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1

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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2

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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3

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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4

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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5

Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

Felter, T. E. (Livermore, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

Felter, T. E. (727 Clara St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kubiak, G. D. (475 Maple St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

Felter, T. E. (Alameda County, CA); Kubiak, G. D. (Alameda County, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

EUV mask surface cleaning effects on lithography process performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reflective, multilayer based, mask architectures for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography are highly susceptible to surface oxidation and contamination. As a result, EUV masks are expected to undergo cleaning processes in order to maintain the lifetimes necessary for high volume manufacturing. For this study, the impact of repetitive cleaning of EUV masks on imaging performance was evaluated. Two, high quality industry standard, EUV masks are used for this study with one of the masks undergoing repeated cleaning and the other one kept as a reference. Lithographic performance, in terms of process window analysis and line edge roughness, was monitored after every two cleans and compared to the reference mask performance. After 8x clean, minimal degradation is observed. The cleaning cycles will be continued until significant loss imaging fidelity is found.

George, Simi; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Naulleau, Patrick; Chen, Robert J.; Liang, Ted

2010-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

10

Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plan speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have all been based on the thin mask approximation. EUV masks, however, are inherently three dimensional in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here we directly compare image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to be comparable.

Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

Condenser for ring-field deep-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Condenser for ring-field deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated or converging beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a flat or curved plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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14

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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15

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses to

16

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

Self-cleaning optic for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multilayer reflective optic or mirror for lithographic applications, and particularly extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, having a surface or "capping" layer which in combination with incident radiation and gaseous molecular species such as O.sub.2, H.sub.2, H.sub.2 O provides for continuous cleaning of carbon deposits from the optic surface. The metal capping layer is required to be oxidation resistant and capable of transmitting at least 90% of incident EUV radiation. Materials for the capping layer include Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au and combinations thereof.

Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH3 and H2S. The use of PH3 and H2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

19

Atom Nano-lithography with Multi-layer Light Masks: Particle Optics Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the focusing of atoms by multiple layers of standing light waves in the context of atom lithography. In particular, atomic localization by a double-layer light mask is examined using the optimal squeezing approach. Operation of the focusing setup is analyzed both in the paraxial approximation and in the regime of nonlinear spatial squeezing for the thin-thin as well as thin-thick atom lens combinations. It is shown that the optimized double light mask may considerably reduce the imaging problems, improve the quality of focusing and enhance the contrast ratio of the deposited structures.

R. Arun; I. Sh. Averbukh; T. Pfau

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

20

Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the performance of extreme ultraviolet micro?eld expo-calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists,” Opticsthree essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

Anderson, Christopher N.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Effects of Oxygen Plasma on the Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Ru Capping Layer of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Mask Blanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination removal from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask surfaces is one of the most important aspects to improve reliability for the next generation of EUV lithography. We report chemical and morphological changes of the ruthenium (Ru) mask surface after oxygen plasma treatment using surface sensitive analytical methods: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chemical analysis of the EUV masks shows an increase in the subsurface oxygen concentration, Ru oxidation and surface roughness. XPS spectra at various photoelectron takeoff angles suggest that the EUV mask surface was covered with chemisorbed oxygen after oxygen plasma treatment. It is proposed that the Kirkendall effect is the most plausible mechanism that explains the Ru surface oxidation. The etching rate of the Ru capping layer by oxygen plasma was estimated to be 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {angstrom}/min, based on TEM cross sectional analysis.

Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

22

Flexible CO2 laser system for fundamental research related to an extreme ultraviolet lithography source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flexible CO2 laser system for fundamental research related to an extreme ultraviolet lithography 2009; published online 10 December 2009 A CO2 laser system with flexible parameters was developed 1010 W/cm2 . Utilizing this CO2 MOPA laser system, high conversion efficiency from laser to in-band 2

Najmabadi, Farrokh

23

Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

24

Corner Rounding in Photoresists for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deprotection blur in EUV resists fundamentally limits the smallest sized dense features that can be patterned in a single exposure and development step. Several metrics have recently been developed to explore the ways that different resist and process parameters affect the deprotection blur in EUV resists. One of these metrics is based on the imaging fidelity of a sharp corner on a large feature. As this metric has involved the close inspection of printing fidelity of corner features, it has brought attention to an interesting phenomena: corners print differently whether or not the remaining resist edge contains 270 degrees of resist or 90 degrees of resist. Here we present experimental data across a wide sampling of leading resists to show this effect is real and reproducible. They provide aerial image modeling results assuming thin and realistic mask models that show no corner bias between the aerial images in the 90-degree and 270-degree configurations. They also compare modeled patterning results assuming several resist models including the single blur, dual blur, and Prolith models, none of which reproduce the corner biasing that is observed experimentally.

Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick; Deng, Yunfei; Wallow, Thomas

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Spectral Control of Emission from Tin Doped Targets for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control of emissions from tin doped targets for extremearray (UTA) emission around 13.5 nm from solid density tinand tin doped foam targets. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL); Konkashbaev, Isak (Bolingbrook, IL)

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

27

Method for plasma formation for extreme ultraviolet lithography-theta pinch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave, utilizing a theta pinch plasma generator to produce electromagnetic radiation in the range of 10 to 20 nm. The device comprises an axially aligned open-ended pinch chamber defining a plasma zone adapted to contain a plasma generating gas within the plasma zone; a means for generating a magnetic field radially outward of the open-ended pinch chamber to produce a discharge plasma from the plasma generating gas, thereby producing a electromagnetic wave in the extreme ultraviolet range; a collecting means in optical communication with the pinch chamber to collect the electromagnetic radiation; and focusing means in optical communication with the collecting means to concentrate the electromagnetic radiation.

Hassanein, Ahmed (Naperville, IL); Konkashbaev, Isak (Bolingbrook, IL); Rice, Bryan (Hillsboro, OR)

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

28

Tuning extreme ultraviolet emission for optimum coupling with multilayer mirrors for future lithography through control of ionic charge states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the identification of the optimum plasma conditions for a laser-produced plasma source for efficient coupling with multilayer mirrors at 6.x nm for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography. A small shift to lower energies of the peak emission for Nd:YAG laser-produced gadolinium plasmas was observed with increasing laser power density. Charge-defined emission spectra were observed in electron beam ion trap (EBIT) studies and the charge states responsible identified by use of the flexible atomic code (FAC). The EBIT spectra displayed a larger systematic shift of the peak wavelength of intense emission at 6.x nm to longer wavelengths with increasing ionic charge. This combination of spectra enabled the key ion stage to be confirmed as Gd{sup 18+}, over a range of laser power densities, with contributions from Gd{sup 17+} and Gd{sup 19+} responsible for the slight shift to longer wavelengths in the laser-plasma spectra. The FAC calculation also identified the origin of observed out-of-band emission and the charge states responsible.

Ohashi, Hayato, E-mail: ohashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kanehara, Tatsuhiko; Aida, Yuya; Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Torii, Shuichi; Makimura, Tetsuya [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

29

Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual

Harilal, S. S.

32

Method for fabricating an ultra-low expansion mask blank having a crystalline silicon layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabricating masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) using Ultra-Low Expansion (ULE) substrates and crystalline silicon. ULE substrates are required for the necessary thermal management in EUVL mask blanks, and defect detection and classification have been obtained using crystalline silicon substrate materials. Thus, this method provides the advantages for both the ULE substrate and the crystalline silicon in an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) mask blank. The method is carried out by bonding a crystalline silicon wafer or member to a ULE wafer or substrate and thinning the silicon to produce a 5-10 .mu.m thick crystalline silicon layer on the surface of the ULE substrate. The thinning of the crystalline silicon may be carried out, for example, by chemical mechanical polishing and if necessary or desired, oxidizing the silicon followed by etching to the desired thickness of the silicon.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progress in development of commercial system for next generation EUV lithography requires, among other factors, significant improvement in EUV photon sources such as discharge produced plasma (DPP) and laser produced plasma (LPP) devices. There are still many uncertainties in determining the optimum device since there are many parameters for the suitable and efficient energy source and target configuration and size. Complex devices with trigger lasers in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency (CE) and components lifetime. We considered in our analysis a promising LPP source configuration using 10-30 {mu}m tin droplet targets, and predicted conditions for the most efficient EUV radiation output and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual-beam lasers and their relationship to target size. We used our HEIGHTS comprehensive and integrated full 3D simulation package to study and optimize LPP processes with various target sizes to maximize the CE of the system.

Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Diffractive optics for maskless lithography and imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semiconductor industry has primarily been driven by the capability of lithography to pattern smaller and smaller features. However due to increasing mask costs and complexity, and increasing tool costs, the state-of-the-art ...

Menon, Rajesh, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Chemical Effect of Dry and Wet Cleaning of the Ru Protective Layer of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Reflector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report the chemical influence of cleaning of the Ru capping layer on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector surface. The cleaning of EUV reflector to remove the contamination particles has two requirements: to prevent corrosion and etching of the reflector surface and to maintain the reflectivity functionality of the reflector after the corrosive cleaning processes. Two main approaches for EUV reflector cleaning, wet chemical treatments [sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM), ozonated water, and ozonated hydrogen peroxide] and dry cleaning (oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment), were tested. The changes in surface morphology and roughness were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface etching and change of oxidation states were probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant surface oxidation of the Ru capping layer was observed after oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment, while the oxidation is unnoticeable after SPM treatment. Based on these surface studies, the authors found that SPM treatment exhibits the minimal corrosive interactions with Ru capping layer. They address the molecular mechanism of corrosive gas and liquid-phase chemical interaction with the surface of Ru capping layer on the EUV reflector.

Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Seo, Hyungtak; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

Cohen, Simon J. (Pleasanton, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

An Ice Lithography Instrument Anpan Han 1, John Chervinsky2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1 An Ice Lithography Instrument Anpan Han 1, John Chervinsky2 , Daniel Branton3 , and J. A a new nano-patterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice

39

The Effects of Oxygen Plasma on the Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Ru Capping Layer of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Mask Blanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P-5B-03 The effects of oxygen plasma on the chemicalRu) mask surface after oxygen plasma treatment using surfacein the subsurface oxygen concentration, Ru oxidation and

Belau, Leonid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Absorbance modulation optical lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, the concept of absorbance-modulation optical lithography (AMOL) is described, and the feasibility experimentally verified. AMOL is an implementation of nodal lithography, which is not bounded by the diffraction ...

Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

alpha-class extreme ultraviolet: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vacuum Society. S0734-211X 00 02506-3 I. INTRODUCTION EUV lithography optics require 5 Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Geosciences Websites...

42

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Contact thermal lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Tailoring plasmon resonances in the deep-ultraviolet by size-tunable fabrication of aluminum nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized surface plasmon resonances were controlled at deep-ultraviolet (DUV) wavelengths by fabricating aluminum (Al) nanostructures in a size-controllable manner. Plasmon resonances were obtained at wavelengths from near-UV down to 270 nm (4.6 eV) depending on the fabricated structure size. Such precise size control was realized by the nanosphere lithography technique combined with additional microwave heating to shrink the spaces in a close-packed monolayer of colloidal nanosphere masks. By adjusting the microwave heating time, the sizes of the Al nanostructures could be controlled from 80 nm to 50 nm without the need to use nanosphere beads of different sizes. With the outstanding controllability and versatility of the presented fabrication technique, the fabricated Al nanostructure is promising for use as a DUV plasmonic substrate, a light-harvesting platform for mediating strong light-matter interactions between UV photons and molecules placed near the metal nanostructure.

Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Saito, Yuika; Watanabe, Koichi; Yijian, Song [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kawata, Satoshi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

M&A For Lithography Of Sparse Arrays Of Sub-Micrometer Features  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for the exposure of sparse hole and/or mesa arrays with line:space ratios of 1:3 or greater and sub-micrometer hole and/or mesa diameters in a layer of photosensitive material atop a layered material. Methods disclosed include: double exposure interferometric lithography pairs in which only those areas near the overlapping maxima of each single-period exposure pair receive a clearing exposure dose; double interferometric lithography exposure pairs with additional processing steps to transfer the array from a first single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair into an intermediate mask layer and a second single-period interferometric lithography exposure to further select a subset of the first array of holes; a double exposure of a single period interferometric lithography exposure pair to define a dense array of sub-micrometer holes and an optical lithography exposure in which only those holes near maxima of both exposures receive a clearing exposure dose; combination of a single-period interferometric exposure pair, processing to transfer resulting dense array of sub-micrometer holes into an intermediate etch mask, and an optical lithography exposure to select a subset of initial array to form a sparse array; combination of an optical exposure, transfer of exposure pattern into an intermediate mask layer, and a single-period interferometric lithography exposure pair; three-beam interferometric exposure pairs to form sparse arrays of sub-micrometer holes; five- and four-beam interferometric exposures to form a sparse array of sub-micrometer holes in a single exposure. Apparatuses disclosed include arrangements for the three-beam, five-beam and four-beam interferometric exposures.

Brueck, Steven R.J. (Albuquerque, NM); Chen, Xiaolan (Albuquerque, NM); Zaidi, Saleem (Albuquerque, NM); Devine, Daniel J. (Los Gatos, CA)

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

47

Development of free-electron lasers for xuv projection lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future rf-linac-driven FELs, operating in the range from 4 nm to 100 nm, could be excellent exposure tools for extending the resolution limit of projection optical lithography to {le}0.1 {mu}m and with adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). When operated at a moderate duty rate of {ge}1%, XUV FELs should be able to supply sufficient average power to support high-volume chip production. Recent developments of the electron beam, magnetic undulator, and resonator mirrors are described which raise our expectation that FEL operation below 100 nm is almost ready for demonstration. Included as a supplement is a review of initial design studies of the reflecting XUV projection optics, fabrication of reflection masks, characterization of photoresists, and the first experimental demonstrations of the capability of projection lithography with 14-nm radiation to produce lines and spaces as small as 0.05 {mu}m. 88 refs., 10 figs.

Newnam, B.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask , K. A. Goldberga  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

c Global Foundries Dresden Module One. KG Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, 01109 Dresden, Germany technology node. This is especially true for EUV lithography where the mask, the absorber pattern presented previously [3] separated the defects into the following categories: cleaning residue, particle

49

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- gineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1637366] Subject terms: 157-nm lithography; immersion fluid; perfluoropolyether

Rollins, Andrew M.

50

Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

52

Programmable imprint lithography template  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A template for imprint lithography (IL) that reduces significantly template production costs by allowing the same template to be re-used for several technology generations. The template is composed of an array of spaced-apart moveable and individually addressable rods or plungers. Thus, the template can be configured to provide a desired pattern by programming the array of plungers such that certain of the plungers are in an "up" or actuated configuration. This arrangement of "up" and "down" plungers forms a pattern composed of protruding and recessed features which can then be impressed onto a polymer film coated substrate by applying a pressure to the template impressing the programmed configuration into the polymer film. The pattern impressed into the polymer film will be reproduced on the substrate by subsequent processing.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA); Talin, Albert A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Theoretical efficiency analysis of a condenser-embedded grating-based spectral purity filter for EUV lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Being based on reflective optics, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography systems are, in principle, relatively immune to chromatic errors. However, illumination bandwidth control is still required for EUV lithography. For example, appreciable amounts of UV power, combined with resist sensitivity to this wavelength band, would decrease image contrast. Also, appreciable amounts of IR power would place unacceptable thermal loads on the projection optics. A practical method for spectral filtering, widely used in short-wavelength synchrotron applications, is the grating monochromator. Here we present the theoretical performance analysis of a grating-based spectral purity filter integrated into an EUV lithography condenser system. Although the specific examples presented here are geared towards a specific condenser design, it should be noted that the methods described are generally applicable to a variety of condenser designs as might be found in future EUV lithography systems.

Naulleau, Patrick P.; Sweatt, William C.; Tichenor, Daniel A.

2002-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

54

Wafer chamber having a gas curtain for extreme-UV lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An EUVL device includes a wafer chamber that is separated from the upstream optics by a barrier having an aperture that is permeable to the inert gas. Maintaining an inert gas curtain in the proximity of a wafer positioned in a chamber of an extreme ultraviolet lithography device can effectively prevent contaminants from reaching the optics in an extreme ultraviolet photolithography device even though solid window filters are not employed between the source of reflected radiation, e.g., the camera, and the wafer. The inert gas removes the contaminants by entrainment.

Kanouff, Michael P. (Livermore, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Masked multichannel analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An analytical instrument and particularly a time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for processing a large number of analog signals irregularly spaced over a spectrum, with programmable masking of portions of the spectrum where signals are unlikely in order to reduce memory requirements and/or with a signal capturing assembly having a plurality of signal capturing devices fewer in number than the analog signals for use in repeated cycles within the data processing time period.

Winiecki, Alan L. (Downers Grove, IL); Kroop, David C. (Columbia, MD); McGee, Marilyn K. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lenkszus, Frank R. (Woodridge, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Sandia National Laboratories: MASK  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS ExhibitIowaLos Alamos National LaboratoryEngineersMASK

59

Development of metal etch mask by single layer lift-off for silicon nitride photonic crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been great interest in extending these devices into the visible and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths that spans the entire visible and part of the UV spec- trum. SiN has already been used to develop low loss dry etching, which results in significant degradation of the mask pattern. This degradation typically

Waks, Edo

60

Extreme-UV lithography system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photolithography system that employs a condenser that includes a series of aspheric mirrors on one side of a small, incoherent source of radiation producing a series of beams is provided. Each aspheric mirror images the quasi point source into a curved line segment. A relatively small arc of the ring image is needed by the camera; all of the beams are so manipulated that they all fall onto this same arc needed by the camera. Also, all of the beams are aimed through the camera's virtual entrance pupil. The condenser includes a correcting mirror for reshaping a beam segment which improves the overall system efficiency. The condenser efficiently fills the larger radius ringfield created by today's advanced camera designs. The system further includes (i) means for adjusting the intensity profile at the camera's entrance pupil or (ii) means for partially shielding the illumination imaging onto the mask or wafer. The adjusting means can, for example, change at least one of: (i) partial coherence of the photolithography system, (ii) mask image illumination uniformity on the wafer or (iii) centroid position of the illumination flux in the entrance pupil. A particularly preferred adjusting means includes at least one vignetting mask that covers at least a portion of the at least two substantially equal radial segments of the parent aspheric mirror.

Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ORC Seminar Series Presents: "Nonlinear laser lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORC Seminar Series Presents: "Nonlinear laser lithography: formation of self-authored 50 journal and more than 150 conference papers and he has given more than 100 invited talks. http://www.orc

Anderson, Jim

62

Extreme-UV lithography condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Coatings on reflective mask substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for creating a mask substrate involving depositing: 1) a coating on one or both sides of a low thermal expansion material EUVL mask substrate to improve defect inspection, surface finishing, and defect levels; and 2) a high dielectric coating, on the backside to facilitate electrostatic chucking and to correct for any bowing caused by the stress imbalance imparted by either other deposited coatings or the multilayer coating of the mask substrate. An film, such as TaSi, may be deposited on the front side and/or back of the low thermal expansion material before the material coating to balance the stress. The low thermal expansion material with a silicon overlayer and a silicon and/or other conductive underlayer enables improved defect inspection and stress balancing.

Tong, William Man-Wai (Oakland, CA); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA); Mangat, Pawitter J. S. (Gilbert, AZ); Stivers, Alan R. (San Jose, CA); Kofron, Patrick G. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, Matthew A. (Austin, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

II. Types of LithographyII. Types of Lithography A. Photolithography (optical, UV, EUV) F. Step Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lithography S i b I. Self-Assembly J NanotemplatesE. Scanning Probe Voltage pulse CVD Local electrodeposition J. Nanotemplates Diblock copolymer Sphere Alumina membraneLocal electrodeposition Dip Interference Lithography FIG. 1. SEM images of nickel dot arrays fabricated by x-ray interference lithography

Liu, Kai

65

Dynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas for a monochromatic 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the critical density, a narrower EUV x-ray spectrum and a higher conversion efficiency from laserDynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas for a monochromatic 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet source-0417 ABSTRACT Dynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas were investigated for a monochromatic EUV lithography

Najmabadi, Farrokh

66

Method for mask repair using defect compensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Residue-free fabrication of high-performance graphene devices by patterned PMMA stencil mask  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals and their hybrid structures have recently attracted much attention due to their potential applications. The fabrication of metallic contacts or nanostructures on 2D materials is very common and generally achieved by performing electron-beam (e-beam) lithography. However, e-beam lithography is not applicable in certain situations, e.g., cases in which the e-beam resist does not adhere to the substrates or the intrinsic properties of the 2D materials are greatly altered and degraded. Here, we present a residue-free approach for fabricating high-performance graphene devices by patterning a thin film of e-beam resist as a stencil mask. This technique can be generally applied to substrates with varying surface conditions, while causing negligible residues on graphene. The technique also preserves the design flexibility offered by e-beam lithography and therefore allows us to fabricate multi-probe metallic contacts. The graphene field-effect transistors fabricated by this method exhibit smooth surfaces, high mobility, and distinct magnetotransport properties, confirming the advantages and versatility of the presented residue-free technique for the fabrication of devices composed of 2D materials.

Shih, Fu-Yu [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shao-Yu; Wu, Tsuei-Shin; Wang, Wei-Hua, E-mail: wwang@sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Liu, Cheng-Hua; Chen, Yang-Fang [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ho, Po-Hsun; Chen, Chun-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Magnetic nanostructures patterned by block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this research was twofold: understanding the methods of patterning magnetic films using self-assembled block copolymer masks and examining the magnetic reversal mechanisms of as deposited and patterned magnetic ...

Ilievski, Filip, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

Bajt, Sasa C. (Livermore, CA); Wall, Mark A. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Nanofabrication on unconventional substrates using transferred hard masks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A major challenge in nanofabrication is to pattern unconventional substrates that cannot be processed for a variety of reasons, such as incompatibility with spin coating, electron beam lithography, optical lithography, or ...

Li, Luozhou

71

UNCTIONAL PERFLUOROPOLYETHERS AS NOVEL MATERIALS FOR MICROFLUIDICS AND SOFT LITHOGRAPHY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNCTIONAL PERFLUOROPOLYETHERS AS NOVEL MATERIALS FOR MICROFLUIDICS AND SOFT LITHOGRAPHY Jason P photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs). PFPEs are a unique class of fluoropolymers that are liquids at room

Carter, Kenneth

72

Resolution Improvement and Pattern Generator Development for theMaskless Micro-Ion-Beam Reduction Lithography System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The shrinking of IC devices has followed the Moore's Law for over three decades, which states that the density of transistors on integrated circuits will double about every two years. This great achievement is obtained via continuous advance in lithography technology. With the adoption of complicated resolution enhancement technologies, such as the phase shifting mask (PSM), the optical proximity correction (OPC), optical lithography with wavelength of 193 nm has enabled 45 nm printing by immersion method. However, this achievement comes together with the skyrocketing cost of masks, which makes the production of low volume application-specific IC (ASIC) impractical. In order to provide an economical lithography approach for low to medium volume advanced IC fabrication, a maskless ion beam lithography method, called Maskless Micro-ion-beam Reduction Lithography (MMRL), has been developed in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The development of the prototype MMRL system has been described by Dr. Vinh Van Ngo in his Ph.D. thesis. But the resolution realized on the prototype MMRL system was far from the design expectation. In order to improve the resolution of the MMRL system, the ion optical system has been investigated. By integrating a field-free limiting aperture into the optical column, reducing the electromagnetic interference and cleaning the RF plasma, the resolution has been improved to around 50 nm. Computational analysis indicates that the MMRL system can be operated with an exposure field size of 0.25 mm and a beam half angle of 1.0 mrad on the wafer plane. Ion-ion interactions have been studied with a two-particle physics model. The results are in excellent agreement with those published by the other research groups. The charge-interaction analysis of MMRL shows that the ion-ion interactions must be reduced in order to obtain a throughput higher than 10 wafers per hour on 300-mm wafers. In addition, two different maskless lithography strategies have been studied. The dependence of the throughput with the exposure field size and the speed of the mechanical stage has been investigated. In order to perform maskless lithography, different micro-fabricated pattern generators have been developed for the MMRL system. Ion beamlet switching has been successfully demonstrated on the MMRL system. A positive bias voltage around 10 volts is sufficient to switch off the ion current on the micro-fabricated pattern generators. Some unexpected problems, such as the high-energy secondary electron radiations, have been discovered during the experimental investigation. Thermal and structural analysis indicates that the aperture displacement error induced by thermal expansion can satisfy the 3{delta} CD requirement for lithography nodes down to 25 nm. The cross-talking effect near the surface and inside the apertures of the pattern generator has been simulated in a 3-D ray-tracing code. New pattern generator design has been proposed to reduce the cross-talking effect. In order to eliminate the surface charging effect caused by the secondary electrons, a new beam-switching scheme in which the switching electrodes are immersed in the plasma has been demonstrated on a mechanically fabricated pattern generator.

Jiang, Ximan

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - arf immersion lithography Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

immersion lithography using ArF illumination... node; 38-nm node; high-n immersion fluids; ArF immersion lithography; 193-nm immersion ... Source: French, Roger H. -...

74

CMA Operating Manual: Canon Mask Aligner Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CMA Operating Manual: Canon Mask Aligner Introduction Use the Canon PLA-501F Mask Aligner (See Fig: Dan Haskell, 1125 Kemper Hall Corey Wolin, 1125 Kemper Hall Lab Manager Pre-operational Checklist Before you enter the cleanroom: 1. Have you arranged training from the superuser or lab manager

Yoo, S. J. Ben

75

Optics, mask and resist implications on contact CDU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mask and condenser roughness plays important in contact CDU. Resist blur drives both dose requirements and mask specs. Correlation methods can be used to measure mask contributions to CDU.

Naulleau, Patrick

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prospectus Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio #12;The field of extreme ultraviolet light (XUV to the way XUV interacts with object, XUV properties are difficult to observe. Extreme ultraviolet light is absorbed by all objects it comes in contact with. Furthermore, extreme ultraviolet light also has low

Hart, Gus

77

Simplified models for mask roughness induced LER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ITRS requires < 1.2nm line-edge roughness (LER) for the 22nm half-pitch node. Currently, we can consistently achieve only about 3nm LER. Further progress requires understanding the principle causes of LER. Much work has already been done on how both the resist and LER on the mask effect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and factor into LER limits. Presently, mask-roughness induced LER is studied via full 2D aerial image modeling and subsequent analysis of the resulting image. This method is time consuming and cumbersome. It is, therefore, the goal of this research to develop a useful 'rule-of-thumb' analytic model for mask roughness induced LER to expedite learning and understanding.

McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the process parameters of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals. The nickel mould with 2-D photonic crystal patterns covering the area up to 20mm² is ...

Chen, A.

79

Achieving sub-10-nm resolution using scanning electron beam lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Achieving the highest possible resolution using scanning-electron-beam lithography (SEBL) has become an increasingly urgent problem in recent years, as advances in various nanotechnology applications have driven demand for ...

Cord, Bryan M. (Bryan Michael), 1980-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Imaging capabilities of resist in deep ultraviolet liquid immersion interferometric lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 Will Conley Freescale Semiconductor Assignee known from oil-immersion optical microscopy. Through the use of immersion media, such as deionized water

New Mexico, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Protective mask for airborne toxic substances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A protective mask is described which includes a one-piece face piece molded of a transparent elastomer. A visor in the face piece provides panoramic visibility and is resilient enough to deform under applied force to permit improved use of optical devices. Identical left and right cheek fittings permit installation of a canister on either side so that the same mask can be used by right-handed and left-handed wearers voice for use with a telephone and the like. Air deflectors inside the mask adjacent the left and right cheek fittings deflect de-foging air along the inside surface of the visor when either left or right or both cheek fittings are used for attachment of a canister. A sealing adapter permits sealing around earpiece shafts of eyeglasses.

Shoemaker, C.J.; Scavnicky, J.A.; Little, M.E.; Hagy, E.M.; Bloom, A.

1983-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Masking line foregrounds in intensity mapping surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address the problem of line confusion in intensity mapping surveys and explore the possibility to mitigate line foreground contamination by progressively masking the brightest pixels in the observed map. We consider experiments targeting CO(1-0) at $z=3$, Ly$\\alpha$ at $z=7$, and CII at $z=7$, and use simulated intensity maps, which include both clustering and shot noise components of the signal and possible foregrounds, in order to test the efficiency of our method. We find that for CO and Ly$\\alpha$ it is quite possible to remove most of the foreground contribution from the maps via only 1%-3% pixel masking. The CII maps will be more difficult to clean, however, due to instrumental constraints and the high-intensity foreground contamination involved. While the masking procedure sacrifices much of the astrophysical information present in our maps, we demonstrate that useful cosmological information in the targeted lines can be successfully retrieved.

Breysse, Patrick C; Kamionkowski, Marc

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Pattern-placement-error detection for spatial-phase-locked e-beam lithography (SPLEBL)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography (SPLEBL) is a new paradigm for scanning electron-beam lithography (SEBL) that permits nanometer-level pattern placement accuracy. Unlike conventional SEBL systems which run ...

Caramana, Cynthia L. (Cynthia Louise), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Automated mask creation from a 3D model using Faethm.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and implemented a method which given a three-dimensional object can infer from topology the two-dimensional masks needed to produce that object with surface micro-machining. The masks produced by this design tool can be generic, process independent masks, or if given process constraints, specific for a target process. This design tool calculates the two-dimensional mask set required to produce a given three-dimensional model by investigating the vertical topology of the model.

Schiek, Richard Louis; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - aperture lithography ppal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut Collection: Engineering 26 Immersion fluids for lithography: refractive index measurement using...

