameter, run distance, and shock sensitivity. Once a booster is initiated, it needs to be powerful enough to initiate the main charge symmetrically and evenly. Main charge initiability is evaluated directly by observing detonation wave symmetry, curvature, and first break out over the surface of a charge. Furthermore it must be insensitive to accidents and insults, and safe and reliable across a range of temperatures. These effects, tests, and results will be discussed individually in the context of DAAF and other explosives similarly tested. The last section provides a conclusion and summary of our experimental work and recommendations for the path forward. References and additional supporting documentation and results are provided in the appendices at the end of this report.

  6. Special population planner, version 4.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Tanzman, E.; Metz, W.

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergencies happen every day. Many are caused by storms or auto accidents and can be planned for, if not predicted. Emergencies resulting from natural hazards often affect a large number of people, and planning for them can be difficult, since knowledge of the needs of the people involved is generally unavailable. Emergencies resulting from accidents at industrial and military facilities can also be large scale in nature if people must be evacuated or sheltered in place. Federal planning for large scale emergencies is the responsibility of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which provides assistance to various emergency management agencies at the national, state and local level. More information about FEMA is available at http://www.fema.gov/. The purpose of the Special Population Planner (SPP) is to help emergency planners address the needs of persons with special needs. The exact definition of 'special population' is a policy decision. Policymakers have included a variety of groups in this term, such as persons with disabilities, those who do not have vehicles with which to evacuate, children who are unattended at times (latchkey children), and many others. The SPP was developed initially for the Alabama Emergency Management Agency as part of its Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), which aids emergency planning and preparedness in communities surrounding military installations across the United States where chemical weapons are stored pending their destruction under federal law. Like that specialized application, this open-source version contains a set of specialized Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to facilitate emergency planning on behalf of persons with special needs, regardless of how the term is defined. While the original SPP system was developed for emergency planning relating to chemical hazards, it can be applied to other threats as well. It is apparent from Hurricane Katrina and other natural and man-made disasters that many of the problems posed by emergency planning for a chemical weapons agent release are shared by other hazards as well. The notion that emergency planning shares common functions underlies the decision by FEMA to include the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) in its 'all-hazards' planning approach. The CSEPP's official planning guidance operationalizes this approach by suggesting that state and local CSEPP emergency plans 'should be appended to the existing all-hazards emergency plan.' The SPP is programmed as a set of tools within an ESRI ArcMap 9.1 project. ArcMap is a component of both ESRI ArcGIS 9.1 and ESRI ArcView 9.1, and it provides a rich GIS user interface for viewing spatial and tabular data, analyzing it, and producing output reports and maps. This GIS interface has been augmented with the SPP tools for a user interface that provides custom functionality for emergency planning. The system as released also includes some hypothetical example records for special needs populations, facilities, resources, control points and sirens sufficient for showing how the system would work with real information. A GIS database is included with some publicly available example layers. The SPP is designed to support emergency planners as they address emergency management issues, and includes capabilities that support the collection and importing of data, the review of data in a spatial context, and GIS tools for emergency planning. The SPP system allows for the identification and categorization of response zones to allow for multiple levels of preparedness. An Immediate Response Zone (IRZ) might be designated as the area 0 to 10 miles from a facility where the response would be the most urgent. SPP can support more than one set of planning zones to accommodate different types of emergencies or the different jurisdictions of emergency response organizations. These areas can be delineated by any number of criteria that make sense for the area. An area like New Orleans might designate response zones based on the depth above/below s

  7. In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Studies of Complex Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yelon, William B.

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The thrust of this project was to investigate the structures of important materials with potential application to hydrogen storage, in an effort to meet the DOE goals for 2010 and 2015, namely 9% (wt) and 15% (wt) respectively. Unfortunately, no material has been found, despite the efforts of many laboratories, including our own, that achieves these goals in a reversible complex hydride such as ammonia borane (NH{sub 4}BH{sub 4}), and other ammonia based compounds, or with light hydrides such as LiBH{sub 4}, due either to their irreversibility or to the high decomposition temperatures and residual simple hydrides such as LiH from the decomposition of the last named compound. Nevertheless, several important technical goals have been accomplished that could be valuable to other DOE programs and would be available for collaborative research. These include the development of a high quality glove box with controlled (low) oxygen and water content, which we continue to employ for the synthesis of potential new materials (unfunded research) and the development of a high quality neutron diffraction furnace with controlled gas environment for studies of hydrogen uptake and loss as well as for studies with other gasses. This furnace was initially constructed with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) center tube to contain the sample and the flowing gas. The heaters are located in the vacuum space outside the tube and it was found that, for the low temperatures required for the study of hydrogen storage materials, the heat transfer was too poor to allow good control. At temperatures in excess of about 400C (and up to more than 1200C) the heat transfer and control are excellent. For the lower temperatures, however, the center tube was replaced by stainless steel and temperature control to 1C became possible. The paired heaters, above and below the neutron beam window allowed control of the temperature gradient to a similar precision. The high temperature capability of the furnace should make it a very valuable resource for the study of oxides being considered for application to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), in that materials can be studied at potential operating temperatures in both reducing and oxidizing environments to determine their stoichiometry, and lattice parameters. Our research, which was predicated, in part, on the use of hydrogenous samples (as opposed to deuteration), demonstrated that such studies are feasible and can yield high quality, refinable data. The precision of the refined hydrogen positions appears to be more than adequate for theory calculations (molecular modeling-thermodynamics) and the uncertainty is certainly less than that achieved by attempting to extrapolate the hydrogen positions from refined deuterium positions. In fact the 2008 annual report from the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL), the world's premier neutron scattering laboratory, highlights: Another trend is the increasing interest in hydrogen. This defies the widespread assumption that neutron diffraction experiments need to be done at deuterated samples. In situ experiments on phase transitions involving hydrogen and in particular on the real time behaviour of hydrogen-storage systems increase in number and scope. Our work in this area predates the ILL efforts be several years. Unfortunately, the productivity of our program was significantly curtailed by the unavailability of the MURR powder diffractometer for almost all of the second years of the project. The diffractometer was disassembled to allow partial extraction of the beam tube and replacement of the graphite element that is penetrated by the beam tube. Re-commissioning of the instrument was substantially delayed by errors of the MURR engineering staff, which failed to properly reinstall the sapphire filter that conditions the beam prior to the neutron monochromator, and reduces the radiological background to acceptable levels.

  8. High Performing Hospital Enterprise Architecture: Insights from a Multi-method Exploratory Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Jorge F.

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The US healthcare system is a critical infrastructure grappling with as much as 16% of the GDP in its expenditures and unsatisfactory outcomes, and undergoing considerable public scrutiny. High ranking officials have both ...

  9. Click to edit Master subtitle style Beijing Traffic Jam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    , coal trucks, construction · Solutions: Railroad, Straddle bus, Transport energy #12;12/10/10 Questions · Foreign investment increase · GDP · Development · Challenge: environment · Goal: energy #12;12/10/10 Potential Solutions #12;12/10/10 Solution: Railroads "Specialrailwayshouldbebuilttotransportcoalfrom Inner

  10. automatic fiscal stabilisers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This paper examines the long term profile of fiscal deficit and debt relative to GDP in India, with a view to analysing debt-deficit sustainability issues along with the...

  11. China's energy intensity and its determinants at the provincial level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy consumed per dollar of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The People's Republic of China's (China's) energy intensity has been declining significantly since the late 1970s. ...

  12. Income and Health Spending: Evidence from Oil Price Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    Health expenditures as a share of GDP in the United States have more than tripled over the past half-century. A common conjecture is that this is a consequence of rising income. We investigate this hypothesis by instrumenting ...

  13. Homebased healthcare : issues and challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagpure, Prashant

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Healthcare costs in United States are projected to rise to 20% of GDP by 2015. This is a cause of major concern and current political debate. The largest contributor to this cost is the hospital cost accounting for 30 % ...

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility, Its Limits and Opportunities for Mexico’s Development. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega Cárdenas, Jorge Adolfo

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to explore the opportunities and limitations of Corporate Social Responsibility to improve Mexico’s development. This country is the 11th most relevant economy in terms of its GDP, however it has about ...

  15. Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and with universal emissions trading, assuming transparentpermits under an emission trading system are used to promoteGDP in 2012 without emissions trading, and 0.1-1.1% lower

  16. EMEF DMC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GDP :MMES MMUS NCS OSHA PGDP PORTS RCW S&M USEC EFS-95-002 ACRONYMS decontamination and decommissioning Department ofEnergy environmental safety and health gaseous diffusion...

  17. If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind and solar - what does it do to my GDP and Trade Balance ? Home I think that the economics of fossil fuesl are well...

  18. Determinants of energy intensity in industrialized countries : a comparison of China and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Feiya

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of final energy per unit of economic output (usually in terms of gross domestic product, or GDP), known as energy intensity, is often used to measure the effectiveness of energy use and the consumption patterns ...

  19. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    share spent on services rising mainly as a result of increasing expenditures on health care. The share of GDP devoted to business fixed investment ranges from 10 percent to 17...

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    share spent on services rising mainly as a result of increasing expenditures on health care. The share of GDP devoted to business fixed investment ranges from 10 percent to 17...

  1. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    GDP declined on average by 1.9% per year, in large part because of shifts within the economy from manufactured goods to the service sectors, which use relatively less energy per...

