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Sample records for ultra-thin laptops tablets

  1. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would

  2. Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films Citation Details ... OSTI Identifier: 22089363 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  3. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-05-29

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  4. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the

  5. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-26

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld. 5 figs.

  6. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld.

  7. CES | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The highlights of this year's show were OLED TVs, ultra-thin laptops, tablets, and smartphones. However, a few smart grid-related technologies were making an impression....

  8. home automation | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The highlights of this year's show were OLED TVs, ultra-thin laptops, tablets, and smartphones. However, a few smart grid-related technologies were making an impression....

  9. electronics | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The highlights of this year's show were OLED TVs, ultra-thin laptops, tablets, and smartphones. However, a few smart grid-related technologies were making an impression....

  10. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Brian E.; Shafarman, William N.

    2003-03-25

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  11. Coexistence of colossal stress and texture gradients in sputter deposited nanocrystalline ultra-thin metal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuru, Yener; Welzel, Udo; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates experimentally that ultra-thin, nanocrystalline films can exhibit coexisting colossal stress and texture depth gradients. Their quantitative determination is possible by X-ray diffraction experiments. Whereas a uniform texture by itself is known to generally cause curvature in so-called sin{sup 2}? plots, it is shown that the combined action of texture and stress gradients provides a separate source of curvature in sin{sup 2}? plots (i.e., even in cases where a uniform texture does not induce such curvature). On this basis, the texture and stress depth profiles of a nanocrystalline, ultra-thin (50?nm) tungsten film could be determined.

  12. Las Vegas | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    show. The highlights of this year's show were OLED TVs, ultra-thin laptops, tablets, and smartphones. However, a few smart grid-related technologies were making an impression....

  13. The Consumer Electronics Show round-up | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The highlights of this year's show were OLED TVs, ultra-thin laptops, tablets, and smartphones. However, a few smart grid-related technologies were making an impression. There...

  14. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, Thomas R.; Falco, Charles M.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    1984-01-01

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  15. Polarity compensation in ultra-thin films of complex oxides: The case of a perovskite nickelate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middey, S.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Kareev, M.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Freeland, J. W.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Chakhalian, J.

    2014-10-29

    We address the fundamental issue of growth of perovskite ultra-thin films under the condition of a strong polar mismatch at the heterointerface exemplified by the growth of a correlated metal LaNiO3 on the band insulator SrTiO3 along the pseudo cubic [111] direction. While in general the metallic LaNiO3 film can effectively screen this polarity mismatch, we establish that in the ultra-thin limit, films are insulating in nature and require additional chemical and structural reconstruction to compensate for such mismatch. A combination of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction recorded during the growth, X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron based resonant X-ray spectroscopy revealmore » the formation of a chemical phase La2Ni2O5 (Ni2+) for a few unit-cell thick films. First-principles layer-resolved calculations of the potential energy across the nominal LaNiO3/SrTiO3 interface confirm that the oxygen vacancies can efficiently reduce the electric field at the interface.« less

  16. Polarity compensation in ultra-thin films of complex oxides: The case of a perovskite nickelate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middey, S.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Kareev, M.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Freeland, J. W.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Chakhalian, J.

    2014-10-29

    We address the fundamental issue of growth of perovskite ultra-thin films under the condition of a strong polar mismatch at the heterointerface exemplified by the growth of a correlated metal LaNiO3 on the band insulator SrTiO3 along the pseudo cubic [111] direction. While in general the metallic LaNiO3 film can effectively screen this polarity mismatch, we establish that in the ultra-thin limit, films are insulating in nature and require additional chemical and structural reconstruction to compensate for such mismatch. A combination of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction recorded during the growth, X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron based resonant X-ray spectroscopy reveal the formation of a chemical phase La2Ni2O5 (Ni2+) for a few unit-cell thick films. First-principles layer-resolved calculations of the potential energy across the nominal LaNiO3/SrTiO3 interface confirm that the oxygen vacancies can efficiently reduce the electric field at the interface.

  17. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsun Su, Yen; Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan ; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan ; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  18. Electronic structure evolution in doping of fullerene (C{sub 60}) by ultra-thin layer molybdenum trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Kauppi, John; Liu, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yongli

    2015-08-28

    Ultra-thin layer molybdenum oxide doping of fullerene has been investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) can be observed directly with UPS. It is observed that the Fermi level position in fullerene is modified by ultra-thin-layer molybdenum oxide doping, and the HOMO onset is shifted to less than 1.3 eV below the Fermi level. The XPS results indicate that charge transfer was observed from the C{sub 60} to MoO{sub x} and Mo{sup 6+} oxides is the basis as hole dopants.

  19. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  20. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low-temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, T.R.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.

    1982-08-31

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  1. Spectral photoresponse of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures with CdSe ultra-thin quantum well insertions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valverde-Chvez, D. A.; Sutara, F.; Hernndez-Caldern, I.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the spectral photoresponse (SPR) of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures for different ZnSe film thickness with and without CdSe ultra-thin quantum well (UTQW) insertions. We observe a significant increase of the SPR of heterostructures containing 3 monolayer thick CdSe UTQW insertions; these results encourage their use in photodetectors and solar cells.

  2. Ordered Mesoporous CMK-5 Carbon with Ultra-Thin Pore Walls and Highly Dispersed Nickel Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pawquale F; Liang, Chengdu; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2009-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous CMK-5 carbons with ultra-thin carbon pore walls and highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by using two different SBA-15 silicas as hard templates and 2, 3-di-hydroxynaphtalene (DHN) as a carbon precursor. The nickel precursor was a concentrated nickel nitrate hexahydrate [Ni(NO3)2.6H2O] solution in isopropanol added to the carbon-silica nanocomposites prior to thermal treatments. The samples studied were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG), nitrogen adsorption at -196 C, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and in situ electron diffraction X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). While TG revealed carbon contents lower than 30 wt%, nitrogen adsorption provided information about homogeneity of carbon thin film deposited onto mesopore walls of ordered silica templates, SBA-15. The templates, carbon-silica nanocomposites and carbon inverse replicas with nickel nanoparticles exhibited uniform pores, high surface areas and large pore volumes. Graphitic carbon was identified by the presence of a characteristic G band on Raman spectra, whereas the diffraction peak attributed to the stacking of graphene planes was not observed by powder XRD.The presence of ordered domains in the carbon materials studied was confirmed by small angle XRD and STEM imaging. In addition, the STEM images revealed that the nickel nanoparticles were uniform in size, ~3nm, and were homogeneously dispersed within ordered tubular carbon walls. A few larger clusters of nickel, ~60nm, present on the external surface, were identified by powder XRD as metallic Ni. The in situ EDX revealed that the small nanoparticles were largely composed of Ni with traces of NiO. Similar nanoparticles dispersions have been reported only for Ni-containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whereas previously reported ordered mesoporous carbons possessed larger Ni/NiO nanoparticles within CMK-3 nanostructure.

  3. An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-12-09

    Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

  4. Surface modification of ultra thin PES-zeolite using thermal annealing to increase flux and rejection of produced water treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusworo, T. D. Widayat,; Pradini, A. W.; Armeli, Y. P.

    2015-12-29

    Membrane technology is an alternative of water treatment based on filtration that is being developed. Surface Modification using heat treatment has been investigated to improve the performance of ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment from Pertamina Balongan. Two types of membranes with surface modification and without modification were prepared to study the effect of surface modification on its permeation properties. Asymmetric ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment was casted using the dry/wet phase inversion technique from dope solutions containing polyethersulfone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and zeolite as a filler. Experimental results showed that the heat treatment at near glass transition temperature was increase the rejection of COD, Turbidity and ion Ca{sup 2+}. The better adherence of zeolite particles in the polymer matrix combined with formation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) and cross-linking might be the main factors to enhance the percent of rejection. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of PES-zeolite membrane became denser and more compact after the heat treatment. The FESEM micrographs also showed that the heat treatment was increased the adherence of zeolite particle and polymer. Membranes treated at 180 °C for 15 seconds indicated increase the rejection and small decrease in flux for produced water treatment.

  5. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchard, Frdric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded space for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ?. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ?=2q? per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ? values ranging from 1 to 25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6%??0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  6. Ultra-thin GaAs single-junction solar cells integrated with a reflective back scattering layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Weiquan; Becker, Jacob; Liu, Shi; Kuo, Ying-Shen; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yong-Hang; Landini, Barbara; Campman, Ken

    2014-05-28

    This paper reports the proposal, design, and demonstration of ultra-thin GaAs single-junction solar cells integrated with a reflective back scattering layer to optimize light management and minimize non-radiative recombination. According to our recently developed semi-analytical model, this design offers one of the highest potential achievable efficiencies for GaAs solar cells possessing typical non-radiative recombination rates found among commercially available III-V arsenide and phosphide materials. The structure of the demonstrated solar cells consists of an In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P/GaAs/In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P double-heterostructure PN junction with an ultra-thin 300?nm thick GaAs absorber, combined with a 5??m thick Al{sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P layer with a textured as-grown surface coated with Au used as a reflective back scattering layer. The final devices were fabricated using a substrate-removal and flip-chip bonding process. Solar cells with a top metal contact coverage of 9.7%, and a MgF{sub 2}/ZnS anti-reflective coating demonstrated open-circuit voltages (V{sub oc}) up to 1.00?V, short-circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) up to 24.5?mA/cm{sup 2}, and power conversion efficiencies up to 19.1%; demonstrating the feasibility of this design approach. If a commonly used 2% metal grid coverage is assumed, the anticipated J{sub sc} and conversion efficiency of these devices are expected to reach 26.6?mA/cm{sup 2} and 20.7%, respectively.

  7. Structural phase diagram for ultra-thin epitaxial Fe 3 O 4  / MgO(0 0 1) films: thickness and oxygen pressure dependence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alraddadi, S.; Hines, W.; Yilmaz, T.; Gu, G. D.; Sinkovic, B.

    2016-02-19

    A systematic investigation of the thickness and oxygen pressure dependence for the structural properties of ultra-thin epitaxial magnetite (Fe3O4) films has been carried out; for such films, the structural properties generally differ from those for the bulk when the thickness ≤10 nm. Iron oxide ultra-thin films with thicknesses varying from 3 nm to 20 nm were grown on MgO (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy under different oxygen pressures ranging from 1 × 10-7 torr to 1 × 10-5 torr. The crystallographic and electronic structures of the films were characterized using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopymore » (XPS), respectively. Moreover, the quality of the epitaxial Fe3O4 ultra-thin films was judged by magnetic measurements of the Verwey transition, along with complementary XPS spectra. We observed that under the same growth conditions the stoichiometry of ultra-thin films under 10 nm transforms from the Fe3O4 phase to the FeO phase. In this work, a phase diagram based on thickness and oxygen pressure has been constructed to explain the structural phase transformation. It was found that high-quality magnetite films with thicknesses ≤20 nm formed within a narrow range of oxygen pressure. An optimal and controlled growth process is a crucial requirement for the accurate study of the magnetic and electronic properties for ultra-thin Fe3O4 films. Furthermore, these results are significant because they may indicate a general trend in the growth of other oxide films, which has not been previously observed or considered.« less

  8. Plasmonic excitation-assisted optical and electric enhancement in ultra-thin solar cells: the influence of nano-strip cross section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad Heydari, Mehdi; Ajamgard, Narges

    2015-08-15

    The effects of Ag nano-strips with triangle, rectangular and trapezoid cross sections on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density of ultra-thin solar cells were investigated. By putting the nano-strips as a grating structure on the top of the solar cells, the waveguide, surface plasmon polariton (SPP), and localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes, which are excited with the assistance of nano-strips, were evaluated in TE and TM polarizations. The results show, firstly, the TM modes are more influential than TE modes in optical and electrical properties enhancement of solar cell, because of plasmonic excitations in TM mode. Secondly, the trapezoid nano-strips reveal noticeable impact on the optical absorption, generation rate, and short-circuit current density enhancement than triangle and rectangular ones. In particular, the absorption of long wavelengths which is a challenge in ultra-thin solar cells is significantly improved by using Ag trapezoid nano-strips.

  9. Ultra-thin L1{sub 0}-FePt for perpendicular anisotropy L1{sub 0}-FePt/Ag/[Co/Pd]{sub 30} pseudo spin valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Pin; Chow, Gan Moog; Chen, Jing-Sheng, E-mail: msecj@nus.edu.sg [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Han, Guchang [Data Storage Institute, Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); He, Kaihua [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-05-07

    Perpendicular anisotropy L1{sub 0}-FePt/Ag/[Co/Pd]{sub 30} pseudo spin valves (PSVs) with ultra-thin L1{sub 0}-FePt alloy free layer possessing high anisotropy and thermal stability have been fabricated and studied. The thickness of the L1{sub 0}-FePt layer was varied between 2 and 4?nm. The PSV became increasingly decoupled with reduced L1{sub 0}-FePt thickness due to the larger difference between the coercivity of the L1{sub 0}-FePt and [Co/Pd]{sub 30} films. The PSV with an ultra-thin L1{sub 0}-FePt free layer of 2?nm displayed a high K{sub u} of 2.21??10{sup 7}?ergs/cm{sup 3}, high thermal stability of 84 and a largest giant magnetoresistance of 0.54%.