88

BAYESIAN RELIABILITY MODELING FOR MASKED SYSTEM LIFETIME DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BAYESIAN RELIABILITY MODELING FOR MASKED SYSTEM LIFETIME DATA Lynn KUO \\Lambda Department to fail. The objective is to make inferences for the reliability of the components. In this paper we Title: Reliability Inference for Masked System Lifetime Data. 1. Introduction In the masked system

Kuo, Lynn

89

Digital Material Fabrication Using Mask-Image-Projection-based Stereolithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1/16 Digital Material Fabrication Using Mask-Image-Projection- based Stereolithography Chi Zhou/methodology/approach ­ A two-channel system design is presented for the multi-material mask-image- projection of the developed multi-material mask-image-projection-based Stereolithography process. Research limitations

Chen, Yong

90

Miniature hybrid plasma focus extreme ultraviolet source driven by 10 kA fast current pulse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A miniature hybrid plasma focus device, operated in xenon gas medium and driven by a 10 kA fast current pulse, has been used to generate extreme ultraviolet radiation in the range of 6-15 nm. At present the radiation characteristics from xenon plasma were mainly assessed qualitatively using standard tools such as visible light framing camera, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pinhole camera, and EUV photodiode. Strong pinching of xenon plasma is indicative from both visible and EUV imagings. The maximum size of the EUV emitting zone is estimated to be of the order of 0.21x1.55 mm and the estimated value is within the accepted value as benchmarked by industries. The EUV intensity measurement by photodiode showed fairly isotropic radiation at least in a half solid angle. This device can be developed further as a competent source for EUV metrology or lithography applications.

Mohanty, S.R.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Song, I.; Watanabe, M.; Kawamura, T.; Okino, A.; Horioka, K.; Hotta, E. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Ultratech Develops an Improved Lithography Tool for LED Wafer Manufacturing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ultratech modified an existing lithography tool used for semiconductor manufacturing to better meet the cost and performance targets of the high-brightness LED manufacturing industry. The goal was to make the equipment compatible with the wide range of substrate diameters and thicknesses prevalent in the industry while reducing the capital cost and the overall cost of ownership (COO).

93

Digital microfluidics using soft lithography{ John Paul Urbanski,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital microfluidics using soft lithography{ John Paul Urbanski,a William Thies,b Christopher published as an Advance Article on the web 29th November 2005 DOI: 10.1039/b510127a Although microfluidic software to drive the pumps, valves, and electrodes used to manipulate fluids in microfluidic devices

Amarasinghe, Saman

94

Arrays of nanoscale magnetic dots: Fabrication by x-ray interference lithography and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray interference lithography (XIL) was employed in combination with electrodeposition to fabricate arrays of nanoscale nickel dots which are uniform over 40 {mu}m and have periods down to 71 nm. Using extreme-ultraviolet light, XIL has the potential to produce magnetic dot arrays over large areas with periods well below 50 nm, and down to a theoretical limit of 6.5 nm for a 13 nm x-ray wavelength. In the nickel dot arrays, we observed the effect of interdot magnetic stray field interactions. Measuring the hysteresis loops using the magneto-optical Kerr effect, a double switching via the vortex state was observed in the nickel dots with diameters down to 44 nm and large dot separations. As the dot separations are reduced to below around 50 nm a single switching, occurring by collective rotation of the magnetic spins, is favored due to interdot magnetic stray field interactions. This results in magnetic flux closure through several dots which could be visualized with micromagnetic simulations. Further evidence of the stray field interactions was seen in photoemission electron microscopy images, where bands of contrast corresponding to chains of coupled dots were observed.

Heyderman, L.J.; Solak, H.H.; David, C.; Atkinson, D.; Cowburn, R.P.; Nolting, F. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Nanomagnetism Group, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Rochester Building, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

95

Removable pellicle for lithographic mask protection and handling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A removable pellicle for a lithographic mask that provides active and robust particle protection, and which utilizes a traditional pellicle and two deployments of thermophoretic protection to keep particles off the mask. The removable pellicle is removably attached via a retaining structure to the mask substrate by magnetic attraction with either contacting or non-contacting magnetic capture mechanisms. The pellicle retaining structural is composed of an anchor piece secured to the mask substrate and a frame member containing a pellicle. The anchor piece and the frame member are in removable contact or non-contact by the magnetic capture or latching mechanism. In one embodiment, the frame member is retained in a floating (non-contact) relation to the anchor piece by magnetic levitation. The frame member and the anchor piece are provided with thermophoretic fins which are interdigitated to prevent particles from reaching the patterned area of the mask. Also, the anchor piece and mask are maintained at a higher temperature than the frame member and pellicle which also prevents particles from reaching the patterned mask area by thermophoresis. The pellicle can be positioned over the mask to provide particle protection during mask handling, inspection, and pumpdown, but which can be removed manually or robotically for lithographic use of the mask.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA); Nguyen, Khanh B. (Sunnyvale, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Solving Maximum-Entropy Sampling Problems Using Factored Masks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 2, 2005 ... Abstract: We present a practical approach to Anstreicher and Lee's masked spectral bound for maximum-entropy sampling, and we describe ...

Samuel Burer

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

97

A masked spectral bound for maximum-entropy sampling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sep 16, 2003 ... Abstract: We introduce a new masked spectral bound for the maximum-entropy sampling problem. This bound is a continuous generalization of ...

Kurt Anstreicher

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Extreme ultraviolet interferometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources of systematic measurement errors. To overcome a variety of experimental difficulties, several new methods in interferogram analysis and phase-retrieval were developed: the Fourier-Transform Method of Phase-Shift Determination, which uses Fourier-domain analysis to improve the accuracy of phase-shifting interferometry; the Fourier-Transform Guided Unwrap Method, which was developed to overcome difficulties associated with a high density of mid-spatial-frequency blemishes and which uses a low-spatial-frequency approximation to the measured wavefront to guide the phase unwrapping in the presence of noise; and, finally, an expedient method of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization which facilitates polynomial basis transformations in wave-front surface fitting procedures.

Goldberg, K.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

EFFECT OF MASKED REGIONS ON WEAK-LENSING STATISTICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak-lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then compromises the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple {chi}{sup 2} analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg{sup 2} survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting {chi}{sup 2}/n{sub dof} = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard {Lambda}CDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are a powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account.

Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hamana, Takashi, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Large-Area Zone Plate Fabrication with Optical Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zone plates as condenser optics for x-ray microscopes offer simple optical designs for both illumination and spectral resolution when used as a linear monochromator. However, due to the long write times for electron beam lithography, both the availability and the size of zone plates for condensers have been limited. Since the resolution provided by the linear monochromator scales almost linearly with the diameter of the zone plate, the full potential for zone plate monochromators as illumination systems for x-ray microscopes has not been achieved. For example, the 10-mm-diameter zone plate has demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/{Delta}E = 700[1], but with a 26-mm-diameter zone plate, the calculated spectral resolution is higher than E/{Delta}E = 3000. These large-area zone plates are possible to fabricate with the leading edge semiconductor lithography tools such as those available at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the University at Albany. One of the lithography tools available is the ASML TWINSCAN XT: 1950i with 37-nm resolution [2]. A single 300-mm wafer can contain more than 60 fields, each with a large area condenser, and the throughput of the tool can be more than one wafer every minute.

Denbeaux, G. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Resolution limits and process latitude of comformable contact nano-lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conformable Contact Lithography enables researchers to attain high-resolution lithographic patterning at manageable cost. This thesis characterizes the minimum resolvable feature size and process latitude of Conformable ...

Fucetola, Corey Patrick

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Nodal photolithography : lithography via far-field optical nodes in the resist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I investigate one approach - stimulated emission depletion - to surmounting the diffraction limitation of optical lithography. This approach uses farfield optical nodes to orchestrate reversible, saturable ...

Winston, Donald, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Bunch Profiling Using a Rotating Mask  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current method for measuring profiles of proton bunches in accelerators is severely lacking. One must dedicate a great deal of time and expensive equipment to achieve meaningful results. A new method to complete this task uses a rotating mask with slots of three different orientations to collect this data. By scanning over the beam in three different directions, a complete profile for each bunch is built in just seconds, compared to the hours necessary for the previous method. This design was successfully tested using synchrotron radiation emitted by SPEAR3. The profile of the beam was measured in each of the three desired directions. Due to scheduled beam maintenance, only one set of data was completed and more are necessary to solve any remaining issues. The data collected was processed and all of the RMS sizes along the major and minor axes, as well as the tilt of the beam ellipse were measured.

Miller, Mitchell; /SLAC /IIT, Chicago

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

105

Gray scale x-ray mask  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Gonzales, Marcela (Seattle, WA)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Low thermal distortion Extreme-UV lithography reticle and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Computer-Aided Design for Microfluidic Chips Based on Multilayer Soft Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer-Aided Design for Microfluidic Chips Based on Multilayer Soft Lithography Nada Amin1 Abstract-- Microfluidic chips are emerging as a powerful platform for automating biology experiments automation techniques for microfluidic chips based on multilayer soft lithography. We focus our attention

Rajamani, Sriram K.

110

header for SPIE use Fluoropolymers for 157nm Lithography: Optical Properties from VUV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

new radiation damage mechanisms in previously accepted optical materials. For 157 nm pellicles, newheader for SPIE use Fluoropolymers for 157nm Lithography: Optical Properties from VUV Absorbance With the introduction of 157 nm as the next optical lithography wavelength, the need for new pellicle and photoresist

Rollins, Andrew M.

111

A microfluidic microbial fuel cell fabricated by soft lithography Fang Qian a,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A microfluidic microbial fuel cell fabricated by soft lithography Fang Qian a,b, , Zhen He c microfluidic microbial fuel cell (MFC) platform built by soft-lithography tech- niques. The MFC design includes a unique sub-5 lL polydimethylsiloxane soft chamber featuring carbon cloth electrodes and microfluidic

112

A laser triggered vacuum spark x-ray lithography source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ionized state or the physical processes occurring 15 in a high temperature plasma. There are many advantages to the use of the vacuum spark as an x-ray source; the simplicity of the machine is one. The x-ray output is within the range usable for x-ray... spark apparatus ha- been studied here to determine its applicability to x-ray lithography. A capacitor which stored approximately 3 KJ supplied most of the energy for the plasma. A Nd-YAG laser was used to supply electrons and metallic atoms...

Keating, Richard Allen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum lithography with classical light: Generation of arbitrary patterns Qingqing Sun,1,2 Philip R. Hemmer,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1,2 1Department of Physics and Institute of Quantum Studies, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843..., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2733 #1;2000#2;. #3;7#4; S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature #1;Lon- don#2; 412, 697 #1;2001#2;. #3;8#4; M. D?Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 013602 #1;2001#2;. #3;9#4; A. Pe?er, B...

Sun, Qingqing; Hemmer, Philip R.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Electrodeposition of nickel oxyhydroxide films through polymer masks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochromic materials have attracted much attention for devices including ``smart windows`` and displays. Nickel oxyhydroxide films were electrodeposited through gelatin masks, whose thicknesses may control the optical transmittances of the deposited electrochromic films. The difference of transmittance, {Delta}T{sub 540}, between bleaching and coloration states at wavelength of 540 nm has a linear relationship with the gelatin mask thickness. {Delta}T{sub 540} increased if nickel oxyhydroxide was prepared in agitated electrolyte. The electrodeposited films, prepared with gelatin masks, may have higher stability. These results showed the feasibility of fabricating an electrochromic device with a controlled image whose contrast and brightness are adjustable with potential or current.

Yang, M.C.; Lin, C.K.; Su, C.L. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

SIGNAL MASKING IN GAUSSIAN CHANNELS John A. Quinn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and masking noise pollution. We present results as to how this can be done efficiently, assuming that we have. We also discuss the ap- plication of the theory to acoustic signals, where we consider aspects

Edinburgh, University of

117

P.7 / G. Yoo A Maskless Laser-Write Lithography Processing of Thin-Film Transistors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and solar-cell panel processing, as substrate sizes increase, the cost of mask fabrication rapidly increases

Kanicki, Jerzy

118

Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is induced-typically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gaps-bubbles-propagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Time exposure performance of Mo-Au Gibbsian segregating alloys for extreme ultraviolet collector optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful implementation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography depends on research and progress toward minimizing collector optics degradation from intense plasma erosion and debris deposition. Thus studying the surface degradation process and implementing innovative methods, which could enhance the surface chemistry causing the mirrors to suffer less damage, is crucial for this technology development. A Mo-Au Gibbsian segregation (GS) alloy is deposited on Si using a dc dual-magnetron cosputtering system and the damage is investigated as a result of time dependent exposure in an EUV source. A thin Au segregating layer is maintained through segregation during exposure, even though overall erosion in the Mo-Au sample is taking place in the bulk. The reflective material, Mo, underneath the segregating layer is protected by this sacrificial layer, which is lost due to preferential sputtering. In addition to theoretical work, experimental results are presented on the effectiveness of the GS alloys to be used as potential EUV collector optics material.

Qiu Huatan; Srivastava, Shailendra N.; Thompson, Keith C.; Neumann, Martin J.; Ruzic, David N

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - actinic euvl mask Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

lithography (EUVL) ... Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Center for X-Ray Optics, EUV Interferometry Collection: Physics 3 High sensitivity actinic detection of native...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development of a microfluidic device for patterning multiple species by scanning probe lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scanning Probe Lithography (SPL) is a versatile nanofabrication platform that leverages microfluidic “ink” delivery systems with Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) for generating surface-patterned chemical functionality on the sub-100 nm length scale...

Rivas Cardona, Juan Alberto

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

Contact region fidelity, sensitivity, and control in roll-based soft lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft lithography is a printing process that uses small features on an elastomeric stamp to transfer micron and sub-micron patterns to a substrate. Translating this lab scale process to a roll-based manufacturing platform ...

Petrzelka, Joseph E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

BAYESIAN INSIGHTS ON DISCLOSURE LIMITATION: MASK OR IMPUTE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Statistical agencies seek to disseminate useful data while keeping low the risk of statistical confidentiality disclosure. Recognizing that reidentification of data is generally inadequate to protect its confidentiality against attack by a data snooper, agencies restrict the data they release for general use. Typically, these restricted data procedures have involved transformation or masking of the original, collected data through such devices as adding noise, topcoding, data swapping, and recoding. Recently, proposals have been put forth for the release of synthetic data, simulated from models constructed from the original data. This paper gives a framework for the comparison of masking and synthetic data as two approaches to disclosure limitation. Particular attention is paid to data utility and disclosure risk. Examples of instantiation of masking and of synthetic data construction are provided to illustrate the concepts. Particular attention is paid to data swapping. Insights drawn from the Bayesian paxadigm are provided.

S. KELLER-MCNULTY; G. DUNCAN

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

X-ray mask and method for providing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which can achieve pattern features having lateral dimension of less than 1 micron. The process uses a thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask to transfer an trace image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is then anisotropically etched to provide an etched image of the trace image pattern consisting of a series of channels in the silicon having a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. These channels are then filled by depositing a metal such as gold to provide an inverse image of the trace image and thereby providing a robust x-ray mask tool.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Pleasanton, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA)

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

125

X-ray mask and method for providing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which can achieve pattern features having lateral dimension of less than 1 micron. The process uses a thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask to transfer an trace image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is then anisotropically etched to provide an etched image of the trace image pattern consisting of a series of channels in the silicon having a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. These channels are then filled by depositing a metal such as gold to provide an inverse image of the trace image and thereby providing a robust x-ray mask tool.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Pleasanton, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Nanoimprint Lithography of Al Nanovoids for Deep-UV SERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Near-Field Enhanced Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-Tie Nano-Antenna. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2012, 101, 113116. (18) Jha, S. K.; Ahmed, Z.; Agio, M.; Ekinci, Y.; Löffler, J. F., Deep-UV Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman... , G.; Collière, V.; Lacroix, L. M.; Shafeev, G. A., Internal Structure of Al Hollow Nanoparticles Generated by Laser Ablation in Liquid Ethanol. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2011, 501, 419-422. (25) Maidecchi, G.; Gonella, G.; Proietti Zaccaria, R.; Moroni, R...

Ding, Tao; Sigle, Daniel O.; Herrmann, Lars O.; Wolverson, Daniel; Baumberg, Jeremy

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

128

Fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the ZnO/GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports fabrication of n-ZnO photonic crystal/p-GaN light emitting diode (LED) by nanosphere lithography to further booster the light efficiency. In this article, the fabrication of ZnO photonic crystals is carried out by nanosphere lithography using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasma on the n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs. The CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar mixed gas gives high etching rate of n-ZnO film, which yields a better surface morphology and results less plasma-induced damages of the n-ZnO film. Optimal ZnO lattice parameters of 200 nm and air fill factor from 0.35 to 0.65 were obtained from fitting the spectrum of n-ZnO/p-GaN LED using a MATLAB code. In this article, we will show our recent result that a ZnO photonic crystal cylinder has been fabricated using polystyrene nanosphere mask with lattice parameter of 200 nm and radius of hole around 70 nm. Surface morphology of ZnO photonic crystal was examined by scanning electron microscope.

Chen, Shr-Jia; Chang, Chun-Ming; Kao, Jiann-Shiun; Chen, Fu-Rong; Tsai, Chuen-Horng [Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China); Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 Taiwan (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ga lithography in sputtered niobium for superconductive micro and nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work demonstrates the use of focused ion beam (FIB) implanted Ga as a lithographic mask for plasma etching of Nb films. Using a highly collimated Ga beam of a FIB, Nb is implanted 12?nm deep with a 14?nm thick Ga layer providing etch selectivity better than 15:1 with fluorine based etch chemistry. Implanted square test patterns, both 10??m by 10??m and 100??m by 100??m, demonstrate that doses above than 7.5?×?10{sup 15?}cm{sup ?2} at 30?kV provide adequate mask protection for a 205?nm thick, sputtered Nb film. The resolution of this dry lithographic technique is demonstrated by fabrication of nanowires 75?nm wide by 10??m long connected to 50??m wide contact pads. The residual resistance ratio of patterned Nb films was 3. The superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c})?=?7.7?K was measured using a magnetic properties measurement system. This nanoscale, dry lithographic technique was extended to sputtered TiN and Ta here and could be used on other fluorine etched superconductors such as NbN, NbSi, and NbTi.

Henry, M. David; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Lewis, Rupert [Sandia National Labs, MESA Facility, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1084 (United States)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

130

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Masking Property of Quantum Random Cipher with Phase Mask Encryption -Towards Quantum Enigma Cipher-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The security analysis of physical encryption protocol based on coherent pulse position modulation(CPPM) originated by Yuen is one of the most interesting topics in the study of cryptosystem with a security level beyond the Shannon limit. Although the implementation of CPPM scheme has certain difficulty, several methods have been proposed recently. This paper deals with the CPPM encryption in terms of symplectic transformation, which includes a phase mask encryption as a special example, and formulates a unified security analysis for such encryption schemes. Specifically, we give a lower bound of Eve's symbol error probability using reliability function theory to ensure that our proposed system exceeds the Shannon limit. Then we assume the secret key is given to Eve after her heterodyne measurement. Since this assumption means that Eve has a great advantage in the sense of the conventional cryptography, the lower bound of her error indeed ensures the security level beyond the Shannon limit. In addition, we show some numerical examples of the security performance.

Masaki Sohma; Osamu Hirota

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Soft Lithography Using Acryloxy Perfluoropolyether Composite Tu T. Truong, Rongsheng Lin, Seokwoo Jeon, Hee Hyun Lee, Joana Maria,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft Lithography Using Acryloxy Perfluoropolyether Composite Stamps Tu T. Truong, Rongsheng Lin composite patterning elements that use a commercially available acryloxy perfluoropolyether (a

Rogers, John A.

134

Adaptive Streaming and Rendering of Large Terrains using Strip Masks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive Streaming and Rendering of Large Terrains using Strip Masks Joachim Pouderoux Jean-Eudes Marvie IPARLA Project (LaBRI - INRIA Futurs) University of Bordeaux, France Abstract Terrain rendering is an important factor in the rendering of virtual scenes. If they are large and detailed, digital terrains can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

The rhetorical mask as an aid to composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it can be demonstrated that professional writers do use a rhetorical mask. A short essay from The Norton Reader, "Pop Angler, " will be used to illustrate this idea; the opening paragraphs are quoted in order to show that the persona is established...

Bovey, Shirley Ellen

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

State Amplification and State Masking for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

State Amplification and State Masking for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel Kaya Tutuncuoglu1 its energy harvests. Specifically, we study state amplification and state masking, which define- spectively. For an independent and identically distributed energy harvesting process, we first find

Yener, Aylin

137

Fundamentals of embossing nanoimprint lithography in polymer substrates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The convergence of micro-/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and biomedical industries is creating a need for innovation and discovery around materials, particularly in miniaturized systems that use polymers as the primary substrate. Polymers are ubiquitous in the microelectronics industry and are used as sensing materials, lithography tools, replication molds, microfluidics, nanofluidics, and biomedical devices. This diverse set of operational requirements dictates that the materials employed must possess different properties in order to reduce the cost of production, decrease the scale of devices to the appropriate degree, and generate engineered devices with new functional properties at cost-competitive levels of production. Nanoscale control of polymer deformation at a massive scale would enable breakthroughs in all of the aforementioned applications, but is currently beyond the current capabilities of mass manufacturing. This project was focused on developing a fundamental understanding of how polymers behave under different loads and environments at the nanoscale in terms of performance and fidelity in order to fill the most critical gaps in our current knowledgebase on this topic.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; King, William P. (University of Illinois, Urbana IL)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Printing microchips Lithography is used in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs) to transfer circuit patterns from a mask to the silicon wafer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; - manufactured and assembled to maximize the imaging efficiency and to reduce distortion; Laser - a high power visible and EUV illumination; Condenser Optics - collects and shapes the EUV beam into a field of 114

139

Submitted to Biosystems 6.12.2003 A MODEL OF VISUAL BACKWARD MASKING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

connections, which turn out to support prolonged self-sustained activity. Masking is assumed to arise from

Bugmann, Guido

140

Analysis of Optics and Mask Contamination in SEMATECH EUV Micro-Exposure Tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Optics and Mask Contamination in SEMATECHMioro^Exposure Tools IEUVI Optics Contamination/Lifetime TWG

Wuest, Andrea

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual assembly american Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanolithography for ece138L Summary: CP) Nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) Ink-Jet printing Self-assembly Nano-mask lithography Molecular ruler etc... -contact lithography...

143

ROBUST CONTENT-BASED VIDEO WATERMARKING EXPLOITING MOTION ENTROPY MASKING EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ROBUST CONTENT-BASED VIDEO WATERMARKING EXPLOITING MOTION ENTROPY MASKING EFFECT Amir Houmansadr: Digital watermarking, Video sequence, Entropy masking. Abstract: A major class of image and video, a content-based video watermarking scheme is developed and the concept of entropy masking effect is employed

Reif, Rafael

144

Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

145

Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ?100mm × 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

Dhamgaye, V. P., E-mail: vishal@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: vishal@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

146

Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask Value-Added Product Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lidar backscattered signal is a useful tool for identifying vertical cloud structure in the atmosphere in optically thin clouds. Cloud boundaries derived from lidar signals are a necessary input for popular ARM data products, such as the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product. An operational cloud boundary algorithm (Wang and Sassen 2001) has been implemented for use with the ARM Micropulse Lidar (MPL) systems. In addition to retrieving cloud boundaries above 500 m, the value-added product (VAP) named Micropulse Lidar Cloud Mask (MPLCMASK) applies lidar-specific corrections (i.e., range-square, background, deadtime, and overlap) as described in Campbell et al. (2002) to the measured backscattered lidar. Depolarization ratio is computed using the methodology developed by Flynn et al. (2007) for polarization-capable MPL systems. The cloud boundaries output from MPLCMASK will be the primary lidar cloud mask for input to the ARSCL product and will be applied to all MPL systems, including historical data sets.

Sivaraman, C; Comstock, J

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

147

Tetrachloroethylene Degradation by Dithionite with Ultraviolet Activation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This project has conducted research on degrading PCE with an ARP that combines dithionite and ultraviolet activation. The purpose of the project is to provide knowledge for the development of potential wastewater treatment technologies. Several control...

Zhang, Jingyuan

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

148

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Ultraviolet Light Disinfection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some onsite wastewater treatment systems include a disinfection component. This publication explains how homeowners can disinfect wastewater with ultraviolet light, what the components of such a system are, what factors affect the performance of a...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Proton Beam Lithography at the University of Surrey's Ion Beam Centre , I. Gomez-Morilla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Ion Scan software developed by the National University of Singapore [4]. Simulations with the SRIM in photosensitive glass [3]. This technique has clear advantages in comparison with electron beam lithography and X energy protons have a long range and a low lateral spread making them ideal for exposing thick resist

Webb, Roger P.

151

Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene Jules A Gardener1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene Jules A Gardener1 and Jene A Golovchenko1 with a thin ice layer. The irradiated ice plays a crucial role in the process by providing activated species that locally remove graphene from a silicon dioxide substrate. After patterning the graphene, the ice resist

152

Fabrication of magnetic microfiltration systems using soft lithography Tao Deng, Mara Prentiss,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The combination of microtransfer molding--a soft lithography technique--and electrodeposition generated nickel, Massachusetts 02138 Received 9 August 2001; accepted for publication 9 November 2001 Arrays of nickel posts were field from an external, permanent, neodymium­iron­boron magnet, these nickel posts generated strong

Prentiss, Mara

153

Low-voltage spatial-phase-locked scanning-electron-beam lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography (SPLEBL) is a method that tracks and corrects the position of an electron-beam in real-time by using a reference grid placed above the electron-beam resist. In this thesis, ...

Cheong, Lin Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Toward Optimized Light Utilization in Nanowire Arrays Using Scalable Nanosphere Lithography and Selected Area Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can have application in high-throughput and low-cost optoelectronic devices, including solar cellsToward Optimized Light Utilization in Nanowire Arrays Using Scalable Nanosphere Lithography promising results when used to fabricate light emitters6-10 and photovoltaic devices.11-15 The small contact

Zhou, Chongwu

155

Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications Stephen Y. Chou,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Lingjie Guo, and Lei Zhuang NanoStructure Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University on its surface is pressed into a thin resist cast on a substrate. The resist, a thermal plastic into the entire resist. Since imprint lithography is not based on modification of resist chemical structure

156

Confinement and flow dynamics in thin polymer films for nanoimprint lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a soft film resist deposited on the surface, the film material flows into the mask features in methyl-isobutyl- ketone. The residual stresses and residual solvent in the film were minimized

Boyer, Edmond

157

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY Digesters Do Not Address theMethane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - aperture masking interferometry Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

masking interferometry Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 INTERFEROMETRY FOLLOWING ADAPTIVE OPTICS Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel Summary: frequency adaptive...

159

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THEA. Digesters Have Received Attention for Their Potential to

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THEEVEN BEYOND MANURE-ASSOCIATED METHANE EMISSIONS, INDUSTRIAL

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery - Masking the Environmental Consequences of Industrial Concentrated Livestock Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Digesters and Biogas Recovery-Masking theII. METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAs RECOVERY- IN THE2011] METHANE DIGESTERS AND BIOGAS RECOVERY methane, and 64%

Di Camillo, Nicole G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Design and analysis of a scanning beam interference lithography system for patterning gratings with nanometer-level distortions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the design and analysis of a system for patterning large-area gratings with nanometer level phase distortions. The novel patterning method, termed scanning beam interference lithography (SBIL), uses ...

Konkola, Paul Thomas, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Graphene Edge Lithography Guibai Xie, Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Donghua Liu, Wei Yang, Meng Cheng, Duoming Wang, Dongxia Shi,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Edge Lithography Guibai Xie, Zhiwen Shi, Rong Yang, Donghua Liu, Wei Yang, Meng Cheng: Fabrication of graphene nanostructures is of importance for both investigating their intrinsic physical approach for graphene nanostructures. Compared with conventional lithographic fabrication techniques

Zhang, Guangyu

164

2D and 3D periodic templates through holographic interference lithography : photonic and phononic crystals and biomimetic microlens arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis a simple technique for controlling structure via holographic interference lithography was established and implemented. Access to various space groups including such important structures as the level set ...

Ullal, Chaitanya K. (Chaitanya Kishore)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ultraviolet Limit of Open String Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We confirm the intuition that a string theory which is perturbatively infrared finite is automatically perturbatively ultraviolet finite. Our derivation based on the asymptotics of the Selberg trace formula for the Greens function on a Riemann surface holds for both open and closed string amplitudes and is independent of modular invariance and supersymmetry. The mass scale for the open strings stretched between Dbranes suggests a natural world-sheet ultraviolet regulator in the string path integral, preserving both T-duality and open-closed string world-sheet duality. Note added (Jan 2005): Comments and related references added.

Shyamoli Chaudhuri

2005-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

166

Orthogonal Direct Sum Masking A Smartcard Friendly Computation Paradigm in a Code,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis (FA) are nowadays well known and most designers of secure embedded systems are aware of them of masks used). A recent line of works known as Low-Entropy Masking Schemes (LEMS) has investigated could be a set of codewords, to reduce the overhead in terms of computational resources and entropy

167

Optimisation of masked ion irradiation damage profiles in YBCO thin films by Monte Carlo simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimisation of masked ion irradiation damage profiles in YBCO thin films by Monte Carlo simulation production with a given mask structure. The results suggest that minimum ion scattering broadening tails with beam energy up to a few hundred keV, though the throughput is intrinsically low [1]. A combination

Webb, Roger P.

168

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

169

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Compensation of flare-induced CD changes EUVL  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for compensating for flare-induced critical dimensions (CD) changes in photolithography. Changes in the flare level results in undesirable CD changes. The method when used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography essentially eliminates the unwanted CD changes. The method is based on the recognition that the intrinsic level of flare for an EUV camera (the flare level for an isolated sub-resolution opaque dot in a bright field mask) is essentially constant over the image field. The method involves calculating the flare and its variation over the area of a patterned mask that will be imaged and then using mask biasing to largely eliminate the CD variations that the flare and its variations would otherwise cause. This method would be difficult to apply to optical or DUV lithography since the intrinsic flare for those lithographies is not constant over the image field.