  2. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Intensity Figure DataThe energy intensity of the U.S. economy, measured as primary energy use (in Btu) per dollar of GDP (in 2005 dollars), declines by 40 percent from 2009 to 2035...

  3. Paducah Remediation DE-AC30-10CC40020 PART I - THE SCHEDULE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    issued as POEF-090-95-050 GDP Lease) Lease Agreement Between The U.S. Department of Energy And The United States Enrichment Corporation, July 1, 1993 C.1.1 Groundwater...

  4. The Causes of Trade Globalization: A Political-Economy and World-Systems Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Roy

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GDP Dynamics: Kondratieff Waves, Kuznets Swings, Jugular andPolitics 28: 317-347. Kuznets, Simon S. 1941. ?Schumpeter‘sProminent economist Simon Kuznets rejects K-waves and offers

  5. L'effet des transferts migratoires sur la dforestation dans les pays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    le PIB par tête s'avère contraire à l'hypothèse de courbe environnementale de Kuznets, tandis que la not support the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve, while the share of remittances in GDP reduces

  6. Energy and the Evolution of World-Systems: Fueling Power and Environmental Degradation, 1800-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Kirk Steven

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    percentage of world energy consumption over the two decades,82 percent of total world energy consumption, as produced byof world GDP % of world energy consumption As is common in

  7. Quality Adjustment for Health Care Spending on Chronic Disease: Evidence from Diabetes Treatment, 1999–2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggleston, Karen N

    Although US health care expenditures reached 17.6 percent of GDP in 2009, quality measurement in this important service sector remains limited. Studying quality changes associated with 11 years of health care for patients ...

  8. Enabling long term value added partnership in the healthcare industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duarte Oliveira, Jorge Miguel dos Santos Fradinho

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The USA healthcare industry has recently undergone significant pressure to become competitive and think innovatively due to its increased growth as a percentage of the GDP, which was as much as 14. 1% in 2001. Additionally ...

  9. Site Acquisition Description/ Category Contracting Office Solicitation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FPCPAF 20-40M 312014 3102014 3102014 11142014 1152015 3302015 PPPO GDP DUF6 https:www.emcbc.doe. govSEBDUF6 EMCBC Unrestricted CPAFFP 490-530M 4282015 4...

  10. The political economy of electricity market liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    science. As a final point, the study suggests that EU or OECD membership, the existence of electricity market reform idea, population density, electricity consumption, income level, educational level, imports of goods and services (as % of GDP) and country...

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE US-CHINA TRADE Henry Bowen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    is in the midst of economic change Economic future uncertain for Chinese households Massive incentives to save, declined from 47% of GDP to 36% in past 10 years #12;CASE STUDY 3 recent changes to China's economic

  12. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commerial energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judson, Ruth A.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.

    To deepen understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors to per-capita GDP. Panel ...

  13. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No.4 Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario towe projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-relatedcrises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP ( T P E S / G D

  14. Economic development and the structure of the demand for commerial energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judson, Ruth A.

    To deepen the understanding of the relation between economic development and energy demand, this study estimates the Engel curves that relate per-capita energy consumption in major economic sectors to per-capita GDP. Panel ...

  15. The Economic and Policy Consequences of Catastrophes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    How likely is a catastrophic event that would substantially reduce the capital stock, GDP, and wealth? How much should society be willing to pay to reduce the probability or impact of a catastrophe? We answer these questions ...

  16. Essays on the stock market's reaction to macroeconomic news

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenesizoglu, Tolga

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    topapadakis (2002) use a GARCH model of daily equity returnsGDP announcements using a simple GARCH framework for dailybe able to account for GARCH-type behavior of condi- tional

  17. Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometrics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xiaoyu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has ...

  18. Report: An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Case...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94,3565.775391,3754.245117,3952.363281,4149.89502,4369.788574,4597.428223,4843.846191 "Energy Intensity" " (thousand Btu per 2000 dollar of GDP)" " Delivered Energy",6.45164299,6.4...

  19. Report: An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Case...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,3529.548828,3709.913818,3898.838379,4086.605469,4288.022461,4495.833008,4718.956055 "Energy Intensity" " (thousand Btu per 2000 dollar of GDP)" " Delivered Energy",6.45164299,6.4...

  20. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DFF&O, the evaluation and selection of response actions to conduct D&D activities for support buildings at the PORTS GDP will be conducted in accordance with requirements for...

  1. Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Wagner, Gernot

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of extraction value to GDP by mineral. BAU Guyanafor each mineral, which have the highest ratio of extractionof the mineral is given by E(t), the total extraction ?ow in

  2. The Ocean and Coastal Economy: A Summary of Statistics For more information, please contact PPI.SocialSci@noaa.gov, see page 3 for pocket version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Offshore Mineral Resources · Tourism and Recreation When to Use: Use Ocean Economy statistics to describe Counties were considered as an individual country, they would rank #3 in global GDP (behind only the U

  3. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Supply Modeling Package EFOM-12C Mark 1 MathematicalGDP GHG GOI DOE DRI EAF EC EFOM EIA EPA EPPA ER ET IBM IEAclosed market, for example EFOM (Energy Flow Optimization

  4. Covalent Hydration Energies for Purine Analogs by Quantum Chemical Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beal, Peter A.

    -containing system, a split basis set was used as follows: 6-311G(d,p) was used for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (PSC) programs) Contract/grant sponsor: NIH; contract/grant number

  5. MEASURING THE GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE CIRCULATION WITH SATELLITE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    topography. Using the GDP, along with long time series current meter moorings and numerous ship acoustic, ocean yachting, search and rescue, pollution monitoring, etc.) This paper describes the state

  6. Partisanship and Economic Policies in Developing Countries during Dismal Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Julia Hyeyong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    161 Figure 5.28. Uruguay: Fiscal Deficits as % GDP (1980-164 Figure 5.29. Uruguay: Social Protection vs. Education2006)………165 Figure 5.30. Uruguay: Ratio of Social Protection

  7. The development of the contested city form of Shenzhen, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Hao, 1978-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The population of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone has exploded, within twenty-three years, from thirty thousand to 4.7 million with average 28 percent annual per capita GDP increase. What city forms have been sustaining ...

  8. Macroeconomic Activity Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    explain the growth in GDP: the growth rate of nonfarm employment and the rate of productivity change associated with employment. As Table 2.1 indicates, in the Reference case,...

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Source

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Figure 58. Average annual growth rates of real GDP, labor force, and nonfarm labor productivity in three cases, 2010-2035 figure data AEO2012 presents three views of U.S. economic...

  10. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    explain the growth in GDP: the growth rate of nonfarm employment and the rate of productivity change associated with employment. As Table 2.1 indicates, in the Reference case,...

  11. Site Acquisition Description/ Category Contracting Office Solicitation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    25M-50M 10292014 1202015 9152014 3312015 582015 Oct-Dec 2015 PPPO GDP DUF6 https:www.emcbc.doe. govSEBDUF6 EMCBC Unrestricted CPAFFP 490-530M 4282015 4...

  12. Enduse Global Emissions Mitigation Scenarios (EGEMS): A New Generation of Energy Efficiency Policy Planning Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on patterns of energy consumption, trends in saturation andenergy consumption to economic (GDP) growth according to historical trends,Energy consumption of new stock is calculated according to efficiency trends

  13. Quercus palustris (Cultivated) 3 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, family businesses are at the heart of entrepreneurship, accounting for approximately 59% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and employing 58% of the workforce. Given their overwhelming ...

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in U.S. real GDP and oil consumption, 1949-2006. slope =Historical Chinese oil consumption and projection of trend.1991-2006: Chinese oil consumption in millions of barrels

  15. IT adoption in hospitals : social networking, governance and the clockspeed of change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samarth, Chandrika N. (Chandrika Nayantara)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The healthcare industry is expanding swiftly and total healthcare expenditures are expected to reach 18% of GDP by 2008. However there exist steep variances in quality of care and high incidences of medical error. This has ...

  16. Microsoft Word - FY14 AF One-Page Score Card through Mod 133...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fee Plan for Fluor-B&W Portsmouth, LLC; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D), Revision 2, dated May 13, 2014 Award Fee Available:...

  17. Lessons for China from a comparison of logistics in the U.S. and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Ming, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Logistics efficiency is low in China. In 2008, total logistics costs accounted for 18.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) in China, which was almost twice that of the United States. Increasing logistics efficiency can save ...

  18. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    43 International trends in CO2 emissions and GDP per capita,53 Figure 62 Transport CO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by54 Figure 63 AIS EV Change in CO2 Emissions Relative to

  19. A cross country analysis of electricity market reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    have lower fertility rates and higher ratios of physical investment to GDP. The study uncovers that growth is inversely related to the share of government consumption in GDP but insignificantly related to the share of public investment, EPRG WP 1216... , Carlos Bastos, Secretary of Energy between 1991-96, led the privatisation of the electricity sector within the general policy framework of the Minister of Economy. Bastos was formerly an electrical engineer, researcher and a consultant on electricity...

  20. Executive summaries of reports leading to the construction of the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.; Westermeier, J.F.; Giroux, H.D.; Lowe, G.D.; Nienberg, M.W.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive summaries have been written for 61 reports and compilations of data which in part, have led to the construction of the Baca 50 MW Geothermal Demonstration Project (GDP). The reports and data include environmental research, reservoir and feasibility studies, the project proposal to DOE and the Final Environmental Impact Statement. These executive summaries are intended to give the reader a general overview of each report prior to requesting the report from the GDP Data Manager.