  10. Charge transfer from an adsorbed ruthenium-based photosensitizer through an ultra-thin aluminium oxide layer and into a metallic substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Temperton, Robert H.; Handrup, Karsten; Weston, Matthew; Mayor, Louise C.; O’Shea, James N.

    2014-06-21

    The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarbo-xylato) -ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2 and 3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of 6.0 ± 2.5 fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, which may lead to reduced recombination effects and improved efficiencies of future devices.

  11. Structural characterization and comparison of iridium, platinum and gold/palladium ultra-thin film coatings for STM of biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebring, R.; Arendt, P.; Imai, B.; Bradbury, E.M.; Gatewood, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Panitz, J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Yau, P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-10-30

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is capable of atomic resolution and is ideally suited for imaging surfaces with uniform work function. A biological sample on a conducting substrate in air does not meet this criteria and requires a conductive coating for stable and reproducible STM imaging. In this paper, the authors describe the STM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of ultra-thin ion-beam sputtered films of iridium and cathode sputtered gold/palladium and platinum films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) which were developed for use as biomolecule coatings. The goals were the development of metal coatings sufficiently thin and fine grained that 15--20 {angstrom} features of biological molecules could be resolved using STM, and the development of a substrate/coating system which would allow complementary TEM information to be obtained for films and biological molecules. The authors demonstrate in this paper that ion-beam sputtered iridium on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has met both these goals. The ion-beam sputtered iridium produced a very fine grained (< 10 {angstrom}) continuous film at 5--6 {angstrom} thickness suitable for stable air STM imaging. In comparison, cathode sputtered platinum produced 16 {angstrom} grains with the thinnest continuous film at 15 {angstrom} thickness, and the sputtered gold/palladium produced 25 {angstrom} grains with the thinnest continuous film at 18 {angstrom} thickness.

  12. Fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor: Detection of volatile chlorinated compounds in air and water using ultra-thin membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.; Osantowski, R.E.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Prior work on the fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor called HaloSnif{trademark} has been extended to include an ultra-thin membrane which allows passage of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCl). The membrane has been demonstrated to exclude H{sub 2}O during VOCl monitoring. The system is capable of measuring VOCl in gas-phase samples or aqueous solutions over a wide linear dynamic range. The lower limit of detection for trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and other related compounds in the gas-phase is 1 to 5 ppm{sub v/v}, and in the aqueous-phase is 5 to 10 mg/L. Waste site characterization and remediation activities often require chemical analysis in the vadose zone and in groundwater. These analyses are typically performed in analytical laboratories using widely accepted standardized methods such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new developments with HaloSnif provide rapid field screening which can augment the standardized methods.

  13. Enhancement of spin-Seebeck effect by inserting ultra-thin Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, D.; Ishida, M.; Murakami, T.; Uchida, K.; Qiu, Z.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-02-23

    We report the longitudinal spin-Seebeck effects (LSSEs) for Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/BiY{sub 2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (BiYIG) and Pt/BiYIG devices. The LSSE voltage was found to be enhanced by inserting an ultra-thin Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer. This enhancement decays sharply with increasing the Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} thickness, suggesting that it is not due to bulk phenomena, such as a superposition of conventional thermoelectric effects, but due to interface effects related to the Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} interlayer. Combined with control experiments using Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} devices, we conclude that the enhancement of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/Fe{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}/BiYIG devices is attributed to the improvement of the spin-mixing conductance at the Pt/BiYIG interfaces.

  14. General method for simultaneous optimization of light trapping and carrier collection in an ultra-thin film organic photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia Grote, Richard R.; Beck, Jonathan H.; Kymissis, Ioannis; Osgood, Richard M.; Englund, Dirk

    2014-07-14

    We describe a general method for maximizing the short-circuit current in thin planar organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction cells by simultaneous optimization of light absorption and carrier collection. Based on the experimentally obtained complex refractive indices of the OPV materials and the thickness-dependence of the internal quantum efficiency of the OPV active layer, we analyze the potential benefits of light trapping strategies for maximizing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach provides a general strategy for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of a wide range of OPV structures. In particular, as an experimental trial system, the approach is applied here to a ultra-thin film solar cell with a SubPc/C{sub 60} photovoltaic structure. Using a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact, the numerically optimized designs achieve short-circuit currents of 0.790 and 0.980?mA/cm{sup 2} for 30?nm and 45?nm SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction layer thicknesses, respectively. These values correspond to a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 78% for the 30?nm thick cell, but only of 32% for a 45?nm thick cell, for which the overall photocurrent is actually higher. Applied to other material systems, the general optimization method can elucidate if light trapping strategies can improve a given cell architecture.

  15. Light-trapping and recycling for extraordinary power conversion in ultra-thin gallium-arsenide solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eyderman, Sergey; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-23

    Here, we demonstrate nearly 30% power conversion efficiency in ultra-thin (~200 nm) gallium arsenide photonic crystal solar cells by numerical solution of the coupled electromagnetic Maxwell and semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. Our architecture enables wave-interference-induced solar light trapping in the wavelength range from 300-865 nm, leading to absorption of almost 90% of incoming sunlight. Our optimized design for 200 nm equivalent bulk thickness of GaAs, is a square-lattice, slanted conical-pore photonic crystal (lattice constant 550 nm, pore diameter 600 nm, and pore depth 290 nm), passivated with AlGaAs, deposited on a silver back-reflector, with ITO upper contact and encapsulated with SiO2.more » Our model includes both radiative and non-radiative recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. When all light from radiative recombination is assumed to escape the structure, a maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) of 27.6 mA/cm2 is obtained from normally incident AM 1.5 sunlight. For a surface non-radiative recombination velocity of 103 cm/s, this corresponds to a solar power conversion efficiency of 28.3%. When all light from radiative recombination is trapped and reabsorbed (complete photon recycling) the power conversion efficiency increases to 29%. If the surface recombination velocity is reduced to 10 cm/sec, photon recycling is much more effective and the power conversion efficiency reaches 30.6%.« less

  16. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K.; Bertrand, D.; Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R.; Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C.; Flandre, D.

    2011-07-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 {mu}m. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 {mu}m over areas of several cm{sup 2}. Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 {mu}m. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  17. Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth and effect of varying buffer thickness on the formation of ultra-thin In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN heterostructure on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Subhra; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-02-23

    This work reports on the detailed plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of ultra-thin In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N/GaN heterostructures on Si(111) substrate with three different buffer thickness (600?nm, 400?nm, and 200?nm). Growth through critical optimization of growth conditions is followed by the investigation of impact of varying buffer thickness on the formation of ultra-thin 1.5?nm, In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N1.25?nm, GaN1.5?nm, In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N heterostructure, in terms of threading dislocation (TD) density. Analysis reveals a drastic reduction of TD density from the order 10{sup 10?}cm{sup ?2} to 10{sup 8?}cm{sup ?2} with increasing buffer thickness resulting smooth ultra-thin active region for thick buffer structure. Increasing strain with decreasing buffer thickness is studied through reciprocal space mapping analysis. Surface morphology through atomic force microscopy analysis also supports our study by observing an increase of pits and root mean square value (0.89?nm, 1.2?nm, and 1.45?nm) with decreasing buffer thickness which are resulted due to the internal strain and TDs.

  18. Tuning of in-plane optical anisotropy by inserting ultra-thin InAs layer at interfaces in (001)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J. L.; Cheng, S. Y.; Lai, Y. F.; Zheng, Q.

    2015-01-07

    The in-plane optical anisotropy (IPOA) in (001)-grown GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) with different well widths varying from 2?nm to 8?nm has been studied by reflectance difference spectroscopy. Ultra-thin InAs layers with thickness ranging from 0.5 monolayer (ML) to 1.5 ML have been inserted at GaAs/AlGaAs interfaces to tune the asymmetry in the QWs. It is demonstrated that the IPOA can be accurately tailored by the thickness of the inserted ultra-thin InAs layer at the interfaces. Strain-induced IPOA has also been extracted by using a stress apparatus. We find that the intensity of the strain-induced IPOA decreases with the thickness of the inserted InAs layer, while that of the interface-induced IPOA increases with the thickness of the InAs layer. Theoretical calculations based on 6 band k ? p theory have been carried out, and good agreements with experimental results are obtained. Our results demonstrate that, the IPOA of the QWs can be greatly and effectively tuned by inserting an ultra-thin InAs layer with different thicknesses at the interfaces of QWs, which does not significantly influence the transition energies and the transition probability of QWs.

  19. Preventing Laptop Fires and Thermal Runaway | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Preventing Laptop Fires and Thermal Runaway Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 12.05.12 Stories of Discovery & Innovation: Preventing Laptop Fires and Thermal Runaway Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Researchers point to "self-healing" materials as a potential means of improving lithium ion battery safety.

  20. Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge? Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge? November 30, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the largest ever awards of the Department's supercomputing time to 57 innovative research projects - using computer simulations to perform virtual experiments that in most cases would be impossible or impractical in the natural world. Utilizing two world-leading

  1. Role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer on the strain engineering of GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Matsuhata, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M.; Rong, X.; Chen, G.; Wang, X. Q.; Shen, B.

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the role of an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer (SL-IL) on the strain engineering of the GaN films grown on Si(110) and Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that micro-cracks limitted only at the SL-IL position are naturally generated. These micro-cracks play an important role in relaxing the tensile strain caused by the difference of the coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and Si and keeping the residual strain in the crack-free GaN epilayers resulted from the SL-IL during the growth. The mechanism understanding of the strain modulation by the SL-IL in the GaN epilayers grown on Si substrates makes it possible to design new heterostructures of III-nitrides for optic and electronic device applications.

  2. Preventing Laptop Fires and "Thermal Runaway" | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prevent Counter NNSA Releases New Nuclear Prevent, Counter, and Respond Report Comprehensive Overview of NNSA's Nonproliferation and Anti-terror Strategy WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) released its report on NNSA's efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism, Prevent, Counter, and Respond-A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Science (SC)

    Preventing Laptop Fires and "Thermal Runaway" News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014

  3. Mechanisms of the micro-crack generation in an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice structure grown on Si(110) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. Q. Takahashi, T.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M.

    2015-09-28

    We investigate the generation mechanisms of micro-cracks (MCs) in an ultra-thin AlN/GaN superlattice (SL) structure grown on Si(110) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The SL is intended to be used as an interlayer (IL) for relaxing tensile stress and obtaining high-quality crack-free GaN grown on Si substrates. It is found that the MCs can be generated by two different mechanisms, where large mismatches of the lattice constant (LC) and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) play key roles in the issue. Different MC configurations (low-density and high-density MCs) are observed, which are considered to be formed during the different growth stages (SL growth and cooling down processes) due to the LC and the CTE effects. In-situ and ex-situ experimental results support the mechanism interpretations of the MCs generation. The mechanism understanding makes it possible to optimize the SL IL structure for growing high-quality crack-free GaN films on Si substrates for optical and electronic device applications.

  4. Direct real space observation of magneto-electronic inhomogeneity in ultra-thin film La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3??} on SrTiO{sub 3}(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, S.; Galli, F.; Aarts, J. E-mail: aarts@physics.leidenuniv.nl; Bose, Shameek; Sharma, M.; Leighton, C. E-mail: aarts@physics.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-09-15

    Recent magnetotransport and neutron scattering measurements implicate interfacial magneto-electronic phase separation as the origin of the degradation in transport and magnetism in ultra-thin film La{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3}(001). Here, using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy the first direct, real space observation of this nanoscopic electronic inhomogeneity is provided. Films of thickness 12.4?nm (32 unit cells) are found to exhibit spatially uniform conductance, in stark contrast to 4.7?nm (12 unit cell) films that display rich variations in conductance, and thus local density of states. The electronic heterogeneity occurs across a hierarchy of length scales (550?nm), with complex correlations with both topography and applied magnetic fields. These results thus provide a direct observation of magneto-electronic inhomogeneity in SrTiO{sub 3}(001)/La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} at thicknesses below 67?nm, in good agreement with less direct techniques.

  5. Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment Plant Project Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment Plant Project June 15, 2016 - ...

  6. U-228: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis PROBLEM: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Adobe Flash Player versions included with BlackBerry PlayBook tablet software versions...

  7. V-069: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple Vulnerabilities V-069: BlackBerry Tablet OS Adobe Flash Player and Samba Multiple Vulnerabilities January 15, 2013 -...

  8. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  9. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  10. Characterization of Chemical Speciation in Ultra Thin Uranium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear forensics - Detection and analysis of nuclear ... Develop new nuclear forensic methods can be applied to: (a) ... Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-06-20 ...

  11. Ultra-Thin Flexible LED Lighting Panels | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Time and Fuel Consumption | Department of Energy Self-cleaning ceramic filter cartridges offer the advantage of better fuel economy, faster regeneration time, improved heat transfer, and reduction in manufacturing steps deer09_nixdorf.pdf (75.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Energy

    Presentation given at

  12. Ultra-Thin Antifouling Surface Treatments for Industrial Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    9 9 9 Process Cost Economics Multi-Step One Step Transition and Deployment Coal Fired Power Plant, Fireside Fly Ash Corrosion Midwest Generation, Homer City, PA (still in ...