Bjorkholm, John E. (Pleasanton, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Gullikson, Eric M. (Oakland, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA)

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

171

Ultraviolet emissions from Gd3 + ions excited by energy transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultraviolet emissions from Gd3 + ions excited by energy transfer from Ho3 + ions Ying Yu October 2010 Accepted 28 October 2010 Available online 4 November 2010 Keywords: Ultraviolet emission Upconversion Energy transfer a b s t r a c t Ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Gd3+ ion were

Cao, Wenwu

172

Gamma-Ray Imaging with the Coded Mask IBIS Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The IBIS telescope onboard INTEGRAL, the ESA gamma-ray space mission to be launched in 2002, is a soft gamma-ray (20 keV - 10 MeV) device based on a coded aperture imaging system. We describe here basic concepts of coded masks, the imaging system of the IBIS telescope, and the standard data analysis procedures to reconstruct sky images. This analysis includes, for both the low-energy detector layer (ISGRI) and the high energy layer (PICSIT), iterative procedures which decode recorded shadowgrams, search for and locate sources, clean for secondary lobes, and then rotate and compose sky images. These procedures will be implemented in the Quick Look and Standard Analysis of the INTEGRAL Science Data Center (ISDC) as IBIS Instrument Specific Software.

Goldwurm, A; Gros, A; Stephen, J; Foschini, L; Gianotti, F; Natalucci, L; De Cesare, G; Santo, M D

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Galex Ultraviolet Variability (GUVV) Catalog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present Version 1.0 of the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet variability catalog (GUVV) that contains information on 84 time-variable and transient sources gained with simultaneous near and far ultraviolet photometric observations. These time-variable sources were serendipitously revealed in the various 1.2 degree star fields currently being surveyed by the GALEX satellite in two ultraviolet bands (NUV 1750-2750A, FUV 1350-1750A) with limiting AB magnitudes of 23-25. The largest-amplitude variable objects presently detected by GALEX are M-dwarf flare stars, which can brighten by 5-10 mag in both the NUV and FUV bands during short duration (< 500s) outbursts. Other types of large-amplitude ultraviolet variable objects include ab-type RR Lyrae stars, which can vary periodically by 2-5mag in the GALEX FUV band. This first GUVV catalog lists galactic positions and possible source identifications in order to provide the astronomical community with a list of time-variable objects that can now be repeatedly observed at other wavelengths. We expect the total number of time-variable source detections to increase as the GALEX mission progresses, such that later version numbers of the GUVV catalog will contain substantially more variable sources.

Barry Y. Welsh; Jonathan M. Wheatley; Kenneth Heafield; Mark Seibert; Stanley E. Browne; Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; Timothy M. Heckman; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder

2005-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

174

Biomedical devices from ultraviolet February 24, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - Biomedical devices from ultraviolet LEDs February 24, 2012 LEDs produce light, reported in the online Nature Communications, is a step toward biomedical devices with active components on solution-processed inorganic nanocrystals have promise for use in environmental and biomedical diagnostics

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - actinic euv mask Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TABLE I. EUV ... Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Center for X-Ray Optics, EUV Interferometry Collection: Physics 2 Actinic inspection of extreme ultraviolet...

176

Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 39, 2011 Additive Manufacturing based on Optimized Mask Video  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 39, 2011 Additive Manufacturing based on Optimized Mask Video of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 39, 2011 horizontal planes. Each slice is then converted into a two- dimensional (2D

Chen, Yong

177

Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 40, 2012 Smooth Surface Fabrication in Mask Projection based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 40, 2012 Smooth Surface Fabrication in Mask Projection based-stepping effect. #12;Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Vol. 40, 2012 In this paper, we present an alternative approach

Chen, Yong

178

New MS-Windows-Based Educational Software for Teaching the Sunpath Diagram and Shading Mask Protractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mask 1 Degrees South Latitude. This combined le sunpath diagram and shading mask yrurr uuurjur u gertical surface facing 30 degrees east of south. FIGURE 7: Data Input Summaryfor the Partial Shading Device. The dimensions of the partial shading..., the shac similarly dimensioned device published in thc In Figure 7 and 8 the front shade is actually the has been rotated 90 degrees, re-sized and moved 1 directly below the horizontal shade. Architectural Graphics Standard is shown in Figure 9...

Oh, J. K. W.; Haberl, J. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Diffraction spectral filter for use in extreme-UV lithography condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A condenser system for generating a beam of radiation includes a source of radiation light that generates a continuous spectrum of radiation light; a condenser comprising one or more first optical elements for collecting radiation from the source of radiation light and for generating a beam of radiation; and a diffractive spectral filter for separating first radiation light having a particular wavelength from the continuous spectrum of radiation light. Cooling devices can be employed to remove heat generated. The condenser system can be used with a ringfield camera in projection lithography.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Bernardez, Luis J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the fabrication of two-dimensional periodic photonic nanostructures by nanoimprint lithography and dry etching, and their integration into a 1-{\\mu}m-thin mono-crystalline silicon solar cell. Thanks to the periodic nanopatterning, a better in-coupling and trapping of light is achieved, resulting in an absorption enhancement. The proposed light trapping mechanism can be explained as the superposition of a graded index effect and of the diffraction of light inside the photoactive layer. The absorption enhancement is translated into a 23% increase in short-circuit current, as compared to the benchmark cell, resulting in an increase in energy-conversion efficiency.

Trompoukis, Christos; Depauw, Valérie; Gordon, Ivan; Poortmans, Jef; 10.1063/1.4749810.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an approach for extremely fast, wafer-scale fabrication of chiral starfish metamaterials based on electron beam- and on-edge lithography. A millimeter sized array of both the planar chiral and the true 3D chiral starfish is realized, and their chiroptical performances are compared by circular dichroism measurements. We find optical activity in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, where the 3D starfish clearly outperforms the planar design by almost 2 orders of magnitude, though fabrication efforts are only moderately increased. The presented approach is capable of bridging the gap between high performance optical chiral metamaterials and industrial production by nanoimprint technology.

Dietrich, K., E-mail: dietrich.kay@uni-jena.de; Menzel, C.; Lehr, D.; Puffky, O.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Kley, E.-B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Hübner, U. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

182

Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Very uniform 2 {micro}m-pitch square microlens arrays ({micro}LAs), embossed on the blank glass side of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated 1.1 mm-thick glass, are used to enhance light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by {approx}100%, significantly higher than enhancements reported previously. The array design and size relative to the OLED pixel size appear to be responsible for this enhancement. The arrays are fabricated by very economical soft lithography imprinting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold (itself obtained from a Ni master stamp that is generated from holographic interference lithography of a photoresist) on a UV-curable polyurethane drop placed on the glass. Green and blue OLEDs are then fabricated on the ITO to complete the device. When the {mu}LA is {approx}15 x 15 mm{sup 2}, i.e., much larger than the {approx}3 x 3 mm{sup 2} OLED pixel, the electroluminescence (EL) in the forward direction is enhanced by {approx}100%. Similarly, a 19 x 25 mm{sup 2} {mu}LA enhances the EL extracted from a 3 x 3 array of 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} OLED pixels by 96%. Simulations that include the effects of absorption in the organic and ITO layers are in accordance with the experimental results and indicate that a thinner 0.7 mm thick glass would yield a {approx}140% enhancement.

Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Leung, Wai Y.; Liu, Rui; Ye, Zhuo; Constant, Kristen; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Ho, Kai-Ming

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

183

ULTRAVIOLET EXTINCTION AT HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to study the properties and effects of high Galactic latitude dust, we present an analysis of 373,303 galaxies selected from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Explorer All-Sky Data Release. By examining the variation in aggregate ultraviolet colors and number density of these galaxies, we measure the extinction curve at high latitude. We additionally consider a population of spectroscopically selected galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure extinction in the optical. We find that dust at high latitude is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively consistent with standard reddening laws. Extinction in the FUV and NUV is {approx}10% and {approx}35% higher than expected, with significant variation across the sky. We find that no single R{sub V} parameter fits both the optical and ultraviolet extinction at high latitude, and that while both show detectable variation across the sky, these variations are not related. We propose that the overall trends we detect likely stem from an increase in very small silicate grains in the interstellar medium.

Peek, J. E. G.; Schiminovich, David, E-mail: jegpeek@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Degradation of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Epoxy Composites by Ultraviolet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, combined exposure to UV radiation and water vapor, which are predominantly responsible for degradationDegradation of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Epoxy Composites by Ultraviolet Radiation and Condensation) ABSTRACT: The degradation of an IM7/997 carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy exposed to ultraviolet radiation and

Nakamura, Toshio

185

Femtosecond laser nanomachining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtosecond laser nanomachining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization Xiaoming Yu,1) femtosecond laser pulse initiated by an ultraviolet (UV) pulse. With both pulses at a short (~60 fs) delay.g. XUV and X-ray, with the required fluence below their normal threshold. ©2013 Optical Society

Van Stryland, Eric

186

THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET Nicole Farnsworth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET by Nicole Farnsworth Submitted to Brigham Young Ultraviolet and Thorium-based Mirrors . . . 1 1.2 Project Background the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide 34 3.1 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements

Hart, Gus

187

Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion etching, and chemical mechanical polishing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fabrication of planar quantum magnetic disk structure using electron beam lithography, reactive ion, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Received 2 June's size and location, and reactive ion etching was used to form an SiO2 template. Nickel electroplating

188

Ultra-lightweight nanorelief networks : photopatterned microframes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lightweight nano-network structures in polymers have been fabricated and investigated for their mechanical properties. Fabrication techniques via holographic interference lithography and phase mask lithography were implemented ...

Choi, Taeyi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

McCann, Michael P. (Oliver Springs, TN); Chen, Chung H. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient ultraviolet radiation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation. In particular, several members of class amphibia are negatively... affected by exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation. Exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation can cause...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial ultraviolet radiation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exposure to ultraviolet radiation, came under suspicion almost as soon... limbs, whereas tad- poles exposed to full doses of natural lev- els of ultraviolet radiation developed......

192

Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Gd plasma source modeling at 6.7 nm for future lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmas containing gadolinium have been proposed as sources for next generation lithography at 6.x nm. To determine the optimum plasma conditions, atomic structure calculations have been performed for Gd{sup 11+} to Gd{sup 27+} ions which showed that n = 4 - n = 4 resonance transitions overlap in the 6.5-7.0 nm region. Plasma modeling calculations, assuming collisional-radiative equilibrium, predict that the optimum temperature for an optically thin plasma is close to 110 eV and that maximum intensity occurs at 6.76 nm under these conditions. The close agreement between simulated and experimental spectra from laser and discharge produced plasmas indicates the validity of our approach.

Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan)

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

194

Study of nano imprinting using soft lithography on Krafty glue and PVDF polymer thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work reveals soft lithography strategy based on self assembly and replica molding for carrying out micro and nanofabrication. It provides a convenient, effective and very low cost method for the formation and manufacturing of micro and nano structures. Al-layer of compact disc (sony CD-R) used as a stamp with patterned relief structures to generate patterns and structures with pattern size of 100nm height, 1.7 ?m wide. In literature, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) solution is widely used to get negative copy of the Al-layer. In this work, we have used inexpensive white glue (Polyvinylacetate + water), 15gm (?5) and PVDF (Polyvinylidene difluoride) spin coated films and successfully transferred the nano patterns of Al layer on to white glue and PVDF films.

Sankar, M. S. Ravi, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu; Gangineni, Ramesh Babu, E-mail: rameshg.phy@pondiuni.edu [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry - 605014 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

A direct-write thick-film lithography process for multi-parameter control of tooling in continuous roll-to-roll microcontact printing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roll-to-roll (R2R) microcontact printing ([mu]CP) aims to transform micron-precision soft lithography in a continuous, large-scale, high-throughput process for large-area surface patterning, flexible electronics and ...

Nietner, Larissa F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A NOVEL APPROACH TO SOFT-MASK ESTIMATION AND LOG-SPECTRAL ENHANCEMENT FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A NOVEL APPROACH TO SOFT-MASK ESTIMATION AND LOG-SPECTRAL ENHANCEMENT FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION-- Speech Recognition, Feature Extraction, Speech Enhancement, Mask Estimation, Median Filtering. 1 enhancement. Reliable SPPs provide clues about the spectro-temporal location of speech and are thus a highly

Alwan, Abeer

197

Theory of masking with codewords in hardware: low-weight dth-order correlation-immune Boolean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, d = 4) and (n = 10, d {4, 5}). These results set new bounds for the minimal number of lines difficulty when design- ing a masking scheme is to pass through the substitution boxes (sboxes). Clas- sical with the entropy. In this article, we are interested in a masking solution with- out timing overhead and a limited

198

Reflective optical imaging method and circuit  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Reflective optical imaging system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Mask estimation for missing data speech recognition based on statistics of binaural interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Mask estimation for missing data speech recognition based on statistics of binaural interaction to a target sound source in the presence of other This work was funded by EPSRC grant GR/R47400 comparisons are used to cancel interfering sound sources [5] or actively group acoustic energy which

Barker, Jon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask$  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The application of nanosecond-pulsed laser welding technology in MEMS packaging with a shadow mask wiring is not pre- ferred. A comprehensive review on laser welding was given in [6]. The laser welding of laser welding is to create the liquid pool by absorption of incident radiation, allow it to grow

Lin, Liwei

202

Annual variation in primary moult parameters in Cape Weavers, Southern Masked Weavers and Southern Red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Southern Red Bishops in the Western Cape, South Africa #12;160 #12;161 Annual variation in primary moult parameters in Cape Weavers, Southern Masked Weavers and Southern Red Bishops in the Western Cape, South Africa Abstract Duration of primary moult was similar in Cape Weavers and Southern Red Bishops (96 days

de Villiers, Marienne

203

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

Hubbell, Earl A. (Mt. View, CA); Lipshutz, Robert J. (Palo Alto, CA); Morris, Macdonald S. (San Jose, CA); Winkler, James L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Multi-Color Coronagraph Experiment in a Vacuum Testbed with a Binary Shaped Pupil Mask  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conducted a number of multi-band coronagraph experiments using a vacuum chamber and a binary-shaped pupil mask which in principle should work at all wavelengths, in the context of the research and development on a coronagraph to observe extra-solar planets (exoplanets) directly. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that subtraction of Point Spread Function (PSF) and multi-band experiments using a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph would help improve the contrast in the observation of exoplanets. A checkerboard mask, a kind of binary-shaped pupil mask, was used. We improved the temperature stability by installing the coronagraph optics in a vacuum chamber, controlling the temperature of the optical bench, and covering the vacuum chamber with thermal insulation layers. We evaluated how much the PSF subtraction contributes to the high contrast observation by subtracting the images obtained through the coronagraph. We also carried out multi- band experiments in order to demonstrate a more realistic observa...

Haze, Kanae; Abe, Lyu; Kotani, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Sato, Toshimichi; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

Zeskind, Benjamin J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Subcutaneous and cutaneous melanins in Rhabdomys: complementary ultraviolet radiation shields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the pigmented tissue layer covering the skull of Rhabdomys pumilio and test the hypotheses that it is melanin and that it functions in absorption of ultraviolet solar radiation. The parietals were covered by a dark tissue layer...

Timm, Robert M.; Kermott, L. Henry

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Can we stop the spread of influenza in schools with face masks?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the absence of a strain-specific vaccine and the potential resistance to antiviral medication, nonpharmaceutical interventions can be used to reduce the spread of an infectious disease such as influenza. The most common non-pharmaceutical interventions include school closures, travel restrictions, social distancing, enforced or volunteer home isolation and quarantine, improved hand hygiene, and the appropriate wearing of face masks. However, for some of these interventions, there are some unavoidable economic costs to both employees and employers, as well as possible additional detriment to society as a whole. For example, it has been shown that school-age children are most likely to be infected and act as sources of infection for others, due to their greater societal interaction and increased susceptibility. Therefore, preventing or at least reducing infections in children is a logical first-line of defense. For this reason, school closures have been widely investigated and recommended as part of pandemic influenza preparedness, and some studies support this conclusion. Yet, school closures would result in lost work days if at least one parent must be absent from work to care for children who would otherwise be at school. In addition, the delay in-academic progress may be detrimental due to mass school absenteeism. In particular, the pandemic influenza guidance by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends school closures for less than four weeks for Category 2 and 3 pandemics (i.e., similar to the milder 1957 and 1968 pandemics) and one to three months for Category 4 and 5 pandemics (i .e., similar to the 1918 pandemic ). Yet, given the above, it is clear that closing schools for up to three months is unlikely to be a practical mitigation strategy for many families and society. Thus modelers and policy makers need to weigh all factors before recommending such drastic measures, particularly if the agent under consideration typically has low mortality and causes a mild disease. Therefore, we contend that face masks are an effective, practical, non-pharmaceutical intervention that would reduce the spread of disease among school-children, while keeping schools open. Influenza spreads through person-to-person contact, via transmission by large droplets or aerosols (droplet nuclei) produced by breathing, talking, coughing or sneezing, as well as by direct (though most people touch very few others in their daily lives) or indirect (i.e., via fomites) contact. Face masks act as a physical barrier to reduce the amount of potentially infectious inhaled and exhaled particles, although they would not reliably protect the wearer against aerosols; a recent study also demonstrated that they can redirect and decelerate exhaled airflows (when worn by an infected individual) to prevent them from entering the breathing zones of others. Thus, if a whole classroom were to don face masks, disease transmission would be expected to be greatly diminished. Another recent study on face masks and hand hygiene show a 10-50% transmission reduction for influenza-like illnesses. Furthermore, face masks can act as an effective physical reminder and barrier to transmission by preventing the wearer from touching any potentially infectious secretions from their mucous membranes (i.e., from the nose and mouth), which is another mechanism for direct and indirect contact transmission for influenza. A recent systematic review has suggested that wearing masks can be highly effective in limiting the transmission of respiratory infections, such as influenza. Yet, admittedly, the effectiveness of this intervention strategy is highly dependent on compliance (i.e., the willingness to wear the mask in all appropriate situations), which in tum depends on comfort, convenience, fitness, and hygiene. Importantly, masks themselves must not become a source of infection (or reinfection); as such they should be replaced or sanitized daily (where possible) to maximize effectiveness. One solution could be for masks to be touted as fashion accessories, whi

Del Valle, Sara Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tellier, Raymond [UNIV OF CALGARY; Settles, Gary [UNIV PARK; Tang, Julian [NATIONAL UNIV OF SINGAPORE

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Ultraviolet extrapolations in finite oscillator bases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of finite harmonic oscillator spaces in many-body calculations introduces both infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) errors. The IR effects are well approximated by imposing a hard-wall boundary condition at a properly identified radius L_eff. We show that duality of the oscillator implies that the UV effects are equally well described by imposing a sharp momentum cutoff at a momentum Lambda_eff complementary to L_eff. By considering two-body systems with separable potentials, we show that the UV energy corrections depend on details of the potential, in contrast to the IR energy corrections, which depend only on the S-matrix. An adaptation of the separable treatment to more general interactions is developed and applied to model potentials as well as to the deuteron with realistic potentials. The previous success with a simple phenomenological form for the UV error is also explained. Possibilities for controlled extrapolations for A > 2 based on scaling arguments are discussed.

S. König; S. K. Bogner; R. J. Furnstahl; S. N. More; T. Papenbrock

2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

209

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ?}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States) [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

Morgan, Gary L. (Elkridge, MD); Potter, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Alice: The Rosetta Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the design, performance and scientific objectives of the NASA-funded ALICE instrument aboard the ESA Rosetta asteroid flyby/comet rendezvous mission. ALICE is a lightweight, low-power, and low-cost imaging spectrograph optimized for cometary far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy. It will be the first UV spectrograph to study a comet at close range. It is designed to obtain spatially-resolved spectra of Rosetta mission targets in the 700-2050 A spectral band with a spectral resolution between 8 A and 12 A for extended sources that fill its ~0.05 deg x 6.0 deg field-of-view. ALICE employs an off-axis telescope feeding a 0.15-m normal incidence Rowland circle spectrograph with a concave holographic reflection grating. The imaging microchannel plate detector utilizes dual solar-blind opaque photocathodes (KBr and CsI) and employs a 2 D delay-line readout array. The instrument is controlled by an internal microprocessor. During the prime Rosetta mission, ALICE will characterize comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma, its nucleus, and the nucleus/coma coupling; during cruise to the comet, ALICE will make observations of the mission's two asteroid flyby targets and of Mars, its moons, and of Earth's moon. ALICE has already successfully completed the in-flight commissioning phase and is operating normally in flight. It has been characterized in flight with stellar flux calibrations, observations of the Moon during the first Earth fly-by, and observations of comet Linear T7 in 2004 and comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the 2005 Deep Impact comet-collision observing campaign

S. A. Stern; D. C. Slater; J. Scherrer; J. Stone; M. Versteeg; M. F. A'Hearn; J. L. Bertaux; P. D. Feldman; M. C. Festou; J. Wm. Parker; O. H. W. Siegmund

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray multilayer optics for scientific studies with femtosecond/attosecond sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation has led to advancements in many areas of science and technology, including materials studies, EUV lithography, water window microscopy, plasma imaging, and orbiting solar physics imaging. Recent developments in femtosecond and attosecond EUV pulse generation from sources such as high harmonic generation lasers, combined with the elemental and chemical specificity provided by EUV radiation, are opening new opportunities to study fundamental dynamic processes in materials. Critical to these efforts is the design and fabrication of multilayer optics to transport, focus, shape and image these ultra-fast pulses This thesis describes the design, fabrication, characterization, and application of multilayer optics for EUV femtosecond and attosecond scientific studies. Multilayer mirrors for bandwidth control, pulse shaping and compression, tri-material multilayers, and multilayers for polarization control are described. Characterization of multilayer optics, including measurement of material optical constants, reflectivity of multilayer mirrors, and metrology of reflected phases of the multilayer, which is critical to maintaining pulse size and shape, were performed. Two applications of these multilayer mirrors are detailed in the thesis. In the first application, broad bandwidth multilayers were used to characterize and measure sub-100 attosecond pulses from a high harmonic generation source and was performed in collaboration with the Max-Planck institute for Quantum Optics and Ludwig- Maximilians University in Garching, Germany, with Professors Krausz and Kleineberg. In the second application, multilayer mirrors with polarization control are useful to study femtosecond spin dynamics in an ongoing collaboration with the T-REX group of Professor Parmigiani at Elettra in Trieste, Italy. As new ultrafast x-ray sources become available, for example free electron lasers, the multilayer designs described in this thesis can be extended to higher photon energies, and such designs can be used with those sources to enable new scientific studies, such as molecular bonding, phonon, and spin dynamics.

Aquila, Andrew Lee

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

213

Method for characterizing mask defects using image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention applies techniques for image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns on the three-dimensional imaging of defects in EUVL multilayer films. The reconstructed image gives information about the out-of-plane position and the diffraction strength of the defect. The positional information can be used to select the correct defect repair technique. This invention enables the fabrication of defect-free (since repaired) X-ray Mo--Si multilayer mirrors. Repairing Mo--Si multilayer-film defects on mask blanks is a key for the commercial success of EUVL. It is known that particles are added to the Mo--Si multilayer film during the fabrication process. There is a large effort to reduce this contamination, but results are not sufficient, and defects continue to be a major mask yield limiter. All suggested repair strategies need to know the out-of-plane position of the defects in the multilayer.

Hau-Riege, Stefan Peter (Fremont, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

Hubbell, Earl A. (Mt. View, CA); Morris, MacDonald S. (San Jose, CA); Winkler, James L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

Hubbell, Earl A. (Mt. View, CA); Morris, MacDonald S. (San Jose, CA); Winkler, James L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

218

Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - accurate laboratory ultraviolet Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are recorded in the visible and near ultra-violet spectral regions so... the ultra-violet radiation balance. The work reportedhere was designed to measure the cross... performed...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-solid-state ultraviolet laser Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ultraviolet laser Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: all-solid-state ultraviolet laser Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 All-solid-state...

222

Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

APPROXIMATE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS ULTRAVIOLET LINKS Zhengyuan Xu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the solar radiation observed outside the atmosphere shows a wavelength- dependent energy distribution due. INDEX TERMS Ultraviolet, line of sight, non-line of sight, link budget, solar blind. 1. INTRODUCTION advantages [8], such as huge unli- censed bandwidth, low-power and miniaturized transceiver, higher power

Xu, Zhengyuan "Daniel"

224

Electron and proton aurora observed spectroscopically in the far ultraviolet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron and proton aurora observed spectroscopically in the far ultraviolet M. Galand,1 D the location of the electron and proton aurorae is discussed. The estimation of the particle characteristics aurora. Because protons and electrons do not interact in the same way with the atmosphere, our study

Lummerzheim, Dirk

225

Time resolved ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy of pulsed fluorocarbon plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time resolved ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy of pulsed fluorocarbon plasmas Brett A. Cruden.1063/1.1334936 I. INTRODUCTION The study of fluorocarbon plasmas is of great interest for their applications in silicon dioxide etching.1,2 Recently, at- tention has been paid to using fluorocarbon plasmas to pro- duce

Gleason, Karen K.

226

Wavelet-Smoothed Interpolation of Masked Scientific Data for JPEG 2000 Compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

How should we manage scientific data with 'holes'? Some applications, like JPEG 2000, expect logically rectangular data, but some sources, like the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), generate data that isn't defined on certain subsets. We refer to grid points that lack well-defined, scientifically meaningful sample values as 'masked' samples. Wavelet-smoothing is a highly scalable interpolation scheme for regions with complex boundaries on logically rectangular grids. Computation is based on forward/inverse discrete wavelet transforms, so runtime complexity and memory scale linearly with respect to sample count. Efficient state-of-the-art minimal realizations yield small constants (O(10)) for arithmetic complexity scaling, and in-situ implementation techniques make optimal use of memory. Implementation in two dimensions using tensor product filter banks is straighsorward and should generalize routinely to higher dimensions. No hand-tuning required when the interpolation mask changes, making the method aeractive for problems with time-varying masks. Well-suited for interpolating undefined samples prior to JPEG 2000 encoding. The method outperforms global mean interpolation, as judged by both SNR rate-distortion performance and low-rate artifact mitigation, for data distributions whose histograms do not take the form of sharply peaked, symmetric, unimodal probability density functions. These performance advantages can hold even for data whose distribution differs only moderately from the peaked unimodal case, as demonstrated by POP salinity data. The interpolation method is very general and is not tied to any particular class of applications, could be used for more generic smooth interpolation.

Brislawn, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

227

Line detection -The masks shown below can be used to detect lines at various orientations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

every mask over the image and we combine the responses: R(x, y) = max(|R1(x, y)|, |R2(x, y)|, |R3(x, y)|, |R4(x, y)|) If R(x, y) > T, then discontinuity -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1 2 -1 -1 -1222 2 -1 -1-12 2 -1 2 2 2 2 -1 Original Image R1 R2 R3 R4 Convolved Image with R1 Convolved

Masci, Frank

228

Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10??m. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao, E-mail: ensiyu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

Integrated circuit mask generation using a raster scanned laser trimming system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7. Desir ed geometry deflation 8. Geometry deflation error 9. Windowing a mask layout 10. SLIMM system diagram 11. MGF file structure 47 48 49 49 50 52 53 53 54 61 64 12. Macro definition example 13. PFP to MGF conversion 14. PTR... completing each shape, the electron beam is "vector ed" directly to the star ting point of the next shape. Consider able time savings are possible since the beam doesn't have to scan over areas not requiring geometries to be produced. Raster scanning...

Gourley, Kevin Dwayne

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A CLOSE COMPANION SEARCH AROUND L DWARFS USING APERTURE MASKING INTERFEROMETRY AND PALOMAR LASER GUIDE STAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a close companion search around 16 known early L dwarfs using aperture masking interferometry with Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO). The use of aperture masking allows the detection of close binaries, corresponding to projected physical separations of 0.6-10.0 AU for the targets of our survey. This survey achieved median contrast limits of {Delta}K {approx} 2.3 for separations between 1.2 {lambda}/D-4{lambda}/D and {Delta}K {approx} 1.4 at 2/3 {lambda}/D. We present four candidate binaries detected with moderate-to-high confidence (90%-98%). Two have projected physical separations less than 1.5 AU. This may indicate that tight-separation binaries contribute more significantly to the binary fraction than currently assumed, consistent with spectroscopic and photometric overluminosity studies. Ten targets of this survey have previously been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of companion searches. We use the increased resolution of aperture masking to search for close or dim companions that would be obscured by full aperture imaging, finding two candidate binaries. This survey is the first application of aperture masking with LGS AO at Palomar. Several new techniques for the analysis of aperture masking data in the low signal-to-noise regime are explored.

Bernat, David [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bouchez, Antonin H.; Cromer, John L.; Dekany, Richard G.; Moore, Anna M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ireland, Michael; Tuthill, Peter [Sydney Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); Martinache, Frantz [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Angione, John; Burruss, Rick S.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Henning, John R.; Hickey, Jeff; Kibblewhite, Edward; McKenna, Daniel L.; Petrie, Harold L.; Roberts, Jennifer; Shelton, J. Chris; Thicksten, Robert P.; Trinh, Thang [Palomar Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Team, Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Palomar Mountain, CA 92060 (United States)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Sub-50 nm high aspect-ratio silicon pillars, ridges, and trenches fabricated using ultrahigh resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resolution electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching P. B. Fischer and S. Y. Chou University of Minnesota Department of Electrical Engineering, Minneapolis, Minnesota 554~3 (Received 29 July 1992 and chlorine based reactive ion etching. These nanoscale Si features can be further reduced to 10 nm using

232

Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice-assisted electron beam lithography of graphene This article has been downloaded from IOPscience PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 23 (2012) 185302 (6pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/18/185302 Ice demonstrate that a low energy focused electron beam can locally pattern graphene coated with a thin ice layer

233

1 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary.com Interfacial Nanosphere Lithography toward Ag2SAg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-shell Au@Ag2S nanoparticles,[6] hollow-solid Ag2S­Ag nanocomposites,[2,7] porous Ag2S­Ag hybrid nano- tubes. While a variety of physical processes-aided nano- sphere lithography methods have been developed above the tangent-point plane and Ag nano- bowl arrays enclosing the lower part of the MCC template were

Qi, Limin

234

Fabrication of Sub-10-nm Silicon Nanowire Arrays by Size Reduction Lithography Yang-Kyu Choi, Ji Zhu,, Jeff Grunes,, Jeffrey Bokor, and Gabor. A. Somorjai*,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Introduction The fabrication of nanoscale patterns with dimensions of 10 nm or less has been and space dimensions" from polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon) and a metal oxide by etching one et al. carried out what they called "spacer lithography" to produce electronic devices in silicon

Bokor, Jeffrey

235

Beam Halo Measurements at UMER and the JLAB FEL Using an Adaptive Masking Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beam halo is a chal­leng­ing issue for in­tense beams since it can cause beam loss, emit­tance growth, nu­cle­ar ac­ti­va­tion and sec­ondary elec­tron emis­sion. Be­cause of the po­ten­tial­ly low num­ber of par­ti­cles in the halo com­pared with beam core, tra­di­tion­al imag­ing meth­ods may not have suf­fi­cient con­trast to de­tect faint halos. We have de­vel­oped a high dy­nam­ic range, adap­tive mask­ing method to mea­sure halo using a dig­i­tal mi­cro-mir­ror array de­vice and demon­strat­ed its ef­fec­tive­ness ex­per­i­men­tal­ly on the Uni­ver­si­ty of Mary­land Elec­tron Ring (UMER). We also re­port on sim­i­lar ex­per­i­ments cur­rent­ly in progress at the Jef­fer­son Lab Free Elec­tron Laser (FEL) using this method.