  1. Executive summaries of reports leading to the construction of the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.; Westermeier, J.F.; Giroux, H.D.; Lowe, G.D.; Nienberg, M.W.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive summaries have been written for 61 reports and compilations of data which, in part, have led to the construction of the Baca 50 MW Geothermal Demonstration Project (GDP). The reports and data include environmental research, reservoir and feasibility studies, the project proposal to DOE and the Final Environmental Impact Statement. These executive summaries are intended to give the reader a general overview of each report prior to requesting the report from the GDP Data Manager.

  2. The Natural Enrichment of Stable Cesium in Weathered Micaceous Materials and Its Implications for 137Cs Sorption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ELLIOTT, W CRAWFORD; KAHN, BERND; ROSSON, ROBERT; WAMPLER, J MARION; ROSE, SETH E; KROGSTAD, EIRIK J; KAPLAN, DANIEL; ZAUNBRECHER, LAURA

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this exploratory project, we are testing two interrelated hypotheses about the sorption of Cs within weathered micaceous materials in subsurface regolith materials from the Savannah River Site (SRS) located on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: 1) that stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes; and 2) that the Cs so present is sufficient to be a major factor determining the ability of the subsurface materials to take up and hold 137Cs. To test these hypotheses, we collected by hand augur soil samples corresponding to soils representative at the SRS: upland regolith (Fuquay series); soils formed on Tobacco Road Sandstone; and, soils formed on Quaternary Alluvium. From our data, the quantification of the amounts of stable cesium concentrated in various sites within 2:1 phyllosilicates by natural processes is highly relevant toward understanding the future sorption of 137Cs by the mica, illite, vermiculite, and hydroxyl interstratified vermiculite (HIV) phases present in the subsurface at and in proximity to SRS. Studying sorption and fixation of Cs in these micaceous phases�¢���� interlayers potentially leads to increased knowledge to the extent that stable Cs resists exchange with ion exchange cations (Mg, NH4, or even alkyl ammonium compounds) and to the extent that Cs can become fixed over the long term. Such knowledge will help in the development of 137Cs remediation strategies for the long-term, which is a critical aspect of the SBR goals. We characterized the mineralogy, K-Ar ages of the soil and soil clay fractions (before and after acid treatment), and alkali element chemistry (K, Rb, Cs) of the clay fractions of soils collected from these three different types of soils. The clay fractions of the Fuquay soils are composed of kaolinite, and hydroxy interstratified vermiculite (HIV). Kaolinite, HIV, quartz, gibbsite and illite are found in the quaternary soils. Leach experiments using 10% nitric acid and 50% nitric acid were performed on �¢���� 62 mesh fractions to show the amounts of Cs and Rb relative to K (Cs/K, Rb/K) that are exchangeable in these soils compared to Coastal Plain micas and upper continental crust. The Cs/K and Rb/K of the leachates are considerably higher relative to both upper continental crust and relative to weathered micas found in Georgia Coast Plain sediments. The K-Ar ages of the clay fractions of five different SRS soil series were ca. 320 Ma. After leaching with nitric acid, the ages of the soil clay fractions were approximately the same as the unleached soil clays. Based on the similarity of these ages to the ages of Coastal Plain micas, the K and Ar remaining after treatment is believed to be enclosed in a relect mica in the HIV phases in the soils. The HIV is likely a mica-HIV intergrade. Based on these data, stable cesium has become significantly enriched relative to potassium in subsurface micaceous particles as a result of chemical weathering processes in the SRS Fuquay soils studied thus far. Our data permit the interpretation describing the sorption of Cs and Rb in an apex site or in a hard to reach hard-to-exchange sorption site during pedogenesis. In terms of testing the second hypothesis, our work is ongoing and we report some preliminary data on Cs-137 and Rb-85 exchange experiments on select SRS Fuquay soils (-2 mm). Our isotopic equilibration experiments using Cs and Rb isotopes in separate exchange experiments show only small amounts of Cs and Rb in the original sample is exchangeable isotopically for a period of a few weeks in acidified conditions. The isotope exchange experiments provide support for our interpretation that pedogenically accumulated Cs (and Rb) occupy sites that are unavailable to exchange or exchange slowly in acid conditions corresponding to present conditions in SRS soils. In more basic solutions, greater exchange isotopic exchange is noted and suggests an expansion of interlay

  3. DISSOLUTION OF FISSILE MATERIALS CONTAINING TANTALUM METAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution of composite materials containing plutonium (Pu) and tantalum (Ta) metals is currently performed in Phase I of the HB-Line facility. The conditions for the present flowsheet are the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal in the 15 L dissolver using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) at 95 C for 4-6 h.[1] The Ta metal, which is essentially insoluble in HNO{sub 3}/fluoride solutions, is rinsed with process water to remove residual acid, and then burned to destroy classified information. During the initial dissolution campaign, the total mass of Pu and Ta in the dissolver charge was limited to nominally 300 g. The reduced amount of Pu in the dissolver charge coupled with significant evaporation of solution during processing of several dissolver charges resulted in the precipitation of a fluoride salt contain Pu. Dissolution of the salt required the addition of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) and a subsequent undesired 4 h heating cycle. As a result of this issue, HB-Line Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to optimize the dissolution flowsheet to reduce the cycle time, reduce the risk of precipitating solids, and obtain hydrogen (H{sub 2}) generation data at lower fluoride concentrations.[2] Using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material, we performed three experiments to demonstrate the dissolution of the Pu metal using HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.15 and 0.175 M KF. When 0.15 M KF was used in the dissolving solution, 95.5% of the Pu in the sample dissolved in approximately 6 h. The undissolved material included a small amount of Pu metal and plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) solids. Complete dissolution of the metal would have likely occurred if the dissolution time had been extended. This assumption is based on the steady increase in the Pu concentration observed during the last several hours of the experiment. We attribute the formation of PuO{sub 2} to the complexation of fluoride by the Pu. The fluoride became unavailable to catalyze the dissolution of PuO{sub 2} as it formed on the surface of the metal. The mass of Pu dissolved is equivalent to the dissolution of 343 g of Pu in the HB-Line dissolvers. In the initial experiment with 0.175 M KF in the solution, we achieved complete dissolution of the Pu in 6 h. The mass of Pu dissolved scales to the dissolution of 358 g of Pu in the HB-Line dissolvers. The second experiment using 0.175 M KF was terminated after approximately 6 h following the dissolution of 92.7% of the Pu in the sample; however, dissolution of additional Pu was severely limited due to the slow dissolution rate observed beyond approximately 4 h. A small amount of PuO{sub 2} was also produced in the solution. The slow rate of dissolution was attributed to the diminishing surface area of the Pu and a reduction in the fluoride activity due to complexation with Pu. Given time (>4 h), the Pu metal may have dissolved using the original solution or a significant portion may have oxidized to PuO{sub 2}. If the metal oxidized to PuO{sub 2}, we expect little of the material would have dissolved due to the fluoride complexation and the low HNO{sub 3} concentration. The mass of Pu dissolved in the second experiment scales to the dissolution of 309 g of Pu in the HB-Line dissolvers. Based on the data from the Pu/Ta dissolution experiments we recommend the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.175 M KF for the dissolution of 300 g of Pu metal in the 15 L HB-Line dissolver. A dissolution temperature of nominally 95 C should allow for essentially complete dissolution of the metal in 6 h. Although the H{sub 2} concentration in the offgas from the experiments was at or below the detection limit of the gas chromatograph (GC) used in these experiments, small concentrations (<3 vol %) of H{sub 2} are typically produced in the offgas during Pu metal dissolutions. Therefore, appropriate controls must be established to address the small H{sub 3} generation rates in accordance with this work and the earlier flowsheet demonstrated