  13. V-158: BlackBerry Tablet OS Flash Player Multiple Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities have been reported in BlackBerry Tablet OS, which can be exploited by malicious people to bypass certain security restrictions and compromise a user's system.

  14. PROHIBITED PURCHASES for the Ames Laboratory Purchase Card

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have been determined to be prohibited: Equipment Computing Devices (e.g. desktop, laptop, tablets, thin clients, mini-PCs) Servers Copiers Monitors Printers...

  15. Characterization of Chemical Speciation in Ultra Thin Uranium Oxide Films by Neutron Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peng

    2012-06-20

    Motivation for this project is due to more than 17 kg of HEU and 400 g of Pu have been interdicted through an international effort to control nuclear smuggling. Nuclear forensics - Detection and analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion or activities, which can contribute significantly for national security. Develop new nuclear forensic methods can be applied to: (a) Environmental swipes, (b) Small particulates, and (c) Thin films. Conclusions of the project are: (1) A unique approach: Neutron Reflectometry + Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; and (2) Detection of chemical speciation with {angstrom}-level resolution.

  16. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2012-01-03

    A semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include a p-type nitride layer and a metal ohmic contact, on the p-type nitride layer. The metal ohmic contact can have an average thickness of less than about 25 .ANG. and a specific contact resistivity less than about 10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.sup.2.

  17. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raffetto, Mark; Bharathan, Jayesh; Haberern, Kevin; Bergmann, Michael; Emerson, David; Ibbetson, James; Li, Ting

    2014-06-24

    A flip-chip semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include an n-type semiconductor substrate and an n-type GaN epi-layer on the substrate. A p-type GaN epi-layer can be on the n-type GaN epi-layer and a metal ohmic contact p-electrode can be on the p-type GaN epi-layer, where the metal ohmic contact p-electrode can have an average thickness less than about 25 .ANG.. A reflector can be on the metal ohmic contact p-electrode and a metal stack can be on the reflector. An n-electrode can be on the substrate opposite the n-type GaN epi-layer and a bonding pad can be on the n-electrode.

  18. MoS{sub 2} functionalization for ultra-thin atomic layer deposited dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azcatl, Angelica; McDonnell, Stephen; Santosh, K.C.; Peng, Xin; Dong, Hong; Qin, Xiaoye; Addou, Rafik; Lu, Ning; Kim, Moon J.; Cho, Kyeongjae; Wallace, Robert M.; Mordi, Greg I.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-03-17

    The effect of room temperature ultraviolet-ozone (UV-O{sub 3}) exposure of MoS{sub 2} on the uniformity of subsequent atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is investigated. It is found that a UV-O{sub 3} pre-treatment removes adsorbed carbon contamination from the MoS{sub 2} surface and also functionalizes the MoS{sub 2} surface through the formation of a weak sulfur-oxygen bond without any evidence of molybdenum-sulfur bond disruption. This is supported by first principles density functional theory calculations which show that oxygen bonded to a surface sulfur atom while the sulfur is simultaneously back-bonded to three molybdenum atoms is a thermodynamically favorable configuration. The adsorbed oxygen increases the reactivity of MoS{sub 2} surface and provides nucleation sites for atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The enhanced nucleation is found to be dependent on the thin film deposition temperature.

  19. Radiation induced leakage current and stress induced leakage current in ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Cester, A.; Scarpa, A.; Ghidini, G.

    1998-12-01

    Low-field leakage current has been measured in thin oxides after exposure to ionizing radiation. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) can be described as an inelastic tunneling process mediated by neutral traps in the oxide, with an energy loss of about 1 eV. The neutral trap distribution is influenced by the oxide field applied during irradiation, thus indicating that the precursors of the neutral defects are charged, likely being defects associated to trapped holes. The maximum leakage current is found under zero-field condition during irradiation, and it rapidly decreases as the field is enhanced, due to a displacement of the defect distribution across the oxide towards the cathodic interface. The RILC kinetics are linear with the cumulative dose, in contrast with the power law found on electrically stressed devices.

  20. Ionizing radiation induced leakage current on ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Montera, F.; Ghibaudo, G.; Pananakakis, G.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1997-12-01

    MOS capacitors with a 4.4 nm thick gate oxide have been exposed to {gamma} radiation from a Co{sup 60} source. As a result, the authors have measured a stable leakage current at fields lower than those required for Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) is similar to the usual Stress Induced Leakage Currents (SILC) observed after electrical stresses of MOS devices. They have verified that these two currents share the same dependence on the oxide field, and the RILC contribution can be normalized to an equivalent injected charge for Constant Current Stresses. They have also considered the dependence of the RILC from the cumulative radiation dose, and from the applied bias during irradiation, suggesting a correlation between RILC and the distribution of trapped holes and neutral levels in the oxide layer.

  1. High-efficiency, flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahabaduge, H. P.; Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M.; Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A.; Li, J.; Beach, J. D.; Garner, S.

    2015-03-30

    Flexible, high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells can enable applications that take advantage of high specific power, flexible form factors, lower installation and transportation costs. Here, we report a certified record efficiency of 16.4% for a flexible CdTe solar cell that is a marked improvement over the previous standard (14.05%). The improvement was achieved by replacing chemical-bath-deposited CdS with sputtered CdS:O and also replacing the high-temperature sputtered ZnTe:Cu back contact layer with co-evaporated and rapidly annealed ZnTe:Cu. We use quantum efficiency and capacitance-voltage measurements combined with device simulations to identify the reasons for the increase in efficiency. Both device simulations and experimental results show that higher carrier density can quantitatively account for the increased open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and Fill Factor (FF), and likewise, the increase in short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) can be attributed to the more transparent CdS:O.

  2. In-silico investigation of Rayleigh instability in ultra-thin copper nanowire in premelting regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Amlan; Chatterjee, Swastika; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Moitra, Amitava; Saha-Dasgupta, T.

    2014-06-28

    Motivated by the recent experimental reports, we explore the formation of Rayleigh-like instability in metallic nanowires during the solid state annealing, a concept originally introduced for liquid columns. Our molecular dynamics study using realistic interatomic potential reveals instability induced pattern formation at temperatures even below the melting temperature of the wire, in accordance with the experimental observations. We find that this is driven by the surface diffusion, which causes plastic slips in the system initiating necking in the nanowire. We further find the surface dominated mass-transport is of subdiffusive nature with time exponent less than unity. Our study provides an atomistic perspective of the instability formation in nanostructured solid phase.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of mechanical deformation of ultra-thin metal and ceramic films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belak, J.; Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Stowers, I.F.

    1995-04-01

    We present an overview of the molecular dynamics computer simulation method as employed in the study of the mechanical properties of surfaces at the manometer scale. The embedded atom method is used to model a clean metal surface and the bond-order model is used to model ceramic surfaces. The computer experiment consists of the indentation and scraping of a hard diamond-like tool into and across the surface. Results are presented for the (111) surface of copper and silver and for the (100) surface of silicon. We explicitly demonstrate in our point indentation simulations that nanoscale plasticity in metals takes place by nondislocation mechanisms, a result suggested by recent nanoindentation experiments. We also observe the surface to accommodate nearly the entire volume of the tip and the annealing out of plastic work as the tip is removed. In our orthogonal cutting simulation, we observe an interesting phenomenon: the system dynamically reorients the gain in front of the tool tip to minimize the work performed on the shear plane (i.e. the shear plane becomes an easy slip plane). Silicon transforms into an amorphous state which then flows plastically.

  4. Enhancing through thickness thermal conductivity of ultra-thin composite laminates. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramani, K.; Vaidyanathan, A.

    1994-12-31

    The materials used in electronic applications have specific requirements for stiffness, thermal conductivity, and electromagnetic shielding making the choice of materials used very important. Electronic components are very sensitive to heat, hence the heat dissipation or cooling of the various components is necessary to prevent failure. Thus, any material used in the electronic industry must have a high thermal conductivity in addition to a specified thermal expansion, stiffness and strength properties. The purpose of this project was to design and manufacture composite panels which would conduct heat from an electronic chip attached to the top surface to a cooling liquid flowing at its lower surface. To maximize the heat conducted from the chip to the cooling liquid, the composite must have a high through thickness thermal conductivity. Further, design restrictions on the thickness of the composite panel had to be taken into account. It was found that the presence of excess resin adversely affects the conductivity of a woven fabric composite due to which the through thickness conductivity of the 400 {micro}m thick panel was better than the 500 {micro}m thick panel. The through thickness conductivity of the panel with short fibers alone was better than that of the woven cloth panel. The finite element model developed for a priori prediction of the through thickness thermal conductivity of the composite panels is a very powerful tool that can save enormous prototyping times an associates coats.

  5. Engineering of an ultra-thin molecular superconductor by charge transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hla, Saw Wai; Hassanien, Abdelrahim; Kendal, Clark

    2016-06-07

    A method of forming a superconductive device of a single layer of (BETS).sub.2GaCl.sub.4 molecules on a substrate surface which displays a superconducting gap that increases exponentially with the length of the molecular chain is provided.

  6. Modifying magnetic properties of ultra-thin magnetite films by growth on Fe pre-covered MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schemme, T. Krampf, A.; Kuepper, K.; Wollschläger, J.; Bertram, F.; Kuschel, T.

    2015-09-21

    Iron oxide films were reactively grown on iron buffer films, which were deposited before on MgO(001) substrates to analyze the influence of the initial iron buffer layers on the magnetic properties of the magnetite films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction showed that magnetite films of high crystalline quality in the surface near region were formed by this two-step deposition procedure. The underlying iron film, however, was completely oxidized as proved by x-ray reflectometry and diffraction. The structural bulk quality of the iron oxide film is poor compared to magnetite films directly grown on MgO(001). Although the iron film was completely oxidized, we found drastically modified magnetic properties for these films using the magnetooptic Kerr effect. The magnetite films had strongly increased coercive fields, and their magnetic in-plane anisotropy is in-plane rotated by 45∘ compared to magnetite films formed directly by one step reactive growth on MgO(001)

  7. Production of ultra-thin nano-scaled graphene platelets from meso-carbon micro-beads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-11-11

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets (NGPs) having an average thickness no greater than 50 nm, typically less than 2 nm, and, in many cases, no greater than 1 nm. The method comprises (a) intercalating a supply of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMBs) to produce intercalated MCMBs; and (b) exfoliating the intercalated MCMBs at a temperature and a pressure for a sufficient period of time to produce the desired NGPs. Optionally, the exfoliated product may be subjected to a mechanical shearing treatment, such as air milling, air jet milling, ball milling, pressurized fluid milling, rotating-blade grinding, or ultrasonicating. The NGPs are excellent reinforcement fillers for a range of matrix materials to produce nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  8. R&D on an Ultra-Thin Composite Membrane for High-Temperature Operation in PEMFC. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuh, C.-Y.

    2003-10-06

    FuelCell Energy developed a novel high-temperature proton exchange membrane for PEM fuel cells for building applications. The laboratory PEM fuel cell successfully operated at 100-400{supdegree}C and low relative humidity to improve CO tolerance, mitigate water and thermal management challenges, and reduce membrane cost. The developed high-temperature membrane has successfully completed 500h 120C endurance testing.

  9. Non-H[sub 2]Se, ultra-thin CIS devices. [CuInSe[sub 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.; Kiss, Z. )

    1993-02-01

    This report describes work done during Phase I of a 3-phase, cost- shared contract. Objective of the subcontract is to demonstrate 12% total-area efficiency copper indium diselenide (CIS) solar cells and 50-W CIS modules average at least 8 W/ft[sup 2] in the third year. At the end of Phase I, EPV delivered to NREL a 1.1 cm[sup 2] CIS cell with an active area efficiency of 10.5%. the corresponding total-area efficiency is 7.9%.

  10. Oxidation and reduction under cover: Chemistry at the confined space between ultra-thin nanoporous silicates and Ru(0001)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    J. Anibal Boscoboinik; Zhong, Jian -Qiang; Kestell, John; Waluyo, Iradwikanari; Wilkins, Stuart; Mazzoli, Claudio; Barbour, Andi; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shete, Meere; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2016-03-23

    The oxidation and reduction of Ru(0001) surfaces at the confined space between two-dimensional nanoporous silica frameworks and Ru(0001) have been investigated using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). The porous nature of the frameworks and the weak interaction between the silica and the ruthenium substrate allow oxygen and hydrogen molecules to go through the nanopores and react with the metal at the interface between the silica framework and the metal surface. In this work, three types of two-dimensional silica frameworks have been used to study their influence in the oxidation and reduction of the ruthenium surface at elevated pressuresmore » and temperatures. These frameworks are bilayer silica (0.5 nm thick), bilayer aluminosilicate (0.5 nm thick), and zeolite MFI nanosheets (3 nm thick). It is found that the silica frameworks stay essentially intact under these conditions, but they strongly affect the oxidation of ruthenium, with the 0.5 nm thick aluminosilicate bilayer completely inhibiting the oxidation. Furthermore, the latter is believed to be related to the lower chemisorbed oxygen content arising from electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged aluminosilicate framework and the Ru(0001) substrate.« less

  11. Quantum anomalous Hall effect and a nontrivial spin-texture in ultra-thin films of magnetic topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duong, Le Quy; Das, Tanmoy; Feng, Y. P.; Lin, Hsin

    2015-05-07

    We study the evolution of quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect for a Z{sub 2} topological insulator (TI) thin films in a proximity induced magnetic phase by a realistic layered k·p model with interlayer coupling. We examine three different magnetic configurations in which ferromagnetic (FM) layer(s) is added either from one side (FM-TI), from both sides (FM-TI-FM), or homogeneously distributed (magnetically doped) in a TI slab. We map out the thickness-dependent topological phase diagram under various experimental conditions. The critical magnetic exchange energy for the emergence of QAH effect in the latter two cases decreases monotonically with increasing number of quintuple layers (QLs), while it becomes surprisingly independent of the film thickness in the former case. The gap size of the emergent QAH insulator depends on the non-magnetic “parent” gap of the TI thin film and is tuned by the FM exchange energy, opening a versatile possibility to achieve room-temperature QAH insulator in various topological nanomaterials. Finally, we find that the emergent spin-texture in the QAH effect is very unconventional, non-“hedgehog” type; and it exhibits a chiral out-of-plane spin-flip texture within the same valence band which is reminiscent of dynamical “skyrmion” pattern, except our results are in the momentum space.