Zhang, H D; Fiorito, R B; Kishek, R A; O& #x27; Shea, P G; Shkvarunets, A G; Benson, S V; Douglas, D; Wilson, F G

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Durable Corrosion and Ultraviolet-Resistant Silver Mirror  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosion and ultra violet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors; the silver layer having a film-forming protective polymer bonded thereto, and a protective shield overlay comprising a transparent multipolymer film that incorporates a UV absorber. The corrosion and ultraviolet resistant silver mirror retains spectral hemispherical reflectance and high optical clarity throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors.

Jorgensen, G. J.; Gee, R.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

237

Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

238

On the ultraviolet behaviour of quantum fields over noncommutative manifolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By exploiting the relation between Fredholm modules and the Segal-Shale-Stinespring version of canonical quantization, and taking as starting point the first-quantized fields described by Connes' axioms for noncommutative spin geometries, a Hamiltonian framework for fermion quantum fields over noncommutative manifolds is introduced. We analyze the ultraviolet behaviour of second-quantized fields over noncommutative 3-tori, and discuss what behaviour should be expected on other noncommutative spin manifolds.

Varilly, J C; Varilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Magnetic fluorescent lamp having reduced ultraviolet self-absorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly (10) is enhanced by providing means (30) for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb (12) of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA); Richardson, Robert W. (Pelham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

Reed, Scott (Albuquerue, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerue, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerue, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerue, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Science & Technology Review September/October 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This issue has the following articles: (1) Answering Scientists Most Audacious Questions--Commentary by Dona Crawford; (2) Testing the Accuracy of the Supernova Yardstick--High-resolution simulations are advancing understanding of Type Ia supernovae to help uncover the mysteries of dark energy; (3) Developing New Drugs and Personalized Medical Treatment--Accelerator mass spectrometry is emerging as an essential tool for assessing the effects of drugs in humans; (4) Triage in a Patch--A painless skin patch and accompanying detector can quickly indicate human exposure to biological pathogens, chemicals, explosives, or radiation; and (5) Smoothing Out Defects for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography--A process for smoothing mask defects helps move extreme ultraviolet lithography one step closer to creating smaller, more powerful computer chips.

Bearinger, J P

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

242

High aspect ratio x-ray waveguide channels fabricated by e-beam lithography and wafer bonding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication and characterization of hard x-ray waveguide channels manufactured by e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching and wafer bonding. The guiding layer consists of air or vacuum and the cladding material of silicon, which is favorable in view of minimizing absorption losses. The specifications for waveguide channels which have to be met in the hard x-ray range to achieve a suitable beam confinement in two orthogonal directions are extremely demanding. First, high aspect ratios up to 10{sup 6} have to be achieved between lateral structure size and length of the guides. Second, the channels have to be deeply embedded in material to warrant the guiding of the desired modes while absorbing all other (radiative) modes in the cladding material. We give a detailed report on device fabrication with the respective protocols and parameter optimization, the inspection and the optical characterization.

Neubauer, H.; Hoffmann, S.; Kanbach, M.; Haber, J.; Kalbfleisch, S.; Krüger, S. P.; Salditt, T., E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de [Institut für Röntgenphysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

Micro-Raman and cathodoluminescence studies of epitaxial laterally overgrown GaN with tungsten masks: A method to map the free-carrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro-Raman and cathodoluminescence studies of epitaxial laterally overgrown GaN with tungsten properties of two epitaxial-laterally overgrown GaN structures with tungsten masks in 1100 and 1120 direction by tungsten masks3 to prevent the in-diffusion of silicon and oxygen atoms in the overgrown GaN, which

Nabben, Reinhard

244

714 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 38, NO. 4, APRIL 2010 Interaction of a CO2 Laser Pulse With Tin-Based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulse With Tin-Based Plasma for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Source Yezheng Tao, Mark S. Tillack

Najmabadi, Farrokh

245

Exceptional service in the national interest www.sandia.gov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Program and an industry-funded $300 million, three-lab CRADA

246

A NEW ALGORITHM FOR RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM/RDD MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection and identification of shielded and masked nuclear materials is crucial to national security, but vast borders and high volumes of traffic impose stringent requirements for practical detection systems. Such tools must be be mobile, and hence low power, provide a low false alarm rate, and be sufficiently robust to be operable by non-technical personnel. Currently fielded systems have not achieved all of these requirements simultaneously. Transport modeling such as that done in GADRAS is able to predict observed spectra to a high degree of fidelity; our research is focusing on a radionuclide identification algorithm that inverts this modeling within the constraints imposed by a handheld device. Key components of this work include incorporation of uncertainty as a function of both the background radiation estimate and the hypothesized sources, dimensionality reduction, and nonnegative matrix factorization. We have partially evaluated performance of our algorithm on a third-party data collection made with two different sodium iodide detection devices. Initial results indicate, with caveats, that our algorithm performs as good as or better than the on-board identification algorithms. The system developed was based on a probabilistic approach with an improved approach to variance modeling relative to past work. This system was chosen based on technical innovation and system performance over algorithms developed at two competing research institutions. One key outcome of this probabilistic approach was the development of an intuitive measure of confidence which was indeed useful enough that a classification algorithm was developed based around alarming on high confidence targets. This paper will present and discuss results of this novel approach to accurately identifying shielded or masked radioisotopes with radiation detection systems.

Jeffcoat, R.

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

247

FEATURE ENHANCEMENT USING SPARSE REFERENCE AND ESTIMATED SOFT-MASK EXEMPLAR-PAIRS FOR NOISY SPEECH RECOGNITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEATURE ENHANCEMENT USING SPARSE REFERENCE AND ESTIMATED SOFT-MASK EXEMPLAR-PAIRS FOR NOISY SPEECH-robust speech recogni- tion is proposed. Existing sparse exemplar-based feature enhance- ment methods use clean speech recognition [14]. More recently in [13], another feature enhancement scheme is pro

Alwan, Abeer

248

Fast Yield-Driven Fracture for Variable Shaped-Beam Mask Andrew B. Kahng, Xu Xu and Alex Zelikovsky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast Yield-Driven Fracture for Variable Shaped-Beam Mask Writing Andrew B. Kahng, Xu Xu and Alex process generation have collectively presented new challenges for current fracture tools, which-dimension errors. Some commercial tools are available for handling the sliver minimization problem in fracture

Zelikovsky, Alexander

249

Wavelength Invariant Bi/In Thermal Resist As A Si Anisotropic Etch Masking Layer And Direct Write Photomask Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wavelength Invariant Bi/In Thermal Resist As A Si Anisotropic Etch Masking Layer And Direct Write University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada ABSTRACT Bilayer Bi/In thin film thermal resists are Bi and In films which form an etch resistant material at ~7 mJ/cm2 laser exposures with near wavelength invariance from

Chapman, Glenn H.

250

Versatile, fuel-powered active gas mask or room air purifier Paul D. Ronney, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature (250°C ­ 400°C), a catalyst is required. Breakdown products of chemical-agent molecules eitherVersatile, fuel-powered active gas mask or room air purifier Paul D. Ronney, Department Number: CBDIF-2006-PRO01 (Individual Protection) Motivation and approach Practically all chemical

251

Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Flaring Solar Chromosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The extreme ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature and density sensitive line ratios, Doppler shifted emission lines and nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, and continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this paper I shall review some of the advances made in recent years using these techniques, focusing primarily on studies that have utilized data from Hinode/EIS and SDO/EVE, while also providing some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

Milligan, Ryan O

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

253

Gate-controlled ultraviolet photo-etching of graphene edges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical reactivity of graphene under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation is investigated under positive and negative gate electric fields. Graphene edges are selectively etched when negative gate voltages are applied while the reactivity is significantly suppressed for positive gate voltages. Oxygen adsorption onto graphene is significantly affected by the Fermi level of the final state achieved during previous electrical measurements. UV irradiation after negative-to-positive gate sweeps causes predominant oxygen desorption while UV irradiation after gate sweeps in the opposite direction causes etching of graphene edges.

Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Nouchi, Ryo [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)] [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

254

Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40?nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

255

Graphene/GaN diodes for ultraviolet and visible photodetectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Schottky diodes based on graphene/GaN interface are fabricated and demonstrated for the dual-wavelength photodetection of ultraviolet (UV) and green lights. The physical mechanisms of the photoelectric response of the diodes with different light wavelengths are different. For UV illumination, the photo-generated carriers lower the Schottky barrier and increase the photocurrent. For green light illumination, as the photon energy is smaller than the bandgap of GaN, the hot electrons excited in graphene via internal photoemission are responsible for the photoelectric response. Using graphene as a transparent electrode, the diodes show a ?mS photoresponse, providing an alternative route toward multi-wavelength photodetectors.

Lin, Fang; Chen, Shao-Wen; Meng, Jie; Tse, Geoffrey; Fu, Xue-Wen; Xu, Fu-Jun [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Min, E-mail: liaozm@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn; Yu, Da-Peng, E-mail: liaozm@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

256

Gamma Ray Burst Constraints on Ultraviolet Lorentz Invariance Violation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a unified general formalism for ultraviolet Lorentz invariance violation (LV) testing through electromagnetic wave propagation, based on both dispersion and rotation measure data. This allows for a direct comparison of the efficacy of different data to constrain LV. As an example we study the signature of LV on the rotation of the polarization plane of $\\gamma$-rays from gamma ray bursts in a LV model. Here $\\gamma$-ray polarization data can provide a strong constraint on LV, 13 orders of magnitude more restrictive than a potential constraint from the rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization proposed by Gamboa, L\\'{o}pez-Sarri\\'{o}n, and Polychronakos (2006).

Tina Kahniashvili; Grigol Gogoberidze; Bharat Ratra

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

257

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Quigley, Gerard P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Ultraviolet radiation in the southern seas in early spring 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Science Foundation research vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer carried out a cruise to Antarctica in early spring of 1993. It left Punta Arenas, Chile, close to the tip of South America on 11 August 1993. sailed south for 3 days to the tip of The Antarctic Peninsula, stopping at O`Higgens and Palmer Stations, and from there went southwest and into the Bellingshausen sea. On 10 September, it reached the most southerly position, 71{degrees}S, some distance north of the Thurston Island. From there, it went as far as 110{degrees}W before returning to Punta Arenas. The main purpose of the cruise was to investigate the snow- and sea-ice thickness, properties, and structures in this part of the southern oceans. It also allowed us to carry out continuous radiation measurements. We measured the following fluxes: global radiation (Eppley PSP), infrared incoming radiation (Eppley Pyrgeometer PIR), ultraviolet-A radiation (Eppley UV meter), ultraviolet-B radiation (Yankee Environmental Systems), and pitch and roll of the ship (Lucas Sensing Systems, Inc.). All instruments were sampled twice per second (Campbell Scientific, Model 21 X), and a notebook computer (ASI Patriot) stored 1-minute averages of the radiation data and 1-minute standard deviation of the ship`s pitch and roll. Visual observations of cloud cover were also recorded. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Wendler, G.; Quakenbush, T. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

259

Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

Ben-Zvi, I. (ed.)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Hubble Space Telescope FOS Optical and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Bow Shock HH 47A 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hubble Space Telescope FOS Optical and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Bow Shock HH 47A 1 Patrick Telescope of the HH 47A bow shock and Mach disk that cover the entire spectral range between 2220 Å¡ that the Fe II line broadening must exceed that expected from thermal motions. Excitation of ultraviolet Fe II

Hartigan, Patrick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life -Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 1 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution Water E Coli UVB Sunscreen #12;Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 2 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM Home | About | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Advertise on This Site

Blaustein, Andrew R.

262

Context-based automated defect classification system using multiple morphological masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Automatic detection of defects during the fabrication of semiconductor wafers is largely automated, but the classification of those defects is still performed manually by technicians. This invention includes novel digital image analysis techniques that generate unique feature vector descriptions of semiconductor defects as well as classifiers that use these descriptions to automatically categorize the defects into one of a set of pre-defined classes. Feature extraction techniques based on multiple-focus images, multiple-defect mask images, and segmented semiconductor wafer images are used to create unique feature-based descriptions of the semiconductor defects. These feature-based defect descriptions are subsequently classified by a defect classifier into categories that depend on defect characteristics and defect contextual information, that is, the semiconductor process layer(s) with which the defect comes in contact. At the heart of the system is a knowledge database that stores and distributes historical semiconductor wafer and defect data to guide the feature extraction and classification processes. In summary, this invention takes as its input a set of images containing semiconductor defect information, and generates as its output a classification for the defect that describes not only the defect itself, but also the location of that defect with respect to the semiconductor process layers.

Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Hunt, Martin A. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Lubbock, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Enhanced Software for Displaying Orthographic, Stereographic, Gnomic and Cylindrical Projections of the Sunpath Diagram and Shading Mask Protractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION The sun-path diagram and shading mask protractor are well known graphic formats that have traditionally been used by architects and engineers to analyze whether or not a solar shading device will block direct sunlight on a given point... 1990), SOMBRERO (Schnieders et al. 1997), AWNSHADE (McCluney 1995), SOLAR-2 (Sheu 1986), SUNPATH (McCluney 1995), and SUNSPEC (McCluney 1995) programs. OPAQUE (Abouella and Milne 1990), developed by the Department of Architecture at UCLA, draws a...

Oh, K. W.; Haberl, J. S.; Degelman, L. O.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Design of the commissioning filter/mask/window assembly for undulator beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact filter/mask/window assembly has been designed for undulator beamline commissioning activity at the Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The assembly consists of one 300-{mu}m graphite filter, one 127-{mu}m CVD diamond filter and two 250-{mu}m beryllium windows. A water-cooled Glidcop fixed mask with a 4.5-mm {times} 4.5-mm output optical aperture and a 0.96-mrad {times} 1.6-mrad beam missteering acceptance is a major part in the assembly. The CVD diamond filter which is mounted on the downstream side of the fixed mask is designed to also function as a transmitting x-ray beam position monitor. The sum signal from the latter can be used to monitor the physical condition of the graphite filter and prevent any possible chain reaction damage to the beryllium windows downstream. In this paper, the design concept as well as the detailed structural design of the commissioning window are presented. Further applications of the commissioning window commissioning window components are also discussed.

Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

1995-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Close Companion Search around L Dwarfs using Aperture Masking Interferometry and Palomar Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a close companion search around sixteen known early-L dwarfs using aperture masking interferometry with Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics. The use of aperture masking allows the detection of close binaries, corresponding to projected physical separations of 0.6-10.0 AU for the targets of our survey. This survey achieved median contrast limits of Delta_K ~ 2.3 for separations between 1.2 - 4 lambda/D, and Delta_K ~ 1.4 at (2/3)lambda/D. We present four candidate binaries detected with moderate to high confidence (90-98%). Two have projected physical separations less than 1.5 AU. This may indicate that tight-separation binaries contribute more significantly to the binary fraction than currently assumed, consistent with spectroscopic and photometric overluminosity studies. Ten targets of this survey have previously been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of companion searches. We use the increased resolution of aperture masking to search for close or dim companions that would be o...

Bernat, David; Ireland, Michael; Tuthill, Peter; Martinache, Frantz; Angione, John; Burruss, Rick S; Cromer, John L; Dekany, Richard G; Guiwits, Stephen R; Henning, John R; Hickey, Jeff; Kibblewhite, Edward; McKenna, Daniel L; Moore, Anna M; Petrie, Harold L; Roberts, Jennifer; Shelton, J Chris; Thicksten, Robert P; Trinh, Thang; Tripathi, Renu; Troy, Mitchell; Truong, Tuan; Velur, Viswa; Lloyd, James P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Improved repeat identification and masking in Dipterans Christopher D. Smith1,2,,*, Robert C. Edgar3,, Mark D. Yandell4, Douglas R. Smith5, Susan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved repeat identification and masking in Dipterans Christopher D. Smith1,2,,*, Robert C. Edgar3,, Mark D. Yandell4, Douglas R. Smith5, Susan E. Celniker2, Eugene W. Myers6,7, and Gary H. Karpen2

Yandell, Mark

267

Lithography High-Resolution Soft Lithography: Enabling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from photocurable perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs).[6] PFPE-based materials are liquids at room temperature

Carter, Kenneth

268

Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

269

Holographic screens in ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we study the geometry and the thermodynamics of a holographic screen in the framework of the ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity. To achieve this goal we construct a new static, neutral, non-rotating black hole metric, whose outer (event) horizon coincides with the surface of the screen. The space-time admits an extremal configuration corresponding to the minimal holographic screen and having both mass and radius equalling the Planck units. We identify this object as the space-time fundamental building block, whose interior is physically unaccessible and cannot be probed even during the Hawking evaporation terminal phase. In agreement with the holographic principle, relevant processes take place on the screen surface. The area quantization leads to a discrete mass spectrum. An analysis of the entropy shows that the minimal holographic screen can store only one byte of information while in the thermodynamic limit the area law is corrected by a logarithmic term.

Piero Nicolini; Euro Spallucci

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.

Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Laser plasma formation assisted by ultraviolet pre-ionization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present experimental and modeling studies of air pre-ionization using ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses and its effect on laser breakdown of an overlapped near-infrared (NIR) pulse. Experimental studies are conducted with a 266?nm beam (fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG) for UV pre-ionization and an overlapped 1064?nm NIR beam (fundamental of Nd:YAG), both having pulse duration of ?10?ns. Results show that the UV beam produces a pre-ionized volume which assists in breakdown of the NIR beam, leading to reduction in NIR breakdown threshold by factor of >2. Numerical modeling is performed to examine the ionization and breakdown of both beams. The modeled breakdown threshold of the NIR, including assist by pre-ionization, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

Yalin, Azer P., E-mail: ayalin@engr.colostate.edu; Dumitrache, Ciprian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Wilvert, Nick [Sandia Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Joshi, Sachin [Cummins Inc., Columbus, Indiana 47201 (United States); Shneider, Mikhail N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cloud Detection with MODIS, Part I: Improvements in the MODIS Cloud Mask for Collection 5 *Richard A. Frey, Steven A. Ackerman, Yinghui Liu, Kathleen I. Strabala, Hong Zhang,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud Detection with MODIS, Part I: Improvements in the MODIS Cloud Mask for Collection 5 *Richard.frey@ssec.wisc.edu August 2007 #12;ABSTRACT Significant improvements have been made to the MODIS cloud mask (MOD35 and MYD35 to the 3.9-12 m and 11-12 m cloud tests. More non-MODIS ancillary input data has been added. Land and sea

Sheridan, Jennifer

274

Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 {mu}W and {mu}J per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.

Fuchs, S.; Roedel, C.; Bierbach, J.; Paz, A. E.; Foerster, E.; Paulus, G. G. [Institute of Optics und Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena (Germany); Krebs, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Haedrich, S.; Limpert, J. [Helmholtz-Institute Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Kuschel, S.; Wuensche, M.; Hilbert, V.; Zastrau, U. [Institute of Optics und Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or x- ray laser pulses of short duration. An ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulse of long duration is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier, by a streaming plasma that is produced by illuminating a solid target with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation. The short pulse of ultraviolet or x-ray laser radiation, which may be amplified to high power, is separated out by passage through a slit aperture in the opaque barrier.

MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

EVIDENCE FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA DIVERSITY FROM ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This ...

Lewin, Walter H. G.

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - algan-based deep ultraviolet Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GanAlgan- Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained... in ultraviolet optoelectronics2-4 , room temperature lasing5-8 , and solar cells applications9... -LEDs and...

280

High-Intensity Coherent Vacuum Ultraviolet Source Using Unfocussed Commercial Dye Lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 High-Intensity Coherent Vacuum Ultraviolet Source Using Unfocussed Commercial Dye Lasers Daniel R Intruments Using two or three commercial pulsed nanosecond dye lasers pumped by a single 30 Hz Nd:YAG laser

Davis, H. Floyd

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Microbial Reduction on Eggshell Surfaces by the use of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in combination with ultraviolet light (UV) as an egg sanitization process on eggshell surfaces was studied. Preliminary experiments were conducted to develop an optimized methodology for eggshell disinfection that will be an effective and efficient way to reduce...

Gottselig, Steven Michael

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

The O iv and S iv intercombination lines in the ultraviolet spectra of astrophysical sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of the Emitted Radiation (sumer) instrument on the Solar/09/2002; 9:46; p.1 #12; 2 Keenan et al. line ratios and observational data. For example, Cook et al. (1995

283

Tryptophan Cluster Protects Human ?D-Crystallin from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Photoaggregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a significant risk factor for age-related cataract, a disease of the human lens and the most prevalent cause of blindness in the world. Cataract pathology involves protein misfolding ...

Schafheimer, Steven Nathaniel

284

AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE ASSOCIATED WITH A SURGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Taking advantage of the high temporal and spatial resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with a surge on 2010 November 13. Due to the magnetic flux cancelation, some surges formed in the source active region (AR). The strongest surge produced our studied event. The surge was deflected by the nearby loops that connected to another AR, and disrupted the overlying loops that slowly expanded and eventually evolved into a weak coronal mass ejection (CME). The surge was likely associated with the core of the CME. The EUV wave happened after the surge deflected. The wave departed far from the flare center and showed a close location relative to the deflected surge. The wave propagated in a narrow angular extent, mainly in the ejection direction of the surge. The close timing and location relations between the EUV wave and the surge indicate that the wave was closely associated with the CME. The wave had a velocity of 310-350 km s{sup -1}, while the speeds of the surge and the expanding loops were about 130 and 150 km s{sup -1}, respectively. All of the results suggest that the EUV wave was a fast-mode wave and was most likely triggered by the weak CME.

Zheng, Ruisheng; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Hong, Junchao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: zhrsh@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)] [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

The Far-Ultraviolet Ups and Downs of Alpha Centauri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Four years (2010-2014) of semiannual pointings by Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on nearby Alpha Centauri have yielded a detailed time history of far-ultraviolet emissions of the solar-like primary (A: G2V) and the cooler, but more active, secondary (B: K1V). This period saw A climbing out of a prolonged coronal X-ray minimum, as documented by Chandra, while B was rising to, then falling from, a peak of its long-term (8 yr) starspot cycle. The FUV fluxes of the primary were steady over most of the STIS period, although the [Fe XII] 124 nm coronal forbidden line (T= 1.5 MK) partly mirrored the slowly rising X-ray fluxes. The FUV emissions of the secondary more closely tracked the rise and fall of its coronal luminosities, especially the "hot lines" like Si IV, C IV, and N V (T= 80,000-200,000 K), and coronal [Fe XII] itself. The hot lines of both stars were systematically redshifted, relative to narrow chromospheric emissions, by several km/s, showing little change in amplitude over the 4-y...

Ayres, Thomas R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy lower than 80?eV. After e-beam irradiation, it is found that the D peak, I(D), appears in the Raman spectrum, indicating defect formation in graphene. The evolution of I(D)/I(G) follows the amorphization trajectory with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that graphene goes through a transformation from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline and then further to amorphous carbon. Further, irradiation of graphene with increased water partial pressure does not significantly change the Raman spectra, which suggests that, in the extremely low energy range, e-beam induced chemical reactions between residual water and graphene are not the dominant mechanism driving defect formation in graphene. Single layer graphene, partially suspended over holes was irradiated with EUV radiation. By comparing with the Raman results from e-beam irradiation, it is concluded that the photoelectrons, especially those from the valence band, contribute to defect formation in graphene during irradiation.

Gao, A., E-mail: a.gao@utwente.nl; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein, The Netherlands and XUV Optics Group, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Swift-UVOT ultraviolet and visible grism calibration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the calibration of the Swift UVOT grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands respectively. The UV grism covers the range 1700-5000 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 75 at 2600 Angstrom for source magnitudes of u=10-16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range 2850-6600 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 100 at 4000 Angstrom for source magnitudes of b=12-17 mag. This calibration extends over all detector positions, for all modes used during operations. The wavelength accuracy (1-sigma) is 9 Angstrom in the UV grism clocked mode, 17 Angstrom in the UV grism nominal mode and 22 Angstrom in the visible grism. The range below 2740 Angstrom in the UV grism and 5200 Angstrom in the visible grism never suffers from overlapping by higher spectral orders. The flux calibration of the grisms includes a correction we developed for coincidence loss in the detector. The error in the coincidence loss correction is less than 20%. The...

Kuin, N P M; Breeveld, A A; Page, M J; James, C; Lamoureux, H; Mehdipour, M; Still, M; Yershov, V; Brown, P J; Carter, M; Mason, K O; Kennedy, T; Marshall, F; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M; Oates, S; Smith, P J; De Pasquale, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Ultrasonic generator and detector using an optical mask having a grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses in a sample  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and a system are disclosed for determining at least one characteristic of a sample that contains a substrate and at least one film disposed on or over a surface of the substrate. The method includes a first step of placing a mask over a free surface of the at least one film, where the mask has a top surface and a bottom surface that is placed adjacent to the free surface of the film. The bottom surface of the mask has formed therein or thereon a plurality of features for forming at least one grating. A next step directs optical pump pulses through the mask to the free surface of the film, where individual ones of the pump pulses are followed by at least one optical probe pulse. The pump pulses are spatially distributed by the grating for launching a plurality of spatially distributed, time varying strain pulses within the film, which cause a detectable change in optical constants of the film. A next step detects a reflected or a transmitted portion of the probe pulses, which are also spatially distributed by the grating. A next step measures a change in at least one characteristic of at least one of reflected or transmitted probe pulses due to the change in optical constants, and a further step determines the at least one characteristic of the sample from the measured change in the at least one characteristic of the probe pulses. An optical mask is also disclosed herein, and forms a part of these teachings.

Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Optical Properties and London Dispersion Forces of Amorphous Silica Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for semiconductor fabrication, re- cently as a potential 157 nm mask substrate. The optical properties in the vacuum, optical fibers, and microelectronics such as metal oxide semiconductor transistors, etc.1 It also forms is tetrahedrally coordinated with four oxygen atoms and each oxygen atom serves as a bridge connecting two

Rollins, Andrew M.

291

Growth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e-beam lithography and defined by dry etching for field emission application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Individual vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, Electron-beam lithography, Dry etching, Field emission and uniform electronic emission, cathodes based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are patternedGrowth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e

Boyer, Edmond

292

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

293

Nanoimprint Lithography | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn F. Geisz,AerialStaff NUGWedged Crater.Nanoimprint

294

Advances in Lithography  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFM LEAP Aircraft Enginesof

295

Ultraviolet radiation as disinfection for fish surgical tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelomic cavity of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When fish are implanted consecutively, as in large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. To determine the efficacy for this application, ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used to disinfect surgical tools exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agents of furunculosis, coldwater disease, bacterial kidney disease, and saprolegniasis (water mold), respectively. Four experiments were conducted to address the question of UV efficacy. In the first experiment, forceps were exposed to the three bacteria at three varying concentrations. After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods – 2, 5, or 15 min. UV radiation exposures at all durations were effective at killing all three bacteria on forceps at the highest bacteria concentrations. In the second experiment, stab scalpels, sutures, and needle holders were exposed to A. salmonicida using the same methodology as used in Experiment 1. UV radiation exposure at 5 and 15 min was effective at killing A. salmonicida on stab scalpels and sutures but not needle holders. In the third experiment, S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV radiation was effective at killing the water mold at all three exposure durations. Collectively, this study shows that UV radiation appears to provide a quick alternative disinfection technique to chemical disinfectants (e.g., ethanol) for some surgical tools. However, we do not recommend using this method for tools such as needle holders having overlapping parts or other structures that cannot be exposed directly to UV radiation

Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Geist, David R.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

296

A simple transfer-optics system for an extreme-ultraviolet synchrotron beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiometric experiments often require comparatively high intensities in the extreme ultraviolet, in the microwatt range. The monochromators that provide the high throughput needed for these experiments, though, do not always allow for end stations to be switched out easily. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility, the only beamline with sufficient extreme-ultraviolet power has a multi-ton endstation, which cannot be moved. We will describe a set of transfer optics that allow the photon beam to be collimated and deflected through a port on the downstream end of the large chamber. This allowed an absolute cryogenic radiometer to be attached, with the entrance cavity underfilled. We will describe ray-tracing results and offer preliminary results of the radiometer-based throughput of the system.

Tarrio, C.; Grantham, S.; Vest, R.E.; Liu, K. [Electron and Optical Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Application of a Theory for Generation of Soft X-Ray by Storage Rings and Its Use For X-Ray Lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theory has been developed for generation of soft X-ray transition radiation (TR) by storage ring synchrotrons. It takes into consideration that the dielectric constant of the TR target material is a complex number, utilizes an explicit expression for the number of passes of an injected electron through the target, and describes more precisely the absorption of TR in the target. Such TR can be used for performing X-ray lithography (XRL), and therefore a formula is included for the sensitivity of the photoresist used in XRL. TR targets for XRL can be optimized, based on finding a maximum of the resist sensitivity. Application of this theory to optimization of Mg target shows that a target containing only one Mg foil, with a thickness of about 245 nm is the best Mg target, for performing XRL by our storage ring synchrotron MIRRORCLE-20SX.