  4. FINAL REPORT UFP RESTART AND SPARGER TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H; Michael Restivo, M

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Following a Design Basis Event (DBE), potential plugging of the PJM systems is highly probable after air compressors and/or electric power become unavailable for up to 100 hrs. Under such conditions, the rheologically bounding yield stress of the pretreated sludge simulant could reach 300-625 Pa. (Defined in WTP-RPP-100, Rev. 0, Sec. 6.1. [1] and WTP-RPP-98, Rev. 0, Secs. 5.1 and 5.2 [2].) The tests covered under this report are conservative since this range of bounding yield stress is based on the settled solids component in the tank. Also, note that CCN 065607 states that the design basis is 70 Pa for 'gelled material' over the entire tank. Three issues must be addressed by these tests: (1) Determine the required pressure and air flow to overcome the plugged sparger tube resistance following a DBE event. (2) Can the UFP PJMs be restarted with or without assistance from air spargers? (3) Show that solids can be mixed by air spargers following a DBE to allow generated hydrogen gas to rise and be vented to the vessel head space. This is to limit hydrogen concentrations below LFL level. In the first test, a full-scale sparger was simulated by a 2-inch dia. Schedule 160 pipe, installed in an 18-inch diameter plastic tank, 37-foot high (full scale height), 6-inch from the bottom. The bottom 5-ft. lower section was clear to facilitate visual observations. Two simulants were used: a 120 Pa Laponite solution and a 30 Pa/30 cP kaolin:bentonite clay mixture, which filled the tank to the 32-foot level. The first test with 120 Pa Laponite demonstrated breakthrough at an air pressure of 14.6 psig. The second test with the clay simulant resulted in breakthrough at 16.7 psig. Given the specific gravities of these simulants, the breakthrough pressures are very close to the hydrostatic pressures corresponding to the simulant elevations inside the sparger. The CRV test stand at the Engineering Development Laboratory, SRNL, was used to simulate the UFP at 1/4-scale, where the tank diameter was 40.5-inches. The simulant was a 30 Pa/30 cP kaolin:bentonite mixture loaded with 3.3 wt% dry laponite, which successfully achieved a 596 Pa yield stress (vane method) after 14 hrs. However, it apparently had a thicker consistency than the 30 Pa/30 cP rheology of real waste under flowing conditions. The vessel was filled to a H/D of 1.38 and the PJMs were initially filled to approximately full height (39-inch). During the initial drive phase, starting from the full PJM level, application of the same PJM air pressure during normal operation did push the gelled simulant the full travel distance. But on the refill or suction phase, the maximum simulant height in the PJM was only about a third (9.2-inch) of the original travel (27-inch). After 20 cycles of PJM operation only, air sparging, starting at 7 scfm, increasing to 10 scfm was introduced. This increased the PJM drive distance to a stable value of 64% of the full travel after 327 cycles. Visual observation suggests that the simulant was moving up and down as a solid plug and that the cavern may be very limited. Thus, air sparging did not reestablish full PJM operation, but this could be due to the higher consistency of the simulant as compared to the actual waste. A third test utilized 5 mm glass beads deposited at the bottom of the CRV vessel, which was filled with water. Enough glass beads were added to cover the tank bottom surface with a one-bead-thick layer. Based on empirical correlations, the glass beads simulate the behavior of solid particles in the waste. Two spargers were tested: a 2-inch dia. Sch. 160 pipe with straight end, and a 2-inch dia. Sch. 160 pipe with 4 (45 deg) notches around the perimeter, 3/4-inch deep. The objectives were to determine the required distance between the sparger end and the vessel bottom, air pressures, and air flows required to lift the glass beads off the vessel bottom. The test started with the spargers 6 inches from the bottom. For the flat faced sparger, no lifting was observed up to 50 scfm. Liftoff was observed only when the sparger end was 1-inch off

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A MUD-PULSE HIGH-TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT-WHILE-DRILLING (MWD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins; William Motion; Jay Martin

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall program objective is to develop a mud-pulse measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool for oil and gas drilling operations that can be used where downhole temperatures are as high as 195 C (383 F). The work was planned to be completed in two phases: Phase I and an optional Phase II. The objectives of Phase I were first to identify critical components of existing MWD systems that can or cannot operate at 195 C. For components not able to meet the higher standard, one of several strategies was pursued: (1) locate high-temperature replacement components, (2) develop new designs that eliminate the unavailable components, or (3) use cooling to keep components at acceptable operating temperatures (under 195 C). New designs and components were then tested under high temperatures in the laboratory. The final goal of Phase I was to assemble two high-temperature MWD prototype tools and test each in at least one low-temperature well to verify total system performance. Phase II was also envisioned as part of this development. Its objective would be to test the two new high-temperature MWD prototype tools in wells being drilled in the United States where the bottom-hole temperatures were 195 C (or the highest temperatures attainable). The high-temperature MWD tool is designed to send directional and formation data to the surface via mud pulses, to aid in the drilling of guided wellbores. The modules that comprise the tool are housed in sealed barrels that protect the electronics from exposure to down-hole fluids and pressures. These pressure barrels are hung inside a non-magnetic collar located above the drilling assembly. A number of significant accomplishments were achieved during the course of the Phase I project, including: (1) Tested two MWD strings for function in an oven at 195 C; (2) Conducted field test of prototype 195 C MWD tool (at well temperatures up to 140-180 C); (3) Tested ELCON hybrid chip with processor, clock, and memory in a custom package for 700 hours at 200 C; (4) Contracted with APS Technology to conduct study of thermoelectric cooling of downhole electronics; (5) Conducted successful Peltier cooling test with APS Technology; (6) Tested and improved the electronics of Sperry Sun's Geiger Muller-based gamma detector for operation at 195 C; (7) Developed two high-temperature magnetometers (one in-house, one with Tensor); and (8) Encouraged outside source to develop lithium/magnesium high-temperature batteries (operating temperature of 125 to 215 C). One of this project's greatest achievements was improvement in Sperry Sun's current tool with changes made as a direct result of work performed under this project. These improvements have resulted in longer life and a more robust MWD tool at the previous temperature rating of 175 C, as well as at higher temperatures. A field test of two prototype 195 C MWD tools was conducted in Lavaca County, Texas. The purpose of this operation was to provide directional services on a sidetrack of a straight hole. The sidetrack was to intersect the formation up-dip above the water/gas interface. In addition, the gamma tool provided formation data including seam tops and thickness. Results from these field tests indicate progress in the development of a 195 C tool. Although the pulsers failed downhole in both tools, failure of the pulsers was determined to be from mechanical rather than electrical causes. Analysis of the economics of the 195 C tool highlights the greatest obstacle to future commercialization. Costs to screen individual components, then subassemblies, and finally completed tools for high-temperature operations are very high. Tests to date also show a relatively short life for high-temperature tools--on the order of 300 hours. These factors mean that the daily cost of the tool will be higher (3 to 5 times more) than a conventional tool.

  6. The Global Impact of the Systemic Economies and MENA Business Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cashin, Paul; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in output of a given country associated with 1% decline in U.S. GDP, together with the 16th and 84th percentile error bands. Figure 3: Four Quarters Cumulated Impulse Responses of Oil Prices and Supply (a) Oil Price (b) Oil Supply Notes: Depicts annual... percent change in oil price and production associated with a negative/positive unit shock (equal to one standard error) to the GDP of corresponding economy or region, together with the 16th and 84th percentile error bands. These responses are based...

  7. Introduction to the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nearly half in the last quarter 0 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 United States Japan Germany China U.K. France Italy U.S. Manufacturing 2004 Nominal GDP, Billions Ranks as...

  8. Mapping the Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Alberta Oil & Gas Companies Source: InnovationAtlas #12;Mapping the Midwest's Future: Regional Innovation,000 11 GDP Growth Rate 2.0% 117 Life Expectancy 81 14 Urbanization 81% 47 Source: World Bank Top exports: Crude Oil & Bitumen $81.0B Motor Vehicles & Parts $68.1B Consumer Goods $52.1B Intermediate Metal

  9. "We are not in the loop" Resource Wastage and Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    #12;3 / 26 Commercial sector constitutes a significant share (9.89% in 2009-10) of Indian energy consumption IT organizations contribution to India's 2012 GDP was 7.5%` #12;4 / 26 HCI+Sustainability work has;9 / 26 Results Summary Scarcity, Learned Reactions, Money, Knowledge Energy, Water, Fuel, Paper, Food

  10. Logic-based Modeling and Solution of Nonlinear Discrete/Continuous Optimization Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Logic-based Modeling and Solution of Nonlinear Discrete/Continuous Optimization Problems Sangbum the authors have extensively investigated over the last few years. Solution strategies for GDP models. We first present a brief review of MILP and MINLP for the case when these problems are modeled

  11. Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    · Agriculture ­ ???? #12;7 CISAC February 25th, 2009 An increasing nuclear electricity demand #12;8 Area GDP of TPES Percent of World CO2 Emissions Oil 34 40 Coal 26 40 Natural Gas 21 20 Nuclear Power 6 0 of CO2 per year; gas gives 1/3 of coal, nuclear gives zero) · Transportation ­ Efficiency

  12. Welfare effects of natural disasters in developing countries: an examination using multi-dimensional socioeconomic indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    technologies that boosts growth. Though geophysical disasters might be expected to have a similar effect capital such as the destruction of schools and health care facilities that would not show in GDP, loss of key assets, disruption of health causing increases in child and maternal mortality and loss

  13. Housing and the Great Depression Mehmet Balcilar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Housing and the Great Depression Mehmet Balcilar Department of Economics Eastern Mediterranean Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada, 89154-6005 USA Abstract: This paper considers the role of the real housing between the real housing price and real GDP per capita. We test for structural change in parameter values

  14. FOREST PRODUCTS MARKET IN 2007 AND PROSPECTS FOR 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the industrial branches with important weights, out of which: the construction materials manufacturing of the agriculture to the GDP building decreased, this generating in the first half-year 2007 only 3.4 % from national wealth (3.6 % in the first semester 2006). An important weight in the GDS building, had

  15. Generalized Disjunctive Programming as a Systematic Modeling Framework to Derive Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    variables and constraints, but it may compromise computational performance. On the other hand, the convex hull reformulation is tighter, which generally helps to speed up the search procedure. GDP formulations. The best performer is, however, a multiple time grid model which can be derived from the convex hull

  16. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

  17. Identification and Characterization of the Arabidopsis Orthologs of Nuclear Transport Factor 2, the Nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Iris

    Identification and Characterization of the Arabidopsis Orthologs of Nuclear Transport Factor 2, the Nuclear Import Factor of Ran1 Qiao Zhao2 , Sara Leung2 , Anita H. Corbett, and Iris Meier* Plant Cellular, and nuclear envelope formation. Nuclear import of Ran relies on a small RanGDP-binding protein, Nuclear

  18. Optimal Synthesis of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences Using a Novel MILP Approach.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . Pittsburgh, PA. USA. Abstract This paper introduces a novel MILP approach for the design of distillation Column; Superstructure optimization; GDP. Introduction Distillation is the most widely used method distillation (TCD), in which heat is directly transferred between columns through two streams (liquid a vapor

  19. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cities identify areas for low-carbon development. ? Energyenergy or carbon intensity of a city can be a spatial measure, such as density per land area.energy or CO2 per unit GDP, city greenhouse gas emission inventory Aggregated relative indicators energy or CO2 per capita or per land area

  20. Challenges for implementing industrial policy in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leith, Kendra Sawyer

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although Mexico experienced high growth rates in the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s, the country has not fared well in terms of improvements in poverty and equality, growth in GDP, and job growth in some sectors in the last ...