  12. Monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, ultra-thin, strain-counterbalanced, photovoltaic energy converters with optimal subcell bandgaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2012-05-08

    Modeling a monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, solar photovoltaic converter or thermophotovoltaic converter by constraining the bandgap value for the bottom subcell to no less than a particular value produces an optimum combination of subcell bandgaps that provide theoretical energy conversion efficiencies nearly as good as unconstrained maximum theoretical conversion efficiency models, but which are more conducive to actual fabrication to achieve such conversion efficiencies than unconstrained model optimum bandgap combinations. Achieving such constrained or unconstrained optimum bandgap combinations includes growth of a graded layer transition from larger lattice constant on the parent substrate to a smaller lattice constant to accommodate higher bandgap upper subcells and at least one graded layer that transitions back to a larger lattice constant to accommodate lower bandgap lower subcells and to counter-strain the epistructure to mitigate epistructure bowing.

  13. Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) as a method for characterizing ultra-thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Doyle, Barney L.; Stein, Gregory J.; Mickel, Patrick R.; Stevens, Jim E.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-04-03

    We present a novel ion beam analysis technique combining Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) and demonstrate its ability to increase efficiency in determining stoichiometry in ultrathin (5-50 nm) films as compared to Rutherford backscattering. In the conventional forward geometries, scattering from the substrate overwhelms the signal from light atoms but in RFSERD, scattered ions from the substrate are ranged out while forward scattered ions and recoiled atoms from the thin film are simultaneously detected in a single detector. Lastly, the technique is applied to tantalum oxide memristors but can be extended to a wide range of materialsmore » systems.« less

  14. Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) as a method for characterizing ultra-thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Doyle, Barney L.; Stein, Gregory J.; Mickel, Patrick R.; Stevens, Jim E.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-04-03

    We present a novel ion beam analysis technique combining Rutherford forward scattering and elastic recoil detection (RFSERD) and demonstrate its ability to increase efficiency in determining stoichiometry in ultrathin (5-50 nm) films as compared to Rutherford backscattering. In the conventional forward geometries, scattering from the substrate overwhelms the signal from light atoms but in RFSERD, scattered ions from the substrate are ranged out while forward scattered ions and recoiled atoms from the thin film are simultaneously detected in a single detector. Lastly, the technique is applied to tantalum oxide memristors but can be extended to a wide range of materials systems.

  15. Transport properties of ultra-thin VO{sub 2} films on (001) TiO{sub 2} grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paik, Hanjong; Tashman, Joshua W.; Moyer, Jarrett A.; Schiffer, Peter; Spila, Timothy; Mundy, Julia A.; Freeman, Eugene; Shukla, Nikhil; Datta, Suman; Lapano, Jason M.; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Zander, Willi; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-10-19

    We report the growth of (001)-oriented VO{sub 2} films as thin as 1.5 nm with abrupt and reproducible metal-insulator transitions (MIT) without a capping layer. Limitations to the growth of thinner films with sharp MITs are discussed, including the Volmer-Weber type growth mode due to the high energy of the (001) VO{sub 2} surface. Another key limitation is interdiffusion with the (001) TiO{sub 2} substrate, which we quantify using low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy. We find that controlling island coalescence on the (001) surface and minimization of cation interdiffusion by using a low growth temperature followed by a brief anneal at higher temperature are crucial for realizing ultrathin VO{sub 2} films with abrupt MIT behavior.

  16. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  17. Non-H{sub 2}Se, ultra-thin CIS devices. Annual subcontract report, 10 March 1992--9 November 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.; Kiss, Z.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes work done during Phase I of a 3-phase, cost- shared contract. Objective of the subcontract is to demonstrate 12% total-area efficiency copper indium diselenide (CIS) solar cells and 50-W CIS modules average at least 8 W/ft{sup 2} in the third year. At the end of Phase I, EPV delivered to NREL a 1.1 cm{sup 2} CIS cell with an active area efficiency of 10.5%. the corresponding total-area efficiency is 7.9%.

  18. Non-H{sub 2}Se, ultra-thin CuInSe{sub 2} devices. Annual subcontract report, November 10, 1992--November 9, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Britt, J.; Faras, F.; Kiss, Z.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes advances made during Phase II (November 10, 1992-November 9, 1993) of a three-phase, cost-shared subcontract whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of thin film CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic modules prepared by methods adaptable to safe, high yield, high volume manufacturing. At the end of Phase I, EPV became one of the first groups to clear the 10% efficiency barrier for CIS cells prepared by non-H{sub 2}Se selenization. During Phase II a total area efficiency of 12.5% was achieved for a 1 cm{sup 2} cell. The key achievement of Phase II was the production of square foot CIS modules without the use of H{sub 2}Se. This is seen as a crucial step towards the commercialization of CIS. Using a novel interconnect technology, EPV delivered an 8.0% aperture area efficiency mini-module and a 6.2% aperture area efficiency 720 cm{sub 2} module to NREL. On the processing side, advances were made in precursor formation and the selenization profile, both of which contributed to higher quality CIS. The higher band gap quaternary chalcopyrite material CuIn(S{sub x}, Se{sub 1{minus}X}){sub 2} was prepared and 8% cells were fabricated using this material. Device analysis revealed a correlation between long wavelength quantum efficiency and the CIS Cu/In ratio. Temperature dependent studies highlighted the need for high V{sub OC} devices to minimize the impact of the voltage drop at operating temperature. Numerical modeling of module performance was performed in order to identify the correct ZnO sheet resistance for modules. Efforts in Phase III will focus on increase of module efficiency to 9-10%, initiation of an outdoor testing program, preparation of completely uniform CIS plates using second generation selenization equipment, and exploration of alternative precursors for CIS formation.

  19. Method of making dense, conformal, ultra-thin cap layers for nanoporous low-k ILD by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-05-24

    Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.

  20. Final Report- High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via ultra-thin absorber layer with optical confinement and (Cd, CBD)- free heterojunction partner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The main objective of this proposal was to use several pathways to reduce the production cost of CIGS PV modules and therefore the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with this technology.

  1. Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    blood vessels to better predict and understand the rupture of aneurysms, sickle cell anemia and cerebral malaria. Simulating Large Regional Earthquakes Principal Investigator:...

  2. Preventing Laptop Fires and Thermal Runaway | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Researchers point to "self-healing" materials as a potential means of improving lithium ion battery safety. This work, featured in the Office of Science's Stories of Discovery & ...

  3. Solid State eBurner for Supplying Power to Laptops, Cellphones...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... fuel storage, fuel dispensing and system cooling * Critical parameters can be manipulated ... Date Patent 7,696,668 Patent 7,696,668 Solid state transport-based thermoelectric ...

  4. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retamal, María J. Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  5. Resistive switching in ultra-thin La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana; Vanacken, Johan; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2014-07-21

    Superlattices may play an important role in next generation electronic and spintronic devices if the key-challenge of the reading and writing data can be solved. This challenge emerges from the coupling of low dimensional individual layers with macroscopic world. Here, we report the study of the resistive switching characteristics of a hybrid structure made out of a superlattice with ultrathin layers of two ferromagnetic metallic oxides, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) and SrRuO{sub 3} (SRO). Bipolar resistive switching memory effects are measured on these LSMO/SRO superlattices, and the observed switching is explainable by ohmic and space charge-limited conduction laws. It is evident from the endurance characteristics that the on/off memory window of the cell is greater than 14, which indicates that this cell can reliably distinguish the stored information between high and low resistance states. The findings may pave a way to the construction of devices based on nonvolatile resistive memory effects.

  6. Dispelling a Misconception About Mg-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dispelling a Misconception About Mg-Ion Batteries Dispelling a Misconception About Mg-Ion Batteries Simulations Run at NERSC Provide a Path to Better Designs October 16, 2014 Contact: Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov, +1 510.486.5375 Lithium (Li)-ion batteries serve us well, powering our laptops, tablets, cell phones and a host of other gadgets and devices. However, for future automotive applications, we will need rechargeable batteries with significant increases in energy density, reductions in

  7. NNSA Nuclear Security Sites Receive 16 R&D 100 Awards | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... The SDP process is simpler, and environmentally green, with virtually no toxic ... electrolyte battery with an ultra-thin photovoltaic collector as an energy harvester. ...

  8. Three SBIR-STTR Proposals Selected for Award for SSL Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lucent Optics, Inc.: Ultra-Thin Flexible LED Lighting Panels Lumisyn, LLC: LED Downconverter Phosphor Chips Containing Nanocrystals InnoSys, Inc.: Lowering Barriers to Intelligent ...

  9. Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short-pulse laser, scientists from Los Alamos, the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, and Sandia National Laboratories focus high-intensity light on an ultra-thin...

  10. World record neutron beam at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    short-pulse laser, scientists from Los Alamos, the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, and Sandia National Laboratories focus high-intensity light on an ultra-thin...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Publications: Lab News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were never imagined before." Examples include ultra-thin lenses, ultra-efficient cell phone antennas, and ways to keep satellites cool and photovoltaics more efficient. A recent...

  12. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopic images of these ultra-thin nanosheets for the first time. By combining atomic force microscopy with infrared synchrotron light, ALS researchers from Berkeley Lab...

  13. Lorenzo Maserati | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    design consists of ultra thin MOF coatings on polymer supports that allow for high permeability while maintaining high gas selectivity. My efforts span membrane fabrication and...

  14. Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Array Interconnect * Ultra-Thin Ohmic Contacts for P-type ... patent applications filed SOLID-STATE LIGHTING: Solid-State ... of Organic Semiconducting Films by Improved Solution ...

  15. Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics | Members

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanowire Single Photon Detector (SNSPD) and superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (TES). An SSPD is an ultra-thin, ultra-narrow (nm scale) superconducting meander that is...

  16. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  17. Past SunShot Incubator Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Press release. Final Report. AmberWave, Inc. (1,000,000 in 2012) Salem, New Hampshire-AmberWave has developed a robust, ultra-thin, mono-crystalline silicon (Si) technology on ...

  18. Influence of hydrogen on the structure and stability of ultra...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Influence of hydrogen on the structure and stability of ultra-thin ZnO on metal substrates Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  19. Final Report - High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High throughput CIGS solar cell fabrication via ultra-thin absorber layer with optical ... Contact Materials for Improved Performance CdTe Solar Cells Download the SunShot ...

  20. DuPont Technology Breaks Away From Glass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Delaware-based DuPont is working to develop ultra-thin moisture protective films for photovoltaic panels — so thin they’re about 1,000 times thinner than a human hair.

  1. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films Stadermann, M. ; Kucheyev, S. O. ; Lewicki, J. ; ... The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State ...

  2. Engineers Go Mobile with Tablets, Bring Benefits to Waste Treatment Plant Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Jared Thomas has been hard to find at his desk lately. And that’s a good thing.

  3. Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

    1985-07-01

    Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

  4. POLICY FLASH 2016-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OMB Category Management Policy 15-1: Improving the Acquisition and Management of Common Information Technology: Laptops and Desktops

  5. Instructions for Using Virtual Private Network (VPN)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides access to network drives and is recommended for use only from a EITS provided laptop.

  6. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  7. Hardware Architecture for Measurements for 50-V Battery Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Bald; Evan Juras; Jon P. Christophersen; William Morrison

    2012-06-01

    Energy storage devices, especially batteries, have become critical for several industries including automotive, electric utilities, military and consumer electronics. With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. Because many of the systems these batteries integrated into are critical, there is an increased need for an accurate in-situ method of monitoring battery state-of-health. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of a compact IMB system that will perform rapid accurate measurements of a battery impedance spectrum working with higher voltage batteries of up to 300 volts. This paper discusses the successful realization of a system that will work up to 50 volts.

  8. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    phones, laptops, and even some electric vehicles? The U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) is working with California's Simbol Materials to develop...

  9. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    extremely fast, and with current computing power reconstructions can even be done on a laptop computer. The detector currently being used is unable to capture all necessary...

  10. User Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposals for beam time User publications database Guest logistics and parking Loan of laptop, stealth phone and projector Logisitics for the annual users' meeting ALS Experiment...

  11. TotalView | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can significantly improve the GUI response. Download the RDC and install it on your laptop or workstation: http:www.roguewave.comproductstotalviewremote-display-client.aspx...

  12. Greenbutton datacustodian documentation | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenbutton datacustodian documentation Home > Groups > Green Button Applications Hi, I was able to bring up the greenbutton datacustodian project on my laptop at localhost:8080...

  13. Fact #916: March 14, 2016 Fuel Savings/Emissions Reduction was...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These systems provide power for cab heating and cooling, powering lifts, welding equipment, power tools, laptops and other equipment while the main truck engine is shut down. Fact ...

  14. Chapter_15_Outprocessing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... government property, including laptop computers, cell phones, pagers, Blackberries, RSA tokens, etc. * Returning government-issued credit cards * Returning parking permit. ...

  15. Boston Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Massachusetts Zip: 01581 3961 Sector: Vehicles Product: Start-up developing a battery for laptop computers and electric vehicles. Coordinates: 42.283096, -71.600318...

  16. Microsoft Word - Final Report 01-02-08.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had brought an unclassified laptop computer into a Y-12 Limited Area without following proper protocols; Imnediately thereafter,...

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Lithium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid cars. What may not be so...

  18. E One Moli Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Place: Tainan, Taiwan Sector: Vehicles Product: They make rechargeable Lithium Ion batteries for cell phones, laptop computers, higher-power batteries for power...

  19. UniBatt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 29500 Product: Start-up company specializing in the development of innovative batteries for mobile electronic devices such as: laptops, cellular phones, PDAs, etc....

  20. U.S. Postal Service BlueEarth Program - Personal Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laptops, notebooks, and netbooks Computer towers, hard drives, small servers, and portable disk drives Inkjet and laser printing cartridges COMING SOON Printers, fax machines, ...

  1. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... links using the internet, and using web tools implemented by NARAC. Emergency ... website by using a standard web browser run on standard desktop and laptop computers. ...

  2. Systems and methods for producing low work function electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Kahn, Antoine; Meyer, Jens; Shim, Jae Won; Marder, Seth R.

    2015-07-07

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, systems and methods are provided for producing low work function electrodes. According to an exemplary embodiment, a method is provided for reducing a work function of an electrode. The method includes applying, to at least a portion of the electrode, a solution comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer; and based at least in part on applying the solution, forming an ultra-thin layer on a surface of the electrode, wherein the ultra-thin layer reduces the work function associated with the electrode by greater than 0.5 eV. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a device is provided. The device includes a semiconductor; at least one electrode disposed adjacent to the semiconductor and configured to transport electrons in or out of the semiconductor.

  3. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method of welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads.

  4. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-19

    A method is described for welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads. 7 figs.

  5. Method for fabricating pixelated silicon device cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nelson, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Benjamin John

    2015-08-18

    A method, apparatus and system for flexible, ultra-thin, and high efficiency pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array fabrication is disclosed. A structure and method of creation for a pixelated silicon or other semiconductor photovoltaic solar cell array with interconnects is described using a manufacturing method that is simplified compared to previous versions of pixelated silicon photovoltaic cells that require more microfabrication steps.

  6. Nucleation and growth dynamics of MBE-grown topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films on Si (111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisova, Svetlana; Krumrain, Julian; Mussler, Gregor; Grützmacher, Detlev; Luysberg, Martina

    2013-12-04

    Topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrates. The structural properties of the ultra-thin films and their evolution in morphology during the growth have been investigated. The growth starts by a nucleation of separate islands and subsequently turns into a layer-by-layer growth mode. Despite this, the grown film is found to be single crystalline and fully relaxed from the first atomic layer.

  7. GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs Monolithic Tandem Cells for High-Performance Solar Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Geisz, J. F.; Jones, K.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Romero, M. J.

    2005-08-01

    We present a new approach for ultra-high-performance tandem solar cells that involves inverted epitaxial growth and ultra-thin device processing. The additional degree of freedom afforded by the inverted design allows the monolithic integration of high-, and medium-bandgap, lattice-matched (LM) subcell materials with lower-bandgap, lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials in a tandem structure through the use of transparent compositionally graded layers. The current work concerns an inverted, series-connected, triple-bandgap, GaInP (LM, 1.87 eV)/GaAs (LM, 1.42 eV)/GaInAs (LMM, {approx}1 eV) device structure grown on a GaAs substrate. Ultra-thin tandem devices are fabricated by mounting the epiwafers to pre-metallized Si wafer handles and selectively removing the parent GaAs substrate. The resulting handle-mounted, ultra-thin tandem cells have a number of important advantages, including improved performance and potential reclamation/reuse of the parent substrate for epitaxial growth. Additionally, realistic performance modeling calculations suggest that terrestrial concentrator efficiencies in the range of 40-45% are possible with this new tandem cell approach. A laboratory-scale (0.24 cm2), prototype GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cell with a terrestrial concentrator efficiency of 37.9% at a low concentration ratio (10.1 suns) is described, which surpasses the previous world efficiency record of 37.3%.

  8. Virtual Private Network (VPN) | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instructions for using a Cryptocard Download the VPN Client VPN client downloads (login required) Instructions AnyConnect Client For laptop or desktop For mobile devices IpSec ...

  9. Boston Power GP Batteries JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taiwan-based JV that produces Sonata rechargeable Li-ion batteries for laptop computers. References: Boston Power & GP Batteries JV1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  10. Git

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    you are about to create and any other "clones" of it you have, perhaps on your laptop. Call the repository you are about to create the SG-repository, for "Science Gateway...

  11. Other Matters - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    109); no coins necessary. Top What kind of internet access is there? Should I bring my laptop? Wi-Fi is free for a guest's first seven days on campus; lecture notes will be...

  12. ARM - Education Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Those who visited the poster and kiosk were able to go through the kiosk software at a laptop to go through the kiosk software and gave their suggestions on how to make it better....

  13. Sector4 FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data home? I hear a horn coming from 4-ID-A; whats going on? How can I print from my laptop? After you leave: Posted by: Becki Gagnon ( gagnon@aps.anl.gov) Content by: Jonathan...

  14. NREL-Energy Assessment Training Course | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are asked to bring a laptop, a calculator and a notebook. Attendees are asked to have Microsoft Excel, Word, and eQuest, (a free energy modeling software program) loaded onto their...

  15. Chapter 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -i Chapter 1 Revision History as of 2-12-16: Subsection Date Changed To LSSO Badges ... brings a personal or government laptop computer into an HQ building, protective force ...

  16. ParaView Red Blood Cell Tutorial | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The examples can easily be run on a laptop, using the example data set provided. Tour of ... The data is available for download here (27MB compressed, 39MB uncompressed): Data set ...

  17. Home Office and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laptops are far more efficient than desktop computers, especially ENERGY STAR qualified models. Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. 2 of 2 Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. ...

  18. HyEnergy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Zip: 78730 Product: Developer of the FlatStack Fuel Cell System, a hybrid batteryfuel cell family providing lightweight and low cost power for devices such as laptop...

  19. Wind for Schools Portal Motion Chart | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this analytical feature on a browser that has Flash, such as a laptop or desktop computer. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWindforSchoolsPortalMotio...

  20. The future of batteries: Q&A with the director of the national...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Now, the laboratory's semiannual science magazine. Everywhere you look, you see lithium-ion batteries. They're in your laptop, your cell phone, your power tools, maybe...

  1. Staying Informed | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    If you have power, charge your cell phones, laptops, and other mobile devices so they'll have the maximum amount of battery power stored in the event of a power outage. These ...

  2. OSTIblog Posts by Cathey Daniels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    That now you can learn about OSTI tools and services on our OSTI YouTube site launched in June? Read more... Mixing Science.gov, Coffee, and a Laptop Personal Perspectives ...

  3. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  4. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mixing Science.gov, Coffee, and a Laptop by Cathey Daniels on Wed, Dec 5, 2007 Yesterday ... Happily, my job is community outreach for OSTI which hosts Science.gov. So, armed with a ...

  5. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  6. Audit Report: IG-0768

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    In the past three years, the Department has spent more than 400 million on IT hardware to ... account for over 1,400 laptops either lost, stolen or misplaced over the past six years. ...

  7. Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From consumer electronics to laptops to vehicles, batteries are an important part of our everyday life. Learn about the Energy Department's innovative research and development in different energy storage options.

  8. SSRL HEADLINES April 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of amorphous silicon - the semiconductor used in low-cost electronics such as photovoltaic cells for solar power and thin-film transistors used in flat screen laptops and TVs. ...

  9. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good ...

  10. Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Software speeds detection of diseases Software speeds detection of diseases and cancer-treatment targets The Lab has released an updated version of software that is now capable of identifying DNA from viruses and all parts of the Tree of Life. December 1, 2014 With Sequedex, a laptop computer can analyze DNA sequences faster than any current DNA sequencer can create them. With Sequedex, a laptop computer can analyze DNA sequences faster than any current DNA sequencer can create them. Contact

  11. Critical Decision 0 (CD-0) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge? Could 135,000 Laptops Help Solve the Energy Challenge? November 30, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the largest ever awards of the Department's supercomputing time to 57 innovative research projects - using computer simulations to perform virtual experiments that in most cases would be impossible or impractical in the natural world. Utilizing two world-leading

  12. Band gap tuning of epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3-δ}/Si(001) thin films through strain engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cottier, Ryan J.; Steinle, Nathan A.; Currie, Daniel A.; Theodoropoulou, Nikoleta

    2015-11-30

    We investigate the effect of strain and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) on the crystal and optical properties of oxygen deficient, ultra-thin (4–30 nm) films of SrTiO{sub 3-δ} (STO) grown heteroepitaxially on p-Si(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. We demonstrate that STO band gap tuning can be achieved through strain engineering and show that the energy shift of the direct energy gap transition of SrTiO{sub 3-δ}/Si films has a quantifiable dimensional and doping dependence that correlates well with the changes in crystal structure.

  13. Oxygen-induced immediate onset of the antiferromagnetic stacking in thin Cr films on Fe(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berti, Giulia Brambilla, Alberto; Calloni, Alberto; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Finazzi, Marco; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco

    2015-04-20

    We investigated the magnetic coupling of ultra-thin Cr films grown at 600 K on a Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O substrate by means of spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy. Our findings show that the expected antiferromagnetic stacking of the magnetization in Cr(001) layers occurs right from the first atomic layer at the Cr/Fe interface. This is at variance with all previous observations in similar systems, prepared in oxygen-free conditions, which always reported on a delayed onset of the magnetic oscillations due to the occurrence of significant chemical alloying at the interface, which is substantially absent in our preparation.

  14. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  15. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  16. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1995-02-14

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 6 figs.

  17. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1993-04-20

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  18. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  19. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultra-thin single crystal silicon modules capable of 450 W/kg and bending radii admin 2016-04-18T20:58:24+00:00 Popular Downloads Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team (11370 downloads) Modeling System Losses in PVsyst (9348 downloads) Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD v2.0) for Wind Turbine Blades: User's Guide (7616 downloads) Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Proactive Intelligent Advances for Photovoltaic Systems

  20. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  1. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  2. Method for fabricating thin films of pyrolytic carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Lewis, Jr., John; Weber, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating ultra-thin films of pyrolytic carbon. Pyrolytic carbon is vapor deposited onto a concave surface of a heated substrate to a total uniform thickness in the range of about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer. The carbon film on the substrate is provided with a layer of adherent polymeric resin. The resulting composite film of pyrolytic carbon and polymeric resin is then easily separated from the substrate by shrinking the polymeric resin coating with thermally induced forces.

  3. Characterization and reduction of microfabrication-induced decoherence in superconducting quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintana, C. M.; Megrant, A.; Chen, Z.; Dunsworth, A.; Chiaro, B.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J. Y.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Cleland, A. N.; and others

    2014-08-11

    Many superconducting qubits are highly sensitive to dielectric loss, making the fabrication of coherent quantum circuits challenging. To elucidate this issue, we characterize the interfaces and surfaces of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators and study the associated microwave loss. We show that contamination induced by traditional qubit lift-off processing is particularly detrimental to quality factors without proper substrate cleaning, while roughness plays at most a small role. Aggressive surface treatment is shown to damage the crystalline substrate and degrade resonator quality. We also introduce methods to characterize and remove ultra-thin resist residue, providing a way to quantify and minimize remnant sources of loss on device surfaces.

  4. Highly Charged Ion (HCI) Modified Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H. [Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8423, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8423 (United States)

    2009-03-10

    The neutralization energy carried by highly charged ions (HCIs) provides an alternative method for localizing energy on a target's surface, producing features and modifying surfaces with fluences and kinetic energy damage that are negligible compared to singly ionized atoms. Since each HCI can deposit an enormous amount of energy into a small volume of the surface (e.g., Xe{sup 44+} delivers 51 keV of neutralization energy per HCI), each individual HCI's interaction with the target can produce a nanoscale feature. Many studies of HCI-surface features have characterized some basic principles of this unique ion-surface interaction, but the activity reported here has been focused on studying ensembles of HCI features in ultra-thin insulating films by fabricating multi-layer tunnel junction devices. The ultra-thin insulating barriers allow current to flow by tunneling, providing a very sensitive means of detecting changes in the barrier due to highly charged ion irradiation and, conversely, HCI modification provides a method of finely tuning the transparency of the tunnel junctions that spans several orders of magnitude for devices produced from a single process recipe. Systematic variation of junction bias, temperature, magnetic field and other parameters provides determination of the transport mechanism, defect densities, and magnetic properties of these nano-features and this novel approach to device fabrication.