Minkov, D. [21st Century COE SLLS (Japan); Yamada, H. [21st Century COE SLLS (Japan); Ritsumeikan University (Japan); PPL Co. Ltd., 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu City, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Toyosugi, N.; Morita, M. [PPL Co. Ltd., 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu City, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T. [Ritsumeikan University (Japan)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

298

Nonadiabatic calculations of ultraviolet absorption cross section of sulfur monoxide: Isotopic effects on the photodissociation reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted sulfur monoxide (SO) isotopologues were calculated using R-Matrix expansion technique. Energies, transition dipole moments, and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were calculated at MRCI/AV6Z level. The calculated absorption cross section of {sup 32}S{sup 16}O was compared with experimental spectrum; the spectral feature and the absolute value of photoabsorption cross sections are in good agreement. Our calculation predicts a long lived photoexcited SO* species which causes large non-mass dependent isotopic effects depending on the excitation energy in the ultraviolet region.

Danielache, Sebastian O.; Tomoya, Suzuki; Nanbu, Shinkoh [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)] [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda Ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kondorsky, Alexey [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation) [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science, Leninsky pr., 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutsky per., 9, Dolgoprudny Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Tokue, Ikuo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x 2012) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-induced carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces modification during EUV exposure. XPS analysis showed that total carbon contamination (C 1s peak

Harilal, S. S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Studying the Mechanisms of Titanium Dioxide as Ultraviolet-Blocking Additive for Films and Fabrics by an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying the Mechanisms of Titanium Dioxide as Ultraviolet-Blocking Additive for Films and Fabrics November 2003 ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has good ultraviolet (UV)-blocking power and is very: inorganic UV-blocking agents; additives; films; adsorption; light scattering INTRODUCTION More frequent

Pan, Ning

302

620 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 6 / March 15, 2004 Damage to extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer mirrors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

620 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 6 / March 15, 2004 Damage to extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer, Russia Received August 21, 2003 The damage threshold and damage mechanism of extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer mirror coatings are investigated with focused nanosecond pulses at 46.9-nm radiation from

Rocca, Jorge J.

303

Effects of a modified through-mask drinking system (MDS) on fluid intake during exercise in chemical protective gear. Report for January-May 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a modified through-mask drinking system (MDS) on voluntary fluid consumption. Eighteen male volunteers walked on a treadmill (4.02 km/hr, 0 deg. grade, 50 min/hr for 6 hr) in a climatic chamber (dry bulb=32.6 deg C, wet bulb=17.5 deg C, 20.4% relative humidity, and windspeed=8.05 km/hr, producing a WBGT of 22.1 deg C). Subjects wore chemical protective gear (trousers, jacket, boots, gloves, and M17A1 protective mask) and were randomly assigned one of two through-mask and were randomly assigned one of two through-mask drinking systems: CS (n=9), the current gravity fed system or MDS (n=9), a prototype hand-pump drinking system. Because decontamination of the mask and drinking connections was performed prior to drinking, the overall use of the CS was rated significantly more difficult during both work and rest than the MDS. Failure to decontaminate connections prior to drinking was noted early in the trial in 2 soldiers using the CS suggesting an increase risk of accidental contamination associated with this system. Drinking with the MDS had no measurable adverse effect on hydration status of the test subjects: water intake rate, 0.36 L/hr (CS) and 0.42 L/hr (MDS); sweat rate, 0.63 L/hr (CS) and 0.67 L/hr (MDS); body weight loss, 0.32 %/hr (CS) and 0.31 %/hr (MDS).

Szlyk, P.C.; Sils, I.V.; Tharion, W.J.; Francesconi, R.P.; Mahnke, R.B.

1989-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

304

Simulation of Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Amyloid Fibrils Darius Abramavicius,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diseases. Amyloid fibrils are formed by a wide variety of peptides and proteins and can be distinguishedSimulation of Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Amyloid Fibrils Jun Jiang, Darius, 2010 Revealing the structure and aggregation mechanism of amyloid fibrils is essential

Mukamel, Shaul

305

AMLR program: Ultraviolet and visible solar irradiance around Elephant Island, Antarctica, January to March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the discovery of the seasonal ozone hole over Antarctica, great efforts have been made in measuring incident ultraviolet radiation at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the impact that enhanced UV-B radiation could have on terrestrial and aquatic environments. The measurements described in this article were conducted on board the NOAA ship Surveyor. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Helbling, E.W.; Holm-Hansen, O. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Moran, P. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation P. A. C. Jansson,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation P. A. C. Jansson,a) B. A. M. Hansson, O spectral signatures. The system is demonstrated using tin Sn as the target due to its strong emission materials with new spectral signatures. As an example we use tin, motivated by its current interest for EUV

307

Characterization and correction of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 ultraviolet measurements and application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis indicates that reflectance degradation began at the beginning of the mission; the reflectance degrades by 15% around 290 nm and by 2.2% around 325 nm from 2007 through 2009. Degradation shows of radiance in the ultraviolet (UV) region is essential for retrievals of ozone profiles especially

Chance, Kelly

308

THE PREFLIGHT PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING TELESCOPE EIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. This paper presents the preflight photometric calibration of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The EIT consists of a Ritchey–Chrétien telescope with multilayer coatings applied to four quadrants of the primary and secondary mirrors, several filters and a backside-thinned CCD detector. The quadrants of the EIT

K. P. Dere; J. D. Moses; J. -p. Delaboudinière; J. Brunaud; C. Carabetian; J. -f. Hochedez; X. Y. Song; R. C. Catura; F. Clette

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Influence of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet and ion emission features from tin plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies showed that the EUV/x-ray emission from laser-heated clusters are strong function of laser pulseInfluence of laser pulse duration on extreme ultraviolet and ion emission features from tin plasmasLASE Project, Department of Diode-Pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague

Harilal, S. S.

310

SIDE GROUP ADDITION TO THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CORONENE BY ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOLYSIS IN COSMIC ICE ANALOGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ated aromatics can be produced in D2O ice photolysis experiments under interstellar conditions IN COSMIC ICE ANALOGS Max P. Bernstein,1,2 Jamie E. Elsila,3 Jason P. Dworkin,1,2 Scott A. Sandford,1 Louis Ultraviolet photolysis of various coronene-ice mixtures at low temperature and pressure caused the addi- tion

Zare, Richard N.

311

Signatures of the Protein Folding Pathway in Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Signatures of the Protein Folding Pathway in Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Jun Jiang of the signals provides a quantitative marker of protein folding status, accessible by both theoretical calculations and experiments. SECTION: Biophysical Chemistry and Biomolecules Protein folding is an important

Mukamel, Shaul

312

Infrared and ultraviolet problem for the Nelson model with variable coefficients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared and ultraviolet problem for the Nelson model with variable coefficients C. G´erard,1 , F of the Hamiltonian in the presence of the infrared problem, i.e. assuming that the boson mass tends to 0 at infinity state one usually speaks of the infrared problem or infrared divergence. The infrared problem arises

313

Near-infrared femtosecond laser machining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-infrared femtosecond laser machining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization X. Yu, Q://apl.aip.org/features/most_downloaded Information for Authors: http://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Near-infrared femtosecond laser machining initiated, and the near-infrared pulse utilizes these electrons to cause damage by avalanche ionization. VC 2013 American

Van Stryland, Eric

314

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Improvements in Near-Terminator and Nocturnal Cloud Masks using Satellite Imager Data over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud detection using satellite measurements presents a big challenge near the terminator where the visible (VIS; 0.65 {micro}m) channel becomes less reliable and the reflected solar component of the solar infrared 3.9-{micro}m channel reaches very low signal-to-noise ratio levels. As a result, clouds are underestimated near the terminator and at night over land and ocean in previous Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud retrievals using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data. Cloud detection near the terminator has always been a challenge. For example, comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60{sup o}N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from AVHRR because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products and GLAS at the same regions also shows the same difficulty in the MODIS cloud retrieval (Pavolonis and Heidinger 2005). Consistent detection of clouds at all times of day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for ARM and other research efforts involving the modeling of clouds and their interaction with the radiation budget. To minimize inconsistencies between daytime and nighttime retrievals, this paper develops an improved twilight and nighttime cloud mask using GOES-9, 10, and 12 imager data over the ARM sites and the continental United States (CONUS).

Trepte, Q.Z.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.W.; Palikonda, R.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

316

Quality and Sensory Attributes of Shell Eggs Sanitized with a Combination of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the combination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) as an alternative eggshell sanitization procedure for shell egg processing. In each experiment, two cases of eggs (720 total) were...

Woodring, Kristy Senise

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

317

Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The effects of selected wavelengths and energy levels of ultraviolet irradiation on the endopeptidase and hemolytic activity of Aeromonas proteolytica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

irradiation of the radiosensitive B strain of Escherichia cali induced, at a high frequency, a radiation resistance strain, which she designated as B/r. Six years later Clark (2) found that this B/r strain was not only more resistant to ultraviolet...THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED WAVELENGTHS AND ENERGY LEVELS OF ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION ON THE ENDOPEPTIDASE AND HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF AEROMONAS PROTEOLYTICA A Thesis by DAVID FRANKLIN LOVETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Lovett, David Franklin

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO2 laser pulse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO2 laser pulse-band 2% bandwidth conversion efficiency CE from a CO2 laser to 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet EUV light was investigated for Sn plasma. It was found that high in-band CE, 2.6%, is consistently obtained using a CO2 laser

Najmabadi, Farrokh

320

Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of close binary systems: CV Velorum, RS Vulpeculae and DH Cephei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultraviolet magnitudes of CV Velorum, RS Vulpeculae and DH Cephei are reported. Aside from twenty observations of CV Velorum which fell inside the primary eclipse, all data were obtained for phases outside eclipse. Observations were made with the University of Greningen experiment on board the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite. The instrument consists of a 22 cm aperture Cassegrain telescope followed by a five channel grating spectrophotometer. Instrument operation modes and data correction procedures are briefly described.

Wu, C.C.; Eaton, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy) [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zuppella, Paola [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)] [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Barkusky, Frank [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany) [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany); KLA-Tencor, 5 Technology Dr., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States); Mann, Klaus; Mueller, Matthias [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany)] [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

322

Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single, twin, triple, and quadruple photonic crystals (PCs) on p-GaN are fabricated by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography (MENLL) process utilizing the focusing behavior of polystyrene spheres. Such a technique is easy and economical for use in fabricating compound nano-patterns. The optimized tilted angle is decided to be 26.6° through mathematic calculation to try to avoid the overlay of patterns. The results of scanning electron microscopy and simulations reveal that the pattern produced by MENLL is a combination of multiple ovals. Compared to planar-LED, the light output power of LEDs with single, twin, triple, and quadruple PCs is increased by 14.78%, 36.03%, 53.68%, and 44.85% under a drive current 350?mA, respectively. Furthermore, all PC-structures result in no degradation of the electrical properties. The stimulated results indicate that the highest light extraction efficiency of LED with the clover-shape triple PC is due to the largest scattering effect on propagation of light from GaN into air.

Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Shang, Liang; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Pengyu; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

Proliferative and toxic effects of ultraviolet light and inflammation on epidermal pigment cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ear of the mouse is useful for studying the effects of ultraviolet light on epidermal pigment cells. The quantity of light penetrating into the skin causing an inflammatory response can be assessed easily by measuring with an engineering calipers the swelling of the ear. The inflammatory response of the ear exhibits a linear relationship to the dose of light delivered. We observed that doses of shortwave ultraviolet light which are noninflammatory when repeated at daily intervals induce moderate to severe inflammation. Small doses of psoralen and prolonged exposure to UVA (PUVA) were more inflammatory than larger amounts of psoralen and short exposure to light. Doses of shortwave ultraviolet light and PUVA which produce only a minimal inflammation of the skin stimulate the proliferation of epidermal melanocytes. In contrast, PUVA in doses sufficiently large to cause a marked inflammatory reaction in the skin seems injurious to pigment cells and kills them or causes only a minimal proliferative response. The inflammatory reaction itself does not seem to stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of melanocytes. Prostaglandins A, E, and F2 alpha have no effect on the proliferation of epidermal pigment cells. In contrast, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and allergic contact dermatitis increase the numerical density of pigment cells. Steroids may block the function of the enzyme tyrosinase. Our experiments indicate that pigment cells, like many other varieties of cells, are susceptible to injury and can be killed at least by large doses of PUVA.

Nordlund, J.J.; Ackles, A.E.; Traynor, F.F.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The Diverse Properties of the Most Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies Discovered by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the properties of a sample of ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs) selected by matching the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Surveys with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release. Out of 25362 galaxies between 0.02x10^10 L_solar at 1530 Angstroms (observed wavelength). The properties of this population are well correlated with ultraviolet surface brightness. We find that the galaxies with low UV surface brightness are primarily large spiral systems with a mixture of old and young stellar populations, while the high surface brightness galaxies consist primarily of compact starburst systems. In terms of the behavior of surface brightness with luminosity, size with luminosity, the mass-metallicity relation, and other parameters, the compact UVLGs clearly depart from the trends established by the full sample of galaxies. The subset of compact UVLGs with the highest surface brightness (``supercompact UVLGs'') have characteristics that are remarkably similar to Lyman Break Galaxies at higher redshift. They are much more luminous than typical local ultraviolet-bright starburst galaxies and blue compact dwarf galaxies. They have metallicities that are systematically lower than normal galaxies of the same stellar mass, indicating that they are less chemically evolved. In all these respects, they are the best local analogs for Lyman Break Galaxies.

Charles G. Hoopes; Timothy M. Heckman; Samir Salim; Mark Seibert; Christy A. Tremonti; David Schiminovich; R. Michael Rich; D. Christopher Martin; Stephane Charlot; Guinevere Kauffmann; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; Todd Small; Ted K. Wyder; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Bruno Milliard; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Sukyoung K. Yi

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Properties of Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies at the Current Epoch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the first matched set of GALEX and SDSS data to investigate the properties of a sample of 74 nearby galaxies with far-ultraviolet luminosities chosen to overlap the luminosity range of typical high-z Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). GALEX deep surveys have shown that ultraviolet-luminous galaxies (UVLGs) similar to these are the fastest evolving component of the UV galaxy population. Model fits to the combined GALEX and SDSS photometry yield typical FUV extinctions similar to LBGs. The implied star formation rates are SFR ~ 3 to 30 solar mass per year. This overlaps the range of SFRs for LBGs. We find a strong inverse correlation between galaxy mass and far-ultraviolet surface brightness, and on this basis divide the sample into ``large'' and ``compact'' UVLGs. The compact UVLGs have half-light radii of a few kpc or less (similar to LBGs). They are relatively low mass galaxies (~10 billion solar masses) with typical velocity dispersions of 60 to 150 km/s. They span a range in metallicity from 0.3 to 1 times solar, have blue optical-UV colors, and are forming stars at a rate sufficient to build the present galaxy in ~a Gigayear. In all these respects they appear similar to the LBG population. These ``living fossils'' may therefore provide an opportunity for detailed investigation of the physical processes occurring in typical star forming galaxies in the early universe.

Timothy M. Heckman; Charles G. Hoopes; Mark Seibert; Christopher Martin; Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Guinevere Kauffmann; Stephane Charlot; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; Bruno Milliard; Patrick F. Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Ted K. Wyder

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

326

GALEX Ultraviolet Photometry of Globular Clusters in M31: Three Year Results and a Catalog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present ultraviolet (UV) photometry of M31 globular clusters (GCs) found in 23 Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) images covering the entirety of M31. We detect 485 and 273 GCs (and GC candidates) in the near-ultraviolet (NUV; 2267 A) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1516 A), respectively. Comparing M31 data with those of Galactic GCs in the UV with the aid of population models, we find that the age ranges of old GCs in M31 and the Galactic halo are similar. Three metal-rich ([Fe/H]>-1) GCs in M31 produce significant FUV flux making their FUV-V colors unusually blue for their metallicities. These are thought to be analogs of the two peculiar Galactic GCs NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 with extended blue HB stars. Based on the models incorporating helium enriched subpopulations in addition to the majority of the population that have a normal helium abundance, we suggest that even small fraction of super-helium-rich subpopulations in GCs can reproduce the observed UV bright metal-rich GCs. Young clusters in M31 show distinct UV and optical properties from GCs in Milky Way. Population models indicate that their typical age is less than ~ 2 Gyrs. A large fraction of young GCs have the kinematics of the thin, rapidly rotating disk component. However, a subset of the old GCs also shares the thin-disk kinematics of the younger clusters. The existence of young GCs on the outskirts of M31 disk suggests the occurrence of a significant recent star formation in the thin-disk of M31. Old thin-disk GCs may set constraints on the epoch of early formation of the M31 thin-disk. We detect 12 (10) intermediate-age GC candidates in NUV (FUV). We suggest that some of spectroscopically identified intermediate-age GCs may not be truly intermediate in age, but rather older GCs that possess developed HB.

Soo-Chang Rey; R. Michael Rich; Sangmo T. Sohn; Suk-Jin Yoon; Chul Chung; Sukyoung K. Yi; Young-Wook Lee; Jaehyon Rhee; Luciana Bianchi; Barry F. Madore; Kyungsook Lee; Tom A. Barlow; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; D. Christopher Martin; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Mark Seibert; Todd Small; Ted K. Wyder; Jose Donas; Timothy M. Heckman; Bruno Milliard; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh

2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

327

Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have demonstrated a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source operating in the 6.5-6.7 nm region based on rare-earth targets of Gd and Tb coupled with a Mo/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror. Multiply charged ions produce strong resonance emission lines, which combine to yield an intense unresolved transition array. The spectra of these resonant lines around 6.7 nm (in-band: 6.7 nm {+-}1%) suggest that the in-band emission increases with increased plasma volume by suppressing the plasma hydrodynamic expansion loss at an electron temperature of about 50 eV, resulting in maximized emission.

Otsuka, Takamitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Yatagai, Toyohiko [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kilbane, Deirdre; White, John; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Forschungszentrum Dresden, Bautzner Landstrs. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

328

Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source for operation at {lambda} = 6.7 nm by optimizing the optical thickness of gadolinium (Gd) plasmas. Using low initial density Gd targets and dual laser pulse irradiation, we observed a maximum EUV conversion efficiency (CE) of 0.54% for 0.6% bandwidth (BW) (1.8% for 2% BW), which is 1.6 times larger than the 0.33% (0.6% BW) CE produced from a solid density target. Enhancement of the EUV CE by use of a low-density plasma is attributed to the reduction of self-absorption effects.

Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Li Bowen; Kilbane, Deirdre; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on strontium barium niobate crystals using focused ultraviolet laser light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report ferroelectric domain inversion in strontium barium niobate (SBN) single crystals by irradiating the surface locally with a strongly focused ultraviolet (UV) laser beam. The generated domains are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. We propose a simple model that allows predicting the domain width as a function of the irradiation intensity, which indeed applies for both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3}. Evidently, though fundamentally different, the domain structure of both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3} can be engineered through similar UV irradiation.

Boes, Andreas; Crasto, Tristan; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ARC Center for Ultra-High Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ARC Center for Ultra-High Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Frohnhaus, Jakob; Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

330

Random quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical conversion of supercontinuum to the ultraviolet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of fs supercontinuum to the ultraviolet (UV) range from 260 to 305?nm in nonlinear photonic crystal of strontium tetraborate is obtained. Spectral shape of generated UV radiation is governed by the shape of supercontinuum spectrum, focusing conditions and phase mismatch in the material of nonlinear photonic crystal. Maximum integral UV power of 2.6??W was obtained in the case of weaker focusing, and peaks with the spectral width 1–3?nm dominate in the spectrum. Using tight focusing, broadband radiation in the range 265–300?nm was obtained.

Aleksandrovsky, A. S., E-mail: aleksandrovsky@kirensky.ru; Vyunishev, A. M.; Zaitsev, A. I. [L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation) [L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 660079 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Slabko, V. V. [Siberian Federal University, 660079 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)] [Siberian Federal University, 660079 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

331

Silicon photodiode with selective Zr/Si coating for extreme ultraviolet spectral range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The procedure of manufacturing silicon photodiodes with an integrated Zr/Si filter for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range is developed. A setup for measuring the sensitivity profile of detectors with spatial resolution better than 100 {mu}m is fabricated. The optical properties of silicon photodiodes in the EUV and visible spectral ranges are investigated. Some characteristics of SPD-100UV diodes with Zr/Si coating and without it, as well as of AXUV-100 diodes, are compared. In all types of detectors a narrow region beyond the operating aperture is found to be sensitive to the visible light. (photodetectors)

Aruev, P N; Barysheva, Mariya M; Ber, B Ya; Zabrodskaya, N V; Zabrodskii, V V; Lopatin, A Ya; Pestov, Alexey E; Petrenko, M V; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, Nikolai N; Sukhanov, V L; Chkhalo, Nikolai I

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Construction and characterization of ultraviolet acousto-optic based femtosecond pulse shapers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present all the information necessary for construction and characterization of acousto optic pulse shapers, with a focus on ultraviolet wavelengths, Various radio-frequency drive configurations are presented to allow optimization via knowledgeable trade-off of design features. Detailed performance characteristics of a 267 nm acousto-optic modulator (AOM) based pulse shaper are presented, Practical considerations for AOM based pulse shaping of ultra-broad bandwidth (sub-10 fs) amplified femtosecond pulse shaping are described, with particular attention paid to the effects of the RF frequency bandwidth and optical frequency bandwidth on the spatial dispersion of the output laser pulses.

Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Infrared and Ultraviolet QCD dynamics with quark mass for J=0,1 mesons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using a previously developed phenomenological kernel for the study of the light quark QCD sector and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking effects we will examine the relative infrared and ultraviolet QCD dynamics for J=0,1 meson properties. For the same reasons we extend and explore a quark mass depended generalization of the kernel in the heavy quark region and we also compare with the original model. The relation between the dynamics of the quark propagator and the effective kernel with the J=0,1 QQ and qQ mesons and quarks Compton size is also discussed.

Nicholas Souchlas

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

334

Cooperative effect of ultraviolet and near-infrared beams in laser-induced condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the cooperative effect of near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) beams on laser-induced condensation. Launching a UV laser after a NIR pulse yields up to a 5-fold increase in the production of nanoparticles (25–300 nm) as compared to a single NIR beam. This cooperative effect exceeds the sum of those from the individual beams and occurs for delays up to 1 ?s. We attribute it to the UV photolysis of ozone created by the NIR pulses. The resulting OH radicals oxidize NO{sub 2} and volatile organic compounds, producing condensable species.

Matthews, M.; Henin, S.; Pomel, F.; Kasparian, J.; Wolf, J.-P. [Université de Genève, GAP-Biophotonics, Chemin de Pinchat 22, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)] [Université de Genève, GAP-Biophotonics, Chemin de Pinchat 22, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Théberge, F.; Daigle, J.-F. [Defence R and D Canada Valcartier, 2459 de la Bravoure Blvd., Quebec (Qc) G3J 1X5 (Canada)] [Defence R and D Canada Valcartier, 2459 de la Bravoure Blvd., Quebec (Qc) G3J 1X5 (Canada); Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J.-C. [INRS-EMT, 1650 Lionel Boulet Blvd., Varennes, Quebec (Qc) J3X1S2 (Canada)] [INRS-EMT, 1650 Lionel Boulet Blvd., Varennes, Quebec (Qc) J3X1S2 (Canada)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

335

Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38?nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8?12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 Japan (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); D’Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Total to Selective Extinction Ratios and Visual Extinctions from Ultraviolet Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present determinations of the total to selective extinction ratio R_V and visual extinction A_V values for Milky Way stars using ultraviolet color excesses. We extend the analysis of Gnacinski and Sikorski (1999) by using non-equal weights derived from observational errors. We present a detailed discussion of various statistical errors. In addition, we estimate the level of systematic errors by considering different normalization of the extinction curve adopted by Wegner (2002). Our catalog of 782 R_V and A_V values and their errors is available in the electronic form on the World Wide Web.

Anna Geminale; Piotr Popowski

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

Highly reproducible and reliable metal/graphene contact by ultraviolet-ozone treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Resist residue from the device fabrication process is a significant source of contamination at the metal/graphene contact interface. Ultraviolet Ozone (UVO) treatment is proven here, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurement, to be an effective way of cleaning the metal/graphene interface. Electrical measurements of devices that were fabricated by using UVO treatment of the metal/graphene contact region show that stable and reproducible low resistance metal/graphene contacts are obtained and the electrical properties of the graphene channel remain unaffected.

Li, Wei [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hacker, Christina A.; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, A. R.; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J., E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Liang, Yiran; Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei, E-mail: david.gundlach@nist.gov, E-mail: liangxl@pku.edu.cn; Peng, Lianmao [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

338

10^{-7} contrast ratio at 4.5Lambda/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10^{-7} at 4.5Lambda/D (Lambda = 0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5Lambda/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (Lambda/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than Lambda/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10^{-12}, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4x10^{-7} at 4.5Lambda/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS.

Abhijit Chakraborty; Laird A. Thompson; Mike Rogosky

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

ultraviolet | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and early disease diagnostic applications. Citation: Lee AC, D Du, B Chen, CK Heng, TM Lim, and Y Lin.2014."Electrochemical detection of leukemia oncogenes using...

340

EMSL - ultraviolet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

class"field-item even" property"schema:citation">Lee AC, D Du, B Chen, CK Heng, TM Lim, and Y Lin.2014."Electrochemical detection of leukemia oncogenes using...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Quasi-Coherent Oscillations in the Extreme Ultraviolet Flux of the Dwarf Nova SS Cygni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quasi-coherent oscillations have been detected in the extreme ultraviolet flux of the dwarf nova SS Cygni during observations with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite of the rise and plateau phases of an anomalous outburst in 1993 August and a normal outburst in 1994 June/July. On both occasions, the oscillation turned on during the rise to outburst and persisted throughout the observation. During the 1993 outburst, the period of the oscillation fell from 9.3 s to 7.5 s over an interval of 4.4 days; during the 1994 outburst, the period fell from 8.9 s to 7.19 s (the shortest period ever observed in SS Cyg, or any other dwarf nova) within less than a day, and then rose to 8.0 s over an interval of 8.0 days. For both outbursts, the period $P$ of the oscillation was observed to correlate with the 75--120 \\AA \\ count rate $I_{\\rm EUV}$ according to $P\\propto I_{\\rm EUV}^{-0.094}$. A magnetospheric model is considered to reproduce this variation. It is found that an effective high-order multipole field is required, and that the field strength at the surface of the white dwarf is 0.1--1 MG. Such a field strength is at the lower extreme of those measured or inferred for bona fide magnetic cataclysmic variables.

Christopher W. Mauche

1996-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

342

Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

Gasper, Gerald L.; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F.; Hanley, Luke

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

344

Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

345

Transiting the Sun: The impact of stellar activity on X-ray and ultraviolet transits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transits of hot Jupiters in X-rays and the ultraviolet have been shown to be both deeper and more variable than the corresponding optical transits. This variability has been attributed to hot Jupiters having extended atmospheres at these wavelengths. Using resolved images of the Sun from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spanning 3.5 years of Solar Cycle 24 we simulate transit light curves of a hot Jupiter to investigate the impact of Solar like activity on our ability to reliably recover properties of the planet's atmosphere in soft X-rays (94 {\\AA}), the UV (131-1700 {\\AA}), and the optical (4500 {\\AA}). We find that for stars with similar activity levels to the Sun, the impact of stellar activity results in the derived radius of the planet in soft X-ray/EUV to be underestimated by up-to 25% or overestimated by up-to 50% depending on whether the planet occults active regions. We also find that in up-to 70% of the X-ray light curves the planet transits over bright star spots. In the far ultraviolet (1600 &am...

Llama, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Devices useful for vacuum ultraviolet beam characterization including a movable stage with a transmission grating and image detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a device comprising an apparatus comprising (a) a transmission grating capable of diffracting a photon beam into a diffracted photon output, and (b) an image detector capable of detecting the diffracted photon output. The device is useful for measuring the spatial profile and diffraction pattern of a photon beam, such as a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beam.

Gessner, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg A; Wilcox, Russell B

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

347

DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'' PAHs in reflection nebulae near stars as cool as Teff ¼ 3000 K can result in observable emis- sion at 6DO THE INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES NEED ULTRAVIOLET EXCITATION? THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON MODEL IN UV-POOR REFLECTION NEBULAE Aigen Li and B. T. Draine Department of Astrophysical Sciences

Draine, Bruce T.

348

Effects of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} on human melanocytes and regulation of the FP receptor by ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prostaglandins are potent lipid hormones that activate multiple signaling pathways resulting in regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the skin, prostaglandins are rapidly released by keratinocytes following ultraviolet radiation and are chronically present in inflammatory skin lesions. We have shown previously that melanocytes, which provide photoprotection to keratinocytes through the production of melanin, express several receptors for prostaglandins, including the PGE{sub 2} receptors EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} and the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor FP, and that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} stimulates melanocyte dendricity. We now show that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} stimulates the activity and expression of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. Analysis of FP receptor regulation showed that the FP receptor is regulated by ultraviolet radiation in melanocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo. We also show that ultraviolet irradiation stimulates production of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} by melanocytes. These results show that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} binding to the FP receptor activates signals that stimulate a differentiated phenotype (dendricity and pigmentation) in melanocytes. The regulation of the FP receptor and the stimulation of production of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} in melanocytes in response to ultraviolet radiation suggest that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} could act as an autocrine factor for melanocyte differentiation.

Scott, Glynis [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)]. E-mail: Glynis_Scott@urmc.rochester.edu; Jacobs, Stacey [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Leopardi, Sonya [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Anthony, Frank A. [Schering-Plough HealthCare Products Inc., Memphis TN (United States); Learn, Doug [Charles River DDS, Argus Division, Horsham, PA (United States); Malaviya, Rama [University of Medicine and Dentistry, RWJMS, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Pentland, Alice [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps and all other mercury containing labeled for shipment to a recycling plant for mercury, glass and aluminum recovery. The beneficial re

Baker, Chris I.