  1. Environ Resource Econ (2007) 38:259284 DOI 10.1007/s10640-006-9078-z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for greenhouse gas emissions trading under uncertainty Frank Jotzo · John C. V. Pezzey Received: 22 June 2005 realized GDP, can cope with uncertainties in international greenhouse emissions trading. We present some complexity and other potential downsides of intensity targets. Keywords Climate policy · Emissions trading

  2. Explaining Long-Run Changes in the Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sue Wing, Ian.

    Recent events have revived interest in explaining the long-run changes in the energy intensity of the U.S. economy. We use a KLEM dataset for 35 industries over 39 years to decompose changes in the aggregate energy-GDP ...

  3. LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR TECHNIQUES FOR ESTIMATING THE MONEY DEMAND FUNCTION: THE CASE OF SAUDI ARABIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsahafi, Mamdooh

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    aggregates). The first approach is the conventional way, which is based on empirical literature where non-oil GDP is used as a measure for income. The second approach is the consumer demand approach to money demand. This approach emphasizes the use...

  4. Jobless Recovery: The New Economy? The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Business Cycle Dating Committee called

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Jobless Recovery: The New Economy? The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) Business Cycle in the economy have seen few signs of recovery, until the recent October employment release. The October figure months. So, what changes in the economy have altered the pattern of employment and real GDP movements

  5. The Ocean and Coastal Economy: A Summary of Statistics For more information, please contact linwood.pendleton@noaa.gov, see page 3 for pocket version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Ocean and Coastal Economy: A Summary of Statistics For more information, please contact linwood.pendleton@noaa.gov, see page 3 for pocket version Measures of the Ocean and Coastal Economy: 1.GDP (Gross Domestic Product. The Ocean Economy 1 The ocean economy is comprised of six economic sectors that depend on the oceans

  6. The Ocean and Coastal Economy: A Summary of Statistics For more information, please contact PPI.SocialSci@noaa.gov, see page 3 for pocket version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Ocean and Coastal Economy: A Summary of Statistics For more information, please contact PPI.SocialSci@noaa.gov, see page 3 for pocket version Measures of the Ocean and Coastal Economy: 1.GDP (Gross Domestic Product. The Coastal Economy 1 The Coastal economy is comprised of all economic activity that takes place

  7. 2004: A Breakout Year for the New Jersey Economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004: A Breakout Year for the New Jersey Economy? A s the fourth quarter of 2003 commenced. The broadest measure of the economy's performance, gross domestic product (GDP), grew by an explosive 7 Reserve pushes up interest rates to quell inflation--that kept the economy afloat, supported by a low

  8. Agriculture INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    1 Agriculture INTRODUCTION 1.1 Although its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has declined from over half at Independence to less than one-fifth currently, agriculture remains the predominant sector in it as the principal occupation. Agriculture still contributes significantly to export earnings and is an important

  9. Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    productive · Causes: farming, bush fires, fuel wood, wasteful logging practices, mining and quarrying #12;Fuelwood #12;Current Industry Structure · 8% of GDP · 250 companies involved in primary operations · 180 companies in secondary operations · Over 200 companies involved in tertiary operations · General

  10. Distinctly Ambitious www.hw.ac.uk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    of BP's Energy Outlook 2030, there is an ongoing need for a Statistical Review of global energy use. Results/impact The energy required to produce a unit of GDP is falling in most countries around the world with gains in energy efficiency, too. According to BP's "Energy Outlook 2030", globalisation will lead

  11. Quantifying the Impact of Daylight Saving Clock Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Simon I.

    Quantifying the Impact of Daylight Saving Clock Changes on Energy Consumption Simon I. Hill of Daylight Saving Clock Changes on Energy Consumption Simon I. Hill, Frédéric Desobry and Yu-Foong Chong May DST Daylight Saving Time EIA Energy Information Administration GDP Gross Domestic Product GMT

  12. THE BABCOCK INSTITUTEfor International Dairy Research and Development Authored by W.D. Dobson,Agribusiness Economist, Babcock Institute, wddobson@wisc.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    .S. dairy exports to China increased eleven-fold, from $22 to $237 million. In 2010, China displaced Japan the same period in 2010. While China's economy will not grow at the blis- tering, double-digit pace years. Combining this range in GDP growth with population projections and published income elasticities

  13. The Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation: Exploring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    and Questioning the Existence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve Advisor Brian Blais, PhD Professor of Science Kuznets Curve Turning Point Environmental Degradation Environmental Improvement Real GDP per capita://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2346173 Figure 1 in Paper #12;Literature · Kuznets curve first developed

  14. SUMMARY Recently published international rankings indicate that the perfor-mance gap between European and American universities is large and, in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marrucci, Lorenzo

    known that the European Union (EU) spends less than two percent of its GDP on research and development, is two-fold. First, Europe invests too little in higher education. Total public and private spending into average spending of less than 10,000 per student in EU25 versus more than 35,000 in the US. Second

  15. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  16. NSF Research Needs Workshop:NSF Research Needs Workshop:NSF Research Needs Workshop:NSF Research Needs Workshop:NSF Research Needs Workshop: Building Systems Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    construction and renovation each year, the building industry is over 13% of the United States GDP (NIST 1994 The Environmental Potential of Buildings & Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 3.1 Pollution REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts)), the building industry is at least one quarter of the economic

  17. Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008-9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008 of macroeconomic business cycles on six metals traded on the London Metal Exchange and oil prices. Reduced GDP oil prices (as a proxy for energy inputs in metals production) are derived. The estimated trend

  18. www.nwcouncil.org Fax: 503-820-2370 Bill Bradbury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deflator, 2012 PacifiCorp 1.90% Average of CPI and GDP deflator 2013 IRP Puget Sound Energy 2.50% CPI, 2011.90 Washington Puget Sound Energy Electric 7-May-12 9.80 Washington Puget Sound Energy Natural Gas 7-May-12 9

  19. PRS Final Paper Jeff Diebold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    of regulation. Finally, the team manipulated the model in various ways to assess how certain variables affect on GDP predicted by regulatory and other economic and social control 1 JLARC. Impact of Regulations the regression results of the international regulation model. TABLE ONE Regression Replication Independent

  20. Globalisation and Wage Differentials: A Spatial Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baddeley, Michelle; Fingleton, B

    equal to 2481, which is the 95th sample percentile from the Lx% distribution. There are 16 countries with initial GDP per worker below this conjectured lower root, so we infer from this that there is a 0.05 probability that up to 16 countries do...

  1. Output Growth and Its Volatility: The Gold Standard through the Great Moderation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    of real GDP growth and some form of a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH GARCH or exponential GARCH (EGARCH) process, capturing the movement in volatility. The neglect persistence in the conditional volatility or integrated GARCH (IGARCH). That is, typically all persistence

  2. Testimony of Dr. Rosanne Altshuler Professor, Department of Economics, Rutgers University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a projected budget deficit of 9.8 percent of GDP and its future growth is driven by rising health care costs the Committee on Ways and Means U.S. House of Representatives Hearing on Tax Reform and Consumption-Based Tax on Taxation, Chief Economist for the President's Advisory Panel on Federal Tax Reform in 2005, and Director

  3. Impact of the National School Lunch Program on Children's Food Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Xiang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. is the world's largest economy, accounting for about 20% of world Gross Domestic Product (GDP). With a high income and a mature welfare system, households in the U.S. should have enough food and healthy diets, especially for children...