  5. Strain induced Z{sub 2} topological insulating state of ?-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Koushik; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2014-08-11

    Topological insulators are non-trivial quantum states of matter which exhibit a gap in the electronic structure of their bulk form, but a gapless metallic electronic spectrum at the surface. Here, we predict a uniaxial strain induced electronic topological transition (ETT) from a band to topological insulating state in the rhombohedral phase (space group: R3{sup }m) of As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (?-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) through first-principles calculations including spin-orbit coupling within density functional theory. The ETT in ?-As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is shown to occur at the uniaxial strain ?{sub zz}?=??0.05 (?{sub zz}?=?1.77?GPa), passing through a Weyl metallic state with a single Dirac cone in its electronic structure at the ? point. We demonstrate the ETT through band inversion and reversal of parity of the top of the valence and bottom of the conduction bands leading to change in the ?{sub 2} topological invariant ?{sub 0} from 0 to 1 across the transition. Based on its electronic structure and phonon dispersion, we propose ultra-thin films of As{sub 2}Te{sub 3} to be promising for use in ultra-thin stress sensors, charge pumps, and thermoelectrics.

  6. Interfacial charge-mediated non-volatile magnetoelectric coupling in Co0.3Fe0.7/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Howe, Brandon M.; Liu, Ming; Nan, Tianxiang; Chen, Xing; Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy; Sun, Nian X.; Brown, Gail J.

    2015-01-13

    The central challenge in realizing non-volatile, E-field manipulation of magnetism lies in finding an energy efficient means to switch between the distinct magnetic states in a stable and reversible manner. In this work, we demonstrate using electrical polarization-induced charge screening to change the ground state of magnetic ordering in order to non-volatilely tune magnetic properties in ultra-thin Co0.3Fe0.7/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 (001) multiferroic heterostructures. A robust, voltage-induced, non-volatile manipulation of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy up to 40 Oe is demonstrated and confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance measurements. This discovery provides a framework for realizing charge-sensitive order parameter tuning in ultra-thin multiferroic heterostructures, demonstrating great potential for delivering compact, lightweight, reconfigurable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  7. Interfacial charge-mediated non-volatile magnetoelectric coupling in Co0.3Fe0.7/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Howe, Brandon M.; Liu, Ming; Nan, Tianxiang; Chen, Xing; Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy; Sun, Nian X.; Brown, Gail J.

    2015-01-13

    The central challenge in realizing non-volatile, E-field manipulation of magnetism lies in finding an energy efficient means to switch between the distinct magnetic states in a stable and reversible manner. In this work, we demonstrate using electrical polarization-induced charge screening to change the ground state of magnetic ordering in order to non-volatilely tune magnetic properties in ultra-thin Co0.3Fe0.7/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 (001) multiferroic heterostructures. A robust, voltage-induced, non-volatile manipulation of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy up to 40 Oe is demonstrated and confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance measurements. This discovery provides a framework for realizing charge-sensitive order parameter tuning in ultra-thin multiferroic heterostructures, demonstrating great potentialmore » for delivering compact, lightweight, reconfigurable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.« less

  8. Computer usage and national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Fuchs, Heidi; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah; Young, Scott

    2014-12-01

    The electricity consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads (MELs) in the home has grown in recent years, and is expected to continue rising. Consumer electronics, in particular, are characterized by swift technological innovation, with varying impacts on energy use. Desktop and laptop computers make up a significant share of MELs electricity consumption, but their national energy use is difficult to estimate, given uncertainties around shifting user behavior. This report analyzes usage data from 64 computers (45 desktop, 11 laptop, and 8 unknown) collected in 2012 as part of a larger field monitoring effort of 880 households in the San Francisco Bay Area, and compares our results to recent values from the literature. We find that desktop computers are used for an average of 7.3 hours per day (median = 4.2 h/d), while laptops are used for a mean 4.8 hours per day (median = 2.1 h/d). The results for laptops are likely underestimated since they can be charged in other, unmetered outlets. Average unit annual energy consumption (AEC) for desktops is estimated to be 194 kWh/yr (median = 125 kWh/yr), and for laptops 75 kWh/yr (median = 31 kWh/yr). We estimate national annual energy consumption for desktop computers to be 20 TWh. National annual energy use for laptops is estimated to be 11 TWh, markedly higher than previous estimates, likely reflective of laptops drawing more power in On mode in addition to greater market penetration. This result for laptops, however, carries relatively higher uncertainty compared to desktops. Different study methodologies and definitions, changing usage patterns, and uncertainty about how consumers use computers must be considered when interpreting our results with respect to existing analyses. Finally, as energy consumption in On mode is predominant, we outline several energy savings opportunities: improved power management (defaulting to low-power modes after periods of inactivity as well as power scaling), matching the rated power

  9. PNNL: Publications: Calendar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Not sure how to set the images as your wallpaper? View the instructions for Laptops/Desktops Science as Art Downloadable Materials The 12 images and the stories behind them can be downloaded and used as a 2016 wallpaper calendar on desktop and laptop computers. Several resolutions and device-specific versions have been provided for your convenience. Each set of images is provided in *.zip format or may be downloaded individually (.png files). You may need to right-click and choose "Save

  10. #LabChat: Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm EDT |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm EDT #LabChat: Extreme Circumstances, Unique Solutions, June 28 at 1pm EDT June 27, 2012 - 2:31pm Addthis The simple, portable device identifies materials through their characteristic energy signals as unique as fingerprints. The three detectors are housed in a thermos-sized container that is connected to a laptop computer. The device issues a signal turning the laptop display bright red when nuclear material of

  11. Air-Breathing Fuel Cell Stack - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air-Breathing Fuel Cell Stack Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Air-breathing passive fuel cell stack Air-breathing passive fuel cell stack Technology Marketing SummaryLANL has developed a fuel cell for portable power applications in laptop computers, toys, and other appliances with low-power demand.DescriptionThe increasing number of portable electronic devices on the market today-from laptop computers to remote-controlled toys-is creating a demand for improved,

  12. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets, etc.) that feature extraordinary computing power. For such...

  13. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains Print The miniaturization of computing architectures has paved the way for personal hand-held electronic devices (smartphones, tablets,...

  14. Green Button Apps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    new apps for mobile phones, computers, tablets, software programs and more, utilizing data from major utility companies to help consumers and businesses use less energy and...

  15. Introducing a More Responsive Energy.gov

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy.gov now features a responsive design that automatically optimizes the browsing experience for smartphones and tablets, and makes it easier to find consumer energy saving information.

  16. Home Energy Score Program Update, February 2016

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Application Tablet or Cell Phone Secure data exchange User log-in with password protection User specific jobs uploaded to device wirelessly Customer ...

  17. Consumer Electronics Show 2013 Highlights Sustainable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Octa processor for tablets and smartphones was noted by Samsung's CEO Stephen Woo to be more powerful without sacrificing efficiency. Samsung also won four awards in the ...

  18. Magnetron sputtered boron films for increasing hardness of a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    2003-05-27

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  19. Improvement of the electrical contact resistance at rough interfaces using two dimensional materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jianchen; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario; Li, Heng; Shen, Panpan; Sun, Hui; Duan, Huiling

    2015-12-07

    Reducing the electronic contact resistance at the interfaces of nanostructured materials is a major goal for many kinds of planar and three dimensional devices. In this work, we develop a method to enhance the electronic transport at rough interfaces by inserting a two dimensional flexible and conductive graphene sheet. We observe that an ultra-thin graphene layer with a thickness of 0.35 nm can remarkably reduce the roughness of a sample in a factor of 40%, avoiding the use of thick coatings, leading to a more homogeneous current flow, and extraordinarily increasing the total current compared to the graphene-free counterpart. Due to its simplicity and performance enhancement, this methodology can be of interest to many interface and device designers.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide based silver sulfide hybrid films formed at a liquid/liquid interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramhaiah, K. John, Neena S.

    2014-04-24

    Free-standing, ultra-thin films of silver sulfide and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based silver sulfide hybrids are prepared at a liquid/liquid interface employing in situ chemical reaction strategy. Ag{sub 2}S and RGO−Ag{sub 2}S hybrid films are characterized by various techniques such as UV-visible and photo luminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of hybrid films consists of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals on RGO surface while Ag{sub 2}S films contains branched network of dendritic structures. RGO−Ag{sub 2}S exhibit interesting optical and electrical properties. The hybrid films absorb in the region 500–650 nm and show emission in the red region. A higher conductance is observed for the hybrid films arising from the RGO component. This simple low cost method can be extended to prepare other RGO based metal sulfides.

  1. Inverted GaInP/(In)GaAs/InGaAs Triple-Junction Solar Cells with Low-Stress Metamorphic Bottom Junctions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J. F.; Kurtz, S. R.; Wanlass, M. W.; Ward, J. S.; Duda, A.; Friedman, D. J.; Olson, J. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Moriarty, T. E.; Kiehl, J. T.; Romero, M. J.; Norman, A. G.; Jones, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrate high efficiency performance in two ultra-thin, Ge-free III-V semiconductor triple-junction solar cell device designs grown in an inverted configuration. Low-stress metamorphic junctions were engineered to achieve excellent photovoltaic performance with less than 3 x 106 cm-2 threading dislocations. The first design with band gaps of 1.83/1.40/1.00 eV, containing a single metamorphic junction, achieved 33.8% and 39.2% efficiencies under the standard one-sun global spectrum and concentrated direct spectrum at 131 suns, respectively. The second design with band gaps of 1.83/1.34/0.89 eV, containing two metamorphic junctions achieved 33.2% and 40.1% efficiencies under the standard one-sun global spectrum and concentrated direct spectrum at 143 suns, respectively.

  2. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    1999-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be fabricated in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  3. Novel Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanostructures for High-Temperature Gas Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi Chen; Kozo Saito

    2008-08-31

    The primary objective of this research is to examine the feasibility of using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a high temperature sensor material for fossil energy systems where reducing atmospheres are present. In the initial period of research, we fabricated capacitive sensors for hydrogen sensing using vertically aligned MWCNTs. We found that CNT itself is not sensitive to hydrogen. Moreover, with the help of Pd electrodes, hydrogen sensors based on CNTs are very sensitive and fast responsive. However, the Pd-based sensors can not withstand high temperature (T<200 C). In the last year, we successfully fabricated a hydrogen sensor based on an ultra-thin nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) film supported by an AAO substrate, which can operate at 500 C with hydrogen concentrations in a range from 50 to 500 ppm.

  4. Operation experience of p-Carbon polarimeter in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.; Alekseev, I. G.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Eyser, O.; Kalinkin, D.; Kewisch, J.; Makdisi, Y.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Schmidke, W. B.; Svirida, D.; Steski, D.; Webb, G.; Zelenski, A.; Tip, K.

    2015-05-03

    The spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires fast polarimeter to monitor the polarization evolution on the ramp and during stores. Over past decade, the polarimeter has evolved greatly to improve its performance. These include dual chamber design, monitoring camera, Si detector selection (and orientation), target quality control, and target frame modification. The preamp boards have been modified to deal with the high rate problem, too. The ultra thin carbon target lifetime is a concern. Simulations have been carried out on the target interaction with beam. Modification has also been done on the frame design. Extra caution has been put on RF shielding to deal with the pickup noises from the nearby stochastic cooling kickers. This paper summarizes the recent operation performance of this delicate device.

  5. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  6. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  7. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for electrochemical reactions in ordinary solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Takuya; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012 ; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobata, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Noguchi, Hidenori; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 ; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Uosaki, Kohei; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044

    2013-09-09

    In situ electrochemical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus, which allows XPS at solid/liquid interfaces under potential control, was constructed utilizing a microcell with an ultra-thin Si membrane, which separates vacuum and a solution. Hard X-rays from a synchrotron source penetrate into the Si membrane surface exposed to the solution. Electrons emitted at the Si/solution interface can pass through the membrane and be analyzed by an analyzer placed in vacuum. Its operation was demonstrated for potential-induced Si oxide growth in water. Effect of potential and time on the thickness of Si and Si oxide layers was quantitatively determined at sub-nanometer resolution.

  8. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Wendy Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Eiden, Anna; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2014-04-28

    Ultra-thin flakes of 2D organic-inorganic perovskite (C{sub 6}H{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbI{sub 4} are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas are identified using optical and atomic force microscopy, with an interlayer spacing of 1.6?nm. Refractive indices extracted from the optical spectra reveal a sample thickness dependence due to the charge transfer between organic and inorganic layers. These measurements demonstrate a clear difference in the exciton properties between bulk (>15 layers) and very thin (<8 layer) regions as a result of the structural rearrangement of organic molecules around the inorganic sheets.

  9. Method of forming biaxially textured alloy substrates and devices thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Specht, Eliot D.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan

    2000-01-01

    Specific alloys, in particular Ni-based alloys, that can be biaxially textured, with a well-developed, single component texture are disclosed. These alloys have a significantly reduced Curie point, which is very desirable from the point of view of superconductivity applications. The biaxially textured alloy substrates also possess greatly enhanced mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength) which are essential for most applications, in particular, superconductors. A method is disclosed for producing complex multicomponent alloys which have the ideal physical properties for specific applications, such as lattice parameter, degree of magnetism and mechanical strength, and which cannot be in textured form. In addition, a method for making ultra thin biaxially textured substrates with complex compositions is disclosed.

  10. Nonlocal Thermal Transport across Embedded Few-Layer Graphene Sheets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Ying; Huxtable, Scott T; Yang, Bao; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g., the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. The nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transport involvingmore » few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.« less

  11. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  15. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  16. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  17. Hypervelocity nanoparticle impacts on free-standing graphene: A sui generis mode of sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eller, Michael J.; Della-Negra, Serge; Kim, Hansoo; Young, Amanda E.

    2015-01-28

    The study of the interaction of hypervelocity nano-particles with a 2D material and ultra-thin targets (single layer graphene, multi-layer graphene, and amorphous carbon foils) has been performed using mass selected gold nano-particles produced from a liquid metal ion source. During these impacts, a large number of atoms are ejected from the graphene, corresponding to a hole of ∼60 nm{sup 2}. Additionally, for the first time, secondary ions have been observed simultaneously in both the transmission and reflection direction (with respect to the path of the projectile) from a 2D target. The ejected area is much larger than that predicted by molecular dynamic simulations and a large ionization rate is observed. The mass distribution and characteristics of the emitted secondary ions are presented and offer an insight into the process to produce the large hole observed in the graphene.

  18. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150?mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  19. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  20. Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and Powering the Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From unleashing more powerful and energy-efficient laptops, cell phones and motors, to shrinking utility-scale inverters from 8,000 pound substations to the size of a suitcase, wide bandgap semiconductors could be one of the keys to our clean energy future.

  1. Plastic Bags to Batteries: A Green Chemistry Solution

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    Plastic bags are the scourge of roadsides, parking lots and landfills. But chemistry comes to the rescue! At Argonne National Laboratory, Vilas Pol has found a way to not only recycle plastic bags--but make them into valuable batteries for cell phones and laptops.

  2. PNNL: Publications: Calendar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CISCO Phone Screens iPhone 4 & 4S iPhone 5, 5S, & 5C iPhone 6 iPhone 6 Plus Samsung Galaxy S3 Samsung Galaxy S4 & S5 Tablet Wallpaper Tablet Wallpaper iPad 1, 2, & 1st Gen. Mini...

  3. AMO Director Mark Johnson Weighs in on Smart Work Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We are living in a digital age. Everything from our phones and computers to our tablets, watches, and even health-monitoring devices are connected. We use these devices and networks to make our...

  4. U-119: Blackberry PlayBook Unspecified WebKit Bug Lets Remote...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7.1, and BlackBerry PlayBook tablet software ABSTRACT: A remote user can create HTML that, when loaded by the target user, will execute arbitrary code on the target user's...

  5. Press Room - Press Releases - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Google Sheets is a free online spreadsheet alternative that can be accessed and shared from anywhere through a web browser or through an app for your phone or tablet. EIA's Google ...

  6. EERE Employment Benefits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employment Opportunities » EERE Employment Benefits EERE Employment Benefits A photo of a young Asian female working on her laptop in an outdoor setting, near an office building. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) staffs enjoy all of the great rewards of being a government employee. Learn more at these pages at the Office of Personnel Management website: Health care and other benefits for new federal employees Retirement benefits Insurance programs Work / life

  7. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever wonder how we get the materials for the advanced batteries that power our cell phones, laptops, and even some electric vehicles? The U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) is working with California's Simbol Materials to develop technologies that extract battery materials

  8. Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Critical Communications Backup Power Greg Moreland SENTECH, Inc. Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy August 6, 2008 APCO Annual Conference and Expo 2 2 Fuel cells use hydrogen to create electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts Fuel Cell Overview * An individual fuel cell produces about 1 volt * Hundreds of individual cells can comprise a fuel cell stack * Fuel cells can be used to power a variety of applications -Bibliographic Database * Laptop computers (50-100 W) *

  9. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  10. Viz Collab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Viz Collab Viz Collab The Collaboration Laboratory offers video teleconferencing, ready-made informative movies, general slide presentations via laptop, and sci-viz collaboration through a cluster. Contact Institute Director Stephan Eidenbenz (505) 667-3742 Email Professional Staff Assistant Nickole Aguilar Garcia (505) 665-3048 Email Scientific visualization hardware and software tools enable researchers to better understand large data sets. Complimenting resources in the SCC, the Scientific

  11. EERE Student Volunteer Internship Program (SVIP) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Employment Opportunities » EERE Employment Benefits EERE Employment Benefits A photo of a young Asian female working on her laptop in an outdoor setting, near an office building. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) staffs enjoy all of the great rewards of being a government employee. Learn more at these pages at the Office of Personnel Management website: Health care and other benefits for new federal employees Retirement benefits Insurance programs Work / life

  12. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  13. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  14. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  15. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Wednesday, 27 February 2013 00:00 Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile

  16. NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings - News Feature |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings October 7, 2015 Photo shows two people sitting in a white room, holding smartphones in front of laptops. Scott Jensen and Grace Brown were the first volunteers to take part in testing in NREL's Comfort Suite (C-Suite). Photo by Dennis Schroeder On a typical early fall morning in Golden, Colorado, the temperature outside was about 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Tucked inside a unique structure at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy

  17. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Foundry Scientists Discover Surprising New Properties in a 2-D Semiconductor In the world of semiconductors, impurities and defects can be a good thing. They modify the properties of materials such as silicon, and scientists can exploit these properties to develop better transistors for laptops, smart phones, and solar cells. Recently, a new class of semiconductor was discovered that is only three atoms thick and which extends in a two-dimensional plane, similar to graphene. These 2-D

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Internships & Co-ops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internships & Co-ops Internships & Co-ops Technical Institute Programs How to Apply Benefits FAQs Fellowships Postdoctoral Positions Campus Recruiting Careers Internships & Co-ops Student working on laptop An internship with real-world application Mentoring, training, and practical work experience in a world-class research environment Intrigued by the possibility of applying classroom theory in a real-world work environment? Consider Sandia. Each year, Sandia welcomes students from

  19. Los Alamos STEM Challenge registration due April 12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos STEM Challenge registration due April 12 Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos STEM Challenge registration due April 12 Submission deadline April 30. April 1, 2013 Two students at work on a laptop Videos, posters, apps and essays are all possible submissions for the upcoming STEM Challenge for students. Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community

  20. Computing Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information From here you can find information relating to: Obtaining the right computer accounts. Using NIC terminals. Using BooNE's Computing Resources, including: Choosing your desktop. Kerberos. AFS. Printing. Recommended applications for various common tasks. Running CPU- or IO-intensive programs (batch jobs) Commonly encountered problems Computing support within BooNE Bringing a computer to FNAL, or purchasing a new one. Laptops. The Computer Security Program Plan for MiniBooNE The

  1. Audit Report: IG-0768 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Audit Report: IG-0768 June 22, 2007 Facility Contractor Acquisition and Management of Information Technology Hardware The Department of Energy relies heavily on information technology (IT) to accomplish its science, weapons, energy supply and environmental mission objectives. In the past three years, the Department has spent more than $400 million on IT hardware to facilitate these efforts. Items routinely acquired by the Department included desktop and laptop computers and associated

  2. Lithium | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Subscribe to RSS - Lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid cars. What may not be so well known is the fact that researchers hoping to harness the energy released in fusion reactions also have used lithium to coat the walls of donut-shaped tokamak reactors. Lithium, it turns out, may help the plasmas fueling fusion reactions to retain heat for longer periods of time. This could

  3. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-12-005 New Mexico.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 SECTION A. Project Title: Equipment Upgrade for the UNM AGN-201M Reactor - University of New Mexico SECTION B. Project Description The University of New Mexico will acquire a computer and associated hardware to measure control rod scram times, a laptop computer and associated electronics such as MCS and MCA systems for operating a High Purity Germanium detector, a Frisker and micro R meter for personnel protection and radiation surveys, a new interface for the data channel, NCRP reports, and

  4. Newsletter Jan draft 010512.pub

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Green Holidays Fuel Cell Lights Up Festivities at Secretary Chu's Holiday Party For the first time ever, DOE's annual holiday party featured lights powered by a clean, efficient fuel cell. The portable fuel cell, made by Trulite, generates roughly 150 watts of power and is a clean energy solution for recharging laptops, cell phones, and other everyday low-energy demand appliances. The use of a clean, renewable technology at DOE's headquarters was appreciated by DOE employees. "It's great to

  5. through Los Alamos National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area schools get new computers through Los Alamos National Laboratory, IBM partnership May 8, 2009 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, May 8, 2009-Thanks to a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory and IBM, Northern New Mexico schools are recipients of fully loaded desktop and laptop computers. Officials from the Laboratory's Community Programs Office, the Española School Board, and elected officials including Española Mayor Joseph Maestas recently dedicated the technology center at Española

  6. Multicore: Fallout From a Computing Evolution (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yelick, Kathy [Director, NERSC

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: Parallel computing used to be reserved for big science and engineering projects, but in two years that's all changed. Even laptops and hand-helds use parallel processors. Unfortunately, the software hasn't kept pace. Kathy Yelick, Director of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Berkeley Lab, describes the resulting chaos and the computing community's efforts to develop exciting applications that take advantage of tens or hundreds of processors on a single chip.

  7. Inspection Report: IG-0597 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Inspection Report: IG-0597 April 24, 2003 Inspection of Internal Controls Over Personal Computers at Los Alamos National Laboratory Computers are used extensively in the full range of operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including processing classified national security information. LANL reported an inventory of approximately 5,000 laptop and 30,000 desktop computers at the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2002. Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL property policies identify

  8. CSAT Course Catalog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Training » Cybersecurity Training Warehouse » DOE Training & Education » CSAT Course Catalog CSAT Course Catalog laptop-1031224_960_720.jpg The Cyber Security Training and Awareness (CSAT) Course Catalog offers: cybersecurity awareness materials cybersecurity training for general users training for personnel with a cybersecurity functional role role-based training modules vendor courses that address core competency knowledge requirements CSAT Course Catalog (738.85 KB) More

  9. Career Map: Buyer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buyer Career Map: Buyer A purchasing manager looks over his notes on a laptop with a binder in front of him. Buyer Position Title Buyer Alternate Title(s) Purchasing Agent, Purchasing Specialist, Commodity Manager, Purchasing Manager Education & Training Level Mid-level, Bachelor's degree preferred Education & Training Level Description Although educational requirements for buyers may vary by the size of the organization and the type of product, all need extensive on-the-job training.

  10. Multicore: Fallout from a Computing Evolution

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Yelick, Kathy [Director, NERSC

    2009-09-01

    July 22, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Parallel computing used to be reserved for big science and engineering projects, but in two years that's all changed. Even laptops and hand-helds use parallel processors. Unfortunately, the software hasn't kept pace. Kathy Yelick, Director of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at Berkeley Lab, describes the resulting chaos and the computing community's efforts to develop exciting applications that take advantage of tens or hundreds of processors on a single chip.

  11. Crystal nucleation and near-epitaxial growth in nacre

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystal nucleation and near-epitaxial growth in nacre Crystal nucleation and near-epitaxial growth in nacre Print Thursday, 12 December 2013 13:56 Nacre--the iridescent inner lining of many mollusk shells-- has a unique strcuture that is remarkably resistant to fracture. The nacre featured on this cover is from Haliotis laevigata with average layer thickness 470-nm. The colors represent crystal orientationthe crystal lattice tilts across tablets.left stack all tablets are yellow, hence all

  12. Time dependent changes in Schottky barrier mapping of the W/Si(001) interface utilizing ballistic electron emission microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durcan, Chris A.; Balsano, Robert; LaBella, Vincent P.

    2015-06-28

    The W/Si(001) Schottky barrier height is mapped to nanoscale dimensions using ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) over a period of 21 days to observe changes in the interface electrostatics. Initially, the average spectrum is fit to a Schottky barrier height of 0.71 eV, and the map is uniform with 98% of the spectra able to be fit. After 21 days, the average spectrum is fit to a Schottky barrier height of 0.62 eV, and the spatial map changes dramatically with only 27% of the spectra able to be fit. Transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of an ultra-thin tungsten silicide at the interface, which increases in thickness over the 21 days. This increase is attributed to an increase in electron scattering and the changes are observed in the BEEM measurements. Interestingly, little to no change is observed in the I-V measurements throughout the 21 day period.

  13. TRACING ELECTRON BEAMS IN THE SUN'S CORONA WITH RADIO DYNAMIC IMAGING SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Bin; Bastian, T. S.; White, S. M.; Gary, D. E.; Perley, R.; Rupen, M.; Carlson, B.

    2013-01-20

    We report observations of type III radio bursts at decimeter wavelengths (type IIIdm bursts)-signatures of suprathermal electron beams propagating in the low corona-using the new technique of radio dynamic imaging spectroscopy provided by the recently upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. For the first time, type IIIdm bursts were imaged with high time and frequency resolution over a broad frequency band, allowing electron beam trajectories in the corona to be deduced. Together with simultaneous hard X-ray and extreme ultraviolet observations, we show that these beams emanate from an energy release site located in the low corona at a height below {approx}15 Mm, and propagate along a bundle of discrete magnetic loops upward into the corona. Our observations enable direct measurements of the plasma density along the magnetic loops, and allow us to constrain the diameter of these loops to be less than 100 km. These overdense and ultra-thin loops reveal the fundamentally fibrous structure of the Sun's corona. The impulsive nature of the electron beams, their accessibility to different magnetic field lines, and the detailed structure of the magnetic release site revealed by the radio observations indicate that the localized energy release is highly fragmentary in time and space, supporting a bursty reconnection model that involves secondary magnetic structures for magnetic energy release and particle acceleration.

  14. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  15. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  16. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-06

    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  17. Coupling single giant nanocrystal quantum dots to the fundamental mode of patch nanoantennas through fringe field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S.; Minh Nguyen, Hue; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Htoon, Han

    2015-09-23

    Through single dot spectroscopy and numerical simulation studies, we demonstrate that the fundamental mode of gold patch nanoantennas have fringe-field resonance capable of enhancing the nano-emitters coupled around the edge of the patch antenna. This fringe-field coupling is used to enhance the radiative rates of core/thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQDs) that cannot be embedded into the ultra-thin dielectric gap of patch nanoantennas due to their large sizes. We attain 14 and 3 times enhancements in single exciton radiative decay rate and bi-exciton emission efficiencies of g-NQDs respectively, with no detectable metal quenching. Our numerical studies confirmed our experimental results andmore » further reveal that patch nanoantennas can provide strong emission enhancement for dipoles lying not only in radial direction of the circular patches but also in the direction normal to the antennas surface. Finally, this provides a distinct advantage over the parallel gap-bar antennas that can provide enhancement only for the dipoles oriented across the gap.« less

  18. Overview of LANL short-pulse ion acceleration activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flippo, Kirk A.; Schmitt, Mark J.; Offermann, Dustin; Cobble, James A.; Gautier, Donald; Kline, John; Workman, Jonathan; Archuleta, Fred; Gonzales, Raymond; Hurry, Thomas; Johnson, Randall; Letzring, Samuel; Montgomery, David; Reid, Sha-Marie; Shimada, Tsutomu; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Bussman, Michael; Kluge, Thomas; Cowan, Thomas E.; Rassuchine, Jenny M.; Lowenstern, Mario E.; Mucino, J. Eduardo; Gall, Brady; Korgan, Grant; Malekos, Steven; Adams, Jesse; Bartal, Teresa; Chawla, Surgreev; Higginson, Drew; Beg, Farhat; Nilson, Phil; Mac Phee, Andrew; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hey, Daniel; Mac Kinnon, Andy; Geissel, Mattias; Schollmeier, Marius; Stephens, Rich

    2009-12-02

    An overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's activities related to short-pulse ion acceleration is presented. LANL is involved is several projects related to Inertial Confinement Fusion (Fast Ignition) and Laser-Ion Acceleration. LANL has an active high energy X-ray backlighter program for radiographing ICF implosions and other High Energy Density Laboratory Physics experiments. Using the Trident 200TW laser we are currently developing high energy photon (>10 keV) phase contrast imaging techniques to be applied on Omega and the NIF. In addition we are engaged in multiple programs in laser ion acceleration to boost the ion energies and efficiencies for various potential applications including Fast Ignition, active material interrogation, and medical applications. Two basic avenues to increase ion performance are currently under study: one involves ultra-thin targets and the other involves changing the target geometry. We have recently had success in boosting proton energies above 65 MeV into the medical application range. Highlights covered in the presentation include: The Trident Laser System; X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging for ICF and HEDLP; Improving TNSA Ion Acceleration; Scaling Laws; Flat Targets; Thin Targets; Cone Targets; Ion Focusing;Trident; Omega EP; Scaling Comparisons; and, Conclusions.

  19. Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

  20. Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F. Dubois, E.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-03-16

    The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of 'thermocrystals' or 'nanophononic crystals' that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known “electron crystal-phonon glass” dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.

  1. Realization of highly crystallographic three-dimensional nanosheets by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharooni, M.; Hosseini, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir; Taghinejad, M.; Taghinejad, H. [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y. [Nano-Physics Research Lab, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439955961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Morphologically controlled nanostructures have been increasingly important because of their strongly shape dependent physical and chemical properties. Formation of nanoscale silicon based structures that employ high levels of strain, intentional, and unintentional twins or grain boundaries can be dramatically different from the commonly conceived bulk processes. We report, realization of highly crystallographic 3D nanosheets with unique morphology and ultra-thin thickness by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method, based on plasma processing of metal layer deposited on Si substrate and its post deep reactive ion etching. Annealing in plasma ambient creates rod-like metal alloy precursors which induce stress at its interface with Si substrate due to the mismatch of lattice constants. This stress opens facilitated gateways for orientated-diffusion of metal atoms in ?110? directions and leads to formation of NSs (nanosheets) with [111] crystalline essence. Nanosheets are mainly triangular, hexagonal, or pseudo hexagonal in shape and their thicknesses are well controlled from several to tens of nanometers. The structural and morphological evolution of features were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope and possible mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the thermodynamically unfavorable morphology of nanosheets. Significant photoemission capability of NSs was also demonstrated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  2. Controlling formation fines at their sources to maintain well productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Rickman, R.D.; Dusterhoft, R.G.; Parker, M.A.

    2007-05-15

    Migration of formation fines has been shown to cause production decline in many wells. Despite the availability of new downhole tools for use in well stimulation and completion, the ability to sustain desired production levels is often plagued with fines migration problems. The solution to this problem is appropriate treatment to mitigate fines migration at its source. This paper describes the use of an ultra-thin tackifying agent (UTTA) for stabilizing fines in high-rate producing or injection wells. This UTTA is applied as part of an initial prepad in fracturing or gravel-packing operations, as a remedial treatment, or as a post-treatment following acid fracturing or matrix acidizing treatments. The primary purpose of UTTA application is to immobilize formation fines so that they will not detach, migrate with flowing fluids, plug the pore channels, and reduce the flow path permeability. Results of laboratory testing indicate that the UTTA system is applicable to most types of formation fines, including coals, sandstones, and carbonates. Once injected into the formation matrix or proppant pack, the UTTA forms a thin film on formation surfaces, encapsulating the fines. Capillary action helps pull the tackifier into the contact points, fixing the particulate in place without plugging the pore throat. The UTTA does not require a shut-in time after its application. The thin film tackifier does not harden, but remains flexible, enhancing the ability of a formation to withstand stress cycling and allowing the formation to handle high shear stress during high flow rates.

  3. Hydrogen Selective Thin Palladium-Copper Composite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hankwon; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-08-15

    Thin and defect-free PdCu composite membranes with high hydrogen permeances and selectivities were prepared by electroless plating of palladium and copper on porous alumina supports with pore sizes of 5 and 100 nm coated with intermediate layers. The intermediate layers on the 100 nm supports were prepared by the deposition of boehmite sols of different particle sizes, and provided a graded, uniform substrate for the formation of defect-free, ultra-thin palladium composite layers. The dependence of hydrogen flux on pressure difference was studied to understand the dominant mechanism of hydrogen transport through a PdCu composite membrane plated on an alumina support with a pore size of 5 nm. The order in hydrogen pressure was 0.98, and indicated that bulk diffusion through the PdCu layer was fast and the overall process was limited by external mass-transfer or a surface process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the PdCu composite membrane showed a uniform substrate created after depositing one intermediate layer on top of the alumina support and a dense PdCu composite layer with no visible defects. Cross-sectional views of the membrane showed that the PdCu composite layer had a top layer thickness of 160 nm (0.16 ?m), which is much thinner than previously reported.

  4. Ultrathin Palladium Membranes Prepared by a Novel Electric Field Assisted Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Samhun; Ko, Joon Ho; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-03-01

    Ultra-thin Pd composite membranes with a thickness of 1 ?m were prepared by a novel electric-field assisted activation technique followed by electroless deposition of Pd on a hollow-fiber ?-alumina support. The novel activation method places Pd precursors and a reducing agent on opposite sides of a porous substrate and uses an electric field to cause migration of Pd ions to the outer surface where they are reduced to form seeds in high density in a narrow spatial region. The resulting membranes showed a high hydrogen permeance in the range of 4.05.0 10{sup ?6} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} and stable H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 30009000 during stability tests for 150 h at 733 K with H{sub 2} flow. The formation of the thin, defect-less and robust Pd layer can be ascribed to the evenly distributed Pd seeds on the support layer and the enhanced bonding between the Pd layer and the support layer resulting from the strong anchoring of the Pd seeds onto the support in the new activation step.

  5. High-contrast and fast electrochromic switching enabled by plasmonics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Ting; Walter, Erich C.; Agrawal, Amit; Bohn, Christopher; Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Zhu, Wenqi; Lezec, Henri J.; Talin, A. Alec

    2016-01-27

    With vibrant colours and simple, room-temperature processing methods, electrochromic polymers have attracted attention as active materials for flexible, low-power-consuming devices. However, slow switching speeds in devices realized to date, as well as the complexity of having to combine several distinct polymers to achieve a full-colour gamut, have limited electrochromic materials to niche applications. Here we achieve fast, high-contrast electrochromic switching by significantly enhancing the interaction of light—propagating as deep-subwavelength-confined surface plasmon polaritons through arrays of metallic nanoslits, with an electrochromic polymer—present as an ultra-thin coating on the slit sidewalls. The switchable configuration retains the short temporal charge-diffusion characteristics of thinmore » electrochromic films, while maintaining the high optical contrast associated with thicker electrochromic coatings. In conclusion, we further demonstrate that by controlling the pitch of the nanoslit arrays, it is possible to achieve a full-colour response with high contrast and fast switching speeds, while relying on just one electrochromic polymer.« less

  6. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Franck Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp³ fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp² clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  7. Nanoscale pillar arrays for separations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kirchner, Teresa; Strickhouser, Rachel; Hatab, Nahla; Charlton, Jennifer; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2015-04-01

    The work presented herein evaluates silicon nano-pillar arrays for use in planar chromatography. Electron beam lithography and metal thermal dewetting protocols were used to create nano-thin layer chromatography platforms. With these fabrication methods we are able to reduce the size of the characteristic features in a separation medium below that used in ultra-thin layer chromatography; i.e. pillar heights are 1-2μm and pillar diameters are typically in the 200- 400nm range. In addition to the intrinsic nanoscale aspects of the systems, it is shown they can be further functionalized with nanoporous layers and traditional stationary phases for chromatography; hence exhibit broad-rangingmore » lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care potential. Because of an inherent high permeability and very small effective mass transfer distance between pillars, chromatographic efficiency can be very high but is enhanced herein by stacking during development and focusing while drying, yielding plate heights in the nm range separated band volumes. Practical separations of fluorescent dyes, fluorescently derivatized amines, and anti-tumor drugs are illustrated.« less

  8. The role of a LiF layer on the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/Si organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Liu, Ruiyuan; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2014-02-24

    We report an ultra-thin layer of lithium fluoride (LiF) between silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell which resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.09%. The insertion of a thin layer of LiF improved the contact between Si and Al, which decreased the contact resistance from 5.4 × 10{sup −1} Ω cm{sup 2} to 2.6 × 10{sup −2} Ω cm{sup 2}. Also, the electron transport from Si to Al was improved and charge carrier recombination was suppressed. As a result, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, and the fill factor were all improved with the presence of the LiF layer. The solar cell with the LiF/Al bilayer as a cathode displayed a 14.45% enhancement on PCE when compared with the device using pristine Al as a cathode.

  9. Preliminary Characterization and Analysis of the Designs and Research-Manufacturing Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Swartz; Gwendolyn Cheney; Williams Dawson; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Bob Remick; Harlan Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Aaron Crumm; John Holloran; Tim Armstrong

    2000-10-30

    This report summarizes the results of Phase I of a study entitled, Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells. The work was carried out by a group called the Multilayer Fuel Cell Alliance (MLFCA) led by NexTech Materials and including Adaptive Materials, Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Cobb & Co., Edison Materials Technology Center, Iowa State University, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Northwestern University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the program is to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. In the Phase I effort, five approaches were considered: two based on NexTech's planar approach using anode and cathode supported variations, one based on UMR's ultra-thin electrolyte approach, and two based on AMI's co-extrusion technology. Based on a detailed manufacturing cost analysis, all of the approaches are projected to result in a significantly reduced production cost. Projected costs range from $139/kW to $179/kW for planar designs. Development risks were assessed for each approach and it was determined that the NexTech and UMR approaches carried the least risk for successful development. Using advanced manufacturing methods and a proprietary high power density design, the team estimated that production costs could be reduced to $94/kW.

  10. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.moreFor ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.less