350

A close-up of the Sun (shown in ultraviolet light) reveals a mottled surface, bright flares,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;A close-up of the Sun (shown in ultraviolet light) reveals a mottled surface, bright flares, and tongues of hot gas leaping into space. Though they look like burns in the face of the Sun, sunspots circle in the center of the photo--allows scientists to see the solar wind streaming away from the Sun

Christian, Eric

351

Dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules by extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear dynamics in dissociative multiple ionization processes of diatomic molecules exposed to extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses is studied theoretically using the Monte Carlo wave packet approach. By simulated detection of the emitted electrons, the model reduces a full propagation of the system to propagations of the nuclear wave packet in one specific electronic charge state at a time. Suggested ionization channels can be examined, and kinetic energy release spectra for the nuclei can be calculated and compared with experiments. Double ionization of O{sub 2} is studied as an example, and good agreement with published experimental data is obtained by simulating the dynamics on ten different electronic Born-Oppenheimer curves.

Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Response of a SiC Photodiode to Extreme Ultraviolet through Visible Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The responsivity of a type 6H-SiC photodiode in the 1.5-400 nm wavelength range was measured using synchrotron radiation. The responsivity was 0.20 A/W at 270 nm and was less than 0.10 A/W in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. The responsivity was calculated using a proven optical model that accounted for the reflection and absorption of the incident radiation and the variation of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) with depth into the device. The CCE was determined from the responsivity measured in the 200-400 nm wavelength range. By use of this CCE and the effective pair creation energy (7.2 eV) determined from x-ray absorption measurements, the EUV responsivity was accurately modeled with no free parameters. The measured visible-light sensitivity, although low compared with that of a silicon photodiode, was surprisingly high for this wide bandgap semiconductor.

Seely,J.; Kjornrattanawanich, B.; Holland, G.; Korde, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Reliable self-powered highly spectrum-selective ZnO ultraviolet photodetectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultraviolet photodetectors (PDs) have been fabricated from p-ZnO:(Li,N)/n-ZnO structures in this Letter. The PDs can operate without any external power supply and show response only to a very narrow spectrum range. The self-power character of the devices is due to the built-in electric field in the p-n junctions that can separate the photogenerated electrons and holes while the high spectrum-selectivity has been attributed to the filter effect of the neutral region in the ZnO:(Li,N) layer. The performance of the self-powered highly spectrum-selective PDs degrades little after five months, indicating their good reliability.

Shen, H. [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shan, C. X., E-mail: shancx@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: binghuili@163.com; Li, B. H., E-mail: shancx@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: binghuili@163.com; Shen, D. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Xuan, B. [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optical System Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Functionalization of carbon nanotubes by argon plasma-assisted ultraviolet grafting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have demonstrated the functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by argon (Ar) plasma-assisted ultraviolet (UV) grafting of 1-vinylimidazole (VZ). The Ar plasma treatment generates defect sites at the tube ends and sidewalls, which act as the active sites for the subsequent UV grafting of VZ monomer. Atomic force microscopy analyses indicate that the original nanotube bundles exfoliate to individual tubes after the VZ grafting. By control of the deposited energy of Ar plasma treatment (200 W) and treatment time (5 min), no visible chopping of the functionalized SWNT was observed. This method may be extended to other vinyl monomers and offers another diverse way of sidewall functionalization of SWNT.

Yan, Y.H.; Chan-Park, M.B.; Zhou, Q.; Li, C.M.; Yue, C.Y. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

Ultraviolet stimulated electron source for use with low energy plasma instrument calibration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the development of a versatile, compact, low to medium energy electron source. A collimated, monoenergetic beam of electrons, up to 50 mm in diameter, is produced with energies ranging from 0.03 to 30 keV. A uniform electron beam profile is generated by illuminating a metal cathode plate with a near ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diode (LED). A parallel electric field accelerates the electrons away from the cathode plate towards a grounded grid. The beam intensity can be controlled from 10 - 10^9 electrons cm-2 s-1 and the angular divergence of the beam is less than 1 degree FWHM for energies greater than 1 keV.

Henderson, Kevin; Funsten, Herb; MacDonald, Elizabeth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10{sup 11}--10{sup 12} watts/cm{sup 2}) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10--30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle. 5 figs.

Kublak, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

Delayed Ultrafast X-ray Auger Probing (DUXAP) of Nucleobase Ultraviolet Photoprotection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method for ultrafast spectroscopy of molecular photoexcited dynamics. The technique uses a pair of femtosecond pulses: a photoexcitation pulse initiating excited state dynamics followed by a soft x-ray (SXR) probe pulse that core ionizes certain atoms inside the molecule. We observe the Auger decay of the core hole as a function of delay between the photoexcitation and SXR pulses. The core hole decay is particularly sensitive to the local valence electrons near the core and shows new types of propensity rules, compared to dipole selection rules in SXR absorption or emission spectroscopy. We apply the delayed ultrafast x-ray Auger probing (DUXAP) method to the specific problem of nucleobase photoprotection to demonstrate its potential. The ultraviolet photoexcited \\pi\\pi* states of nucleobases are prone to chemical reactions with neighboring bases. To avoid this, the single molecules funnel the \\pi\\pi* population to lower lying electronic states on an ultrafast timescale under violation of the...

McFarland, B K; Miyabe, S; Tarantelli, F; Aguilar, A; Berrah, N; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J; Bucksbaum, P H; Castagna, J C; Coffee, R; Cryan, J; Fang, L; Feifel, R; Gaffney, K; Glownia, J; Martinez, T; Mucke, M; Murphy, B; Natan, A; Osipov, T; Petrovic, V; Schorb, S; Schultz, Th; Spector, L; Swiggers, M; Tenney, I; Wang, S; White, W; White, J; Gühr, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser based spectrometer for angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed an angle-resolved photoemission spectrometer with tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser as a photon source. The photon source is based on the fourth harmonic generation of a near IR beam from a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a CW green laser and tunable between 5.3 eV and 7 eV. The most important part of the set-up is a compact, vacuum enclosed fourth harmonic generator based on potassium beryllium fluoroborate crystals, grown hydrothermally in the US. This source can deliver a photon flux of over 10{sup 14} photon/s. We demonstrate that this energy range is sufficient to measure the k{sub z} dispersion in an iron arsenic high temperature superconductor, which was previously only possible at synchrotron facilities.

Jiang, Rui; Mou, Daixiang; Wu, Yun; Huang, Lunan; Kaminski, Adam [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Giesber, Henry G.; Egan, John J. [Advanced Photonic Crystals LLC, Fort Mill, South Carolina 29708 (United States)] [Advanced Photonic Crystals LLC, Fort Mill, South Carolina 29708 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

QUIET-SUN INTENSITY CONTRASTS IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET AS MEASURED FROM SUNRISE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present high-resolution images of the Sun in the near-ultraviolet spectral range between 214 nm and 397 nm as obtained from the first science flight of the 1 m SUNRISE balloon-borne solar telescope. The quiet-Sun rms intensity contrasts found in this wavelength range are among the highest values ever obtained for quiet-Sun solar surface structures-up to 32.8% at a wavelength of 214 nm. We compare the rms contrasts obtained from the observational data with theoretical intensity contrasts obtained from numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For 388 nm and 312 nm the observations agree well with the numerical simulations whereas at shorter wavelengths discrepancies between observed and simulated contrasts remain.

Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Borrero, J. M.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, D-37434 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Afram, N.; Unruh, Y. C. [Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Berdyugina, S. V.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Bonet, J. A.; MartInez Pillet, V. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Knoelker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Title, A. M., E-mail: hirzberger@mps.mpg.d [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Ultraviolet stimulated electron source for use with low energy plasma instrument calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and demonstrated a versatile, compact electron source that can produce a mono-energetic electron beam up to 50 mm in diameter from 0.1 to 30 keV with an energy spread of <10 eV. By illuminating a metal cathode plate with a single near ultraviolet light emitting diode, a spatially uniform electron beam with 15% variation over 1 cm{sup 2} can be generated. A uniform electric field in front of the cathode surface accelerates the electrons into a beam with an angular divergence of <1 Degree-Sign at 1 keV. The beam intensity can be controlled from 10 to 10{sup 9} electrons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

Henderson, Kevin; Harper, Ron; Funsten, Herb; MacDonald, Elizabeth [Space Science and Applications, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

STUDYING LARGE- AND SMALL-SCALE ENVIRONMENTS OF ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOUS GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studying the environments of 0.4 < z < 1.2 ultraviolet (UV)-selected galaxies, as examples of extreme star-forming galaxies (with star formation rates (SFRs) in the range of 3-30 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), we explore the relationship between high rates of star formation, host halo mass, and pair fractions. We study the large- and small-scale environments of local ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs) by measuring angular correlation functions. We cross-correlate these systems with other galaxy samples: a volume-limited sample (ALL), a blue luminous galaxy sample, and a luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample. We determine the UVLG comoving correlation length to be r{sub 0} = 4.8{sup +11.6}{sub -2.4} h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 1.0, which is unable to constrain the halo mass for this sample. However, we find that UVLGs form close (separation <30 kpc) pairs with the ALL sample, but do not frequently form pairs with LRGs. A rare subset of UVLGs, those with the highest FUV surface brightnesses, are believed to be local analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and are called Lyman break analogs (LBAs). LBGs and LBAs share similar characteristics (i.e., color, size, surface brightness, specific SFRs, metallicities, and dust content). Recent Hubble Space Telescope images of z {approx} 0.2 LBAs show disturbed morphologies, signs of mergers and interactions. UVLGs may be influenced by interactions with other galaxies and we discuss this result in terms of other high star-forming, merging systems.

Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Heinis, Sebastien; Heckman, Tim; Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins' University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Overzier, Roderik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zamojski, Michel; Barlow, Tom A.; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl G.; Friedman, Peter G.; Martin, D. Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, Olivier [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP8, Traverse du Siphon, F-13376 Marseille (France); Lee, Young-Wook [Center for Space Astrophysics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: antara@astro.columbia.edu (and others)

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

Spectral dependencies of killing, mutation, and transformation in mammalian cells and their relevance to hazards caused by solar ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using germicidal lamps and Westinghouse sunlamps with and without filtration, the effectiveness of ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light in inducing molecular and cellular changes was measured. Cell survival and the induction of resistance to 6-thioguanine or to ouabain were measured with V79 Chinese hamster cells, cell survival and neoplastic transformation were measured with C3H mouse 10 T 1/2 cells, and the induction of pyrimidine dimers containing thymine was measured in both cell lines. The short-wavelength cutoff of the sunlamp emission was shifted from approximately 290 nm (unfiltered) to approximately 300 and approximately 310 nm by appropriate filters. Although it was found that the efficiency with which all end points were induced progressively decreased as the short-wavelength cutoff was shifted to longer wavelengths, the rates of decrease differed appreciably. For example, doses of near-ultraviolet light longer than approximately 300 nm that were effective in mutating or in transforming cells were ineffective in killing them. In respect to pyrimidine dimer induction, several but not all cellular end points were induced by dose ratios of sunlamp light (short-wavelength cutoff, approximately 290 nm) to germicidal lamp light (254 nm) in fairly close accord with the doses required to produce equivalent proportions of dimers. However, for near-ultraviolet light having cutoffs at longer wavelengths, the biological action observed was appreciably greater than what would be predicted from the proportion of dimers induced. From the latter observation, it is inferred that increasing intensities of short-wavelength ultraviolet light, as would be expected from reductions in stratospheric ozone around the earth, would result in smaller increases in biological action, e.g., skin cancer, compared to current levels of action than would be predicted from an action spectrum completely corresponding to that of a pyrimidine dimer induction spectrum in DNA.

Suzuki, F.; Han, A.; Lankas, G.R.; Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite CulturalDepartment2)isomerase from GiardiaA CombinedSolvent

365

Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

Marshall, F. J., E-mail: fredm@lle.rochester.edu; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Burkhart, Scott C. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the dependence of the spectral behavior and conversion efficiencies of rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources with peak emission at 6.7 nm on laser wavelength and the initial target density. The maximum conversion efficiency was 1.3% at a laser intensity of 1.6x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} at an operating wavelength of 1064 nm, when self-absorption was reduced by use of a low initial density target. Moreover, the lower-density results in a narrower spectrum and therefore improved spectral purity. It is shown to be important to use a low initial density target and/or to produce low electron density plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet sources when using high-Z targets.

Otsuka, Takamitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Yatagai, Toyohiko [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kilbane, Deirdre; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 Japan (Japan); Endo, Akira [Forschungszentrum Dresden, Bautzner Landstrs. 400, Dresden D-01328 (Germany)

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

368

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene (MLG)/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diodes (LED). The p-type MLG and MgZnO in the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED are used as transparent hole injection and electron blocking layers, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED show that current transport is dominated by tunneling processes in the MgZnO barrier layer under forward bias conditions. The holes injected from p-type MLG recombine efficiently with the electrons accumulated in ZnO, and the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED shows strong ultraviolet emission from the band edge of ZnO and weak red-orange emission from the deep levels of ZnO.

Kang, Jang-Won; Choi, Yong-Seok; Goo Kang, Chang; Hun Lee, Byoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong-Hyeok [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 (United States); Park, Seong-Ju, E-mail: sjpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

370

A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0?mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} are observed within the first ?1.0?mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0?nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

Laity, George [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich–Alexander University at Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

371

The effective spectral irradiance of ultra-violet radiations from inert-gas-shielded welding processes in relation to the ARC current density  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTIVE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIONS FROM INERT-GAS-SHIELDED MELDING PROCESSES IN RELATION TO THE ARC CURRENT DENSITY A Thesis by ROBIN KENT DEVORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECTIVE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIONS FROM INERT-GAS-SHIELDED WELDING PROCESSES IN RELATION TO THE ARC CURRENT...

DeVore, Robin Kent

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

Kelly, E.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Milliwatt operation of AlGaN-based single-quantum-well light emitting diode in the ultraviolet region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By introducing a single-quantum-well active layer and a high-Al-content carrier blocking layer, the output power of an AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode has been improved by one order of magnitude. Optical output of 1 mW was achieved at the emission peak wavelength of 341{endash}343 nm. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Nishida, Toshio; Saito, Hisao; Kobayashi, Naoki

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

The effects of cerium doping on the size, morphology, and optical properties of ?-hematite nanoparticles for ultraviolet filtration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Possible application of cerium-doped ?-hematite as ultraviolet filter. • Nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation technique using various cerium doping levels followed by annealing. • Comprehensive materials characterisation utilizing XRD, DSC/TGA, STEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Increasing cerium content reduces particle sizing and alters morphology. • Solubility of cerium in hematite seen between 5 and 10% doping, 10% cerium doping greatly enhances attenuation in ultraviolet region and increases optical bandgap. - Abstract: Metal oxide nanoparticles have potential use in energy storage, electrode materials, as catalysts and in the emerging field of nanomedicine. Being able to accurately tailor the desirable properties of these nanoceramic materials, such as particle size, morphology and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) is integral in the feasibility of their use. In this study we investigate the altering of both the structure and physical properties through the doping of hematite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals with cerium at a range of concentrations, synthesised using a one-pot co-precipitation method. This extremely simple synthesis followed by thermal treatment results in stable Fe{sub 2?x}Ce{sub x}O{sub y} nanoceramics resulting from the burning of any unreacted precursors and transformation of goethite-cerium doped nanoparticle intermediate. The inclusion of Ce into the crystal lattice of these ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles causes a significantly large reduction in mean crystalline size and alteration in particle morphology with increasing cerium content. Finally we report an increase optical semiconductor bandgap, along with a substantial increase in the ultraviolet attenuation found for a 10% Ce-doping concentration which shows the potential application of cerium-doped hematite nanocrystals to be used as a pigmented ultraviolet filter for cosmetic products.

Cardillo, Dean [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Konstantinov, Konstantin, E-mail: konstan@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Devers, Thierry [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, Institut de Physique, site de Chartres, Université d’Orléans (France)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hot-electron-driven charge transfer processes on O2 Pt,,111... surface probed by ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it with an ultrafast laser pulse, charge transfer induced changes in the platinum-oxygen bond were observedHot-electron-driven charge transfer processes on O2 Ã?Pt,,111... surface probed by ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses C. Lei,1, * M. Bauer,2 K. Read,1 R. Tobey,1 Y. Liu,3 T. Popmintchev,1 M. M. Murnane,1 and H. C

Bauer, Michael

376

Multiple pulse thermal damage thresholds of materials for x-ray free electron laser optics investigated with an ultraviolet laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical elements to be used for x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) must withstand multiple high-fluence pulses. We have used an ultraviolet laser to study the damage of two candidate materials, crystalline Si and B{sub 4}C-coated Si, emulating the temperature profile expected to occur in optics exposed to XFEL pulses. We found that the damage threshold for 10{sup 5} pulses is {approx}20% to 70% lower than the melting threshold.

Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; London, Richard A.; Bionta, Richard M.; Soufli, Regina; Ryutov, Dmitri; Shirk, Michael; Baker, Sherry L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94539 (United States); Smith, Patrick M.; Nataraj, Pradeep [Kovio, Inc., 1145 Sonora Court, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

Tuning the Optical Properties of Nanoscale Materials on Surfaces Through Controlled Exchange Reactions on Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots and Patterning of Gold and QD Nanoparticle Arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combination between the use of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular linker and PS mask fabricated via polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-stamp was also discussed briefly. Particle lithography is a versatile method and can be used to fabricate pattern...

Pravitasari, Arika

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Electrode Placement and the Fabrication of Sub-100-nm Nanopore Arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The anodization of aluminum films grown on silicon substrates under controlled conditions is used to fabricate porous alumina arrays. Such porous arrays are used as sensors or lithography masks for fabrication of sub-100-nm nanodot arrays...

Gonzales, Jacob D.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Ultraviolet Morphologies and Star-Formation Rates of CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are usually quiescent, but many exhibit star formation. Here we exploit the opportunity provided by rest-frame UV imaging of galaxy clusters in the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble) Multi-Cycle Treasury Project to reveal the diversity of UV morphologies in BCGs and to compare them with recent simulations of the cool, star-forming gas structures produced by precipitation-driven feedback. All of the CLASH BCGs are detected in the rest-frame UV (280 nm), regardless of their star-formation activity, because evolved stellar populations produce a modest amount of UV light that traces the relatively smooth, symmetric, and centrally peaked stellar distribution seen in the near infrared. Ultraviolet morphologies among the BCGs with strong UV excesses exhibit distinctive knots, multiple elongated clumps, and extended filaments of emission that distinctly differ from the smooth profiles of the UV-quiet BCGs. These structures, which are similar to those seen in the few s...

Donahue, Megan; Fogarty, Kevin; Li, Yuan; Voit, G Mark; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Moustakas, John; Bradley, Larry; Ford, Holland

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

METALLICITY DIFFERENCES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS INFERRED FROM ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two ''twin'' Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), SNe 2011by and 2011fe, have extremely similar optical light-curve shapes, colors, and spectra, yet have different ultraviolet (UV) continua as measured in Hubble Space Telescope spectra and measurably different peak luminosities. We attribute the difference in the UV continua to significantly different progenitor metallicities. This is the first robust detection of different metallicities for SN Ia progenitors. Theoretical reasoning suggests that differences in metallicity also lead to differences in luminosity. SNe Ia with higher progenitor metallicities have lower {sup 56}Ni yields and lower luminosities for the same light-curve shape. SNe 2011by and 2011fe have different peak luminosities ({Delta}M{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0.6 mag), which correspond to different {sup 56}Ni yields: M{sub 11fe}({sup 56}Ni) / M{sub 11by}({sup 56}Ni) = 1.7{sup +0.7}{sub -0.5}. From theoretical models that account for different neutron-to-proton ratios in progenitors, the differences in {sup 56}Ni yields for SNe 2011by and 2011fe imply that their progenitor stars were above and below solar metallicity, respectively. Although we can distinguish progenitor metallicities in a qualitative way from UV data, the quantitative interpretation in terms of abundances is limited by the present state of theoretical models.

Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. I. Argon plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. The highly energetic photons can induce surface damage by driving surface reactions, disordering surface regions, and affecting bonds in the bulk material. In argon plasmas, the VUV emissions are due to the decay of the 1s{sub 4} and 1s{sub 2} principal resonance levels with emission wavelengths of 104.8 and 106.7?nm, respectively. The authors have measured the number densities of atoms in the two resonance levels using both white light optical absorption spectroscopy and radiation-trapping induced changes in the 3p{sup 5}4p?3p{sup 5}4s branching fractions measured via visible/near-infrared optical emission spectroscopy in an argon inductively coupled plasma as a function of both pressure and power. An emission model that takes into account radiation trapping was used to calculate the VUV emission rate. The model results were compared to experimental measurements made with a National Institute of Standards and Technology-calibrated VUV photodiode. The photodiode and model results are in generally good accord and reveal a strong dependence on the neutral gas temperature.

Boffard, John B., E-mail: jboffard@wisc.edu; Lin, Chun C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Culver, Cody [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold [Varian Semiconductor Equipment, Applied Materials Inc., Gloucester, MA 01939 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but to higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

Glownia, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

System for time-discretized vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of spark breakdown in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system for time-discretized spectroscopic measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from spark discharges in the 60-160 nm range has been developed for the study of early plasma-forming phenomena. The system induces a spark discharge in an environment close to atmospheric conditions created using a high speed puff value, but is otherwise kept at high vacuum to allow for the propagation of VUV light. Using a vertical slit placed 1.5 mm from the discharge the emission from a small cross section of the discharge is allowed to pass into the selection chamber consisting of a spherical grating, with 1200 grooves/mm, and an exit slit set to 100 ?m. Following the exit slit is a photomultiplier tube with a sodium salicylate scintillator that is used for the time discretized measurement of the VUV signal with a temporal resolution limit of 10 ns. Results from discharges studied in dry air, Nitrogen, SF{sub 6}, and Argon indicate the emission of light with wavelengths shorter than 120 nm where the photon energy begins to approach the regime of direct photoionization.

Ryberg, D.; Fierro, A.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but no higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

387

Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation.

Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Mass, B.; Haag, W. [Purus, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

HOMOLOGOUS EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVES IN THE EMERGING FLUX REGION OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Taking advantage of the high temporal and spatial resolution of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations, we present four homologous extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves within 3 hr on 2010 November 11. All EUV waves emanated from the same emerging flux region (EFR), propagated in the same direction, and were accompanied by surges, weak flares, and faint coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The waves had the basically same appearance in all EUV wavebands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on SDO. The waves propagated at constant velocities in the range of 280-500 km s{sup -1}, with little angular dependence, which indicated that the homologous waves could be likely interpreted as fast-mode waves. The waves are supposed to likely involve more than one driving mechanism, and it was most probable that the waves were driven by the surges, due to their close timing and location relations. We also propose that the homologous waves were intimately associated with the continuous emergence and cancellation of magnetic flux in the EFR, which could supply sufficient energy and trigger the onsets of the waves.

Zheng Ruisheng; Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang, B.; Yang Dan, E-mail: zhrsh@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

390

CITIUS: An infrared-extreme ultraviolet light source for fundamental and applied ultrafast science  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the main features of CITIUS, a new light source for ultrafast science, generating tunable, intense, femtosecond pulses in the spectral range from infrared to extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The XUV pulses (about 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} photons/pulse in the range 14-80 eV) are produced by laser-induced high-order harmonic generation in gas. This radiation is monochromatized by a time-preserving monochromator, also allowing one to work with high-resolution bandwidth selection. The tunable IR-UV pulses (10{sup 12}-10{sup 15} photons/pulse in the range 0.4-5.6 eV) are generated by an optical parametric amplifier, which is driven by a fraction of the same laser pulse that generates high order harmonics. The IR-UV and XUV pulses follow different optical paths and are eventually recombined on the sample for pump-probe experiments. We also present the results of two pump-probe experiments: with the first one, we fully characterized the temporal duration of harmonic pulses in the time-preserving configuration; with the second one, we demonstrated the possibility of using CITIUS for selective investigation of the ultra-fast dynamics of different elements in a magnetic compound.

Grazioli, C.; Gauthier, D.; Ivanov, R.; De Ninno, G. [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia) [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)] [Italy; Callegari, C.; Spezzani, C. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)] [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Ciavardini, A. [Sapienza University, Rome (Italy)] [Sapienza University, Rome (Italy); Coreno, M. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy) [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas (CNR-IMIP), Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P.; Poletto, L. [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), Padova (Italy)] [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), Padova (Italy); Golob, D. [Kontrolni Sistemi d.o.o., Sežana (Slovenia)] [Kontrolni Sistemi d.o.o., Sežana (Slovenia); Kivimäki, A. [Institute of Materials Manufacturing (CNR-IOM), TASC Laboratory, Trieste (Italy)] [Institute of Materials Manufacturing (CNR-IOM), TASC Laboratory, Trieste (Italy); Mahieu, B. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy) [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Service des Photons Atomes et Molécules, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, Bâtiment 522, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bu?ar, B.; Merhar, M. [Laboratory of Mechanical Processing Technologies, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Laboratory of Mechanical Processing Technologies, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Polo, E. [Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (CNR-ISOF), Ferrara (Italy)] [Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (CNR-ISOF), Ferrara (Italy); Ressel, B. [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)] [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Swift-UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a Gamma Ray Burst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the earliest ever ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) as observed with the Swift-UVOT. The spectrum of GRB 081203A was observed for 50 seconds with the UV grism starting 251 seconds after the Swift-BAT trigger when the GRB was of u ~13.4 mag and still rising to its peak optical brightness. The UV grism spectrum shows a damped Ly-alpha line, Ly-beta, and the Lyman continuum break at a redshift z = 2.05 +/- 0.01. A model fit to the Lyman absorption implies log N(HI) = 22.0 +/- 0.2 cm-2, which is typical for GRB host galaxies with damped Ly-alpha absorbers. This observation of GRB 081203A demonstrates that for GRBs brighter than v ~14 mag and with 0.5 < z < 3.5 the UVOT will be able to provide redshifts, and probe for damped Ly-alpha absorbers within 4-6 minutes from the time of the Swift-BAT trigger.

Kuin, N P M; Page, M J; Schady, P; Still, M; Breeveld, A A; De Pasquale, M; Brown, P J; Carter, M; James, C; Curran, P A; Cucciara, A; Gronwall, C; Holland, S T; Hoversten, E; Hunsberger, S; Kennedy, T; Koch, S; Lamoureux, H; Marshall, F E; Oates, S R; Parsons, A; Palmer, D; Roming, P; Smith, P J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF EARTH AS A TRANSITING EXOPLANET FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET TO THE NEAR-INFRARED  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmission spectroscopy of exoplanets is a tool to characterize rocky planets and explore their habitability. Using the Earth itself as a proxy, we model the atmospheric cross section as a function of wavelength, and show the effect of each atmospheric species, Rayleigh scattering, and refraction from 115 to 1000 nm. Clouds do not significantly affect this picture because refraction prevents the lowest 12.75 km of the atmosphere, in a transiting geometry for an Earth-Sun analog, to be sampled by a distant observer. We calculate the effective planetary radius for the primary eclipse spectrum of an Earth-like exoplanet around a Sun-like star. Below 200 nm, ultraviolet (UV) O{sub 2} absorption increases the effective planetary radius by about 180 km, versus 27 km at 760.3 nm, and 14 km in the near-infrared (NIR) due predominantly to refraction. This translates into a 2.6% change in effective planetary radius over the UV-NIR wavelength range, showing that the UV is an interesting wavelength range for future space missions.

Betremieux, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kaltenegger, L., E-mail: betremieux@mpia.de, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

1 MODELING THE PERFORMANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET REACTOR IN EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN FRAMEWORKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CFD models for simulating the performance of ultraviolet (UV) reactors for micro-organism inactivation were developed in Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, taking into account hydrodynamics, kinetics, and radiation field within UV reactor. In the Lagrangian framework, micro-organisms were treated as discrete particles where the trajectory was predicted by integrating the force balance on the particle. In the Eulerian framework, the conservation equation of species (microorganisms) was solved along with the transport equations. The fluid flow was characterized experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) flow visualization techniques and modeled using CFD for a UV reactor prototype model. The performance of annular UV reactors with an inlet parallel and perpendicular to the reactor axis were investigated. The results indicated that the fluid flow distribution within the reactor volume can significantly affect the reactor performance. Both the Eulerian and Lagrangian models were used to obtain complimentary information on the reactors; while the Lagrangian method provided an estimation of the UV-fluence distribution and the trajectory of species, the Eulerian approach showed the concentration distribution and local photo-reaction rates. The combined information can be used to predict and monitor reactor performance and to improve the reactor design.

Angelo Sozzi; Fariborz Taghipour

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

395

Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400?nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

Kurose, N., E-mail: kurose@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Aoyagi, Y. [The Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [The Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Shibano, K.; Araki, T. [Department of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)] [Department of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

397

A Survey of Intrinsic Absorption in Active Galaxies using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a survey of 72 Seyfert galaxies and quasars observed by the it Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). We have determined that 72 of 253 available active galactic nuclei (AGN) targets are viable targets for detection of intrinsic absorption lines. We examined these spectra for signs of intrinsic absorption in the O VI doublet (lambda 1031.9, 1037.6) and Lyman beta (lambda 1025.7). The fraction of Seyfert 1 galaxies and low-redshift quasars at z absorption is ~50%, which is slightly lower than Crenshaw et al. (1999) found (60%) based on a smaller sample of Seyfert 1 galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). With this new fraction we find a global covering factor of the absorbing gas with respect to the central nucleus of ~0.4. Our survey is to date the largest searching for intrinsic UV absorption with high spectral resolution, and is the first step toward a more comprehensive study of intrinsic absorption in low-redshift AGN.