  4. Temporal Causality between House Prices and Output in the U. S.: A Bootstrap Rolling-Window Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    1 Temporal Causality between House Prices and Output in the U. S.: A Bootstrap Rolling price index and real GDP per capita in the U.S., using the bootstrap Granger (temporal) non-sample bootstrap non-Granger causality test result suggests the existence of a unidirectional causality running

  5. Appendix S1. Definitions of Acronyms 3rdG: 3rd Generation Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    of Climate and the Economy FR: Fast Burner Reactors GCAM: Global Change Assessment Model GDP: Gross Domestic Product HTR: High Temperature Reactors IAM: Integrated Assessment Model Inorg: Inorganic Solar Cells LWR: Light Water Reactors MAC: Marginal Abatement Curve Org: Organic Solar Cells PostC: Post

  6. Drogue and Transmitter Lifetime Presented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sensors still "max out" and the GDP is waiting on strain gauge drifters to be deployed for evaluation. #12Drogue and Transmitter Lifetime Evaluation Presented by: Erik Valdes Drifter Data Assembly Center lifetime Evaluation All manufacturers except Pacific Gyre have changed to tether strain by early 2010

  7. European Taxation, vol. 41, no.2., February 2001, Article NETHERLANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    1 European Taxation, vol. 41, no.2., February 2001, Article NETHERLANDS: The Final Tax Reform of considerable reform efforts. Many OECD countries have implemented tax reforms characterized by base broadening-to-GDP ratios. For example, the German government carried out a major tax reform in 2000; the package implies

  8. Olli Haltia Forest Academy Finland 3. 5.12.2003 1(6)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the sector. The fact that the consumption of paper and wood products per capita in the new EU countries of some #12;Olli Haltia Forest Academy Finland 3.­ 5.12.2003 2(6) 120 kg paper per capita will gradually during the next ten years. Paper consumption follows clo- sely the pace of GDP growth, and the expansion

  9. The article "American Physics, Climate Change, and Energy" by Wallace M. Manheimer (Physics & Society, April 2012, p. 14) was truly inspirational. In fact, it inspired me to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Philip L.

    between per capita gross domestic product and per capita energy consumption. Manheimer uses of the per capita use of underarm deodorant. Annual energy consumption versus annual GDP per capita. Superimposed red circles are sample hypothetical points representing the scaled per capita use of underarm

  10. Changes in worldwide demand for metals (final). Open File report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faucett, J.G.; Chmelynski, H.J.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide demand for metals was analyzed to identify the important factors that explain differences in the level of demand among world countries. The per capita demand for steel, aluminum, copper, and total nonferrous metals was investigated for 40 to 50 countries over a 22-year period. These countries have been further grouped into four world regions for purposes of making generalizations about the importance of these factors for countries in different stages of development and with dissimilar levels of per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Intercountry and intertemporal differences are explained largely by differences in per capita GDP and changes over time in per capita GDP, oil real prices, and to a lesser extent, metal real prices. The trend in world consumption is dramatically different in the last decade than the previous one. In 1962-73, per capita consumption increased in all areas and consumption intensity (consumption divided by (GDP) increased in most areas). In 1973-84, per capita consumption fell in most areas and intensity fell dramatically, except in developing nations.

  11. David L. Ortega H. Holly Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , daily per capita consumption of cereals and starchy roots in China decreased 16%, while per capita meat, compared to 26 pounds in 1980. Today, per capita pork consumption is estimated to be much higher for U.S. Hog Producers Note: 2007-2015 GDP per capita data and 2004-2015 food consumption data

  12. Advances in Geosciences, 4, 2328, 2005 SRef-ID: 1680-7359/adgeo/2005-4-23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for renewable energy and biodiversity protection may restrict the area available for food production this will be expanded to several economically relevant regions on a global scale, including international trade. The two the agricultural sector is losing importance over time. The share of agriculture in GDP and labour force is now

  13. The BioRegion of Catalonia. Dr Marta Prncep, Innovation Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    and consumer-electronics R+D investment 1.61% of GDP Strategic clusters: Biotech, energy, ICTs, media, design areas § Biomedical informatics and systems biology § Gene regulation and epigenetics § Cellular of Europe and one of the few latest generation synchrotrons on the continent. When it comes into service

  14. SCIENCE sciencemag.org 5 DECEMBER 2014 VOL 346 ISSUE 6214 1191 Lysosomal lumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    SCIENCE sciencemag.org 5 DECEMBER 2014 · VOL 346 ISSUE 6214 1191 Lysosomal lumen Amino acid deprivation Amino acid stimulation mTORC1 (inactive) mTORC1 (active) GATOR2 GDP Rheb Amino acids GEF activity processes required for growth. In the past 20 years, the mechanistic tar- get of the mechanistic target

  15. The Unexpected end of the Qadhafi's regime Until the Arab spring, the Qadhafi's regime had overcome the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Libya up to the "global war against terrorism" and created an image of his country as a Mediterra- nean portrayed Libya as having such huge potential that it will have great influence in the future. According to Seif El Islam, «Libya will be a modern country with modern infrastruc- ture and a high GDP. Its

  16. Media Briefing February 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Development #12;Scientific push to beat animal diseases and tackle poverty Poverty, hunger and food security, GDP growth originating in agriculture is about four times more effective in reducing poverty than any institutes to not only countries who live below the poverty line. This is control or prevent these diseases

  17. Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations Hilary W. Hoynes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations Hilary W. Hoynes Department of Economics, UC Davis 9, 2005 This paper was prepared for a symposium on poverty for the Journal of Economic Perspectives in real per capita GDP over the last three decades, the U.S. poverty rate has changed very little

  18. DOI: 10.1021/la803652x 6813Langmuir 2009, 25(12), 68136824 Published on Web 04/30/2009 2009 American Chemical Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    a critical role on the regulation of pH, alkalinity, and heavy metal transport/mobility through exchange Roothaan-Hartree-Fock molecular orbital methods were applied to investigate the ground-state structural of water molecules was modeled at the 6-31G(d,p) level of theory using Can(CO3)n slab cluster models (4 e n

  19. Report Title: Oil and Gas Production and Economic Growth In New Mexico Type of Report: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Report Title: Oil and Gas Production and Economic Growth In New Mexico Type of Report: Technical agency thereof. #12;Page | ii Oil and Gas Production and Economic Growth in New Mexico James Peach and C Mexico's marketed value of oil and gas was $19.2 billion (24.0 percent of state GDP). This paper

  20. Oil Independence: Achievable National Goal or Empty Slogan? Submitted May 25, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    07--1693 Oil Independence: Achievable National Goal or Empty Slogan? Submitted May 25, 2007 Word-488-2413; email: singhm@anl.gov #12;Greene, Leiby, Patterson, Plotkin and Singh 1 ABSTRACT Oil independence has. A rigorous, measurable definition is proposed: to reduce the costs of oil dependence to less than 1% of GDP

  1. Jones Partners Breakfast, February 14, 2012 Introduction and Wright Fund Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % through spring 2011) Source: Bloomberg #12;12 CURRENT ISSUES Cautiously optimistic US indicators Euro World GDP currently, though the growth potential of developing nations increases their importance Source, but is income or debt providing the fuel? Rebirth of American manufacturing? Has housing hit rock bottom

  2. In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, Phoenix, AZ. BPR AND LOGISTICS: THE ROLE OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In Proceedings of the 1999 Winter Simulation Conference, Phoenix, AZ. BPR AND LOGISTICS: THE ROLE- gistics, and the cost of logistics is roughly 10% of GDP in the US. Designing, managing, and improving indus- trial logistics systems has never been more challenging, or more critical to competitive success

  3. Current Directions in Freight and Logistics Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Current Directions in Freight and Logistics Industry CTS Freight and Logistics Symposium November- the-box #12;Perspective Be sure to look-up from time-to-time #12;Why Discuss Freight and Logistics....Large Part of the Economy Logistics Cost As A Percent of GDP ­ 10% Source: CSCMP State of Logistics 2007 #12

  4. Modeling Energy Market Volatility Using REMI October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ;Disclaimer #12;Some Background on Energy Market Volatility (EMV) · EMV is defined here to include price techniques #12;Some Specifics · Energy Prices in real (and nominal) terms are highly variable ­ Including oil Sources: WTI prices from EIA, Short Term Energy Outlook, Table 2 and GDP deflator from Bureau of Economic

  5. Econometric Modelling of World Oil Supplies: Terminal Price and the Time to Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar

    2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a novel approach by which to identify the price of oil at the time of depletion; the so-called terminal price of oil. It is shown that while the terminal price is independent of both GDP growth and the price elasticity of energy...

  6. Second Quarter 2014 Volume 7, number 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5% in Q2, 4.1% in Q3, and 2.6% in Q4. March projections for annual average real GDP provided, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers rose 1.1% year- over-year in February, while core inflation was up 1.6% for the same period. Consumer prices

  7. GROUPE D'ANALYSE ET DE THORIE CONOMIQUE LYON -ST TIENNE W P 1232

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Emissions in Brazil - The Role of LULUCF Activities (Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestery) - The Kaya identity expresses carbon dioxide emissions of a country according to economic, demographic and energy per head, energy intensity (energy-to-GDP ratio) and carbon intensity (carbon-to-energy ratio

  8. Buildings Energy Efficiency Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Efficiency Wind Biomass Natural Gas Combined Cycle Nuclear Coal IGCC Photovoltaics RangeofBuildings Energy Efficiency Policy ­ A Brief History Steven Nadel Executive Director American Council for an Energy- Efficient Economy #12;U.S. Energy Use in Relation to GDP 1970-2008 0.0 50.0 100

  9. The Role of China in Mitigating Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    We explore short- and long-term implications of several energy scenarios of China’s role in efforts to mitigate global climate risk. The focus is on the impacts on China’s energy system and GDP growth, and on global climate ...

  10. ECON 162B -A0, A1 Kenny Christianson Fall 2010 office: Library Tower 1013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    ECON 162B - A0, A1 Kenny Christianson Fall 2010 office: Library Tower 1013 lecture A0: MWF 9, the stock market, and the role of the Federal Reserve in changing interest rates; the potential for double-dip recession and the rate of growth of GDP; inflation and deflation; the national debt and growing budget

  11. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  12. 30 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN FEBRUARY 2007 BRUCEGILBERT/EARTHINSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    more than half of the world's GHGs. Without the active participation of China, India and other de Review makes clear that the costs of such control willbefarlowerthanthecostsofinaction.Low-cost-term annual costs of GHG stabilization at below 1 percent of global GDP. Rich countries can help poor

  13. Political Economy and Science OLLI Lecture 02

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    · Clustered industries lower the cost of production · Zero Sum Game #12;China Will Invent Stuff GDP countries · Look at the data #12;#12;Estimate Gains · We need to think about opportunity costs · Do calculations usually include those? · Can we trust the physicists to tell us the costs

  14. The Global Energy Challenge and Possible Solu6ons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    in a Petroleum Context Marginal Conven6onal Oil Oil Shale #12;GLOBAL FUEL RESERVES Source demand vs. GDP per capita Economic Prosperity Energy Use #12;OIL SUPPLY COST CURVE #12;20 40 60 80 100 112 Venezuela Heavy Oil Deep Water Arc6c Sugarcane Et

  15. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  16. Dietary long-chain, but not medium-chain, triglycerides impair exercise performance and uncouple cardiac mitochondria in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Andrew J; Knight, Nicholas S; Little, Sarah E; Cochlin, Lowri E; Clements, Mary; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESEARCH Open Access Dietary long-chain, but not medium-chain, triglycerides impair exercise performance and uncouple cardiac mitochondria in rats Andrew J Murray*, Nicholas S Knight, Sarah E Little, Lowri E Cochlin, Mary Clements and Kieran Clarke... mitochondria were mea- sured using a Clark-type oxygen electrode (Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd, Glasgow, UK), as described previously [18]. The chambers were treated identically throughout the experiment, except that one contained 1 ?mol GDP added...

  17. The association between community environment and cognitive function: a systematic review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Brayne, Carol

    2014-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    the socioeconomic status of community by five statistics based on the administrative boundaries. This included GDP per capital, labor participation 11 rate, proportion of urban population, numbers of hospital beds per 1000 people and average schooling years... indicated an interaction between community environments and individual 15 characteristics. However, most of them used fixed-effects regression models to analyze their data. These methods might not appropriately deal with the variations within...

  18. Corruption, Institutions and Economic Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aidt, Toke S

    and in developing the underlying theory (Dasgupta, 2001, chapter 9; Hamilton and Clemens, 1999). Loosely speaking, sustainable development is related to an economy?s ability to maintain living standards through time. More precisely, Arrow et al. (2004) suggest... capita ?a direct measure of sustainable development ?and corruption. While corruption may have little average e¤ect on the growth rate of GDP per capita, it is a likely source of unsustainable development. Key words: Corruption, Growth, Sustainable...

  19. Differentiation Self-renewal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Off state Ras Ras­GAP PI3K ERK1 ERK2 Differentiation SC1 SC1 Self-renewal Ras On state GDP GTP N NN, which promotes stem-cell self-renewal. Activated Ras also switches on the enzymes ERK1 and ERK2, which-cell renewal via the PI3K pathway. SC1 also inhibits ERK1 and ERK2, thus blocking stem-cell differentiation. PI

  20. Electricity and Development: Global Trends and Key Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;#12;1. Energy and economic growth National income and consumption per capita Source: Modi, 2004 #12;1. Energy.6%) Indonesia (5.1%) Korea (7.2%) Mexico (2.2%) Turkey (3.7%) US (3.2%) Source of data: IEA, 2004 #12;2. Energy of living · GDP per capita (PPP US$) #12;2. Energy and Human Development Per capita energy consumption HDI

  1. Building performance evaluation and certification in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Scott; Pollitt, Michael G.; Crawford Brown, Doug

    2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Certificates EST Energy Saving Trust EU European Union FES Fuel and Energy Survey FIT Feed In Tariff GDP Gross Domestic Product PV Photovoltaic RdSAP Reduced Data Standard Assessment Procedure RHI Renewable Heat Incentive SAP Standard... ). This is only exacerbated by the forecasted increase to energy prices (DECC 2011b). Without detailed information about the performance of buildings classified as being in fuel poverty, it is difficult to determine what strategies may alleviate these pressures...

  2. Low Energy Barrier Proton Transfer in Protonated Benzene-Water Complex Eugene S. Kryachko and Minh Tho Nguyen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    Low Energy Barrier Proton Transfer in Protonated Benzene-Water Complex Eugene S. Kryachko and Minh-bonded benzene-water complex is studied at the MP2/6-31+G(d,p) computational level. It is shown that, contrary to the fact that benzene is more basic than water by 13.5 kcal/mol, the excess proton favors to reside

  3. High-Fidelity Nuclear Energy System Optimization towards an Environmentally Benign, Sustainable, and Secure Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ames, David E.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    CPU Central Processing Unit D Deuterium DOE U.S. Department of Energy DU Depleted Uranium EFPD Effective Full Power Days ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data Files ? Basic EOC End of Cycle FP Fission Products GCC Gulf Cooperation Council GDP... management. ? Reduce the inventories of civilian plutonium ? Enhance energy security by extracting energy recoverable in spent fuel and depleted uranium, ensuring that uranium resources do not become a limiting resource for nuclear power. ? Improve fuel...

  4. What are the Starting Points? Evaluating Base-Year Assumptions in the Asian Modeling Exercise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Clarke, Leon E.; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common feature of model inter-comparison efforts is that the base year numbers for important parameters such as population and GDP can differ substantially across models. This paper explores the sources and implications of this variation in Asian countries across the models participating in the Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). Because the models do not all have a common base year, each team was required to provide data for 2005 for comparison purposes. This paper compares the year 2005 information for different models, noting the degree of variation in important parameters, including population, GDP, primary energy, electricity, and CO2 emissions. It then explores the difference in these key parameters across different sources of base-year information. The analysis confirms that the sources provide different values for many key parameters. This variation across data sources and additional reasons why models might provide different base-year numbers, including differences in regional definitions, differences in model base year, and differences in GDP transformation methodologies, are then discussed in the context of the AME scenarios. Finally, the paper explores the implications of base-year variation on long-term model results.

  5. Identifying the Oil Price-Macroeconomy Relationship: An Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of U.S. Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work applies the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to data on real quarterly oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI) and U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). This relatively new method is adaptive and capable of handling non-linear and non-stationary data. Correlation analysis of the decomposition results was performed and examined for insights into the oil-macroeconomy relationship. Several components of this relationship were identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run cyclical component of the oil price exerts a negative and exogenous influence on the main cyclical component of the GDP. This can be interpreted as the supply-driven or supply-shock component of the oil price-GDP relationship. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging demand-driven, an expectations-driven, and a long-run supply-driven component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identified a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent economic and price declines following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil-market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply disruptions.

  6. Lessons-Learned from D and D Activities at the Five Gaseous Diffusion Buildings (K-25, K- 27, K-29, K-31 and K-33) East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN - 13574

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopotic, James D. [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Office, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, P. O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

  7. Analysis of the environmental impact of China based on STIRPAT model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Shoufu, E-mail: linshf2003@126.co [School of Economics, FuJian Normal University, Fuzhou City, 350007, Fujian Province (China) and School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei City, 230026, Anhui Province (China) and Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, Curtin University of Technology, GPO BoxU1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Zhao Dingtao, E-mail: box@ustc.edu.c [School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei City, 230026, Anhui Province (China); Marinova, Dora, E-mail: D.Marinova@curtin.edu.a [Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, Curtin University of Technology, GPO BoxU1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Assuming that energy consumption is the main source of GHG emissions in China, this paper analyses the effect of population, urbanisation level, GDP per capita, industrialisation level and energy intensity on the country's environmental impact using the STIRPAT model with data for 1978-2006. The analysis shows that population has the largest potential effect on environmental impact, followed by urbanisation level, industrialisation level, GDP per capita and energy intensity. Hence, China's One Child Policy, which restrains rapid population growth, has been an effective way of reducing the country's environmental impact. However, due to the difference in growth rates, GDP per capita had a higher effect on the environmental impact, contributing to 38% of its increase (while population's contribution was at 32%). The rapid decrease in energy intensity was the main factor restraining the increase in China's environmental impact but recently it has also been rising. Against this background, the future of the country looks bleak unless a change in human behaviour towards more ecologically sensitive economic choices occurs.

  8. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  9. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Lu, Hongyou; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Yining, Qin; Yowargana, Ping

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). The period 2002-2005 saw a dramatic reversal of the historic relationship between energy use and GDP growth: energy use per unit of GDP increased an average of 3.8% per year during this period (NBS, various years). China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), which covers the period 2006-2010, required all government divisions at different levels to reduce energy intensity by 20% in five years in order to regain the relationship between energy and GDP growth experienced during the 1980s and 1990s. This report provides an assessment of selected policies and programs that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal of a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010. The report finds that China has made substantial progress toward its goal of achieving 20% energy intensity reduction from 2006 to 2010 and that many of the energy-efficiency programs implemented during the 11th FYP in support of China's 20% energy/GDP reduction goal appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases even exceed - their energy-saving targets. It appears that most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program are on track to meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program, which was established prior to the 11th FYP, has become very robust during the 11th FYP period. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure to reduce the share of energy consumed by industry, do not appear to be on track to meet the stated goals. With the implementation of the 11th FYP now bearing fruit, it is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new policy mechanisms to improve the programs that are not on track to achieve the stated goals.

  10. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that uses a carbon tax to reduce capital taxes would achieve two goals: reducing CO2 emissions significantly and expanding short-run employment and the economy. We examine three ways to reduce the deficit by an equal amount. We find that raising marginal tax rates on labor income has advantages over raising tax rates on capital income or establishing a carbon tax. A labor tax increase leaves GDP close to its baseline, reduces consumption very slightly and expands net exports slightly. Investment remains essentially unchanged. In contrast, a capital tax increase causes a significant and persistent drop in investment and much larger reductions in GDP. A carbon tax falls between the two: it lowers GDP more than a labor tax increase because it reduces investment. However, its effects on investment and GDP are more moderate than the capital tax increase, and it also significantly reduces CO2 emissions. A carbon tax thus offers a way to help reduce the deficit and improve the environment, and do so with minimal disturbance to overall economic activity.

  11. The Greening of the Middle Kingdom: The Story of Energy Efficiency in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark D.; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dominant image of China's energy system is of billowing smokestacks from the combustion of coal. More heavily dependent on coal than any other major country, China uses it for about 70 percent of its energy (NBS, 2008). Furthermore, until recently, China had very few environmental controls on emissions from coal combustion; recent efforts to control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions appear to be meeting with some success (Economy, 2007, 2009). Figure 1 shows the dominant use of coal in China's energy system from 1950 to 1980 (NBS, various years). However, this is just one side of China's energy story. Figure 2 illustrates the second part, and what may be the most important part of the story - China's energy system since 1980, shortly after Deng Xiaoping assumed full leadership. This figure compares the trends in energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) by indexing both values to 100 in 1980. The upper line shows what energy consumption in China would have been if it had grown at the same rate as GDP, since energy consumption usually increases in lockstep with GDP in an industrializing, developing country, at least until it reaches a high economic level. The lower line in Figure 2 shows China's actual energy consumption, also indexed to 1980. The striking difference between the lines shows that GDP in China grew much faster than energy demand from 1980 to 2002. As a result, by 2002 energy and energy-related carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were more than 40% percent of what they would have been if energy and GDP had grown in tandem. In the next chapter of China's energy history, from 2002 to 2005, the increase in energy demand outstripped a very rapidly growing economy, and because of the large size of the Chinese economy, the increase had substantial impacts. The construction of power plants increased to 100 gigawatts per year; over the three-year period newly constructed plants had a capacity of more than 30 percent of total electricity-generation capacity in the United States. At the same time, energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in China increased dramatically. In the latest stage, another abrupt change, this time for the better in terms of energy efficiency, began late in 2005. As senior officials in the government turned their attention to the problem of growing energy demand, the government set a mandatory goal for 2010 of a 20 percent reduction in energy intensity (defined as energy use per unit of GDP) from 2005 levels. To meet this goal, China undertook significant legislative, regulatory, and organizational reforms at the national, provincial, and municipal levels to ensure that measures to reduce energy intensity would be implemented in all sectors and activities in China. At the time of this writing, it appears that China is on its way to meeting the 20 percent goal, thus reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.5 billion tones, as compared with consumption at 2005 energy-intensity levels. In this paper, we describe and assess these three significant periods in China's energy story and provide a context by briefly reviewing the three decades prior to 1980.

  12. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  13. A P-loop Mutation in G[alpha] Subunits Prevents Transition to the Active State: Implications for G-protein Signaling in Fungal Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Willard, Francis S.; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Kimple, Adam J.; Willard, Melinda D.; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Siderovski, David P. (UNC); (Singapore)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches integral to a panoply of different physiological responses that many organisms make to environmental cues. The switch from inactive to active G{alpha}{beta}{gamma} heterotrimer relies on nucleotide cycling by the G{alpha} subunit: exchange of GTP for GDP activates G{alpha}, whereas its intrinsic enzymatic activity catalyzes GTP hydrolysis to GDP and inorganic phosphate, thereby reverting G{alpha} to its inactive state. In several genetic studies of filamentous fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a G42R mutation in the phosphate-binding loop of G{alpha} subunits is assumed to be GTPase-deficient and thus constitutively active. Here, we demonstrate that G{alpha}(G42R) mutants are not GTPase deficient, but rather incapable of achieving the activated conformation. Two crystal structure models suggest that Arg-42 prevents a typical switch region conformational change upon G{alpha}{sub i1}(G42R) binding to GDP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -} or GTP, but rotameric flexibility at this locus allows for unperturbed GTP hydrolysis. G{alpha}(G42R) mutants do not engage the active state-selective peptide KB-1753 nor RGS domains with high affinity, but instead favor interaction with G{beta}{gamma} and GoLoco motifs in any nucleotide state. The corresponding G{alpha}{sub q}(G48R) mutant is not constitutively active in cells and responds poorly to aluminum tetrafluoride activation. Comparative analyses of M. oryzae strains harboring either G42R or GTPase-deficient Q/L mutations in the G{alpha} subunits MagA or MagB illustrate functional differences in environmental cue processing and intracellular signaling outcomes between these two G{alpha} mutants, thus demonstrating the in vivo functional divergence of G42R and activating G-protein mutants.

  14. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting and monitoring progress on the targets, and methodology improvements, are included.

  15. Economic slowdown in the US, rehabilitation of fiscal policy and the case for a co-ordinated global reflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izurieta, Alex

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategic solutions as suggested by a macroeconomic model of t he US (a revised update of Godley, 1999c). The final section will underscore the policy option of a co-ordinated global reflation as the means to avoid concurrent, large-scale implosion... of that peak, it was tempting to believe that the economic expansion caused by faster productivity would maintain its upward trend, perhaps indefinitely. A. I ZURIETA - CERF ; U NIVERSITY OF C AMBRIDGE 5 Chart 1: GDP and Productivity Growth in the U...

  16. Transmission and distribution technologies: Program overview, FY 1993--FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity is the lifeblood of our Nation`s economy and a critical contributor to our standard of living. For decades, increases in the gross domestic product (GDP) have been accompanied by increases in electricity use. This overview provides the reader with an introduction to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) T&D Technologies Program. It shows how the program is meeting the challenges being imposed on the T&D infrastructure by the changing electric power industry and how the Nation will benefit from its efforts. The overview describes the program`s ongoing projects and discusses the new projects being initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1995.

  17. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fan, Y. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  18. Promoting India's development: energy security and climate security are convergent goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, Gupta [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shankar, Harihar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joshi, Sunjoy [INDIA

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates three aspects of the energy-climate challenges faced by India. First, we examine energy security in light of anticipated growth in power generation in response to the national goal of maintaining close to 10% growth in GDP. Second, we examine possible options for mitigation and adaptation to climate change for India that it can take to the coming Copenhagen meeting on climate change. Lastly, we introduce an open web based tool for analyzing and planning global energy systems called the Global Energy Observatory (GEO).

  19. Essays in Empirical Macroeconomics: Applications to the GCC Monetary Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hassan, Abdullah Mohammed

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for several different reasons. First, it accounts for 45% of proven global oil reserves, and 25% of global natural gas reserves. The GCC area produces 22% and 6.5% of global oil and gas output, respectively. Second, table 1.1 shows the aggregate GDP... reserves that were accumulated from excess oil revenues. Thus, central banks in the GCC area opted to use foreign asset reserves instead of monetizing the fiscal deficits. The high degree of convergence and stability among exchange rates in the GCC...

  20. Eliminating Electricity Deficit through Energy Efficiency in India: An Evaluation of Aggregate Economic and Carbon Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Gupta, Arjun

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity demand has consistently exceeded available supply in India. While the electricity deficit varies across states, nationally it was estimated to be of the order of 12percent on peak and 11percent for electricity during 2008-09. This paper explores a demand-side focused potential for energy efficiency improvement to eliminate the electricity deficit compared to a business as usual (BAU) supply-side focused scenario. The limited availability of finance and other legal and administrative barriers have constrained the construction of new power plant capacity in India. As a result, under the BAU scenario, India continues to face an electricity deficit beyond the end of the Twelfth Five Year Plan. The demand-side cost-effective potential achieved through replacement of new electricity-using products, however, is large enough to eliminate the deficit as early as 2013 and subsequently reduce the future construction of power plants and thus reduce air pollutant emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency improvements cost a fraction of the cost for new supply and can lead to a substantial increase in India's economic output or gross domestic product (GDP). Eliminating the deficit permits businesses that have experienced electricity cutbacks to restore production. We estimate the size of the cumulative production increase in terms of the contribution to GDP at a $505 billion between 2009 and 2017, the end of India's Twelfth Five Year Plan, which may be compared with India's 2007-08 GDP of $911 billion. The economic output is influenced by the size of the electricity savings and rate of penetration of energy efficient technologies, and that of self-generation equipment and inverters used by businesses faced with electricity cuts. Generation and inverters are estimated to service 23percent of these customers in 2009, which increase to 48percent by 2020. The reduction in the construction and operation of new power plants reduces the cumulative CO2 emissions by 65 Mt, and those of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides by 0.4 Mt each, while also reducing India's imports of coal and natural gas. By 2020, the cumulative GDP benefit increases to $608 billion, the CO2 savings expand to 333 Mt and SO2 and NOx to 2.1 Mt.