Jay P. Dunn; D. Michael Crenshaw; S. B. Kraemer; J. R. Gabel

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

398

Intrinsic Absorption Properties in Active Galaxies Observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a continuing survey of active galactic nuclei observed by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, we provide a deeper analysis of intrinsic absorption features found in 35 objects. Our survey is for low-redshift and moderate-luminosity objects, mostly Seyfert galaxies. We find a strong correlation between maximum radial velocity and luminosity. We also examine the relationships between equivalent width (EW), full width at half maximum, velocity: and continuum flux. The correlation between velocity and luminosity has been explored previously by Laor & Brandt, but at a significantly higher redshift and heavily weighted by broad absorption line quasars. We also have examined each object with multiple observations for variability in each of the aforementioned quantities, and have characterized the variation of EW with the continuum flux. In our survey, we find that variability of O VI lambda1032, lambda1038 is less common than of the UV doublets of CIV and N V seen at longer wavelengths, because the O VI absorption is usually saturated. Lyman beta absorption variability is more frequent. In a target-by-target examination we find that broad absorption line absorption and narrow absorption line absorbers are related in terms of maximum outflow velocity and luminosity, and both can be exhibited in similar luminosity objects. We also find one object that shows radial velocity change, seven objects that show equivalent width variability, and two objects that show either transverse velocity changes or a change in ionization.

Jay P. Dunn; D. Michael Crenshaw; S. B. Kraemer; M. L. Trippe

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Structure of a Glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 Complex: Inhibition of a RING E3 Ligase through Masking of Its E2-Binding Surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The approximately 300 human cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1's RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCF{sup FBW7} complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN's selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation, whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition.

Duda, David M.; Olszewski, Jennifer L.; Tron, Adriana E.; Hammel, Michal; Lambert, Lester J.; Waddell, M. Brett; Mittag, Tanja; DeCaprio, James A.; Schulman, Brenda A. (BWH); (LBNL); (SJCH); (DFCI)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

FAR-ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPICA NEBULA AND THE INTERACTION ZONE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the analysis results of far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations, made for a broad region around {alpha} Vir (Spica) including the interaction zone of Loop I and the Local Bubble. The whole region was optically thin and a general correlation was seen between the FUV continuum intensity and the dust extinction, except in the neighborhood of the bright central star, indicating the dust scattering nature of the FUV continuum. We performed Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations to obtain the optical parameters related to the dust scattering as well as to the geometrical structure of the region. The albedo and asymmetry factor were found to be 0.38 {+-} 0.06 and 0.46 {+-} 0.06, respectively, in good agreement with the Milky Way dust grain models. The distance to and the thickness of the interaction zone were estimated to be 70{sup +4}{sub -8} pc and 40{sup +8}{sub -10} pc, respectively. The diffuse FUV continuum in the northern region above Spica was mostly the result of scattering of the starlight from Spica, while that in the southern region was mainly due to the background stars. The C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548, 1551 emission was found throughout the whole region, in contrast to the Si II* {lambda}1532 emission which was bright only within the H II region. This indicates that the C IV line arises mostly at the shell boundaries of the bubbles, with a larger portion likely from the Loop I than from the Local Bubble side, whereas the Si II* line is from the photoionized Spica Nebula.

Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Lim, Tae-Ho; Jo, Young-Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Kwang-Il [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 61-1 Hwaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Woo, E-mail: zmzm83@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189 Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Verifying the Cosmological Utility of Type Ia Supernovae: Implications of a Dispersion in the Ultraviolet Spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the mean rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and its dispersion using high signal-to-noise ratio Keck-I/LRIS-B spectroscopy for a sample of 36 events at intermediate redshift (z=0.5) discovered by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We introduce a new method for removing host galaxy contamination in our spectra, exploiting the comprehensive photometric coverage of the SNLS SNe and their host galaxies, thereby providing the first quantitative view of the UV spectral properties of a large sample of distant SNe Ia. Although the mean SN Ia spectrum has not evolved significantly over the past 40percent of cosmic history, precise evolutionary constraints are limited by the absence of a comparable sample of high-quality local spectra. The mean UV spectrum of our z~;;=0.5 SNe Ia and its dispersion is tabulated for use in future applications. Within the high-redshift sample, we discover significant UV spectral variations and exclude dust extinction as the primary cause by examining trends with the optical SN color. Although progenitor metallicity may drive some of these trends, the variations we see are much larger than predicted in recent models and do not follow expected patterns. An interesting new result is a variation seen in the wavelength of selected UV features with phase. We also demonstrate systematic differences in the SN Ia spectral features with SN light curve width in both the UV and the optical. We show that these intrinsic variations could represent a statistical limitation in the future use of high-redshift SNe Ia for precision cosmology. We conclude that further detailed studies are needed, both locally and at moderate redshift where the rest-frame UV can be studied precisely, in order that future missions can confidently be planned to fully exploit SNe Ia as cosmological probes.

Nugent, Peter E; Ellis, R.S.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P.E.; Howell, D.A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Regnault, N.

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

402

Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

Vuilleumier, Laurent [Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland); Milon, Antoine; Vernez, David [Institute of Work and Health, University of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bulliard, Jean-Luc [Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moccozet, Laurent [Institute of Services Science, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

403

ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

405

Investigating the effective range of vacuum ultraviolet-mediated breakdown in high-power microwave metamaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metamaterials and periodic structures operating under high-power excitations are susceptible to breakdown. It was recently demonstrated that a localized breakdown created in a given region of a periodic structure can facilitate breakdown in other regions of the structure where the intensity of the incident electromagnetic fields may not be high enough to cause breakdown under normal circumstances. It was also demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the location of the initial discharge, which propagates to the neighboring regions (e.g., other unit cells in a periodic structure) and facilitates the generation of a discharge at a lower incident power level. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study conducted to determine the effective range of this physical phenomenon for periodic structures that operate in air and in pure nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure levels. It is demonstrated that when breakdown is induced in a periodic structure using a high-power pulse with a frequency of 9.382 GHz, duration of 0.8??s, and peak power level of 25?kW, this phenomenon is highly likely to happen in radii of approximately 16–17?mm from the location of the initial discharge under these test conditions. The results of this study are significant in designing metamaterials and periodic structures for high-power microwave applications as they suggest that a localized discharge created in such a periodic structure with a periodicity less than 16–17?mm can spread over a large surface and result in a distributed discharge.

Liu, Chien-Hao, E-mail: cliu82@wisc.edu; Neher, Joel D., E-mail: jdneher@wisc.edu; Booske, John H., E-mail: booske@engr.wisc.edu; Behdad, Nader, E-mail: behdad@wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

406

ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

Tripathi, Durgesh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India); Mason, Helen E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

THE FIRST STRAY LIGHT CORRECTED EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES OF SOLAR CORONAL HOLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coronal holes are the source regions of the fast solar wind, which fills most of the solar system volume near the cycle minimum. Removing stray light from extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Sun's corona is of high astrophysical importance, as it is required to make meaningful determinations of temperatures and densities of coronal holes. EUV images tend to be dominated by the component of the stray light due to the long-range scatter caused by the microroughness of telescope mirror surfaces, and this component has proven very difficult to measure in pre-flight characterization. In-flight characterization heretofore has proven elusive due to the fact that the detected image is simultaneously nonlinear in two unknown functions: the stray light pattern and the true image that would be seen by an ideal telescope. Using a constrained blind deconvolution technique that takes advantage of known zeros in the true image provided by a fortuitous lunar transit, we have removed the stray light from solar images seen by the EUVI instrument on STEREO-B in all four filter bands (171, 195, 284, and 304 A). Uncertainty measures of the stray light corrected images, which include the systematic error due to misestimation of the scatter, are provided. It is shown that in EUVI, stray light contributes up to 70% of the emission in coronal holes seen on the solar disk, which has dramatic consequences for diagnostics of temperature and density and therefore estimates of key plasma parameters such as the plasma {beta} and ion-electron collision rates.

Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Anna C. [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States); Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Hero III, Alfred O., E-mail: shearerp@umich.edu, E-mail: annacg@umich.edu, E-mail: rfrazin@umich.edu, E-mail: hero@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic study of the interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benzene on the Pt(111) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benezene has been studied on the Pt(111) crystal surface by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The adsorptive changes reported in previous studies for carbon monoxide and benzene when potassium is coadsorbed are correlated with the UPS results presented here and are explained with the aid of a molecular orbital analysis. The authors find that the valence molecular orbitals increase their binding energy slightly when the potassium is coadsorbed, implying a model in which the adsorbates sense the potassium-induced changes in dipole field at the surface. 36 references, 11 figures.

Kudo, M.; Garfunkel, E.L.; Somorjai, G.A.

1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

409

Spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction applied to seeded extreme-ultraviolet free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a setup for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers (FEL's) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Two delayed and spectrally shifted replicas are produced and used for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). We show that it can be achieved by a simple arrangement of the seed laser. Temporal shape and phase obtained in FEL simulations are well retrieved by the SPIDER reconstruction, allowing to foresee the implementation of this diagnostic on existing and future sources. This will be a significant step towards an experimental investigation and control of FEL spectral phase.

Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni; Dacasa, Hugo; Lozano, Magali; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Zeitoun, Philippe; Garzella, David; Merdji, Hamed

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5?nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Zastrau, U., E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Brenner, G.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Harmand, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Toleikis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Döppner, T.; Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Förster, E. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartley, N. J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Skruszewicz, S. [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); and others

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Efficacy of Ultraviolet Radiation for Sterilizing Tools Used for Surgically Implanting Transmitters into Fish  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelom of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When several fish are implanted consecutively for large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. However, autoclaving tools can take a long period of time, and chemical sterilants or disinfectants can be harmful to both humans and fish and have varied effectiveness. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used to disinfect water in aquaculture facilities. However, this technology has not been widely used to sterilize tools for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish. To determine its efficacy for this application, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers used UV radiation to disinfect surgical tools (i.e., forceps, needle holder, stab scalpel, and suture) that were exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica. Surgical tools were exposed to the bacteria by dipping them into a confluent suspension of three varying concentrations (i.e., low, medium, high). After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods—2, 5, or 15 min. S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV light exposures of 5 and 15 min were effective at killing all four organisms. UV light was also effective at killing Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the organism used as a biological indicator to verify effectiveness of steam sterilizers. These techniques appear to provide a quick alternative disinfection technique for some surgical tools that is less harmful to both humans and fish while not producing chemical waste. However, we do not recommend using these methods with tools that have overlapping parts or other structures that cannot be directly exposed to UV light such as needle holders.

Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Brown, Richard S.

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide probed by femtosecond extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strong-field induced ionization and dissociation dynamics of vinyl bromide, CH{sub 2}=CHBr, are probed using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Strong-field ionization is initiated with an intense femtosecond, near infrared (NIR, 775 nm) laser field. Femtosecond XUV pulses covering the photon energy range of 50-72 eV probe the subsequent dynamics by measuring the time-dependent spectroscopic features associated with transitions of the Br (3d) inner-shell electrons to vacancies in molecular and atomic valence orbitals. Spectral signatures are observed for the depletion of neutral C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br, the formation of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} ions in their ground (X{sup ~}) and first excited (A{sup ~}) states, the production of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup ++} ions, and the appearance of neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms by dissociative ionization. The formation of free Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms occurs on a timescale of 330 ± 150 fs. The ionic A{sup ~} state exhibits a time-dependent XUV absorption energy shift of ?0.4 eV within the time window of the atomic Br formation. The yield of Br atoms correlates with the yield of parent ions in the A{sup ~} state as a function of NIR peak intensity. The observations suggest that a fraction of vibrationally excited C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} (A{sup ~}) ions undergoes intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution followed by the C–Br bond dissociation. The C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup +} (X{sup ~}) products and the majority of the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br{sup ++} ions are relatively stable due to a deeper potential well and a high dissociation barrier, respectively. The results offer powerful new insights about orbital-specific electronic processes in high field ionization, coupled vibrational relaxation and dissociation dynamics, and the correlation of valence hole-state location and dissociation in polyatomic molecules, all probed simultaneously by ultrafast table-top XUV spectroscopy.

Lin, Ming-Fu; Neumark, Daniel M. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gessner, Oliver [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE QUIET CORONA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the quiet solar corona on disk using data obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We show that the expected quiet-Sun DEM distribution can be recovered from judiciously selected lines, and that their average intensities can be reproduced to within 30%. We present a subset of these selected lines spanning the temperature range log T = 5.6-6.4 K that can be used to derive the DEM distribution reliably, including a subset of iron lines that can be used to derive the DEM distribution free of the possibility of uncertainties in the elemental abundances. The subset can be used without the need for extensive measurements, and the observed intensities can be reproduced to within the estimated uncertainty in the pre-launch calibration of EIS. Furthermore, using this subset, we also demonstrate that the quiet coronal DEM distribution can be recovered on size scales down to the spatial resolution of the instrument (1'' pixels). The subset will therefore be useful for studies of small-scale spatial inhomogeneities in the coronal temperature structure, for example, in addition to studies requiring multiple DEM derivations in space or time. We apply the subset to 45 quiet-Sun data sets taken in the period 2007 January to April, and show that although the absolute magnitude of the coronal DEM may scale with the amount of released energy, the shape of the distribution is very similar up to at least log T approx 6.2 K in all cases. This result is consistent with the view that the shape of the quiet-Sun DEM is mainly a function of the radiating and conducting properties of the plasma and is fairly insensitive to the location and rate of energy deposition. This universal DEM may be sensitive to other factors such as loop geometry, flows, and the heating mechanism, but if so they cannot vary significantly from quiet-Sun region to region.

Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Code 7673, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Williams, David R. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Tetsuya, E-mail: dhbrooks@ssd5.nrl.navy.mi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

414

Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

Ruffner, J.A.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

arXiv:0704.2794v1[physics.bio-ph]20Apr2007 Strong far field coherent scattering of ultraviolet radiation by holococcolithophores.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation by holococcolithophores. R. Quintero-Torres and J.L. Arag´on Centro de F´isica Aplicada y Tecnolog holococcolith structures have the ability to scatter the ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This property may represent and constitute a signifi- cant fraction of the phytoplankton in open ocean environ- ments. They impact greatly

416

Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

focused on the demonstration of ultraviolet UV optoelectronic devices. Such devices hold promise, material related problems complicate the growth of such optoelectronic devices oper- ating at short wavelengths. With the use of InGaN/GaN quantum structures, optoelectronic devices operating in vis- ible

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

417

University of California, San Diego UCSD-CER-05-06 Center for Energy Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EUV lithography (EUVL) source, soft x-ray source, and research relevant to laser fusion etc by research on laser fusion and x-ray lasers [4][5] . However, because of the large variety of materials in specific applications of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), soft x-ray sources, and laser plasma

Najmabadi, Farrokh

418

Development of photo-patterned composite structures in microchannels for oil reservoir research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting from unstructured glass microchannels, we develop a new method of micromodel fabrication. We build composite structures in a bottom-up manner with ultraviolet projection lithography where the composite structures ...

Lee, Hyundo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Plasma and vacuum ultraviolet induced charging of SiO{sub 2} and HfO{sub 2} patterned structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors compare the effects of plasma charging and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on oxidized patterned Si structures with and without atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2}. It was found that, unlike planar oxidized Si wafers, oxidized patterned Si wafers charge up significantly after exposure in an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma. The charging is dependent on the aspect ratio of the patterned structures. This is attributed to electron and/or ion shading during plasma exposure. The addition of a 10 nm thick HfO{sub 2} layer deposited on top of the oxidized silicon structures increases the photoemission yield during VUV irradiation, resulting in more trapped positive charge compared to patterns without the HfO{sub 2} dielectric.

Lauer, J. L.; Upadhyaya, G. S.; Sinha, H.; Kruger, J. B.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stanford Nanofabrication Facility, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94303 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Plasma radiation dynamics with the upgraded Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet tomographical system in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce an upgraded version of a tomographical system which is built up from Absolute Extreme Ultraviolet-type (AXUV) detectors and has been installed on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV). The system is suitable for the investigation of fast radiative processes usually observed in magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. The upgrade consists in the detector protection by movable shutters, some modifications to correct original design errors and the improvement in the data evaluation techniques. The short-term sensitivity degradation of the detectors, which is caused by the plasma radiation itself, has been monitored and found to be severe. The results provided by the system are consistent with the measurements obtained with the usual plasma radiation diagnostics installed on TCV. Additionally, the coupling between core plasma radiation and plasma-wall interaction is revealed. This was impossible with other available diagnostics on TCV.

Tal, B.; Nagy, D.; Veres, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Association EURATOM, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)] [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Association EURATOM, P. O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Labit, B.; Chavan, R.; Duval, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL SB CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL SB CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Molecular beam epitaxy-grown wurtzite MgS thin films for solar-blind ultra-violet detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular beam epitaxy grown MgS on GaAs(111)B substrate was resulted in wurtzite phase, as demonstrated by detailed structural characterizations. Phenomenological arguments were used to account for why wurtzite phase is preferred over zincblende phase or its most stable rocksalt phase. Results of photoresponse and reflectance measurements performed on wurtzite MgS photodiodes suggest a direct bandgap at around 5.1 eV. Their response peaks at 245 nm with quantum efficiency of 9.9% and enjoys rejection of more than three orders at 320 nm and close to five orders at longer wavelengths, proving the photodiodes highly competitive in solar-blind ultraviolet detection.

Lai, Y. H.; He, Q. L. [Nano Science and Nano Technology Program, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People's Republic of China (China) [Nano Science and Nano Technology Program, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People's Republic of China (China); Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People's Republic of China (China); Cheung, W. Y.; Lok, S. K.; Wong, K. S.; Sou, I. K. [Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People's Republic of China (China); Ho, S. K. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, People's Republic of China (China)] [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, People's Republic of China (China); Tam, K. W. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Macau, Macau, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Macau, Macau, People's Republic of China (China)

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

422

Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Å to above 300 Å. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 ?m wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Å above 100 Å, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF{sub 2} crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The damage in fused silica and CaF{sub 2} crystals induced by wavelength tunable femtosecond lasers is studied. The threshold fluence is observed to increase rapidly with laser wavelength {lambda} in the region of 250-800 nm, while it is nearly a constant for 800<{lambda}<2000 nm. The ultrafast electronic excitation is also studied by a pump and probe method. The reflectivity increases rapidly in the latter half of pump pulse, which supports that impact ionization plays an important role in the generation of conduction band electrons (CBEs). We study the CBEs absorption via subconduction-band (sub-CB) transition, and develop a coupled avalanche model. Our results indicate that the CBEs absorption via sub-CB transition plays an important role in the damage in dielectrics irradiated by the visible and near ultraviolet femtosecond lasers. Our theory explains well the experiments.

Jia, T. Q.; Chen, H. X.; Huang, M.; Zhao, F. L.; Li, X. X.; Xu, S. Z.; Sun, H. Y.; Feng, D. H.; Li, C. B.; Wang, X. F.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.; He, X. K.; Kuroda, H. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); and State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai (China); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

High Energy Neutrino Flashes from Far-Ultraviolet and X-ray Flares in Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent observations of bright optical and x-ray flares by the Swift satellite suggest these are produced by the late activities of the central engine. We study the neutrino emission from far-ultraviolet and x-ray flares under the late internal shock model. We show that the efficiency of pion production in the highest energy is comparable to or higher than the unity, and the contribution from such neutrino flashes to a diffuse very high energy neutrino background can be larger than that of prompt bursts if the total baryonic energy input into flares is comparable to the radiated energy of prompt bursts. These signals may be detected by IceCube and are very important because they have possibilities to probe the nature of flares (the baryon loading, the photon field, the magnetic field and so on).

Kohta Murase; Shigehiro Nagataki

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

425

High blue-near ultraviolet photodiode response of vertically stacked graphene-MoS{sub 2}-metal heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a study on the photodiode response of vertically stacked graphene/MoS{sub 2}/metal heterostructures in which MoS{sub 2} layers are doped with various plasma species. In comparison with undoped heterostructures, such doped ones exhibit significantly improved quantum efficiencies in both photovoltaic and photoconductive modes. This indicates that plasma-doping-induced built-in potentials play an important role in photocurrent generation. As compared to indium-tin-oxide/ MoS{sub 2}/metal structures, the presented graphene/MoS{sub 2}/metal heterostructures exhibit greatly enhanced quantum efficiencies in the blue-near ultraviolet region, which is attributed to the low density of recombination centers at graphene/MoS{sub 2} heterojunctions. This work advances the knowledge for making photo-response devices based on layered materials.

Wi, Sungjin; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Liu, Amy C.; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan, E-mail: xiaoganl@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effect of ultraviolet and x-ray radiation on the work function of TiO{sub 2} surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work functions of nanocrystalline anatase (TiO{sub 2}) thin films and a rutile single crystal were measured using photoemission spectroscopy (PES). The nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films were deposited in-vacuum using electrospray thin film deposition. A comparison between ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and low intensity x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS) work function measurements on these samples revealed a strong, immediate, and permanent work function reduction (>0.5 eV) caused by the UPS measurements. Furthermore, it was found that regular XPS measurements also reduce the work function after exposure times ranging from seconds to minutes. These effects are similar in magnitude to artifacts seen previously on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates characterized with XPS and UPS, and are likely related to the formation of a surface dipole through the photochemical hydroxylation of oxygen vacancies present on the TiO{sub 2} surface.

Gutmann, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Wolak, M. A.; Beerbom, M. M.; Schlaf, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Conrad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Projection optics box  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Malsbury, Terry (Tracy, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Parker, John M. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Photodissociation dynamics of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}I in the near-ultraviolet region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of allyl iodide (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}I) have been studied by ion-imaging at 266 nm and 213 nm. These photolysis wavelengths are located in the two lowest absorption bands in the near-ultraviolet region. The atomic iodine products were detected by [2+1] resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. The spectra showed that the branching fraction for the spin-orbit excited ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) state was larger than that for the ground ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) state at both photolysis wavelengths. The state-resolved scattering images of iodine showed two maxima in the velocity distributions in the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state and a single peak in the {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} state. The spin-orbit specificity indicates that the C?I bond cleavage at both absorption bands is governed by the dissociative n{sub I}?{sup *}{sub C?I} potential energy surfaces. The nascent internal energy distribution of the allyl radical (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}) counter product, which was obtained by the analysis of the state-resolved scattering distributions, showed a marked difference between the photolysis at 266 nm and 213 nm. The generation of the colder C{sub 3}H{sub 5} with the higher translational energy at 266 nm implied the direct photoexcitation to the n{sub I}?{sup *}{sub C?I} repulsive surfaces, whereas the internally hot C{sub 3}H{sub 5} at 213 nm was ascribed to the local ?{sub CC}?{sup *}{sub CC} photoinitiation in the allyl framework followed by predissociation to the n{sub I}?{sup *}{sub C?I} states.

Sumida, Masataka; Hanada, Takuya; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi; Kohguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: kohguchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

429

A SEARCH FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH USING SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the Swift satellite is primarily designed to study gamma-ray bursts, its ultraviolet and optical imaging and spectroscopy capabilities are also being used for a variety of scientific programs. In this study, we use the UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) instrument on board Swift to discover 0.5 < z < 2 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). UVOT has covered {approx}266 arcmin{sup 2} at >60 ks exposure time, achieving a limiting magnitude of u < 24.5, in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). Applying UVOT near-ultraviolet color selection, we select 50 UV-dropouts from this UVOT CDF-S data. We match the selected sources with available multiwavelength data from Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South, Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile, and COMBO-17 to characterize the spectral energy distributions for these galaxies and determine stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and dust attenuations. We compare these properties for LBGs selected in this paper versus z {approx} 3 LBGs and other CDF-S galaxies in the same redshift range (0.5 < z < 2), identified using photometric redshift techniques. The z {approx} 1 LBGs have stellar masses of (logM{sub *}/M{sub sun}) = 9.4 {+-} 0.6, which is slightly lower than z {approx} 3 LBGs ((logM{sub *}/Ms{sub un}) = 10.2 {+-} 0.4) and slightly higher compared with the z {approx} 1 CDF-S galaxies ((logM{sub *}/M{sub sun}) = 8.7 {+-} 0.7). Similarly, our sample of z {approx} 1 LBGs has SFRs (derived using both ultraviolet and infrared data, where available) of (logSFR/(M{sub sun} yr{sup -1})) = 0.7 {+-} 0.6, nearly an order of magnitude lower than z {approx} 3 LBGs ((logSFR/M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) = 1.5 {+-} 0.4), but slightly higher than the comparison z {approx} 1 sample of CDF-S galaxies ((logSFR/M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) = 0.2 {+-} 0.7). We find that our z {approx} 1 UV-dropouts have (A{sub FUV}) = 2.0 {+-} 1.0, which is higher than z {approx} 3 LBGs ((A{sub FUV}) = 1.0 {+-} 0.5), but similar to the distribution of dust attenuations in the other CDF-S galaxies ((A{sub FUV}) {approx} 2.8 {+-} 1.5). Using the GOODS-South multiwavelength catalog of galaxies, we simulate a larger and fainter sample of LBGs to compare their properties with those of the UVOT-selected LBG sample. We conclude that UVOT can be useful for finding and studying the bright end of 0.5 < z < 2.0 LBGs.

Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Hornschemeier, Ann E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hoversten, Erik A.; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lehmer, Bret, E-mail: antara.r.basu-zych@nasa.gov, E-mail: Ann.Hornschemeier@nasa.gov, E-mail: hoversten@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: blehmer@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session. (WRF)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

HST polarization map of the ultraviolet emission from the outer jet in M87 and a comparison with the 2cm radio emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the first high resolution polarization map of the ultraviolet emission from the outer jet in M87. The data were obtained by the Faint Object Camera (FOC) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The polarization map has a resolution of 0.2 arcsec and was derived using data from three linearly polarized images combined with the best available calibration data. The ultraviolet emission is highly polarized (~40\\%) with the magnetic vector aligned roughly with the jet axis, except in the region of the brightest knot (Knot A) where the position angle changes abruptly and the magnetic vector becomes perpendicular to the jet axis. A similar behaviour is seen in the 2cm VLA radio polarization map. By aligning the FOC and VLA data, we present ultraviolet--2cm spectral index, depolarization and rotation measure maps. We identify a region of high depolarization adjacent to Knot A. This is the first direct observational evidence that indicates the presence of a cloud or filament of dense thermal material which is mixed with the synchrotron emitting plasma of the jet. The interaction of the jet with this cloud is likely to be responsible for the sudden increase in the brightness of the jet at Knot A due to an induced shock. We suggest that the dark line seen in the 2cm radio data between Knot A and Knot C could be the shadow or magnetotail of the depolarizing cloud in the jet.

R. C. Thomson; D. R. T. Robinson; N. R. Tanvir; C. D. Mackay; A. Boksenberg

1995-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

432

DIFFRACTION, REFRACTION, AND REFLECTION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED DURING ITS INTERACTIONS WITH REMOTE ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present observations of the diffraction, refraction, and reflection of a global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave propagating in the solar corona. These intriguing phenomena are observed when the wave interacts with two remote active regions, and together they exhibit properties of an EUV wave. When the wave approached AR11465, it became weaker and finally disappeared in the active region, but a few minutes later a new wavefront appeared behind the active region, and it was not concentric with the incoming wave. In addition, a reflected wave was also simultaneously observed on the wave incoming side. When the wave approached AR11459, it transmitted through the active region directly and without reflection. The formation of the new wavefront and the transmission could be explained with diffraction and refraction effects, respectively. We propose that the different behaviors observed during the interactions may be caused by different speed gradients at the boundaries of the two active regions. We find that the EUV wave formed ahead of a group of expanding loops a few minutes after the start of the loops' expansion, which represents the initiation of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). Based on these results, we conclude that the EUV wave should be a nonlinear magnetosonic wave or shock driven by the associated CME, which propagated faster than the ambient fast mode speed and gradually slowed down to an ordinary linear wave. Our observations support the hybrid model that includes both fast wave and slow non-wave components.

Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu; Zhao Ruijuan; Tian Zhanjun [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Su Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li Hui [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: ydshen@ynao.ac.cn [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6078471 (Japan)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ejecta Particle-Size Measurements in Vacuum and Helium Gas using Ultraviolet In-Line Fraunhofer Holography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ultraviolet (UV) in-line Fraunhofer holography diagnostic has been developed for making high-resolution spatial measurements of ejecta particles traveling at many mm/?sec. This report will discuss the development of the diagnostic, including the high-powered laser system and high-resolution optical relay system. In addition, we will also describe the system required to reconstruct the images from the hologram and the corresponding analysis of those images to extract particles. Finally, we will present results from six high-explosive (HE), shock-driven Sn-ejecta experiments. Particle-size distributions will be shown that cover most of the ejecta velocities for experiments conducted in a vacuum, and helium gas environments. In addition, a modification has been made to the laser system that produces two laser pulses separated by 6.8 ns. This double-pulsed capability allows a superposition of two holograms to be acquired at two different times, thus allowing ejecta velocities to be measured directly. Results from this double-pulsed experiment will be described.

Sorenson, D. S. [LANL; Pazuchanics, P. [LANL; Johnson, R. [LANL; Malone, R. M. [NSTec; Kaufman, M. I. [NSTec; Tibbitts, A. [NSTec; Tunnell, T. [NSTec; Marks, D. [NSTec; Capelle, G. A. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Turley, W. D. [NSTec; LaLone, B. [NSTec

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

A simple electron time-of-flight spectrometer for ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a simple electron time of flight spectrometer for time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of liquid samples using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) source produced by high-harmonic generation. The field free spectrometer coupled with the time-preserving monochromator for the VUV at the Artemis facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory achieves an energy resolution of 0.65 eV at 40 eV with a sub 100 fs temporal resolution. A key feature of the design is a differentially pumped drift tube allowing a microliquid jet to be aligned and started at ambient atmosphere while preserving a pressure of 10{sup ?1} mbar at the micro channel plate detector. The pumping requirements for photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy in vacuum are presented, while the instrument performance is demonstrated with PE spectra of salt solutions in water. The capability of the instrument for time resolved measurements is demonstrated by observing the ultrafast (50 fs) vibrational excitation of water leading to temporary proton transfer.

Arrell, C. A., E-mail: christopher.arrell@epfl.ch; Ojeda, J.; Mourik, F. van; Chergui, M. [Laboratory of Ultrafast Spectroscopy, ISIC, Station 6, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Sabbar, M.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U. [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Okell, W. A.; Witting, T.; Siegel, T.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S.; Tisch, J. W.G.; Marangos, J. P. [Department of Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chapman, R. T.; Cacho, C.; Rodrigues, N.; Turcu, I. C.E.; Springate, E. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Ultraviolet Emission Properties of Five Low-Redshift Active Galactic Nuclei at High Signal to Noise and Spectral Resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the ultraviolet (UV) emission line and continuum properties of five low-redshift active galactic nuclei (four luminous quasars: PKS~0405$-$123, H1821+643, PG~0953+414, and 3C273, and one bright Seyfert 1 galaxy: Mrk~205). The HST spectra have higher signal-to-noise ratios (typically $\\sim 60$ per resolution element) and spectral resolution ($R = 1300$) than all previously- published UV spectra used to study the emission characteristics of active galactic nuclei. We include in the analysis ground-based optical spectra covering \\hb\\ and the narrow [O III] $\\lambda\\lambda$4959,5007 doublet. The following new results are obtained: \\lyb/\\lya=0.03$-$0.12 for the four quasars, which is the first accurate measurement of the long-predicted \\lyb\\ intensity in QSOs. The cores of \\lya\\ and C~IV are symmetric to an accuracy of better than 2.5% within about 2000 km s$^{-1}$ of the line peak. This high degree of symmetry of \\lya\\ argues against models in which the broad line cloud velocity field has a significant radial component. The observed smoothness of the \\lya\\ and C~IV line profiles requires at least $\\sim 10^4$ individual clouds if bulk velocity is the only line-broadening mechanism. The overall similarity of the \\lya\\ and C IV $\\lambda$1549 profiles rules out models for the broad line region (BLR) with a radial distribution of virialized....

Ari Laor; John N. Bahcall; Buell T. Jannuzi; Donald P. Schneider; Richard F. Green; George F. Hartig

1993-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

437

Interactions between ultraviolet light and interleukin-1 on MSH binding in both mouse melanoma and human squamous carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interactions between beta-melanotropin (MSH), interleukin 1-a (IL-1), and ultraviolet light (UV) were examined in Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma and RHEK human squamous carcinoma cell lines. The following points were established: (1) both cell lines produced IL-1 and their production was stimulated by exposure of the cells to UV; (2) both cell lines possessed high affinity binding sites for MSH, and their ability to bind MSH was modulated by IL-1; (3) IL-1 exhibited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on MSH binding to Cloudman cells; and (4) the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on MSH binding to melanoma cells was reflected in enhanced cellular responsiveness to MSH regarding tyrosinase activity (E.C. 1.14.18.1) and melanin content. The findings raise the possibility that interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes may be regulated by IL-1 and MSH, and suggest a possible mechanism for stimulation of cutaneous melanogenesis by solar radiation: enhancement of MSH receptor activity by induction of IL-1.

Birchall, N.; Orlow, S.J.; Kupper, T.; Pawelek, J. (Univ. of Auckland, (New Zealand))

1991-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

438

SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE IMAGING OF STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN M81 AND HOLMBERG IX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) imaging of the galaxies M81 and Holmberg IX. We combine UVOT imaging in three near-ultraviolet (NUV) filters (uvw2: 1928 A; uvm2: 2246 A; uvw1: 2600 A) with ground-based optical imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to constrain the stellar populations of both galaxies. Our analysis consists of three different methods. First, we use the NUV imaging to identify UV star-forming knots and then perform spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling on the UV/optical photometry of these sources. Second, we measure surface brightness profiles of the disk of M81 in the NUV and optical. Lastly, we use SED fitting of individual pixels to map the properties of the two galaxies. In agreement with earlier studies, we find evidence for a burst in star formation in both galaxies starting {approx}200 Myr ago coincident with the suggested time of an M81-M82 interaction. In line with theories of its origin as a tidal dwarf, we find that the luminosity-weighted age of Holmberg IX is a few hundred million years. Both galaxies are best fit by a Milky Way dust extinction law with a prominent 2175 A bump. In addition, we describe a stacked median filter technique for modeling the diffuse background light within a galaxy and a Markov chain method for cleaning segment maps generated by SExtractor.

Hoversten, E. A.; Gronwall, C.; Siegel, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Vanden Berk, D. E. [Physics Department, St. Vincent College, Latrobe, PA 15650 (United States); Basu-Zych, A. R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Breeveld, A. A.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Page, M. J. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory/UCL, Holbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Brown, P. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Roming, P. W. A. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Importance of Biologically Active Aurora-like Ultraviolet Emission: Stochastic Irradiation of Earth and Mars by Flares and Explosions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Abridged) We show that sizeable fractions of incident ionizing radiation from stochastic astrophysical sources can be redistributed to biologically and chemically important UV wavelengths, a significant fraction of which can reach the surface. This redistribution is mediated by secondary electrons, resulting from Compton scattering and X-ray photoabsorption, with energies low enough to excite atmospheric molecules and atoms, resulting in a rich aurora-like spectrum. We calculate the fraction of energy redistributed into biologically and chemically important wavelength regions for spectra characteristic of stellar flares and supernovae using a Monte-Carlo transport code written for this problem and then estimate the fraction of this energy that is transmitted from the atmospheric altitudes of redistribution to the surface for a few illustrative cases. Redistributed fractions are found to be of order 1%, even in the presence of an ozone shield. This result implies that planetary organisms will be subject to mutationally significant, if intermittent, fluences of UV-B and harder radiation even in the presence of a narrow-band UV shield like ozone. We also calculate the surficial transmitted fraction of ionizing radiation and redistributed ultraviolet radiation for two illustrative evolving Mars atmospheres whose initial surface pressures were 1 bar. Our results suggest that coding organisms on planets orbiting low-mass stars (and on the early Earth) may evolve very differently than on contemporary Earth, with diversity and evolutionary rate controlled by a stochastically varying mutation rate and frequent hypermutation episodes.

David S. Smith; John Scalo; J. Craig Wheeler

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

High-peak-power surface high-harmonic generation at extreme ultra-violet wavelengths from a tape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-based surface high-harmonic generation from a tape is experimentally studied. By operating at mildly relativistic normalized laser strengths a{sub 0}?0.2, harmonics up to the 17th order are efficiently produced in the coherent wake emission (CWE) regime. CWE pulse properties, such as divergence, energy, conversion efficiency, and spectrum, are investigated for various tape materials and drive laser conditions. A clear correlation between surface roughness and harmonic beam divergence is found. At the measured pulse properties for the 15th harmonic (conversion efficiency ?6.5×10{sup ?7}, divergence ?7?15 mrad), the 100-mJ-level drive laser produces several MWs of extreme ultra-violet pulses. The spooling tape configuration enables multi-Hz operation over thousands of shots, making this source attractive as a seed to the few-Hz laser-plasma-accelerator-driven free-electron laser (FEL). Models indicate that these CWE pulses with MW level powers are sufficient for seed-induced bunching and FEL gain.

Shaw, B. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tilborg, J. van; Sokollik, T.; Schroeder, C. B.; McKinney, W. R.; Artemiev, N. A.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Gullikson, E. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

An upper limit on the ratio between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the bolometric luminosities of stars hosting habitable planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types has already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape along with hydrogen, I present an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-t...

Sengupta, Sujan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Detection of magnetic dipole lines of Fe XII in the ultraviolet spectrum of the dwarf star Epsilon Eri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report observations of the dwarf star Epsilon Eri (K2 V) made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The high sensitivity of the STIS instrument has allowed us to detect the magnetic dipole transitions of Fe XII at 1242.00A and 1349.38A for the first time in a star other than the Sun. The width of the stronger line at 1242.00A has also been measured; such measurements are not possible for the permitted lines of Fe XII in the extreme ultraviolet. To within the accurcy of the measurements, the N V and the Fe XII lines occur at their rest wavelengths. Electron densities and line widths have been measured from other transition region lines. Together, these can be used to investigate the non-thermal energy flux in the lower and upper transition region, which is useful in constraining possible heating processes. The Fe XII lines are also present in archival STIS spectra of other G/K-type dwarfs.

C. Jordan; A. D. McMurry; S. A. Sim; M. Arulvel

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

443

Improving metastable impact electron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy signals by means of a modified time-of-flight separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES) is usually performed by a time-of-flight (ToF) separation using pre-set ToF for both types of signal. In this work, we present a new, improved ex situ signal separation method for the separation of MIES and UPS for every single measurement. Signal separation issues due to changes of system parameters can be overcome by changing the ToF separation and therefore allowing for the application of a wider range of measuring conditions. The method also enables to identify and achieve separation of the two signals without any time consuming calibration and the use of any special material for the calibration. Furthermore, changes made to the discharge source are described that enable to operate an existing MIES/UPS source over a broader range of conditions. This allows for tuning of the yield of UV photons and metastable rare gas atoms leading to an improved signal to noise ratio. First results of this improved setup are well in agreement with spectra reported in literature and show increased resolution and higher signal intensities for both MIE and UP spectra compared to the previous, non-optimized setup.

Spirkl, Florian M.; Kunz, Sebastian; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Farnbacher, Adrian N.; Schroeter, Richard; Heiz, Ulrich [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department Chemie, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

GALEX Observations of an Energetic Ultraviolet Flare on the dM4e Star GJ 3685A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite has obtained high time resolution ultraviolet photometry during a large flare on the M4 dwarf star GJ 3685A. Simultaneous NUV (1750 - 2800A) and FUV (1350 - 1750A) time-tagged photometry with time resolution better than 0.1 s shows that the overall brightness in the FUV band increased by a factor of 1000 in 200 s. Under the assumption that the NUV emission is mostly due to a stellar continuum, and that the FUV flux is shared equally between emission lines and continuum, then there is evidence for two distinct flare components for this event. The first flare type is characterized by an exponential increase in flux with little or no increase in temperature. The other involves rapid increases in both temperature and flux. While the decay time for the first flare component may be several hours, the second flare event decayed over less than 1 minute, suggesting that there was little or no confinement of the heated plasma.

Richard D. Robinson; Jonathan M. Wheatley; Barry Y. Welsh; Karl Forster; Patrick Morrissey; Mark Seibert; R. Michael Rich; Samir Salim; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Peter G. Friedman; Timothy M. Heckman; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder

2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

445

BRIGHT POINTS AND JETS IN POLAR CORONAL HOLES OBSERVED BY THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present observations of polar coronal hole bright points (BPs) made with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. The data consist of raster images of BPs in multiple spectral lines from mostly coronal ions, e.g., Fe X-Fe XV. The BPs are observed for short intervals and thus the data are snapshots of the BPs obtained during their evolution. The images reveal a complex unresolved temperature structure (EIS resolution is about 2''), with the highest temperature being about 2 x 10{sup 6} K. Some BPs appear as small loops with temperatures that are highest near the top. But others are more point-like with surrounding structures. However, the thermal time evolution of the BPs is an important factor in their appearance. A BP may appear quite different at different times. We discuss one BP with an associated jet that is bright enough to allow statistically meaningful measurements. The jet Doppler speed along the line of sight is about 15-20 km s{sup -1}. Electron densities of the BPs and the jet are typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}, which implies path lengths along the line of sight on the order of a few arcsec. We also construct differential emission measure curves for two of the best observed BPs. High spatial resolution (significantly better than 1'') is required to fully resolve the BP structures.

Doschek, G. A.; Landi, E.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Harra, L. K., E-mail: george.doschek@nrl.navy.mi [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

446

Nanoimprint Lithography for Functional Polymer Patterning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................................... 53 4.3 Results and discussion ........................................................................ 54 4.3.1 Raman spectroscope of PMMA .......................................... 55 4.3.2 Birefringence of nanoimprinted PMMA... ............................. 56 4.3.3 A schematic of PMMA flow ............................................... 58 4.3.4 Raman spectra of PMMA samples ...................................... 59 4.4 Conclusion...

Cui, Dehu

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Patterning Organic Electronics Based on Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 3. 2. The fabrication process of OMESFETs with a self-aligned gate electrode. (a) Spin-coat an imprinting resist (PMMA or Teflon) on the Au/Cr surface. (b) Thermally imprint the resist. (c) Remove...-AF film. (d) Remove the Teflon-AF residue layer by oxygen RIE. (e) Spin-coat the PMMA solution on Teflon-AF. (f) Remove the PMMA residue layer by oxygen RIE. (g) Dissolve Teflon-AF by FC-72...

Lo, Yi-Chen

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

448

Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Advanced flow lithography and barcoded particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anisotropic multifunctional particles have drawn much attention, leading to wide ranges of applications from biomedical areas to electronics. Despite their enormous potentials, particles with geometrically and chemically ...

Bong, Ki Wan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Verifying the Cosmological Utility of Type Ia Supernovae:Implications of a Dispersion in the Ultraviolet Spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the mean rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum ofType Ia Supernovae(SNe) and its dispersion using high signal-to-noiseKeck-I/LRIS-B spectroscopyfor a sample of 36 events at intermediateredshift (z=0.5) discoveredby the Canada-France-Hawaii TelescopeSupernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). Weintroduce a new method for removinghost galaxy contamination in our spectra,exploiting the comprehensivephotometric coverage of the SNLS SNe and theirhost galaxies, therebyproviding the first quantitative view of the UV spectralproperties of alarge sample of distant SNe Ia. Although the mean SN Ia spectrumhas notevolved significantly over the past 40 percent of cosmic history,preciseevolutionary constraints are limited by the absence of acomparable sample ofhigh quality local spectra. The mean UV spectrum ofour z 0.5 SNe Ia and itsdispersion is tabulated for use in futureapplications. Within the high-redshiftsample, we discover significant UVspectral variations and exclude dust extinctionas the primary cause byexamining trends with the optical SN color. Although progenitormetallicity may drive some of these trends, the variations we see aremuchlarger than predicted in recent models and do not follow expectedpatterns.An interesting new result is a variation seen in the wavelengthof selected UVfeatures with phase. We also demonstrate systematicdifferences in the SN Iaspectral features with SN lightcurve width inboth the UV and the optical. Weshow that these intrinsic variations couldrepresent a statistical limitation in thefuture use of high-redshift SNeIa for precision cosmology. We conclude thatfurther detailed studies areneeded, both locally and at moderate redshift wherethe rest-frame UV canbe studied precisely, in order that future missions canconfidently beplanned to fully exploit SNe Ia as cosmological probes.

Ellis, R.S.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P.E.; Howell, D.A.; Gal-Yam,A.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.G.; Conley,A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Regnault, N.

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

452

THE SPACE DENSITY OF EXTENDED ULTRAVIOLET (XUV) DISKS IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GAS ACCRETION ONTO GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results of the first unbiased search for extended ultraviolet (XUV)-disk galaxies undertaken to determine the space density of such galaxies. Our sample contains 561 local (0.001 < z < 0.05) galaxies that lie in the intersection of available Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) deep imaging (exposure time >1.5 x 10{sup 4} s) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 footprints. We explore modifications to the standard classification scheme for our sample that includes both disk- and bulge-dominated galaxies. Visual classification of each galaxy in the sample reveals an XUV-disk frequency of up to 20% for the most nearby portion of our sample. On average over the entire sample (out to z = 0.05) the frequency ranges from a hard limit of 4%-14%. The GALEX imaging allows us to detect XUV disks beyond 100 Mpc. The XUV regions around XUV-disk galaxies are consistently bluer than the main bodies. We find a surprisingly high frequency of XUV emission around luminous red (NUV-r > 5) and green valley (3 < NUV-r < 5) galaxies. The XUV-disk space density in the local universe is >(1.5-4.2) x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3}. Using the XUV emission as an indicator of recent gas accretion, we estimate that the cold gas accretion rate onto these galaxies is >(1.7-4.6) x 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1}. The number of XUV disks in the green valley and the estimated accretion rate onto such galaxies points to the intriguing possibility that 7%-18% of galaxies in this population are transitioning away from the red sequence.

Lemonias, Jenna J.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Thilker, David; Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Treyer, Marie A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, F-13376 Marseille (France); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rich, R. Michael, E-mail: jenna@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Star-Forming Regions in Nearby Galaxies: Stellar Populations and Abundance Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present FUSE spectroscopy and supporting data for star-forming regions in nearby galaxies, to examine their massive-star content and explore the use of abundance and population indicators in this spectral range for high-redshift galaxies. New far-ultraviolet spectra are shown for four bright H II regions in M33 (NGC 588, 592, 595, and 604), the H II region NGC 5461 in M101, and the starburst nucleus of NGC 7714, supplemented by the very-low-metallicity galaxy I Zw 18. In each case, we see strong Milky Way absorption systems from H2, but intrinsic absorption within each galaxy is weak or undetectable, perhaps because of the "UV bias" in which reddened stars which lie behind molecular-rich areas are also heavily reddened. We see striking changes in the stellar-wind lines from these populations with metallicity, suggesting that C II, C III, C IV, N II, N III, and P V lines are potential tracers of stellar metallicity in star-forming galaxies. Three of these relations - involving N IV, C III, and P V - are nearly linear over the range from O/H=0.05--0.8 solar. The major difference in continuum shapes among these systems is that the giant H II complex NGC 604 has a stronger continuum shortward of 950 A than any other object in this sample. Small-number statistics would likely go in the other direction; we favor this as the result of a discrete star-forming event ~3 Myr ago, as suggested by previous studies of its stellar population. (Supported by NASA grant NAG5-8959)

William C. Keel; Jay B. Holberg; Patrick M. Treuthardt

2004-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using aminoindazole, diaminopyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer complexes of Zn(II)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen peroxide is a valuable chemical commodity whose production relies on expensive methods. If an efficient, sustainable, and inexpensive solar-mediated production method could be developed from the reaction between dioxygen and water then its use as a fuel may be possible and gain acceptance. Hydrogen peroxide at greater than 10 M possesses a high specific energy, is environmentally clean, and is easily stored. However, the current method of manufacturing H2O2 via the anthraquinone process is environmentally unfriendly making the unexplored nature of its photochemical production from solar irradiation of interest. Here the concentration and quantum yield of hydrogen peroxide produced in an ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiated environment using aromatic and nitrogen-heterocyclic ring complexes of zinc(II) as solid substrates was studied. The amino-substituted isomers of the substrates indazole, pyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer complexes are examined. Samples exposed to the ambient atmosphere (e.g., aerated) were irradiated with a low power lamp with emission from 280-360 nm. Irradiation of various zinc complexes revealed Zn-5-aminoindazole to have the greatest first-day production of 63 mM/day with a 37% quantum yield. Para-phenylenediamine (PPAM) showed the greatest long-term stability and thus suggests H2O2 is produced photocatalytically. Isomeric forms of the catalyst’s organic components (e.g., amino groups) did have an effect on the production. Irradiation of diaminopyridine isomers indicated 2,3-diamino and 3,4-diamino structures were the most productive, each generating 32 mM/day hydrogen peroxide. However, the 2,5-diamino isomer showed no peroxide production. A significant decrease in hydrogen peroxide production in all but PPAM was noticed in the samples, suggesting the possibility of a catalyst poisoning mechanism. The samples ability to produce H2O2 is rationalized by proposing a reaction mechanism and examining the stability of the resonance structures of the different isomers.

Hayes, Jennifer A.; Schubert, David M.; Amonette, James E.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Disselkamp, Robert S.

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

455

R i d g e -w a v e g u i d e s i d e w a n -g r a t i n g d i s t r i b u t e d f e e d b a c k s t r u c t u r e s fabricated by x-ray lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R i d g e - w a v e g u i d e s i d e w a n - g r a t i n g d i s t r i b u t e d f e e d b a c k s t r u c t u r e s fabricated by x-ray lithography X/ ± ¯ V in c e n t V . w o r-- w o o -Y o u n g C h o i, J . M . c a n e r, c . G . F o n d a d , a n d H e n ry l. s m Hh D w ar m - ,,r qf E P en

Choi, Woo-Young

456

Effect of electron energy distribution functions on plasma generated vacuum ultraviolet in a diffusion plasma excited by a microwave surface wave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) in diffusion plasma excited by a microwave surface wave has been studied by using dielectric-based VUV sensors. Evolution of plasma VUV in the diffusion plasma as a function of the distance from the power coupling surface is investigated. Experimental results have indicated that the energy and spatial distributions of plasma VUV are mainly controlled by the energy distribution functions of the plasma electrons, i.e., electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs). The study implies that by designing EEDF of plasma, one could be able to tailor plasma VUV in different applications such as in dielectric etching or photo resist smoothing.

Zhao, J. P.; Chen, L.; Funk, M.; Sundararajan, R. [Austin Plasma Laboratory, Tokyo Electron America, Inc., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Nozawa, T. [Tokyo Electron Limited, TEL Technology Center Sendai, 2-1 Osawa 3-chome, Izumi-ku, Sendai 981-3137 (Japan); Samukawa, S. [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

THE MID-INFRARED AND NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET EXCESS EMISSIONS OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES ON THE RED SEQUENCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the mid-infrared (IR) and near-ultraviolet (UV) excess emissions of spectroscopically selected quiescent galaxies on the optical red sequence. We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR and Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-UV data for a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the possible connection between quiescent red-sequence galaxies with and without mid-IR/near-UV excess. Among 648 12 {mu}m detected quiescent red-sequence galaxies without H{alpha} emission, 26% and 55% show near-UV and mid-IR excess emissions, respectively. When we consider only bright (M{sub r} < -21.5) galaxies with an early-type morphology, the fraction of galaxies with recent star formation is still 39%. The quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR and near-UV excess emissions are optically fainter and have slightly smaller D{sub n} 4000 than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess emissions. We also find that mid-IR weighted mean stellar ages of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR excess are larger than those with near-UV excess, and smaller than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess. The environmental dependence of the fraction of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR and near-UV excess seems strong even though the trends of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess differ from those with mid-IR excess. These results indicate that the recent star formation traced by near-UV ({approx}< 1 Gyr) and mid-IR ({approx}< 2 Gyr) excess is not negligible among nearby, quiescent, red, early-type galaxies. We suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of quiescent red-sequence galaxies from quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess to those with mid-IR excess to those without near-UV and mid-IR excess.

Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sohn, Young-Jong, E-mail: jwko@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

458

The use of ultraviolet Thomson scattering as a versatile diagnostic for detailed measurements of a collisional laser produced plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Collective Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic waves at 266nm is used to obtain spatially resolved, two-dimensional electron density, sound speed, and radial drift profiles of a collisional laser plasma. An ultraviolet diagnostic wavelength minimizes the complicating effects of inverse bremsstrahlung and refractive turning in the coronal region of interest, where the electron densities approach n{sub c}/10. Laser plasmas of this type are important because they model some of the aspects of the plasmas found in high-gain laser-fusion pellets irradiated by long pulse widths where the laser light is absorbed mostly in the corona. The experimental results and LASNEX simulations agree within a percent standard deviation of 40% for the electron density and 50% for the sound speed and radial drift velocity. Thus it is shown that the hydrodynamics equations with classical coefficients and the numerical approximations in LASNEX are valid models of laser-heated, highly collisional plasmas. The versatility of Thomson scattering is expanded upon by extending existing theory with a Fokker-Planck based model to include plasmas that are characterized by (0 {le} k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ii} {le} {infinity}) and ZT{sub e}/T{sub i}, where k{sub ia} is the ion- acoustic wave number, {lambda}{sub ii} is the ion-ion mean free path, Z is the ionization state of the plasma, and T{sub e}, T{sub i} are the electron and ion temperatures in electron volts respectively. The model is valid for plasmas in which the electrons are approximately collisionless, (k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ei}, k{sub ia}{lambda}{sub ee} {ge} 1), and quasineutrality holds, ({alpha} {much_gt}1), where {alpha} = 1/k{lambda}{sub DE} and {lambda}{sub DE} is the electron Debye length. This newly developed model predicts the lineshape of the ion-acoustic Thomson spectra and when fit to experimental data provides a direct measurement of the relative thermal flow velocity between the electrons and ions.

Tracy, M.D.

1993-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

459

CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN AN M1.8 FLARE OBSERVED BY THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a complex flare that occurred on 2012 March 9 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit was almost at the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km s{sup -1} upflows was observed in multiple locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20-60 km s{sup -1} upflows in million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XII-Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex, but upflows were also observed in Fe VIII and Fe X lines. At a point close to strong energy input in space and time, the flare ions Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK and no strong blueshifted components. At this location there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV, on the order of 200 km s{sup -1}. We speculate that this downflow may be evidence of the downward shock produced by reconnection in the current sheet seen in MHD simulations. A sunquake also occurred near this location. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used with JHelioviewer to obtain a qualitative overview of the flare. However, AIA data are not presented in this paper. In summary, spectroscopic data from EIS are presented that can be used for predictive tests of models of chromospheric evaporation as envisaged in the Standard Flare Model.

Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ultraviolet selective silicon photodiode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(' silicon surfa&(& that n&ost of t h&) phologeneraied hole-el( & tron pairs are k&st by surface rccornbinai ion before being nolle&. trxl hy a pr). jun?i, ion. The major cause of surl'a&. e re?omhination is probably due Io lifetim(. shortening ol' Lhe... drpth corresponded to a high& r shor4wav? length rcsponsiv- ity tlirough liis ( xperimcnial diodes with junction dcpl ha ol'0. -'I to 2 0 pm. I indmayer and Allison [4I] I'abri&. ated n+-p solar cells with junction &lcpths of approximately 0. 1, 0. 15...

Chintapalli, Koteswara Rao

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ultraviolet lithography mask" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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461

Ultraviolet | Jefferson Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof2014 EIAUltrafastaminoindazole, diaminopyridine,

462

Advanced Ultraviolet Spectroradiometer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout the BuildingInnovation PortalScience ofTechnologyMoreAdvanced

463

RESONANCES IN THE PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS SECTIONS OF ATOMIC NITROGEN SHAPE THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF THE BRIGHT STAR IN 47 TUCANAE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The far-ultraviolet spectrum of the Bright Star (B8 III) in 47 Tuc (NGC 104) shows a remarkable pattern: it is well fit by local thermodynamic equilibrium models at wavelengths longer than Ly{beta}, but at shorter wavelengths it is fainter than the models by a factor of two. A spectrum of this star obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer shows broad absorption troughs with sharp edges at 995 and 1010 A and a deep absorption feature at 1072 A; none of which are predicted by the models. We find that these features are caused by resonances in the photoionization cross sections of the first and second excited states of atomic nitrogen (2s {sup 2} 2p {sup 3} {sup 2} D {sup 0} and {sup 2} P {sup 0}). Using cross sections from the Opacity Project, we can reproduce these features, but only if we use the cross sections at their full resolution, rather than the resonance-averaged cross sections usually employed to model stellar atmospheres. These resonances are strongest in stellar atmospheres with enhanced nitrogen and depleted carbon abundances, a pattern typical of post-asymptotic giant branch stars.

Dixon, William V.; Chayer, Pierre, E-mail: dixon@stsci.edu, E-mail: chayer@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

Resonances in the Photoionization Cross Sections of Atomic Nitrogen Shape the Far-Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Bright Star in 47 Tucanae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of the Bright Star (B8 III) in 47 Tuc (NGC 104) shows a remarkable pattern: it is well fit by LTE models at wavelengths longer than Lyman beta, but at shorter wavelengths it is fainter than the models by a factor of two. A spectrum of this star obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) shows broad absorption troughs with sharp edges at 995 and 1010 A and a deep absorption feature at 1072 A, none of which are predicted by the models. We find that these features are caused by resonances in the photoionization cross sections of the first and second excited states of atomic nitrogen (2s$^2$ 2p$^3$ $^2$D$^0$ and $^2$P$^0$). Using cross sections from the Opacity Project, we can reproduce these features, but only if we use the cross sections at their full resolution, rather than the resonance-averaged cross sections usually employed to model stellar atmospheres. These resonances are strongest in stellar atmospheres with enhanced nitrogen and depleted carbon ab...

Dixon, William V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365?nm (3.4?eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240?nm (>5.2?eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

Verma, Jai, E-mail: jverma@nd.edu; Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

466

A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II ? lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland) [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 5}4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

Landi, E.; Young, P. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

468

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol ethers, and other individual compounds including d-limonene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. This result implies a reaction efficiency of about 30% per irradiated monolith face, which is in agreement with the maximum efficiency for the system predicted with a simulation model. In these and other experiments, the performance of the system for highly reactive VOCs appeared to be limited by mass transport of reactants to the catalyst surface rather than by photocatalytic activity. Increasing the air flow rate through the UVPCO device decreases the residence time of the air in the monoliths and improves mass transfer to the catalyst surface. The effect of gas velocity was examined in four pairs of experiments in which the air flow rate was varied from approximately 175 m{sup 3}/h to either 300 or 600 m{sup 3}/h. Increased gas velocity caused a decrease in reaction efficiency for nearly all reactive VOCs. For all of the more reactive VOCs, the decrease in performance was less, and often substantially less, than predicted based solely on residence time, again likely due to mass transfer limitations at the low flow rate. The results demonstrate that the UVPCO is capable of achieving high conversion efficiencies for reactive VOCs at air flow rates above the base experimental rate of 175 m{sup 3}/h. The effect of UV power was examined in a series of experiments with the building product mixture in which the number of lamps was varied between nine and three. For the most reactive VOCs in the mixture, the effects of UV power were surprisingly small. Thus, even with only one lamp in each section, there appears to be sufficient photocatalytic activity to decompose most of the mass of reactive VOCs that reach the catalyst surface. For some less reactive VOCs, the trend of decreasing efficiency with decreasing UV intensity was in general agreement with simulation model predictions.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

469

Migration enhanced lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN and AlGaN for high reliability deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the growth of low-defect thick films of AlN and AlGaN on trenched AlGaN/sapphire templates using migration enhanced lateral epitaxial overgrowth. Incoherent coalescence-related defects were alleviated by controlling the tilt angle of growth fronts and by allowing Al adatoms sufficient residence time to incorporate at the most energetically favorable lattice sites. Deep ultraviolet light emitting diode structures (310 nm) deposited over fully coalesced thick AlN films exhibited cw output power of 1.6 mW at 50 mA current with extrapolated lifetime in excess of 5000 hours. The results demonstrate substantial improvement in the device lifetime, primarily due to the reduced density of growth defects.

Jain, R.; Sun, W.; Yang, J.; Shatalov, M.; Hu, X.; Sattu, A.; Lunev, A.; Deng, J.; Shturm, I.; Bilenko, Y.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29209 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Electrical Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy New York 12180 (United States)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

470

Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixt