National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ultra low-sulfur low-sulfur

  1. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  2. DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy said today.

  3. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  4. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  5. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important reduction in air pollutants that contribute directly to acid rain and other adverse impacts in the United States. When all air emissions are included, low sulfur content home heating oil and utility gas are virtually equal in their environmental impacts.

  6. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W.; Tao, John C.

    1985-01-01

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  7. Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  8. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.

    1996-05-01

    Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon’s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  10. Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the implications of the new regulations for vehicle fuel efficiency and examines the technology, production, distribution, and cost implications of supplying diesel fuel to meet the new standards.

  11. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  12. Timing of Startups of the Low-Sulfur and RFS Programs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on whether supply problems could be reduced during the startup stage phases of these programs through timing changes.

  13. No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) - - - - - - 1994-2016 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) - - - - - - 1994-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) - - - - - - 1994-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) - - - - - - 1994-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) - - - - - - 1994-2016 West Coast (PADD 5)

  14. No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (PADD 2) 1.915 2.366 - - - - 1994-2014 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1.859 2.345 - - - - 1994-2014 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 1.765 2.310 - - - - 1994-2014 West Coast (PADD 5) 1.916 2.443...

  15. Use of selective oxidation of petroleum residue for production of low-sulfur coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairudinov, I.R.; Kul`chitskaya, O.V.; Imashev, U.B.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical nature of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfurous petroleum residues by cumene hydroperoxide was studied by a tracer technique. Sulfur compounds are selectively oxidized in the presence of catalytic additives of molybdenum salts. Desulfurization of distillate products and coke during coking of preoxidized raw materials was revealed.

  16. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  17. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a new, sharply lower standard for the maximum sulfur content of on-highway diesel fuel, to take effect October 1, 1993.

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Refiner No. 2 Diesel Fuel Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month No. 2 Diesel Fuel Ultra Low-Sulfur Low-Sulfur High-Sulfur Sales to End ...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Month Ultra Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Low-Sulfur Diesel ...

  20. Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In previous ICCI projects at IGT, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content is still unacceptably high at 2%. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to FTC. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches.

  1. Production of low sulfur binder pitich from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. Previously, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content (2%) was still higher than preferred. In this project two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of a moderate-sulfur (1.2%) Illinois coal as mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids from high-sulfur coal prior to FTC. In Case 1, the liquids are being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, biodesulfurization with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst is being performed on crude pitch obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT MILDGAS PRU in 1990. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are being conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. This quarter, mild gasification of IBC-109 coal was completed, producing 450 g of coal liquids, which were then distilled to recover 329 g of Case 1 crude pitch. Next month, the pitch will be subjected to FTC treatment and evaluated. Biodesulfurization experiments were performed on Case 2 pitch dispersed in l-undecanol, resulting in sulfur reductions of 15.1 to 21.4%. This was marginally lower than the 24.8% desulfurization obtained in l-dodecanol, but separation of pitch from the dispersant was facilitated by the greater volatility of l-undecanol.

  2. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Fuel security for the military The recent idling of two Philadelphia-area refineries and ... The sulfur composition of distillates is key to classification: Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel ...

  3. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  4. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  5. Shell. The Evolution of Movement Continues

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Focus of presentation is on emergence of future diesel fuel technologires and fule properties compare to ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel properties.

  6. DOE Awards Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that new contracts have been awarded for commercial storage of 650,000 barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.

  7. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of the NOx adsorber system with catalyst aged to useful life conditions (simulated 120k miles), comparing performance betweem B20 fuel blend and base ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel

  8. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    season limits the sulfur content of home heating oil to 15 parts per million (ppm), matching the sulfur content limit for ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD). This change...

  9. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in spot or futures prices is the move towards ultra-low-sulfur diesel. With the transition from diesel fuel with a sulfur content of up to 500 parts per million (ppm) to...

  10. Releases from the Heating Oil Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR), a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur distillate (diesel), was created to build a buffer to allow commercial companies to compensate for...

  11. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel Concentrations ...

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    It also includes sewage treatment facilities. Common uses of ... No. 2 Diesel Fuel, Ultra Low Sulfur No. 2 diesel fuel that ... that has a distillation temperature of 640 degrees ...

  13. Heating Oil Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Oil Reserve Heating Oil Reserve The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve is a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur distillate (diesel) that provides protection for homes and businesses in the northeastern United States should a disruption in supplies occur. The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve is a one million barrel supply of ultra low sulfur distillate (diesel) that provides protection for homes and businesses in the northeastern United States should a disruption in supplies

  14. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  15. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2

  16. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...... 0.478 0.573 0.542 0.548 0.470 0.369 0.409 0.374 0.453 0.451 0.430 0.387 2016 No. 2 Distillate Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel New York Harbor ...

  17. DOE Seeks Commercial Storage to Complete Fill of Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy, through its agent DLA Energy, has issued a solicitation seeking commercial storage contracts for the remaining 350,000 barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate needed to complete the fill of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.

  18. Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Violet Waterworks Water Disinfecting Device Saves Lives Resources with Additional Information Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW) device Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW) is a...

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January 2016 Appendix D Northeast Reserves Reserves inventories are not considered to be in the commercial sector and are excluded from EIA's commercial motor gasoline and distillate fuel oil supply and disposition statistics, such as those reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and This Week In Petroleum. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve classifed as ultra-low sulfur distillate (15 parts per million) Terminal Operator Location Thousand Barrels Buckeye

  20. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  1. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  2. Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses | Department of Energy 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: BP PDF icon 2002_deer_smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses CNG and Diesel Transite Bus Emissions in Review

  3. U. S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Annual 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration/Petroleum Supply Annual 2014 1 Appendix C Northeast Heating Oil Reserve Information on the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve is available from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Petroleum Reserves web site at http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/reserves/heatingoil/. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) inventories now classifed as ultra-low sulfur distillate (15 parts per million) are not considered to be in the commercial sector and therefore are excluded from

  4. 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: Southwest Research Institute PDF icon 2004_deer_khalek.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of

  5. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Diesel Fuel Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, cash self-serve on-highway diesel prices (including taxes) are collected from a sample of approximately 400 retail diesel outlets in the continental U.S. The sample includes a combination of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The prices

  6. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail on-highway diesel prices are collected by telephone and fax from a sample of approximately 350 retail diesel outlets, including truck stops and service stations. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that all on-highway diesel sold be ULSD by December 1, 2010 (September 1, 2006 in California). In January 2007, the

  7. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan; Ma, Xiaoliang; Sprague, Michael J.; Subramani, Velu

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  8. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra- lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Petroleum Marketing...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... November 1995 Environmental Regulations and Changes in the Petroleum Refining Operations . ... November 1994 Impact of New Low-Sulfur Diesel Requirements, October through December 1993 ...

  10. Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Violet Waterworks Water Disinfecting Device Saves Lives Resources with Additional ... and low-maintenance mechanism that uses ultraviolet light to cheaply disinfect water. ...

  11. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  12. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-01-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

  13. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultra High Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Ultra High Temperature Dictionary.png Ultra High...

  14. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  15. DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Seeks Commercial Storage for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve March 14, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy, through its agent, DLA Energy, has issued a solicitation for new contracts to store two million barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve in New York Harbor and New England. Offers are due no later than 9:00 a.m. EDT on March

  16. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  17. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, cash self-serve on-highway diesel prices (including taxes) are collected from a sample of approximately 400 retail diesel outlets in the continental U.S. The sample includes a combination of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The prices are collected via telephone, fax, email, or the internet from

  18. DOE Awards Support Service Contract | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve DOE Awards Storage Contracts for Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve August 18, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that new contracts have been awarded for commercial storage of 650,000 barrels of ultra low sulfur distillate (ULSD) for the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR). Awards were made to two companies for storage in New England--Hess Corporation

  19. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.

  20. Estimating Impacts of Diesel Fuel Reformulation with Vector-based Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2003-01-23

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the refining cost, investment, and operating impacts of specifications for reformulated diesel fuel (RFD) produced in refineries of the U.S. Midwest in summer of year 2010. The study evaluates different diesel fuel reformulation investment pathways. The study also determines whether there are refinery economic benefits for producing an emissions reduction RFD (with flexibility for individual property values) compared to a vehicle performance RFD (with inflexible recipe values for individual properties). Results show that refining costs are lower with early notice of requirements for RFD. While advanced desulfurization technologies (with low hydrogen consumption and little effect on cetane quality and aromatics content) reduce the cost of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, these technologies contribute to the increased costs of a delayed notice investment pathway compared to an early notice investment pathway for diesel fuel reformulation. With challenging RFD specifications, there is little refining benefit from producing emissions reduction RFD compared to vehicle performance RFD. As specifications become tighter, processing becomes more difficult, blendstock choices become more limited, and refinery benefits vanish for emissions reduction relative to vehicle performance specifications. Conversely, the emissions reduction specifications show increasing refinery benefits over vehicle performance specifications as specifications are relaxed, and alternative processing routes and blendstocks become available. In sensitivity cases, the refinery model is also used to examine the impact of RFD specifications on the economics of using Canadian synthetic crude oil. There is a sizeable increase in synthetic crude demand as ultra low sulfur diesel fuel displaces low sulfur diesel fuel, but this demand increase would be reversed by requirements for diesel fuel reformulation.

  1. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-06-04

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, {+-}UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 21 figs.

  2. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  3. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-09-06

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, [+-] UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals. 16 figs.

  4. Ultra-wideband receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) receiver utilizes a strobed input line with a sampler connected to an amplifier. In a differential configuration, .+-.UWB inputs are connected to separate antennas or to two halves of a dipole antenna. The two input lines include samplers which are commonly strobed by a gating pulse with a very low duty cycle. In a single ended configuration, only a single strobed input line and sampler is utilized. The samplers integrate, or average, up to 10,000 pulses to achieve high sensitivity and good rejection of uncorrelated signals.

  5. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2003-07-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the eleventh quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in unacceptable erosion of the test specimens. In subsequent tests, a different expansion procedure was implemented and an alternate curing method for cements formulated with TXI Lightweight cement was employed to prevent sample failure caused by thermal shock. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but data for some compositions were still questionable. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement were implemented and testing is ongoing.

  6. Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  7. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories shown, e.g., sales to agricultural customers or utilities. 3 Includes sales of No. 2 fuel oil and high- and low-sulfur...

  8. On-Road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.; Na, K.; Robertson, W.; Sahay, K.; Bogdanoff, M.; Weaver, C.; Carlson, R.

    2010-03-01

    Emissions changes for a 2005 International tractor operating on low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel in Santa Monica were measured to demonstrate performance and impacts of selective catalytic reduction.

  9. Successful development and application of high performance plate steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    New high performance plate steels (HPPS) are developed in reaction to customer requirements and the availability of essential steelmaking facilities. In this decade significant improvements to steelmaking equipment has made possible the development and production of a variety of new HPPS. Four case studies are presented reviewing the key metallurgical needs and the innovative steel processing that was required. These applications include: (1) Hydrogen Induced Cracking Resistant A516 C-Mn pressure vessel steel with ultra low sulfur and controlled carbon equivalent levels, (2) Temper Embrittlement Resistant A387 Cr-Mo alloy steels for high temperature pressure vessels with low phosphorus, J Factor and sulfur levels with high toughness, (3) formable, weldable, 400HB abrasion resistant alloy steels, which are produced with extra low sulfur levels, reduced carbon and carbon equivalent levels and rigorous heat treatment controls, and (4) weldable, high strength structural steels with low carbon levels, based on Cu-Ni precipitation hardening and A710. Future opportunities for HPPS will result with the installation of additional new steelmaking facilities.

  10. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fissionfusion applications require materials that are mechanically and...

  11. ultra_deepwater | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Policy Act of 2005 The Energy Policy Act of 2005 charges NETL with review and ... ultra-deepwater and unconventional natural gas and other petroleum resource exploration ...

  12. ULTRA-DEEP WATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ULTRA-DEEP WATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 2014 ULTRA-DEEPWATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS i Table of Contents Research and Development Program Committee ............................................ 1 Sunset Committee .................................................................................................. 5 Advisory Committee Members ........................................................................... 7 ULTRA-DEEPWATER

  13. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

  14. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  15. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  16. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  17. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  18. Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee Ultra-deepwater architecture and technology. | Graphic ... gas and other petroleum resources, and review and comment on the program's annual plan. ...

  19. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was delivered at the ...

  20. Ultra-Efficient Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Design for Efficiency Ultra-Efficient Home Design Ultra-Efficient Home Design All Kaupuni Village homes in Oahu, Hawaii, incorporate energy efficiency and renewable ...

  1. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  2. Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Amorphous Shape Memory polymer Foams. You are accessing a ...

  3. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by ...

  4. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pm029allard2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst...

  5. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  6. Ultra-wideband directional sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-14

    The Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Directional Sampler is a four port device that combines the function of a directional coupler with a high speed sampler. Two of the four ports operate at a high sub-nanosecond speed, in ``real time``, and the other two ports operate at a slow millisecond-speed, in ``equivalent time``. A signal flowing inbound to either of the high speed ports is sampled and coupled, in equivalent time, to the adjacent equivalent time port while being isolated from the opposite equivalent time port. A primary application is for a time domain reflectometry (TDR) situation where the reflected pulse returns while the outbound pulse is still being transmitted, such as when the reflecting discontinuity is very close to the TDR apparatus. 3 figs.

  7. Ultra-wideband directional sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Directional Sampler is a four port device that combines the function of a directional coupler with a high speed sampler. Two of the four ports operate at a high sub-nanosecond speed, in "real time", and the other two ports operate at a slow millisecond-speed, in "equivalent time". A signal flowing inbound to either of the high speed ports is sampled and coupled, in equivalent time, to the adjacent equivalent time port while being isolated from the opposite equivalent time port. A primary application is for a time domain reflectometry (TDR) situation where the reflected pulse returns while the outbound pulse is still being transmitted, such as when the reflecting discontinuity is very close to the TDR apparatus.

  8. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  9. Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NO

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    into a 65-kilowatt (kW) microturbine and 100-horsepower (HP) heat recovery boiler. ... Ultra-Low-NO x (ULN) burner into a 65 kW microturbine and a heat recovery boiler. ...

  10. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

  11. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Wednesday, 29 June 2011 00:00 Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds

  12. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  13. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  14. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  15. Impact of Biodiesel on the Oxidation Kinetics and Morphology of Diesel Particulate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Toops, Todd J; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    We compare the oxidation characteristics of four different diesel particulates generated with a modern light-duty engine. The four particulates represent engine fueling with conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), biodiesel, and two intermediate blends of these fuels. The comparisons discussed here are based on complementary measurements implemented in a laboratory micro-reactor, including temperature programmed desorption and oxidation, pulsed isothermal oxidation, and BET surface area. From these measurements we have derived models that are consistent with the observed oxidation reactivity differences. When accessible surface area effects are properly accounted for, the oxidation kinetics of the fixed carbon components were found to consistently exhibit an Arrhenius activation energy of 113 6 kJ/mol. Release of volatile carbon from the as-collected particulate appears to follow a temperaturedependent rate law.

  16. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul; Fuchs, Benjamin S.; Booten, Chuck W.

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  17. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  18. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylinder chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.

  19. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1999-03-16

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks. 2 figs.

  20. Ultra-wideband impedance sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultra-wideband impedance sensor (UWBZ sensor, or Z-sensor) is implemented in differential and single-ended configurations. The differential UWBZ sensor employs a sub-nanosecond impulse to determine the balance of an impedance bridge. The bridge is configured as a differential sample-and-hold circuit that has a reference impedance side and an unknown impedance side. The unknown impedance side includes a short transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The single-ended UWBZ sensor eliminates the reference side of the bridge and is formed of a sample and hold circuit having a transmission line whose impedance is a function of the near proximity of objects. The sensing range of the transmission line is bounded by the two-way travel time of the impulse, thereby eliminating spurious Doppler modes from large distant objects that would occur in a microwave CW impedance bridge. Thus, the UWBZ sensor is a range-gated proximity sensor. The Z-sensor senses the near proximity of various materials such as metal, plastic, wood, petroleum products, and living tissue. It is much like a capacitance sensor, yet it is impervious to moisture. One broad application area is the general replacement of magnetic sensors, particularly where nonferrous materials need to be sensed. Another broad application area is sensing full/empty levels in tanks, vats and silos, e.g., a full/empty switch in water or petroleum tanks.

  1. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  2. Locality and rapidity of the ultra-large elastic deformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Locality and rapidity of the ultra-large elastic deformation of Nb nanowires in a NiTi phase-transforming matrix Title: Locality and rapidity of the ultra-large elastic deformation ...

  3. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented at the 2010 New ...

  4. Ultra Soy of America DBA USA Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultra Soy of America DBA USA Biofuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ultra Soy of America (DBA USA Biofuels) Place: Fort Wayne, Indiana Zip: 46898 Sector: Biofuels Product: An...

  5. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy...

  6. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Watch the ultrasonic technology dry a piece of fabric in 14 ...

  7. Discovery of Hidden Dimensions in Information Space and Ultra...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Ultra-High Density Memory. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery of Hidden Dimensions in Information Space and Ultra-High Density Memory. Abstract not provided. ...

  8. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from the LANSCE super-thermal ...

  9. Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee Members | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee » Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee Members Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee Members 2013-2014 Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee Members Dr. George A. Cooper* Professor University of California, Berkeley Dr. Quenton R. Dokken President/CEO Gulf of Mexico Foundation Dr. Hartley H. Downs Technology Fellow Baker Hughes Incorporated Dr. Douglas J. Foster Senior Scientist ConocoPhillips Mr. James D. Litton* President and CEO Litton Consulting Group, Inc. Mr. D.

  10. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would open many markets for waste heat recovery applications. By installing Hi-Z's materials in applications in which electricity could be produced from waste heat sources could result in significant energy savings as well as emissions reductions. For example, if QW thermoelectric generators could be introduced commercially in 2015, and assuming they could also capture an additional 0.1%/year of the available waste heat from the aluminum, steel, and iron industries, then by 2020, their use would lead to a 2.53 trillion Btu/year reduction in energy consumption. This translates to a $12.9 million/year energy savings, and 383.6 million lb's of CO2 emissions reduction per year. Additionally, Hi-Z would expect that the use of QW TE devices in the automotive, manufacturing, and energy generation industries would reduce the USA's petroleum and fossil fuel dependence, and thus significantly reduce emissions from CO2 and other polluting gasses such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter (PM), etc.

  11. Ultra-wideband radar sensors and networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, Jr., Richard R; Nekoogar, Faranak; Haugen, Peter C

    2013-08-06

    Ultra wideband radar motion sensors strategically placed in an area of interest communicate with a wireless ad hoc network to provide remote area surveillance. Swept range impulse radar and a heart and respiration monitor combined with the motion sensor further improves discrimination.

  12. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  13. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  14. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalibjian, Ralph (1051 Batavia Ave., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  15. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  16. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  17. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  18. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  19. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  20. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  1. Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Novel Ultra-Incompressible Materials Print Some current challenges in aerospace engineering and fission/fusion applications require materials that are mechanically and chemically stable at extreme conditions. One such class of materials is ultrahigh-temperature ceramics, which are often binary transition-metal carbides, borides, or nitrides. It is therefore of great interest to understand how to synthesize new compounds of this type. A research team from Germany, the United Kingdom, and

  2. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    This report contains the following: Bibliography; Petroleum Market Model abstract; Data quality; Estimation methodologies (includes refinery investment recovery thresholds, gas plant models, chemical industry demand for methanol, estimation of refinery fixed costs, estimation of distribution costs, estimation of taxes gasoline specifications, estimation of gasoline market shares, estimation of low-sulfur diesel market shares, low-sulfur diesel specifications, estimation of regional conversion coefficients, estimation of SO{sub 2} allowance equations, unfinished oil imports methodology, product pipeline capacities and tariffs, cogeneration methodology, natural gas plant fuel consumption, and Alaskan crude oil exports); Matrix generator documentation; Historical data processing; and Biofuels supply submodule.

  3. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Diesel, Low-Sulfur Prices - Sales to End Users ",9,"Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","5/2/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","6/1/2016"

  5. Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 | Department of Energy Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Presentation on an Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System, given by Jim Zurlo of Dresser Waukesha, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed

  6. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Program | Department of Energy Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program The Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research Program, launched by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), is a public/private partnership valued at $400 million over eight years that is designed to benefit consumers by developing

  7. Ultra-Efficient Home Design | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenneth Kelly, NREL. What does this mean for me? Lower energy bills and improved comfort Energy reliability and security Environmental sustainability < Ultra-efficient home design...

  8. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, ...

  9. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  10. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-deepwater architecture and technology (35% of funds). Unconventional natural gas and ... development and implementation, and review and comment on the program's annual plan. ...

  11. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer ...

  12. Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films Citation Details ... OSTI Identifier: 22089363 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  13. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to...

  14. Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel ...

  15. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ...

  16. Simulation of the Event Reconstruction of Ultra High Energy Cosmic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Simulation of the Event Reconstruction of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos with Askaryan Radio Array Authors: Sun, Shang-Yu ; Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. ; Chen, Pisin ; ...

  17. Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011 ...

  18. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Shape Memory ...

  19. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams ...

  20. Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational Performance of Ultra-High-Resolution Capability in the Community Earth System Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Performance of ...

  1. ULTRA-DEEP WATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ULTRA-DEEPWATER ADVISORY COMMITTEE COMMITTEE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7 Advisory Committee Members Dr. George Cooper* University of California, Berkeley Dr. Quenton R. Dokken ...

  2. Ultra-stable Gold Nanocatalysts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ultra-stable Gold Nanocatalysts Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology...

  3. New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New stable Re-B phases for ultra-hard materials As a distinct class of ultra-hard...

  4. BAKABLE ULTRA-HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, J.T.; Gantz, I.H.

    1962-07-10

    S>This patent relates to a valve useful in applications involving successively closing and opening a communication between a chamber evacuated to an ultra-high vacuum condition of the order of 10/sup -10/ millimeters of mercury and another chamber or the ambient. The valve is capable of withstanding extended baking at 450 deg C and repeated opening and closing without repiacement of the valve seat (approximately 200 cycle limit). The seal is formed by mutual interdiffusion weld, coerced by a pneumatic actuator. (AEC)

  5. Ultra-wideband radar motion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-11-01

    A motion sensor is based on ultra-wideband (UWB) radar. UWB radar range is determined by a pulse-echo interval. For motion detection, the sensors operate by staring at a fixed range and then sensing any change in the averaged radar reflectivity at that range. A sampling gate is opened at a fixed delay after the emission of a transmit pulse. The resultant sampling gate output is averaged over repeated pulses. Changes in the averaged sampling gate output represent changes in the radar reflectivity at a particular range, and thus motion. 15 figs.

  6. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-30

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  7. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  8. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace064_confer_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

  9. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  10. Materials Exposure Testing Market Expands with Ultra-Accelerated Weathering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System | NREL Materials Exposure Testing Market Expands with Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System In this video, NREL researchers Gary Jorgenson and Carl Bingham discuss the NREL-developed, ultra-accelerated weathering system and its ability to revolutionize the weathering industry

  11. Subsea valve actuator for ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.Z.; Skeels, H.B.; Montemayor, B.K.; Williams, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews the continuing development of gate valve and actuator technology for subsea completions extending into ultra deep water. The basic technical challenges inherent to subsea valve actuators are reviewed, along with the various factors which affect the design and performance of these devices in deepwater applications. The high external ambient pressures which occur in deep water, coupled with high specific gravity hydraulic control fluids, are shown to have a significant impact on the performance of the actuators. This paper presents design and analysis methods and the verification test procedures which are required to develop and qualify new deep water actuator designs. Gate valve actuators of the type described in this paper are currently in use on subsea christmas trees on the world`s deepest subsea wells offshore Brazil (water depths >3,000 feet). New applications of the deepwater actuators are in process for upcoming Gulf of Mexico subsea production systems in water depths approaching 6,000 feet. The actuator/valve development method described in this paper has been confirmed by performance verification testing of full scale valves and actuators using a hyperbaric chamber to simulate ultra deepwater operating conditions. Performance of the test valves and actuators correlated very well with analytical predictions. Test results have confirmed that the new valve actuator designs will satisfy API 17D performance requirements for water depths up to 7,500 feet, well in excess of the upcoming GOM application.

  12. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  13. Ultra-high density diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-12-11

    A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

  14. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  15. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  16. Physics of Ultra-Peripheral Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2005-02-02

    Moving highly-charged ions carry strong electromagnetic fields which act as a field of photons. In collisions at large impact parameters, hadronic interactions are not possible, and the ions interact through photon-ion and photon-photon collisions known as ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC). Hadron colliders like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce photonuclear and two-photon interactions at luminosities and energies beyond that accessible elsewhere; the LHC will reach a {gamma}p energy ten times that of the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA). Reactions as diverse as the production of anti-hydrogen, photoproduction of the {rho}{sup 0}, transmutation of lead into bismuth and excitation of collective nuclear resonances have already been studied. At the LHC, UPCs can study many types of ''new physics''.

  17. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loehman, Ronald E.; Corral, Erica L.

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  18. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-05-29

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  19. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Gary J.; Bingham, Carl; Goggin, Rita; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Netter, Judy C.

    2000-06-13

    Process and apparatus for providing ultra accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing of samples under controlled weathering without introducing unrealistic failure mechanisms in exposed materials and without breaking reciprocity relationships between flux exposure levels and cumulative dose that includes multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity at high levels of natural sunlight comprising: a) concentrating solar flux uniformly; b) directing the controlled uniform sunlight onto sample materials in a chamber enclosing multiple concurrent levels of temperature and relative humidity to allow the sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a sufficient period of time in days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth of representative weathering of the sample materials.

  20. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, Charlene

    2013-01-09

    This slideshow presents work intended to: Scale-up the Generation -1 UBT to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance, longer lifetime and lower cost; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line in 2014; and Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime. 3M has scaled up UBT for production at 1.2 meter width. 3M is conducting extensive lifetime studies including: Evaluation of customer processing and installation conditions; Indoor accelerated testing of UBT film and full CIGS modules; Outdoor testing of UBT film and CIGS modules. Results have been used to improve ultra barrier film performance for flex module applications.

  1. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FuelCell Energy, June 2011 | Department of Energy Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Presentation on Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System, given by Pinakin Patel of FuelCell Energy, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011. PDF icon

  2. Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    58.8 64.9 67.0 67.7 63.6 54.6 Dash (-) No data reported. a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories...

  3. Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 60.5 64.5 68.5 69.4 65.4 55.2 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories...

  4. Table 16. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 51.6 56.2 59.3 60.4 56.2 45.4 a Includes low-sulfur diesel fuel only. b All end-user sales not included in the other end-user categories...

  5. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  6. EIS-0092: Conversion to Coal, Holyoke Water Power Company, Mt. Tom Generating Station Unit 1 Holyoke, Hampden County, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Unit 1 of the Mt. Tom Generation Station Unit 1 from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

  7. EIS-0086: Conversion to Coal, New England Power Company, Salem Harbor Generating Station Units 1, 2, and 3, Salem, Essex County, Massachusetts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to assess the environmental impacts of prohibiting Units I, 2, and 3 of the Salem Harbor Generating Station from using either natural gas or petroleum products as a primary energy source, which would result in the utility burning low-sulfur coal.

  8. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Annual progress report of the Advanced Petroleum-based fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Project. Contains information on 5 test projects to determine the best combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emissions standards.

  9. World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.

  10. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-11-01

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  11. Ultra-short ion and neutron pulse production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Kwan, Joe W.

    2006-01-10

    An ion source has an extraction system configured to produce ultra-short ion pulses, i.e. pulses with pulse width of about 1 .mu.s or less, and a neutron source based on the ion source produces correspondingly ultra-short neutron pulses. To form a neutron source, a neutron generating target is positioned to receive an accelerated extracted ion beam from the ion source. To produce the ultra-short ion or neutron pulses, the apertures in the extraction system of the ion source are suitably sized to prevent ion leakage, the electrodes are suitably spaced, and the extraction voltage is controlled. The ion beam current leaving the source is regulated by applying ultra-short voltage pulses of a suitable voltage on the extraction electrode.

  12. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler ... Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, ...

  13. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-09-26

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  14. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-09-26

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet fieldmore » $$\\sigma$$ which has a very large VEV $$f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $$\\zeta_i$$, where $$\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $$\\sigma$$ in the $$\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$$ limit. The singlet field $$\\sigma$$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.« less

  15. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System DE-EE0003679 FuelCell Energy, ... coproduce low cost reducing gas, power and heat on site for reduction of copper powder ...

  16. An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    polymerization and porous polymer monoliths. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths. We present a platform that combines patterned photopolymerized polymer monoliths with living radical polymerization (LRP) to develop a low cost

  17. Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Drilling and Completion Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultra-Deepwater: Drilling and Completion Operations Cover images: Photograph of the North Star Imaging M-5000 industrial CT scanner (left) and 3-D renderings of a (10.4 mm) 3 digital subsection of 10% foam quality cement sample (right). Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Drilling and Completion Operations DOE/NETL-2015/1697 Prepared by: Kathy Bruner, Jennifer Funk, and Christine Rueter KeyLogic Systems, Inc. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Contact: James Ammer

  18. Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection The fundamental sensitivity limit of an appropriately scaled down mechanical resonator can approach one atomic mass unit when only thermal noise is present in the system. However, operation of such nanoscale mechanical resonators is very challenging due to minuteness of their

  19. Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials The nanostructure of very-low-density aerogels (< 10 mg/cm3) affects the laser heating and propagation of the subsequent heat front. Simulations treat these materials as an atomistic medium without any structure differentiating between

  20. Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology.

  1. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms Authors: Singhal, P ; Maitland, D J ; Wilson, T S Publication Date: 2013-05-08 OSTI

  2. Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polyurethane Foams (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Low Density and Highly Crosslinked Biocompatible Shape Memory Polyurethane Foams Authors: Singhal, P ; Rodriguez, J N ; Small IV, W ; Eagleaston, S ; De Water, J V ; Maitland, D J ; Wilson, T S Publication Date: 2011-09-15 OSTI Identifier: 1111124 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-501951 DOE Contract Number:

  3. Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    correction. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. Recent world events have underscored the need for a satellite based persistent global surveillance capability. To be useful, the satellite must be able to continuously monitor objects the size of a person anywhere on the globe

  4. Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    correction. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  5. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer The PowerPoint presentation focused on research goals, specific information about the atomic magnetometer, response and resolution factors of the SERF magnetometer, FC+AM systems, tests of field transfer and resolution on FC, gradient cancellation, testing of AM performance, ideas

  6. Ultra-Scale Computing for Emergency Evacuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nutaro, James J; Liu, Cheng; Zacharia, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Emergency evacuations are carried out in anticipation of a disaster such as hurricane landfall or flooding, and in response to a disaster that strikes without a warning. Existing emergency evacuation modeling and simulation tools are primarily designed for evacuation planning and are of limited value in operational support for real time evacuation management. In order to align with desktop computing, these models reduce the data and computational complexities through simple approximations and representations of real network conditions and traffic behaviors, which rarely represent real-world scenarios. With the emergence of high resolution physiographic, demographic, and socioeconomic data and supercomputing platforms, it is possible to develop micro-simulation based emergency evacuation models that can foster development of novel algorithms for human behavior and traffic assignments, and can simulate evacuation of millions of people over a large geographic area. However, such advances in evacuation modeling and simulations demand computational capacity beyond the desktop scales and can be supported by high performance computing platforms. This paper explores the motivation and feasibility of ultra-scale computing for increasing the speed of high resolution emergency evacuation simulations.

  7. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-02-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  8. Simulation and optimization of ultra thin photovoltaics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts pioneering research and development in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and solar cell research. This dissertation project combines these two areas to create ultra-thin small-form-factor crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. These miniature solar cells create a new class of photovoltaics with potentially novel applications and benefits such as dramatic reductions in cost, weight and material usage. At the beginning of the project, unusually low efficiencies were obtained in the research group. The intention of this research was thus to investigate the main causes of the low efficiencies through simulation, design, fabrication, and characterization. Commercial simulation tools were used to find the main causes of low efficiency. Once the causes were identified, the results were used to create improved designs and build new devices. In the simulations, parameters were varied to see the effect on the performance. The researched parameters were: resistance, wafer lifetime, contact separation, implant characteristics (size, dosage, energy, ratio between the species), contact size, substrate thickness, surface recombination, and light concentration. Out of these parameters, it was revealed that a high quality surface passivation was the most important for obtaining higher performing cells. Therefore, several approaches for enhancing the passivation were tried, characterized, and tested on cells. In addition, a methodology to contact and test the performance of all the cells presented in the dissertation under calibrated light was created. Also, next generation cells that could incorporate all the optimized layers including the passivation was designed, built, and tested. In conclusion, through this investigation, solar cells that incorporate optimized designs and passivation schemes for ultrathin solar cells were created for the first time. Through the application of the methods discussed in this document, the efficiency of the solar cells increased from below 1% to 15% in Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) devices.

  9. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  10. SciDAC Institute for Ultra-Scale Visualization: Activity Recognition for Ultra-Scale Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silver, Deborah

    2014-04-30

    Understanding the science behind ultra-scale simulations requires extracting meaning from data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. Developing scalable parallel visualization algorithms is a key step enabling scientists to interact and visualize their data at this scale. However, at extreme scales, the datasets are so huge, there is not even enough time to view the data, let alone explore it with basic visualization methods. Automated tools are necessary for knowledge discovery -- to help sift through the information and isolate characteristic patterns, thereby enabling the scientist to study local interactions, the origin of features and their evolution in large volumes of data. These tools must be able to operate on data of this scale and work with the visualization process. In this project, we developed a framework for activity detection to allow scientists to model and extract spatio-temporal patterns from time-varying data.

  11. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts This presentation ...

  12. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms You are accessing a ...

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130_Jeff Baker_Final Ultra-High Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    130Jeff BakerFinal Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1130Jeff BakerFinal Ultra-High Efficiency Commercial Buildings PDF icon Microsoft...

  14. 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Annual report on ultra-deepwater, etc. natural gas research program required by Energy Policy Act of 2005, Subtitle J, Section 999 PDF icon 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater ...

  15. Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Low-Temperature Combustion for High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines Presentation given at DEER ...

  16. Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions Advanced ...

  17. Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic ...

  18. WO3 and HPA based system for ultra high stability Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes WO3 and HPA based system for ultra high stability Innovation for Our Energy Future ultra-activity and of Pt catalysts in PEMFC cathodes These ...

  19. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld.

  20. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-26

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld. 5 figs.

  1. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  2. Hairlike appendages on ultra-small bacteria cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hairlike appendages on ultra-small bacteria cell Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) Cryo-transmission electron microscopy captured numerous hairlike appendages radiating from the surface of this ultra-small bacteria cell. The scientists theorize the pili-like structures enable the cell to connect with other microbes and obtain life-giving

  3. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- Ultra Low-Level Underground Counting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility Ultra Low-Level Underground Counting Facility Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Ultra Low-Level Underground Counting Facility The Ultra Low-Level Underground Counting Facility is the only facility of its kind in the country. This facility is located 50 feet below ground level, and has four-inch thick walls of pre-nuclear weapons era steel. This allows highly sensitive measurements of ultra-low amounts of environmental radioactivity, free from interference by background radiatio

  4. Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology (August 2013) | Department of Energy Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013) East Penn Manufacturing, through its subsidary Ecoult, has designed and constructed an energy storage facility consisting of an array of UltraBattery modules integrated in a turnkey battery energy storage system. The UltraBattery technology is a significant

  5. Ultra-Deep Drilling Cost Reduction; Design and Fabrication of an Ultra-Deep Drilling Simulator (UDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, Jason

    2010-01-31

    Ultra-deep drilling, below about 20,000 ft (6,096 m), is extremely expensive and limits the recovery of hydrocarbons at these depths. Unfortunately, rock breakage and cuttings removal under these conditions is not understood. To better understand and thus reduce cost at these conditions an ultra-deep single cutter drilling simulator (UDS) capable of drill cutter and mud tests to sustained pressure and temperature of 30,000 psi (207 MPa) and 482 °F (250 °C), respectively, was designed and manufactured at TerraTek, a Schlumberger company, in cooperation with the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. UDS testing under ultra-deep drilling conditions offers an economical alternative to high day rates and can prove or disprove the viability of a particular drilling technique or fluid to provide opportunity for future domestic energy needs.

  6. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  7. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  8. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    ConocoPhillips, in conjunction with Nexant Inc., Penn State University, and Cummins Engine Co., joined with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in a cooperative agreement to perform a comprehensive study of new ultra clean fuels (UCFs) produced from remote sources of natural gas. The project study consists of three primary tasks: an environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a Market Study, and a series of Engine Tests to evaluate the potential markets for Ultra Clean Fuels. The overall objective of DOE's Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels Initiative is to develop and deploy technologies that will produce ultra-clean burning transportation fuels for the 21st century from both petroleum and non-petroleum resources. These fuels will: (1) Enable vehicles to comply with future emission requirements; (2) Be compatible with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure; (3) Enable vehicle efficiencies to be significantly increased, with concomitantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions; (4) Be obtainable from a fossil resource, alone or in combination with other hydrocarbon materials such as refinery wastes, municipal wastes, biomass, and coal; and (5) Be competitive with current petroleum fuels. The objectives of the ConocoPhillips Ultra Clean Fuels Project are to perform a comprehensive life cycle analysis and to conduct a market study on ultra clean fuels of commercial interest produced from natural gas, and, in addition, perform engine tests for Fisher-Tropsch diesel and methanol in neat, blended or special formulations to obtain data on emissions. This resulting data will be used to optimize fuel compositions and engine operation in order to minimize the release of atmospheric pollutants resulting from the fuel combustion. Development and testing of both direct and indirect methanol fuel cells was to be conducted and the optimum properties of a suitable fuel-grade methanol was to be defined. The results of the study are also applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

  9. Erdemir receives patent for ultra-fast surface hardening technology |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Erdemir receives patent for ultra-fast surface hardening technology By Payal Marathe * August 11, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint The metal components that make up industrial machines are subject to tremendous wear and tear. But a newly patented technology by Distinguished Fellow Ali Erdemir and his team at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory could greatly extend the lifetime of mechanical parts. To protect machinery and increase longevity, several

  10. Indestructible Ultra-filtration: Ceramic HEPA Filters - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Indestructible Ultra-filtration: Ceramic HEPA Filters Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are widely used commercial products to remove airborne particulates from a gas stream in a gas process system or ventilation system. Filter life span is

  11. Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Geologic Uncertainty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geologic Uncertainty Cover Image: 3D visualization of directionally drilled boreholes in the Gulf of Mexico, field MC109, showing NETL's interpretation of two reservoir sand intervals. Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Geologic Uncertainty DOE/NETL-2015/1694 Prepared by: Mari Nichols-Haining, Jennifer Funk, Kathy Bruner, John Oelfke, and Christine Rueter KeyLogic Systems, Inc. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Contact: James Ammer james.ammer@netl.doe.gov Contract

  12. Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Surface Systems and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Systems and Umbilicals (Wellbore Stability) Research Portfolio Report Ultra-Deepwater: Surface Systems and Umbilicals (Wellbore Stability) DOE/NETL-2015/1696 Prepared by: Mari Nichols-Haining, Jennifer Funk, John Oelfke, and Christine Rueter KeyLogic Systems, Inc. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Contact: James Ammer james.ammer@netl.doe.gov Contract DE-FE0004003 Activity 4003.200.03 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

  13. Ultra-short period binaries from the Catalina Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Graham, M. J.; Mahabal, A. A.; Donalek, C.; Williams, R.; García-Álvarez, D.; Catelan, M.; Torrealba, G.; Prieto, J. L.; Abraham, S.; Larson, S.; Christensen, E.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the properties of 367 ultra-short period binary candidates selected from 31,000 sources recently identified from Catalina Surveys data. Based on light curve morphology, along with WISE, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and GALEX multi-color photometry, we identify two distinct groups of binaries with periods below the 0.22 day contact binary minimum. In contrast to most recent work, we spectroscopically confirm the existence of M dwarf+M dwarf contact binary systems. By measuring the radial velocity variations for five of the shortest-period systems, we find examples of rare cool white dwarf (WD)+M dwarf binaries. Only a few such systems are currently known. Unlike warmer WD systems, their UV flux and optical colors and spectra are dominated by the M-dwarf companion. We contrast our discoveries with previous photometrically selected ultra-short period contact binary candidates and highlight the ongoing need for confirmation using spectra and associated radial velocity measurements. Overall, our analysis increases the number of ultra-short period contact binary candidates by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates W W W W W W 1983-2016 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel 33,201.0 32,608.3 32,500.6 33,002.9 31,001.8 29,954.0 1983-2016 Propane (Consumer Grade) 5,181.2 4,202.0 5,929.0 5,678.3 8,644.8 7,412.3 1983-2016 Kerosene 2.2 W W W W W 1983-2016 No. 1 Distillate W 140.9 NA NA NA NA 1983-2016 No. 2 Distillate 13,352.4 12,748.2 12,503.0 11,795.7 12,204.5 12,694.8 1983-2016 No. 2 Diesel Fuel NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994-2016 Ultra Low-Sulfur 12,625.7 12,084.4 12,016.1 11,276.9 11,756.2

  15. Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

    2010-03-01

    Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

  16. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high‐fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high‐fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high‐fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  17. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  18. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  19. ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse; Youngquist, Adam D

    2009-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied. Comparisons with a previous study conducted at low HC levels shows that the presence of increased volatiles in the deposit does not impact the degradation in effectiveness significantly. Moreover, the effectiveness loss divided by the deposit mass gain for both low- and high-HC conditions seems to indicate that the HC fraction in the deposit does not significantly alter the overall thermal properties of the deposit layer.

  20. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and medium–high (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEMmore » imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.« less

  1. Impact of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the particulate morphology and soot nanostructures from a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Peng; Vander Wal, Randy; Boehman, Andre L.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart; Sun, Chenxi; Lapuerta, Magin; Agudelo, John

    2014-12-26

    The effect of rail pressure and biodiesel fueling on the morphology of exhaust particulate agglomerates and the nanostructure of primary particles (soot) was investigated with a common-rail turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The engine was operated at steady state on a dynamometer running at moderate speed with both low (30%) and mediumhigh (60%) fixed loads, and exhaust particulate was sampled for analysis. Ultra-low sulfur diesel and its 20% v/v blends with soybean methyl ester biodiesel were used. Fuel injection occurred in a single event around top dead center at three different injection pressures. Exhaust particulate samples were characterized with TEM imaging, scanning mobility particle sizing, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and XRD analysis. Particulate morphology and oxidative reactivity were found to vary significantly with rail pressure and with biodiesel blend level. Higher biodiesel content led to increases in the primary particle size and oxidative reactivity but did not affect nanoscale disorder in the as-received samples. For particulates generated with higher injection pressures, the initial oxidative reactivity increased, but there was no detectable correlation with primary particle size or nanoscale disorder.

  2. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system exploration missions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R lowbar eactor E lowbar nginE lowbar ), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions.

  3. Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL $200,000 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL $200,000 Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL $200,000 November 14, 2011 - 5:08pm Addthis The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Data Center marks a significant accomplishment in its ultra-efficiency. | Video courtesy of NREL. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Technician Mic Stremel works with a blade server in the green data center at the Research Support Facility. | Image courtesy of NREL, Dennis Schroeder.

  4. New Ultra-High Speed Network Connection for Researchers and Educators is 10

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers | Department of Energy Ultra-High Speed Network Connection for Researchers and Educators is 10 Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers New Ultra-High Speed Network Connection for Researchers and Educators is 10 Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers October 13, 2011 - 10:47am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the activation of an ultra-high speed network connection for scientists,

  5. 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program | Department of Energy 7 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program 2007 Annual Plan for the Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and Development Program Annual report on ultra-deepwater, etc. natural gas research program required by Energy Policy Act of 2005, Subtitle J, Section 999 PDF icon 2007

  6. Ultra-Fast Quantum Efficiency Solar Cell Test - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultra Violet Waterworks Water Disinfecting Device Saves Lives Resources with Additional Information Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW) device Ultra Violet Waterworks (UVW) is a small-scale, energy-efficient, and low-maintenance mechanism that uses ultraviolet light to cheaply disinfect water. It is a uniquely effective device that operates using the equivalent of a 60-Watt light bulb at a cost of as low as 4 cents/ton of water treated, treating 15 liters/minute, and providing enough drinking water

  7. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bottles coated with deuterated polystryene (Conference) | SciTech Connect The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from the LANSCE super-thermal deuterium source were used to fill an acrylic bottle coated with deuterated polystyrene.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, Steffen A

    2008-06-02

    This document contains the final report for DOE grant DE-FG02-03ER41239: Modeling and Analysis of Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

  9. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    range. Based on MSI's leading-edge research in ultra-small centrifugal compressors, ... including heat exchanger, control methodology, "drop in" replace-ability, and more ...

  10. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube.

  11. Copy of Development of an Ultra Scalable Low Power Rad-Hard Nonvolatil...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonvolatile Memory for Space Applications. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Copy of Development of an Ultra Scalable Low Power Rad-Hard Nonvolatile Memory for Space ...

  12. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Brian E.; Shafarman, William N.

    2003-03-25

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  13. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  14. Process for making ultra-fine ceramic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stangle, Gregory C. (Alfred, NY); Venkatachari, Koththavasal R. (Hornell, NY); Ostrander, Steven P. (Scotia, NY); Schulze, Walter A. (Alfred Station, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing ultra-fine ceramic particles in which droplets are formed from a ceramic precursor mixture containing a metal cation, a nitrogen-containing fuel, a solvent, and an anion capable of participating in an anionic oxidation-reduction reaction with the nitrogen containing fuel. The nitrogen-containing fuel contains at least three nitrogen atoms, at least one oxygen atom, and at least one carbon atom. The ceramic precursor mixture is dried to remove at least 85 weight percent of the solvent, and the dried mixture is then ignited to form a combusted powder.

  15. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  16. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  17. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  18. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  19. Coherent ?(2S) photo-production in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coherent (2S) photo-production in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at sNN2.76 TeV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coherent (2S) photo-production in ultra-peripheral...

  20. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2more » THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.« less

  1. Ultra-Compact High-Efficiency Luminaire for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Lowes

    2012-04-08

    Cree has developed a new ultra-compact light emitting diode (LED) luminaire capable of providing high efficacy with excellent color quality that can lead to significant energy savings in today??s commercial and retail applications. This success was based on an integrated development effort tailoring the LED component characteristics, optics, thermal management and driver design for the small footprint to achieve an overall system efficiency of ? 70%. A new LED component was designed to provide high brightness and efficacy in a form factor that allowed for a small directional beam with a luminaire housing design able to dissipate the heat effectively using a small physical envelope. A very compact, 90% efficient driver was developed to meet the system performance while not taking away any thermal mass from the heat sink. A 91% efficient secondary optics was designed to maximize efficiency while providing a smooth beam. The reliability of the new LED component was robust under accelerated testing conditions. Luminaires were assembled integrating the novel LED component, secondary optics, heat sink and driver technology to demonstrate the system improvement. Cree has successfully completed this project by developing an ultra-compact LED luminaire that provided 380 lumens at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2822 K and color rendering index (CRI) of 94 with an efficacy of 94 lumens per watt (LPW) when operating at 4 W input power (steady state) with an overall system efficiency of 81%. At a higher input power of 9 Watts, the lamp provided 658 lumens at 71 LPW.

  2. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  3. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-07-01

    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

  4. UPGRADING METHANE USING ULTRA-FAST THERMAL SWING ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the feasibility of upgrading low-Btu methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys' modular microchannel process technology. The project is on schedule and under budget. For Task 1.1, the open literature, patent information, and vendor contacts were surveyed to identify adsorbent candidates for experimental validation and subsequent demonstration in an MPT-based ultra-fast TSA separation for methane upgrading. The leading candidates for preferential adsorption of methane over nitrogen are highly microporous carbons. A Molecular Gate{trademark} zeolite from Engelhard Corporation has emerged as a candidate. For Task 1.2, experimental evaluation of adsorbents was initiated, and data were collected on carbon (MGN-101) from PICA, Inc. This carbon demonstrated a preferential capacity for methane over nitrogen, as well as a reasonable thermal swing differential capacity for a 90% methane and 10% nitrogen mixture. A similar methane swing capacity at 2 psig was measured. The mixture composition is relevant because gob gas contains nearly 85% methane and must be purified to 97% methane for pipeline quality.

  5. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky{trademark} pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems.

  6. Ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goerz, David A.; Wilson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    An ultra-compact Marx-type high-voltage generator includes individual high-performance components that are closely coupled and integrated into an extremely compact assembly. In one embodiment, a repetitively-switched, ultra-compact Marx generator includes low-profile, annular-shaped, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors with contoured edges and coplanar extended electrodes used for primary energy storage; low-profile, low-inductance, high-voltage, pressurized gas switches with compact gas envelopes suitably designed to be integrated with the annular capacitors; feed-forward, high-voltage, ceramic capacitors attached across successive switch-capacitor-switch stages to couple the necessary energy forward to sufficiently overvoltage the spark gap of the next in-line switch; optimally shaped electrodes and insulator surfaces to reduce electric field stresses in the weakest regions where dissimilar materials meet, and to spread the fields more evenly throughout the dielectric materials, allowing them to operate closer to their intrinsic breakdown levels; and uses manufacturing and assembly methods to integrate the capacitors and switches into stages that can be arranged into a low-profile Marx generator.

  7. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z.; Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  9. Role of coal in the world and Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

  10. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  11. Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o

  12. Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

  13. Non-filamentated ultra-intense and ultra-short pulse fronts in three-dimensional Raman seed amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2014-05-15

    Ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses may be generated up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime due to parametric processes in plasmas. The minimization of unwanted plasma processes leads to operational limits which are discussed here with respect to filamentation. Transverse filamentation, which originally was derived for plane waves, is being investigated for seed pulse propagation in the so called ?-pulse limit. A three-dimensional (3D) three-wave-interaction model is the basis of the present investigation. To demonstrate the applicability of the three-wave-interaction model, the 1D pulse forms are compared with those obtained from 1D particle in cell and Vlasov simulations. Although wave-breaking may occur, the kinetic simulations show that the leading pumped pulse develops a form similar to that obtained from the three-wave-interaction model. In the main part, 2D and 3D filamentation processes of (localized) pulses are investigated with the three-wave-interaction model. It is shown that the leading pulse front can stay filamentation-free, whereas the rear parts show transverse modulations.

  14. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing facilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2003-08-12

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS to deliver a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in chamber means that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  15. Ultra-Accelerated Natural Sunlight Exposure Testing Facilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2004-11-23

    A multi-faceted concentrator apparatus for providing ultra-accelerated natural sunlight exposure testing for sample materials under controlled weathering conditions comprising: facets that receive incident natural sunlight, transmits VIS/NIR and reflects UV/VIS onto a secondary reflector that delivers a uniform flux of UV/VIS onto a sample exposure plane located near a center of a facet array in a chamber that provide concurrent levels of temperature and/or relative humidity at high levels of up to 100.times. of natural sunlight that allow sample materials to be subjected to accelerated irradiance exposure factors for a significant period of time of about 3 to 10 days to provide a corresponding time of about at least a years worth representative weathering of sample materials.

  16. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  17. Spectrum of supernova neutrinos in ultra-pure scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lujan-Peschard, C.; Pagliaroli, G.; Vissani, F., E-mail: carolup@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: giulia.pagliaroli@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: francesco.vissani@lngs.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    There is a great interest in measuring the non-electronic component of neutrinos from core collapse supernovae by observing, for the first time, also neutral-current reactions. In order to assess the physics potential of the ultra-pure scintillators in this respect, we study the entire expected energy spectrum in the Borexino, KamLAND and SNO+ detectors. We examine the various sources of uncertainties in the expectations, and in particular, those due to specific detector features and to the relevant cross sections. We discuss the possibility to identify the different neutrino flavors, and we quantify the effect of confusion, due to other components of the energy spectrum, overlapped with the neutral-current reactions of interest.

  18. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Brown, J.D.

    1996-03-19

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam are disclosed. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm{sup 3} and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  19. Ultra-low density microcellular polymer foam and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.

    1996-01-01

    An ultra-low density, microcellular open-celled polymer foam and a method for making such foam. A polymer is dissolved in a heated solution consisting essentially of at least one solvent for the dissolution of the polymer in the heated solution and the phase inversion of the dissolved polymer to a liquid gel upon sufficient cooling of the heated solution. The heated solution is contained in a containment means provided with a nucleating promoting means having a relatively rough surface formed of fixed nucleating sites. The heated solution is cooled for a period of time sufficient to form a liquid gel of the polymer by phase inversion. From the gel, a porous foam having a density of less than about 12.0 mg/cm.sup.3 and open porosity provided by well interconnected strut morphology is formed.

  20. Propagation of ultra-short solitons in stochastic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt, Levent; Schfer, Tobias

    2014-01-15

    We study the propagation of ultra-short short solitons in a cubic nonlinear medium modeled by nonlinear Maxwell's equations with stochastic variations of media. We consider three cases: variations of (a) the dispersion, (b) the phase velocity, (c) the nonlinear coefficient. Using a modified multi-scale expansion for stochastic systems, we derive new stochastic generalizations of the short pulse equation that approximate the solutions of stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations. Numerical simulations show that soliton solutions of the short pulse equation propagate stably in stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations and that the generalized stochastic short pulse equations approximate the solutions to the stochastic Maxwell's equations over the distances under consideration. This holds for both a pathwise comparison of the stochastic equations as well as for a comparison of the resulting probability densities.

  1. Scenarios for the ATF2 Ultra-Low Betas Proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin, Eduardo; Tomas, Rogelio; Bambade, Philip; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Parker, Brett; Seryi, Andrei; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; /SLAC

    2012-06-29

    The current ATF2 Ultra-Low beta proposal was designed to achieve 20nm vertical IP beam size without considering the multipolar components of the FD magnets. In this paper we describe different scenarios that avoid the detrimental effect of these multipolar errors to the beam size at the interaction point (IP). The simplest approach consists in modifying the optics, but other solutions are studied as the introduction of super-conducting wigglers to reduce the emittance or the replacement of the normal-conducting focusing quadrupole in the Final Doublet (NC-QF1FF) with a super-conducting quadrupole one (SC-QF1FF). These are fully addressed in the paper.

  2. Scenarios For The ATF2 Ultra-Low Betas Proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin E.; Parker B.; Tomas R. Bambade Kuroda S. Okugi T. Tauchi T. Terunuma N. Urakawa J. Seryi A. White G. Woodley M.

    2010-05-23

    The current ATF2 Ultra-Low beta proposal was designed to achieve 20nm vertical IP beam size without considering the multipolar components of the FD magnets. In this paper we describe different scenarios that avoid the detrimental effect of these multipolar errors to the beam size at the interaction point (IP). The simplest approach consists in modifying the optics, but other solutions are studied as the introduction of super-conducting wigglers to reduce the emittance or the replacement of the normal-conducting focusing quadrupole in the Final Doublet (NC-QF1FF) with a super-conducting quadrupole one (SC-QF1FF). These are fully addressed in the paper.

  3. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang; Qi

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  4. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  5. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2005-07-01

    Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the ninth quarter of work performed under this agreement. The design of the vessel for pressure testing has been completed. The design will be finalized and purchased in the next quarter.

  6. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  7. Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts This presentation demonstrates how nano-array catalysts have excellent robustness, use ultra-low amounts of PGM, and can be tuned for optimum performance. PDF icon deer12_guo.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low

  8. Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraus, Robert H.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr L.

    2010-03-30

    An ultra-low magnetic field NMR system can non-invasively examine containers. Database matching techniques can then identify hazardous materials within the containers. Ultra-low field NMR systems are ideal for this purpose because they do not require large powerful magnets and because they can examine materials enclosed in conductive shells such as lead shells. The NMR examination technique can be combined with ultra-low field NMR imaging, where an NMR image is obtained and analyzed to identify target volumes. Spatial sensitivity encoding can also be used to identify target volumes. After the target volumes are identified the NMR measurement technique can be used to identify their contents.

  9. A search for correlation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with IRAS-PSCz

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and 2MASS-6dF galaxies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A search for correlation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with IRAS-PSCz and 2MASS-6dF galaxies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A search for correlation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with IRAS-PSCz and 2MASS-6dF galaxies We study the arrival directions of 69 ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) observed at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) with energies exceeding 55 EeV. We investigate whether the UHECRs exhibit the

  10. System and method for magnetic current density imaging at ultra low magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Espy, Michelle A.; George, John Stevens; Kraus, Robert Henry; Magnelind, Per; Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Volegov, Petr Lvovich

    2016-02-09

    Preferred systems can include an electrical impedance tomography apparatus electrically connectable to an object; an ultra low field magnetic resonance imaging apparatus including a plurality of field directions and disposable about the object; a controller connected to the ultra low field magnetic resonance imaging apparatus and configured to implement a sequencing of one or more ultra low magnetic fields substantially along one or more of the plurality of field directions; and a display connected to the controller, and wherein the controller is further configured to reconstruct a displayable image of an electrical current density in the object. Preferred methods, apparatuses, and computer program products are also disclosed.

  11. Ultra-compact optical true time delay device for wideband phased array

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radars. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Ultra-compact optical true time delay device for wideband phased array radars. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-compact optical true time delay device for wideband phased array radars. An ultra-compact optical true time delay device is demonstrated that can support 112 antenna elements with better than six bits of delay in a volume 16-inch x 5-inch x 4-inch including the box and electronics. Free-space beams circulate in a White cell,

  12. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermally Stable Ultra-Low Temperature Oxidation Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermally stable ultra-low...

  14. DOE Selects Projects Aimed at Reducing Drilling Risks in Ultra-Deepwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy has selected six new natural gas and oil research projects aimed at reducing risks and enhancing the environmental performance of drilling in ultra-deepwater settings.

  15. WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes WO3 and HPA Based System for Ultra-High Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts in PEMFC Cathodes These slides were presented ...

  16. Evaluation of a 1000 MW Commercial Ultra Super-Critical Coal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of instantaneous O2 mass fraction in a hypothetical commercial scale 1000 MW, Ultra Super-Critical (USC) coal boiler Large eddy simulation prediction of instantaneous O2 mass...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Next-Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain, LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ultra Efficient Light Duty Powertrain with Gasoline Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Powertrain at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ultra efficient light duty...

  20. Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability This content will become publicly available on March 22, 2017 Title: Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability Authors:

  1. Hexagonal-structured epsilon-NbN: Ultra-incompressibility, High Shear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rigidity, and a Possible Hard Superconducting Material (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hexagonal-structured epsilon-NbN: Ultra-incompressibility, High Shear Rigidity, and a Possible Hard Superconducting Material Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hexagonal-structured epsilon-NbN: Ultra-incompressibility, High Shear Rigidity, and a Possible Hard Superconducting Material Authors: Zou, Y ; Wang, X ; Chen, T ; Li, X ; Qi, X ; Welch, D ; Zhu, P ; Liu, B ; Cui, T ; Li, B Publication

  2. Comparison of Ultra-High-Frequency Readers for Passive-Radio Frequency Tags

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Comparison of Ultra-High-Frequency Readers for Passive-Radio Frequency Tags Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Ultra-High-Frequency Readers for Passive-Radio Frequency Tags This is a full paper with abstract included. Authors: Hickerson, Jonathan W [1] ; Krichinsky, Alan M [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2009-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 959006 DOE Contract Number:

  3. Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection induced by kink-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 22, 2017 Title: Extreme ultra-violet burst, particle heating, and whistler wave emission in fast magnetic reconnection

  4. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration | Department of Energy Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Lead Performer: Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA Partners: Creative Thermal Solutions, Urbana, IL DOE Funding: $860,000 Cost Share: $86,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 to September 30,

  5. Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    superelasticity in shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast superelasticity in shape memory alloys This content will become publicly available on May 30, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Role of grain size on the martensitic transformation and ultra-fast superelasticity in shape memory alloys Authors: Morrison, Keith R. ; Cherukara, Mathew J. ; Kim, Hojin ; Strachan, Alejandro Publication Date: 2015-08-01 OSTI

  6. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. PDF icon 7_usc_popov.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

  7. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana

  8. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bottles coated with deuterated polystryene (Conference) | SciTech Connect The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  9. Ultra-Relativistic Magnetic Monopole Search with the ANITA-II Balloon-Borne

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radio Interferometer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ultra-Relativistic Magnetic Monopole Search with the ANITA-II Balloon-Borne Radio Interferometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-Relativistic Magnetic Monopole Search with the ANITA-II Balloon-Borne Radio Interferometer Authors: Detrixhe, M. ; Besson, D. ; /Kansas U. ; Gorham, P.W. ; Allison, P. ; /Hawaii U. ; Baughmann, B. ; Beatty, J.J. ; /Ohio State U. ; Belov, K. ; /UCLA ; Bevan, S. ; /University Coll. London ;

  10. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  11. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  12. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2005-01-01

    This report describes activities for the seventh quarter of work performed under this agreement. We await approval from the Swedish pressure vessel board to allow us to proceed with the procurement of the vessel for super atmospheric testing. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  13. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warhus, John P.; Mast, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.

  14. Ultra wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of heterogeneous solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.

    1998-11-10

    A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 11 figs.

  15. Method and system for ultra-precision positioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2005-01-11

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  16. Coupling of (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei with photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2013-11-15

    The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration) is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.

  17. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, R. O.; Phillipps, S.; Price, J.; Peng, Eric W.; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek E-mail: tully@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: S.Phillipps@bristol.ac.uk E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn E-mail: dxc@astro.livjm.ac.uk

    2011-08-20

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma cluster, a success rate >60% for targeted objects brighter than M{sub R} = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster population, we find strong support for a star cluster origin for the majority of the Coma UCDs. However, a few UCDs appear to have stellar population or structural properties which differentiate them from the old star cluster populations found in the Coma cluster, perhaps indicating that UCDs may form through multiple formation channels.

  18. Ultra Wideband (UWB) communication vulnerability for security applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, H. Timothy

    2010-07-01

    RF toxicity and Information Warfare (IW) are becoming omnipresent posing threats to the protection of nuclear assets, and within theatres of hostility or combat where tactical operation of wireless communication without detection and interception is important and sometimes critical for survival. As a result, a requirement for deployment of many security systems is a highly secure wireless technology manifesting stealth or covert operation suitable for either permanent or tactical deployment where operation without detection or interruption is important The possible use of ultra wideband (UWB) spectrum technology as an alternative physical medium for wireless network communication offers many advantages over conventional narrowband and spread spectrum wireless communication. UWB also known as fast-frequency chirp is nonsinusoidal and sends information directly by transmitting sub-nanosecond pulses without the use of mixing baseband information upon a sinusoidal carrier. Thus UWB sends information using radar-like impulses by spreading its energy thinly over a vast spectrum and can operate at extremely low-power transmission within the noise floor where other forms of RF find it difficult or impossible to operate. As a result UWB offers low probability of detection (LPD), low probability of interception (LPI) as well as anti-jamming (AJ) properties in signal space. This paper analyzes and compares the vulnerability of UWB to narrowband and spread spectrum wireless network communication.

  19. Ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Greenway, D.; Sloan, L.R.; Shul, R.J.; Muyshondt, G.P.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development. Power consumption of microwave circuits has been reduced by factors of 50--1,000 over commercially available circuits. Positive threshold field effect transistors (nJFETs and PHEMTs) have been used to design and fabricate microwave circuits with power levels of 1 milliwatt or less. 0.7 {micro}m gate nJFETs are suitable for both digital CHFET integrated circuits as well as low power microwave circuits. Both hybrid amplifiers and MMICs were demonstrated at the 1 mW level at 2.4 GHz. Advanced devices were also developed and characterized for even lower power levels. Amplifiers with 0.3 {micro}m JFETs were simulated with 8--10 dB gain down to power levels of 250 microwatts ({mu}W). However 0.25 {micro}m PHEMTs proved superior to the JFETs with amplifier gain of 8 dB at 217 MHz and 50 {mu}W power levels but they are not integrable with the digital CHFET technology.

  20. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. Operating conditions are 300 voltage AC at the motor leads. Power voltage losses in the cables/wirelines to the motor(s) are expected to be about 10% for 5000 feet carrying 2 amperes. Higher voltages and better insulators can lower these losses and carry more amperes. Cutting elements for such high tip velocities are currently not available, consequently these motors will not be built at this time. However, 7.62 cm (3 inch) OD, low speed, PMSM radial electric motors based on this project design are being built under a 2006 Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology 'proof of concept' grant.

  1. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were considered. Fundamental cost driver analysis was also performed. System development plans were drafted in order to determine where the technological and programmatic critical paths lay. As a result of this effort, UAVs were to be able to provide far more surveillance time and intelligence information per mission while reducing the high cost of support activities. This technology was intended to create unmatched global capabilities to observe and preempt terrorist and weapon of mass destruction (WMD) activities. Various DOE laboratory and contractor personnel and facilities could have been used to perform detailed engineering, fabrication, assembly and test operations including follow-on operational support. Unfortunately, none of the results will be used in the near-term or mid-term future. NGIS UMS and SNL felt that the technical goals for the project were accomplished. NGIS UMS was quite pleased with the results of analysis and design although it was disappointing to all that the political realities would not allow use of the results. Technology and system designs evaluated under this CRADA had previously never been applied to unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Based upon logistic support cost predictions, because the UAVs would not have had to refuel as often, forward basing support costs could have been reduced due to a decrease in the number and extent of support systems and personnel being required to operate UAVs in remote areas. Basic application of the advanced propulsion and power approach is well understood and industry now understands the technical, safety, and political issues surrounding implementation of these strategies. However, the overall economic impact was not investigated. The results will not be applied/implemented. No near-term benefit to industry or the taxpayer will be encountered as a result of these studies.

  2. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  3. One- and two-dimensional simulations of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaiser, T.B.; Garrison, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of one- and two-dimensional full-wave equations for ordinary and extraordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the use of the reflection of ultra-short-pulse microwaves as an effective probe of the density or magnetic profile in the presence of density or magnetic fluctuations in the plasma. Bragg resonance effects can be identified in the reflected signals, which give information on fluctuations. It is also demonstrated that ultra-short-pulse reflectometry can be used to perform correlation reflectometry measurements in which correlation lengths for density fluctuations are deduced from the observed cross-correlation function of phase shifts as a function of frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. One- and two-dimensional simulations of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaiser, T.B.; Garrison, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of one- and two-dimensional full-wave equations for ordinary and extraordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the use of the reflection of ultra-short-pulse microwaves as an effective probe of the density or magnetic profile in the presence of density or magnetic fluctuations in the plasma. Bragg resonance effects can be identified in the reflected signals, which give information on fluctuations. It is also demonstrated that ultra-short-pulse reflectometry can be used to perform correlation reflectometry measurements in which correlation lengths for density fluctuations are deduced from the observed cross-correlation function of phase shifts as a function of frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  6. UltraSciencenet: High- Performance Network Research Test-Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Nageswara S; Wing, William R; Poole, Stephen W; Hicks, Susan Elaine; DeNap, Frank A; Carter, Steven M; Wu, Qishi

    2009-04-01

    The high-performance networking requirements for next generation large-scale applications belong to two broad classes: (a) high bandwidths, typically multiples of 10Gbps, to support bulk data transfers, and (b) stable bandwidths, typically at much lower bandwidths, to support computational steering, remote visualization, and remote control of instrumentation. Current Internet technologies, however, are severely limited in meeting these demands because such bulk bandwidths are available only in the backbone, and stable control channels are hard to realize over shared connections. The UltraScience Net (USN) facilitates the development of such technologies by providing dynamic, cross-country dedicated 10Gbps channels for large data transfers, and 150 Mbps channels for interactive and control operations. Contributions of the USN project are two-fold: (a) Infrastructure Technologies for Network Experimental Facility: USN developed and/or demonstrated a number of infrastructure technologies needed for a national-scale network experimental facility. Compared to Internet, USN's data-plane is different in that it can be partitioned into isolated layer-1 or layer-2 connections, and its control-plane is different in the ability of users and applications to setup and tear down channels as needed. Its design required several new components including a Virtual Private Network infrastructure, a bandwidth and channel scheduler, and a dynamic signaling daemon. The control-plane employs a centralized scheduler to compute the channel allocations and a signaling daemon to generate configuration signals to switches. In a nutshell, USN demonstrated the ability to build and operate a stable national-scale switched network. (b) Structured Network Research Experiments: A number of network research experiments have been conducted on USN that cannot be easily supported over existing network facilities, including test-beds and production networks. It settled an open matter by demonstrating that the performance of switched connections and Multiple Protocol Label Switching tunnels over routed networks are comparable. Furthermore, such connections can be easily peered, and the performance of the resultant hybrid connections is still comparable to the constituent pure connections. USN experiments demonstrated that Infiniband transport can be effectively extended to wide-area connections of thousands of miles, which opens up new opportunities for efficient bulk data transport. USN provided dedicated connections to Cray X1 supercomputer and helped diagnose TCP performance problems which might have been otherwise incorrectly attributed to traffic on shared connections. USN contributed to the development of transport methods for dedicated connections to other traffic. Recently, experiments were conducted to assess the performance of application acceleration devices that employ flow optimization and data compression methods to improve TCP performance.

  7. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  8. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  9. Engineering Ultra-Low Work Function of Graphene (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Engineering Ultra-Low Work Function of Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Ultra-Low Work Function of Graphene Authors: Yuan, Hongyuan ; Chang, Shuai ; Bargatin, Igor ; Wang, Ning C. ; Riley, Daniel C. ; Wang, Haotian ; Schwede, Jared W. ; Provine, J. ; Pop, Eric ; Shen, Zhi-Xun ; Pianetta, Piero A. ; Melosh, Nicholas A. ; Howe, Roger T. Publication Date: 2015-10-14 OSTI Identifier: 1243090 DOE Contract Number: FA9550-14-1-0251, AC02-76SF00515 Resource

  10. Three DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That is 10 Times

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers | Department of Energy DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That is 10 Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers Three DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That is 10 Times Faster Than Commercial Internet Providers November 14, 2011 - 4:09pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is now supporting scientific research at unprecedented bandwidth speeds - at least ten times faster than

  11. New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiment (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New Limits on the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Flux from the ANITA Experiment We report initial results of the first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA-1) 2006-2007 Long Duration Balloon flight, which searched for evidence of a diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos above energies of E{sub v} = 3 x

  12. Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the LHC (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Authors: Bhattacharya, Tanmoy ; Cirigliano, Vincenzo ; Cohen, Saul D. ; Filipuzzi, Alberto ; González-Alonso, Martín ; Graesser, Michael L. ; Gupta, Rajan ; Lin, Huey-Wen Publication Date: 2012-03-30 OSTI Identifier: 1098630

  13. Discovery of Hidden Dimensions in Information Space and Ultra-High Density

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Memory. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Discovery of Hidden Dimensions in Information Space and Ultra-High Density Memory. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery of Hidden Dimensions in Information Space and Ultra-High Density Memory. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1122627 Report Number(s): SAND2013-10464C 491792 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference

  14. Observation of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays with the ANITA Balloon-borne

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radio Interferometer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Observation of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays with the ANITA Balloon-borne Radio Interferometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays with the ANITA Balloon-borne Radio Interferometer Authors: Hoover, S. ; /UCLA ; Nam, J. ; /Ewha Women's U., Seoul ; Gorham, P.W. ; /Hawaii U. ; Grashorn, E. ; /Ohio State U. ; Allison, P. ; /Hawaii U. ; Barwick, S.W. ; /UC, Irvine ; Beatty, J.J. ; /Ohio

  15. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Sea Water (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3 of Sea Water Authors: Kurahashi, Naoko ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Vandenbroucke, Justin ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC ; Gratta, Giorgio ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. Publication Date: 2013-06-18 OSTI Identifier: 1084298 Report Number(s):

  16. Coexistence of colossal stress and texture gradients in sputter deposited nanocrystalline ultra-thin metal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuru, Yener; Welzel, Udo; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper demonstrates experimentally that ultra-thin, nanocrystalline films can exhibit coexisting colossal stress and texture depth gradients. Their quantitative determination is possible by X-ray diffraction experiments. Whereas a uniform texture by itself is known to generally cause curvature in so-called sin{sup 2}? plots, it is shown that the combined action of texture and stress gradients provides a separate source of curvature in sin{sup 2}? plots (i.e., even in cases where a uniform texture does not induce such curvature). On this basis, the texture and stress depth profiles of a nanocrystalline, ultra-thin (50?nm) tungsten film could be determined.

  17. Ultra-Scale Visualization: Research and Education. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Ultra-Scale Visualization: Research and Education. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-Scale Visualization: Research and Education. Abstract not provided. Authors: Moreland, Kenneth D. ; Ma, Kwan-Liu ; Ross, Robert ; Huang, Jian ; Humphreys, Greg ; Max, Nelson ; Owens, John D. ; Shen, Han-Wei Publication Date: 2007-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1147497 Report Number(s): SAND2007-4947C 522191 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  18. Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials We report the simultaneous excitation of the odd and the even eigenmode resonances in a periodic array of square split-ring resonators, with four resonators per unit cell. When the electric field is parallel to their gaps, only the two well-studied odd eigenmodes are excited. As the resonators

  19. Ultra-rapid sample preconcentration under slant E-field using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    high-aspect-ratio nanoporous membranes. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Ultra-rapid sample preconcentration under slant E-field using high-aspect-ratio nanoporous membranes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-rapid sample preconcentration under slant E-field using high-aspect-ratio nanoporous membranes. No abstract prepared. Authors: Wang, Ying-Chih ; Singh, Anup K. ; Sommer, Greg J. ; Hatch, Anson V. Publication Date: 2008-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 950954 Report Number(s):

  20. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  1. Field Demonstration of High Efficiency Ultra-Low-Temperature Laboratory Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ultra-low temperature laboratory freezers (ULTs) are some of the most energy-intensive pieces of equipment in a scientific research laboratory, yet there are several barriers to user acceptance and adoption of high-efficiency ULTs. One significant barrier is a relative lack of information on ULT efficiency to help purchasers make informed decisions with respect to efficient products.

  2. Strength and formability of ultra-low-carbon Ti-IF steels[Interstitial Free

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, W.C.

    2000-04-01

    Ultra-low-carbon interstitial free (IF) steel sheets bearing Ti and/or Nb have been extensively used for automotive panels because of superior formability and nonaging properties. It is well known that the interstitial elements such as C and N play important roles in the formability. The lower the contents of the C and N in steel, the better the formability of the steel. The demands for the steel with excellent formability from automotive industry will accelerate the progress in the steelmaking process, leading to the development of the ultra-low-carbon steel. With the advent and installation of improved vacuum degassing equipment in the steelmaking process, it is now possible to consistently produce ultra-low-carbon content of 0.002 to 0.005 wt pct. It is expected that in the near future, the C and N contents can be lowered to as low as 0.001 pct or less. This study is focused on strength and formability in the extremely ultra-low-carbon IF steels containing about 0.001 pct carbon.

  3. Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo

    1997-12-31

    Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

  4. Opportunities for Decay Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes Using Ultra-low-background Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Moran, James J.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary We present results from a scoping study whose intent was to define challenge measurements to be pursued on the Ultra-Sensitive Nuclear Measurements Initiative. Potential challenge measurements using new radiation detection technology in the shallow underground laboratory that would have substantial impact in environmental science were the focus of this study.

  5. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  6. [Studies on the interaction of blood components with ultra-smooth polymer surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, T.H.

    1989-04-17

    This report is in three parts, though each is briefly described data is provided. The three parts address (1) radioiodination of human thrombin and fibrinogen; (2) interaction of blood components with ultra- smooth polymer surfaces; and (3) initial studies of Tecoflex and treated Tecoflex cups with normal serum samples.

  7. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  8. Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

  9. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  10. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R.; Conway, Lawarence E.; Oriani, Luca; Lahoda, Edward J.; DeSilva, Greg; Hu, Min H.; Hartz, Josh; Bachrach, Uriel; Smith, Larry; Dudek, Daniel F.; Toman, Gary J,; Feng, Dandong; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a ?standard? 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  11. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsun Su, Yen; Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan ; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan ; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  12. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  13. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Nord C.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Swain, Thomas L.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochrometers for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line.

  14. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, Mark E.; Hudson, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a hode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  15. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  16. Method for fabricating an ultra-low expansion mask blank having a crystalline silicon layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) using Ultra-Low Expansion (ULE) substrates and crystalline silicon. ULE substrates are required for the necessary thermal management in EUVL mask blanks, and defect detection and classification have been obtained using crystalline silicon substrate materials. Thus, this method provides the advantages for both the ULE substrate and the crystalline silicon in an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) mask blank. The method is carried out by bonding a crystalline silicon wafer or member to a ULE wafer or substrate and thinning the silicon to produce a 5-10 .mu.m thick crystalline silicon layer on the surface of the ULE substrate. The thinning of the crystalline silicon may be carried out, for example, by chemical mechanical polishing and if necessary or desired, oxidizing the silicon followed by etching to the desired thickness of the silicon.

  17. Using ultra narrow bandwidth to overcome traditional problems with distribution line carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.C.; Hunt, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    It has long been common knowledge among communication engineers that wide bandwidth signals require more energy to overcome noise than do narrow band signals. This is why, during adverse conditions Morse code radio communications can get through when voice can`t. To achieve similar range: A television transmitter (6000 kHz bandwidth) requires 200,000 watts; A music broadcast transmitter (60 kHz bandwidth) requires 2000 watts; A voice only transmitter (3 kHz bandwidth) requires 100 watts. Carry this principle to extremes: An Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) transmitter (.00001 kHz bandwidth) requires .003 watts. This paper explores the advantages of using Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) in power line carrier systems. Using an Automatic Meter Reading System as an example, the authors explore how UNB allows (or sometimes requires) a change in system architecture, which creates further advantages.

  18. Ablation experiment and threshold calculation of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Buxiang; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Wenjun Wang, Kedian; Mei, Xuesong; State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054

    2014-03-15

    The interaction between an ultra-fast pulse laser and a material's surface has become a research hotspot in recent years. Micromachining of titanium alloy with an ultra-fast pulse laser is a very important research direction, and it has very important theoretical significance and application value in investigating the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by ultra-fast pulse lasers. Irradiated by a picosecond pulse laser with wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm, the surface morphology and feature sizes, including ablation crater width (i.e. diameter), ablation depth, ablation area, ablation volume, single pulse ablation rate, and so forth, of the titanium alloy were studied, and their ablation distributions were obtained. The experimental results show that titanium alloy irradiated by a picosecond pulse infrared laser with a 1064 nm wavelength has better ablation morphology than that of the green picosecond pulse laser with a 532 nm wavelength. The feature sizes are approximately linearly dependent on the laser pulse energy density at low energy density and the monotonic increase in laser pulse energy density. With the increase in energy density, the ablation feature sizes are increased. The rate of increase in the feature sizes slows down gradually once the energy density reaches a certain value, and gradually saturated trends occur at a relatively high energy density. Based on the linear relation between the laser pulse energy density and the crater area of the titanium alloy surface, and the Gaussian distribution of the laser intensity on the cross section, the ablation threshold of titanium alloy irradiated by an ultra-fast pulse laser was calculated to be about 0.109 J/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodinetriiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.15.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 ?m in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup ?2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  20. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, Thomas R.; Falco, Charles M.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    1984-01-01

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  1. Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chain Alignment | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ultra-high Charge Carrier Mobility in an Organic Semiconductor by Vertical Chain Alignment Thursday, March 31, 2016 The control of the electronic and optical properties of conjugated polymer thin films is of great interest for building more efficient solution processed organic electronic devices, e.g. photovoltaic (OPV) and light emitting (OLED) devices. The crystallinity and the chain orientation in the polymer film has been shown

  2. Method of Producing Ultra-heavy Homogeneous Aerosol of Sub-micron Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ernest J. Valeo and Nathaniel J. Fisch | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method of Producing Ultra-heavy Homogeneous Aerosol of Sub-micron Particles Ernest J. Valeo and Nathaniel J. Fisch This invention forms a heavy homogeneous aerosol by agitating sub-micron particles throughacoustic forces and then releasing the aerosol into a low-pressure reservoir. Through this method, the aerosol particulates comprise the dominant mass of the aerosol to produce plasma of the requisite homogeneity,

  3. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  4. Nonlinear magnetosonic waves in dense plasmas with non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur-

    2014-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.

  5. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    middleton, Don; Haley, Mary

    2014-12-10

    ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

  6. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sally Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the standard lead-acid unit experienced significant degradation after only 6,273 cycles. The high-carbon, ALABC battery manufactured in Project C3 also was tested under the advanced HEV schedule. Its performance was significantly better than the standard lead-acid unit, but was still inferior compared with the UltraBattery. The batteries supplied by Exide as part of the C3 Project performed well under the HEV screening test, especially at high temperatures. The results suggest that higher operating temperatures may improve the performance of lead-acid-based technologies operated under HEV conditions—it is recommended that life studies be conducted on these technologies under such conditions.

  7. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control.

  8. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  10. Emissions credit trading: A new revenue stream for refiners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, J.; Hirshfeld, D.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes several innovations in the fossil fuels and automotive/petroleum industries which have been improved or invented as a result of the necessity to comply with Clean Air Act regulations. Such innovations as boiler modifications, usage of low-sulfur coal, improved combustion, pre-combustion cleaning of coal, reformulated gasolines, and oxygenated fuels have all contributed to reductions in air pollution emissions from fossil fuel-powered plants and automotive emissions. Market alternatives for reducing the impacts of the usage of fossil fuels and automotive emissions on the ozone layer are also described.

  11. Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

  12. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  13. World Oil Prices in AEO2006 (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    World oil prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) reference case are substantially higher than those in the AEO2005 reference case. In the AEO2006 reference case, world crude oil prices, in terms of the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners, decline from current levels to about $47 per barrel (2004 dollars) in 2014, then rise to $54 per barrel in 2025 and $57 per barrel in 2030. The price in 2025 is approximately $21 per barrel higher than the corresponding price projection in the AEO2005 reference case.

  14. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  15. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  16. Eight ultra-faint galaxy candidates discovered in year two of the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.

    2015-11-04

    We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found by three independent automated search techniques and are identified as overdensities of stars, consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (MV > -4.7 ) and span a range of physical sizes (17 pc < r1/2 < 181pc) and heliocentric distances (25 kpc < D? < 214 kpc). All of the new systems have central surface brightnesses consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (? 27.5 mag arcsec -2). Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies. Most of the candidates are found in the southern part of the DES footprint close to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that the DES data alone exclude (p < 10-3) a spatially isotropic distribution of Milky Way satellites and that the observed distribution can be well, though not uniquely, described by an association between several of the DES satellites and the Magellanic system. Furthermore, our model predicts that the full sky may hold ~100 ultra-faint galaxies with physical properties comparable to the DES satellites and that 20%30% of these would be spatially associated with the Magellanic Clouds.

  17. Eight ultra-faint galaxy candidates discovered in year two of the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drlica-Wagner, A.

    2015-11-04

    We report the discovery of eight new ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidates in the second year of optical imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Six of these candidates are detected at high confidence, while two lower-confidence candidates are identified in regions of non-uniform survey coverage. The new stellar systems are found by three independent automated search techniques and are identified as overdensities of stars, consistent with the isochrone and luminosity function of an old and metal-poor simple stellar population. The new systems are faint (MV > -4.7 ) and span a range of physical sizes (17 pc < r1/2more » < 181pc) and heliocentric distances (25 kpc < D⊙ < 214 kpc). All of the new systems have central surface brightnesses consistent with known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (μ 27.5 mag arcsec -2). Roughly half of the DES candidates are more distant, less luminous, and/or have lower surface brightnesses than previously known Milky Way satellite galaxies. Most of the candidates are found in the southern part of the DES footprint close to the Magellanic Clouds. We find that the DES data alone exclude (p < 10-3) a spatially isotropic distribution of Milky Way satellites and that the observed distribution can be well, though not uniquely, described by an association between several of the DES satellites and the Magellanic system. Furthermore, our model predicts that the full sky may hold ~100 ultra-faint galaxies with physical properties comparable to the DES satellites and that 20%–30% of these would be spatially associated with the Magellanic Clouds.« less

  18. Surface Cleaning Techniques: Ultra-Trace ICP-MS Sample Preparation and Assay of HDPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2013-06-01

    The world’s most sensitive radiation detection and assay systems depend upon ultra-low background (ULB) materials to reduce unwanted radiological backgrounds. Herein, we evaluate methods to clean HDPE, a material of interest to ULB systems and the means to provide rapid assay of surface and bulk contamination. ULB level material and ultra-trace level detection of actinide elements is difficult to attain, due to the introduction of contamination from sample preparation equipment such as pipette tips, sample vials, forceps, etc. and airborne particulate. To date, literature available on the cleaning of such polymeric materials and equipment for ULB applications and ultra-trace analyses is limited. For these reasons, a study has been performed to identify an effective way to remove surface contamination from polymers in an effort to provide improved instrumental detection limits. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was utilized to assess the effectiveness of a variety of leachate solutions for removal of inorganic uranium and thorium surface contamination from polymers, specifically high density polyethylene (HDPE). HDPE leaching procedures were tested to optimize contaminant removal of thorium and uranium. Calibration curves for thorium and uranium ranged from 15 ppq (fg/mL) to 1 ppt (pg/mL). Detection limits were calculated at 6 ppq for uranium and 7 ppq for thorium. Results showed the most effective leaching reagent to be clean 6 M nitric acid for 72 hour exposures. Contamination levels for uranium and thorium found in the leachate solutions were significant for ultralow level radiation detection applications.

  19. Ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate and identify materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Urbaitis, Algis V.; Savukov, Igor Mykhaylovich; Espy, Michelle A.; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Kraus, Jr., Robert Henry

    2013-03-05

    Method comprising obtaining an NMR measurement from a sample wherein an ultra-low field NMR system probes the sample and produces the NMR measurement and wherein a sampling temperature, prepolarizing field, and measurement field are known; detecting the NMR measurement by means of inductive coils; analyzing the NMR measurement to obtain at least one measurement feature wherein the measurement feature comprises T1, T2, T1.rho., or the frequency dependence thereof; and, searching for the at least one measurement feature within a database comprising NMR reference data for at least one material to determine if the sample comprises a material of interest.

  20. Specifications of the octupole magnets required for the ATF2 ultra-low * lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin, E.; Modena, M.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tomas, R.; White, G.R.; /SLAC

    2014-05-28

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) aims to test the novel chromaticity correction for higher chromaticity lattices as the one of CLIC. To this end the ATF2 ultra-low * lattice is designed to vertically focus the beam at the focal point or usually referred to as interaction point (IP), down to 23 nm. However when the measured multipole components of the ATF2 magnets are considered in the simulations, the evaluated spot sizes at the IP are well above the design value. The designed spot size is effectively recovered by inserting a pair of octupole magnets. In this note we address the technical specifications required for these octupole magnets.

  1. Oxidation preventative capping layer for deep-ultra-violet and soft x-ray multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prisbrey, Shon T.

    2004-07-06

    The invention uses iridium and iridium compounds as a protective capping layer on multilayers having reflectivity in the deep ultra-violet to soft x-ray regime. The iridium compounds can be formed in one of two ways: by direct deposition of the iridium compound from a prepared target or by depositing a thin layer (e.g., 5-50 angstroms) of iridium directly onto an element. The deposition energy of the incoming iridium is sufficient to activate the formation of the desired iridium compound. The compounds of most interest are iridium silicide (IrSi.sub.x) and iridium molybdenide (IrMo.sub.x).

  2. Static strain aging behavior of ultra low carbon bake hardening steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, A.K.; Cooman, B.C. de; Vandeputte, S.

    1999-09-10

    A detailed study of static strain aging in ultra low carbon (ULC) steel has not yet been reported. Therefore, the present study was carried out to gain an understanding of the aging kinetics in a ULC steel with a total carbon content of 20 ppm. The influence of dislocation density on the aging process was also taken into account. The kinetics of the aging were determined by means of the measurement of strength properties rather than solute concentration as it was experienced that quantitative estimation of such low amount of carbon during aging course would be too difficult with the existing diagnostic tools.

  3. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  4. O-Ring sealing arrangements for ultra-high vacuum systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chang-Kyo; Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    An all metal reusable O-ring sealing arrangement for sealing two concentric tubes in an ultra-high vacuum system. An O-ring of a heat recoverable alloy such as Nitinol is concentrically positioned between protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes. The O-ring is installed between the tubes while in a stressed martensitic state and is made to undergo a thermally induced transformation to an austenitic state. During the transformation the O-ring expands outwardly and contracts inwardly toward a previously sized austenitic configuration, thereby sealing against the protruding sealing rings of the concentric tubes.

  5. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  6. Pseudophasic extraction method for the separation of ultra-fine minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2002-01-01

    An improved aqueous-based extraction method for the separation and recovery of ultra-fine mineral particles. The process operates within the pseudophase region of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system where a low-molecular-weight, water soluble polymer alone is used in combination with a salt and operates within the pseudo-biphase regime of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system. A combination of low molecular weight, mutually immiscible polymers are used with or without a salt. This method is especially suited for the purification of clays that are useful as rheological control agents and for the preparation of nanocomposites.

  7. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  8. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell E. Fray

    2007-06-30

    RPSEA is currently in its first year of performance under contract DE-AC26-07NT42677, Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Administration. Progress continues to be made in establishing the program administration policies, procedures, and strategic foundation for future research awards. Significant progress was made in development of the draft program solicitations. In addition, RPSEA personnel continued an aggressive program of outreach to engage the industry and ensure wide industry participation in the research award solicitation process.

  9. Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell E. Fray

    2007-05-31

    RPSEA is currently in its first year of performance under contract DE-AC26-07NT42677, Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Program Administration. Significant progress has been made in establishing the program administration policies, procedures, and strategic foundation for future research awards. RPSEA has concluded an industry-wide collaborative effort to identify focus areas for research awards under this program. This effort is summarized in the RPSEA Draft Annual Plan, which is currently under review by committees established by the Secretary of Energy.

  10. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90.degree. angle of incidence.

  11. Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

    2012-07-15

    Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

  12. Low-noise pulsed pre-polarization magnet system for ultra-low field NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, James R; Schilling, Josef B; Swenson, Charles A; Gardner, David L; Matlashov, Andrei N; Ammerman, Curti N

    2009-01-01

    A liquid cooled, pulsed electromagnet of solenoid configuration suitable for duty in an ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance system has been designed, fabricated and successfully operated. The magnet design minimizes Johnson noise, minimizes the hydrogen signal and incorporates minimal metal and no ferromagnetic materials. In addition, an acoustically quiet cooling system permitting 50% duty cycle operation was achieved by designing for single-phase, laminar flow, forced convection cooling. Winding, conductor splicing and epoxy impregnation techniques were successfully developed to produce a coil winding body with integral cooling passageways and adequate structural integrity. Issues of material compatibility, housing, coolant flow system and heat rejection system design will be discussed. Additionally, this pulsed electromagnet design has been extended to produce a boiling liquid cooled version in a paired solenoid configuration suitable for duty in an ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance system. This pair of liquid nitrogen cooled coils is currently being tested and commissioned. Issues of material compatibility, thermal insulation, thermal contraction, housing and coolant flow design are discussed.

  13. Nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized dense plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.

    2013-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He{sup +}, He{sup ++}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas.

  14. GRB 091024A and the nature of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Harrison, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Steele, I. A.; Mottram, C. J.; Clay, N. R.; Pal'shin, V.; Guidorzi, C.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Melandri, A.; Updike, A. C.; Cenko, S. B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Levan, A.; Cano, Z.; and others

    2013-11-20

    We present a broadband study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 091024A within the context of other ultra-long-duration GRBs. An unusually long burst detected by Konus-Wind (KW), Swift, and Fermi, GRB 091024A has prompt emission episodes covering ?1300 s, accompanied by bright and highly structured optical emission captured by various rapid-response facilities, including the 2 m autonomous robotic Faulkes North and Liverpool Telescopes, KAIT, S-LOTIS, and the Sonoita Research Observatory. We also observed the burst with 8 and 10 m class telescopes and determine the redshift to be z = 1.0924 0.0004. We find no correlation between the optical and ?-ray peaks and interpret the optical light curve as being of external origin, caused by the reverse and forward shock of a highly magnetized jet (R{sub B} ? 100-200). Low-level emission is detected throughout the near-background quiescent period between the first two emission episodes of the KW data, suggesting continued central-engine activity; we discuss the implications of this ongoing emission and its impact on the afterglow evolution and predictions. We summarize the varied sample of historical GRBs with exceptionally long durations in gamma-rays (?1000 s) and discuss the likelihood of these events being from a separate population; we suggest ultra-long GRBs represent the tail of the duration distribution of the long GRB population.

  15. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis N. Assanis; Arvind Atreya; Jyh-Yuan Chen; Wai K. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble; Chris Edwards; Zoran S. Filipi; Christian Gerdes; Hong Im; George A. Lavoie; Margaret S. Wooldridge

    2009-12-31

    The objective of the University consortium was to investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines and develop methods to extend those boundaries to improve the fuel economy of these engines, while operating with ultra low emissions. This work involved studies of thermal effects, thermal transients and engine management, internal mixing and stratification, and direct injection strategies for affecting combustion stability. This work also examined spark-assisted Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and exhaust after-treatment so as to extend the range and maximize the benefit of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)/ Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) operation. In summary the overall goals were: ? Investigate the fundamental processes that determine the practical boundaries of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines. ? Develop methods to extend LTC boundaries to improve the fuel economy of HCCI engines fueled on gasoline and alternative blends, while operating with ultra low emissions. ? Investigate alternate fuels, ignition and after-treatment for LTC and Partially Premixed compression Ignition (PPCI) engines.

  16. Polarity compensation in ultra-thin films of complex oxides: The case of a perovskite nickelate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middey, S.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Kareev, M.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Freeland, J. W.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Chakhalian, J.

    2014-10-29

    We address the fundamental issue of growth of perovskite ultra-thin films under the condition of a strong polar mismatch at the heterointerface exemplified by the growth of a correlated metal LaNiO3 on the band insulator SrTiO3 along the pseudo cubic [111] direction. While in general the metallic LaNiO3 film can effectively screen this polarity mismatch, we establish that in the ultra-thin limit, films are insulating in nature and require additional chemical and structural reconstruction to compensate for such mismatch. A combination of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction recorded during the growth, X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron based resonant X-ray spectroscopy revealmore » the formation of a chemical phase La2Ni2O5 (Ni2+) for a few unit-cell thick films. First-principles layer-resolved calculations of the potential energy across the nominal LaNiO3/SrTiO3 interface confirm that the oxygen vacancies can efficiently reduce the electric field at the interface.« less

  17. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754 MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w ≳ 10 λ, where λ is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  18. Polarity compensation in ultra-thin films of complex oxides: The case of a perovskite nickelate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middey, S.; Rivero, P.; Meyers, D.; Kareev, M.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Freeland, J. W.; Barraza-Lopez, S.; Chakhalian, J.

    2014-10-29

    We address the fundamental issue of growth of perovskite ultra-thin films under the condition of a strong polar mismatch at the heterointerface exemplified by the growth of a correlated metal LaNiO3 on the band insulator SrTiO3 along the pseudo cubic [111] direction. While in general the metallic LaNiO3 film can effectively screen this polarity mismatch, we establish that in the ultra-thin limit, films are insulating in nature and require additional chemical and structural reconstruction to compensate for such mismatch. A combination of in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction recorded during the growth, X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron based resonant X-ray spectroscopy reveal the formation of a chemical phase La2Ni2O5 (Ni2+) for a few unit-cell thick films. First-principles layer-resolved calculations of the potential energy across the nominal LaNiO3/SrTiO3 interface confirm that the oxygen vacancies can efficiently reduce the electric field at the interface.

  19. Quark-gluon plasma in the early Universe and in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greco, V.

    2014-05-09

    We briefly give an elementary introduction to the expansion of the Early Universe till when the phase transition of the quark-gluon plasma to a hadronic matter takes place. Then we describe some main element of the study of QGP by mean of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions (uRHIC's)

  20. H.sub.2O doped WO.sub.3, ultra-fast, high-sensitivity hydrogen sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee

    2011-03-22

    An ultra-fast response, high sensitivity structure for optical detection of low concentrations of hydrogen gas, comprising: a substrate; a water-doped WO.sub.3 layer coated on the substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the water-doped WO.sub.3 layer.

  1. Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security - SBIR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Twogood, Richard E

    2015-01-27

    This is the Final Report for the DOE Phase II SBIR project “Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security.” The topics covered herein include technical progress made, progress against the planned milestones and deliverables, project outcomes (results, collaborations, intellectual property, etc.), and a discussion on future expectations of deployment and impacts of the results of this work. In brief, all planned work for the project was successfully completed, on or ahead of schedule and on budget. The major accomplishment was the successful development of a very advanced passive ultra-secure RFID tag system with combined security features unmatched by any commercially available ones. These tags have high-level dynamic encrypted authentication, a novel tamper-proofing mechanism, system software including graphical user interfaces and networking, and integration with a fiber-optic seal mechanism. This is all accomplished passively (with no battery) by incorporating sophisticated hardware in the tag which harvests the energy from the RFID readers that are interrogating the tag. Based on initial feedback (and deployments) at DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), it is anticipated these tags and their offspring will meet DOE and international community needs for highly secure RFID systems. Beyond the accomplishment of those original objectives for the ultra-secure RF tags, major new spin-off thrusts from the original work were identified and successfully pursued with the cognizance of the DOE sponsor office. In particular, new classes of less sophisticated RFID tags were developed whose lineage derives from the core R&D thrusts of this SBIR. These RF “tag variants” have some, but not necessarily all, of the advanced characteristics described above and can therefore be less expensive and meet far wider markets. With customer pull from the DOE and its national laboratories, new RFID tags and systems (including custom readers and software) for government needs in asset management and tracking were developed. These were tested at a national laboratory and other government facilities, and resulted in immediate procurement actions by the government and deployment of these new systems. Thus, commercialization of the results of this Phase II DOE SBIR was already underway before the end of the SBIR itself. More importantly, operations involving asset management at selected DoE and government sites are already being impacted favorably and could have much broader impacts in the near future.

  2. Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fluegel., Brian; Mialitsin, Aleksej V.; Beaton, Daniel A.; Reno, John L.; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-05-28

    Semiconductor strain engineering has become a critical feature of high-performance electronics because of the significant device performance enhancements that it enables. These improvements, which emerge from strain-induced modifications to the electronic band structure, necessitate new ultra-sensitive tools to probe the strain in semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate that minute amounts of strain in thin semiconductor epilayers can be measured using electronic Raman scattering. We also applied this strain measurement technique to two different semiconductor alloy systems using coherently strained epitaxial thin films specifically designed to produce lattice-mismatch strains as small as 10-4. Thus, comparing our strain sensitivity and signal strength inmore » AlxGa 1-x As with those obtained using the industry-standard technique of phonon Raman scattering, we found that there was a sensitivity improvement of 200-fold and a signal enhancement of 4 × 103, thus obviating key constraints in semiconductor strain metrology.« less

  3. BESTIA - the next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2015-12-02

    Over the last two decades, BNL’s ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. In addition, our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particlemore » acceleration of ions and electrons.« less

  4. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  5. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  6. Ultra-low field NMR for detection and characterization of 235 UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espy, Michelle A; Magnelind, Per E; Matlashov, Andrei N; Urbaitis, Algis V; Volegov, Petr L

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated the first ultra-low field (ULF) nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), both depleted and 70% enriched, which is used in the uranium enrichment process. A sensitive non-invasive detection system would have an important role in non-proliferation surveillance. A two-frequency technique was employed to remove the transients induced by rapidly switching off the 50 mT pre-polarization field. A mean transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} of 24 ms was estimated for the un-enriched UF{sub 6} sample measured at a mean temperature of 80 C. Nuclear magnetic resonance at ULF has several advantages including the ability to measure through metal, such as pipes, and simple magnetic field generation hardware. We present here recent data and discuss the potential for non-proliferation monitoring of enrichment and flow velocity.

  7. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q. -G.; Zhou, X. -Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y. -X.; Gao, Zhonglei; et al

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. So, our results demonstrate that the ULFmore » waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.« less

  8. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q. -G.; Zhou, X. -Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y. -X.; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. So, our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

  9. Characterizing and Optimizing Photocathode Laser Distributions for Ultra-low Emittance Electron Beam Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, F.; Bohler, D.; Ding, Y.; Gilevich, S.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Ratner, D.; Vetter, S.

    2015-12-07

    Photocathode RF gun has been widely used for generation of high-brightness electron beams for many different applications. We found that the drive laser distributions in such RF guns play important roles in minimizing the electron beam emittance. Characterizing the laser distributions with measurable parameters and optimizing beam emittance versus the laser distribution parameters in both spatial and temporal directions are highly desired for high-brightness electron beam operation. In this paper, we report systematic measurements and simulations of emittance dependence on the measurable parameters represented for spatial and temporal laser distributions at the photocathode RF gun systems of Linac Coherent Light Source. The tolerable parameter ranges for photocathode drive laser distributions in both directions are presented for ultra-low emittance beam operations.

  10. HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

    2008-10-08

    Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

  11. Preliminary design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor employing breed-and-burn strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tak, T. W.; Yu, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, D.; Kim, T. K.

    2012-07-01

    A new design of ultra-long cycle fast reactor with power rate of 1000 MWe (UCFR) has been developed based on the strategy of breed-and burn. The bottom region of the core with low enriched uranium (LEU) plays a role of igniter of the core burning and the upper natural uranium (NU) region acts as blanket for breeding. Fissile materials are bred in the blanket and the active core moves upward at a speed of 5.4 cm/year. Through the core depletion calculation using Monte Carlo code, McCARD, it is confirmed that a full power operation of 60 years without refueling is feasible. Core performance characteristics have been evaluated in terms of axial/radial power shapes, reactivity feedback coefficients, etc. This design will serve as a base model for further design study of UCFRs using LWR spent fuels in the blanket region. (authors)

  12. Ultra-wideband radios for time-of-flight-ranging and network position estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hertzog, Claudia A.; Dowla, Farid U.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2011-06-14

    This invention provides a novel high-accuracy indoor ranging device that uses ultra-wideband (UWB) RF pulsing with low-power and low-cost electronics. A unique of the present invention is that it exploits multiple measurements in time and space for very accurate ranging. The wideband radio signals utilized herein are particularly suited to ranging in harsh RF environments because they allow signal reconstruction in spite of multipath propagation distortion. Furthermore, the ranging and positioning techniques discussed herein directly address many of the known technical challenges encountered in UWB localization regarding synchronization and sampling. In the method developed, noisy, corrupted signals can be recovered by repeating range measurements across a channel, and the distance measurements are combined from many locations surrounding the target in a way that minimizes the range biases associated to indirect flight paths and through-wall propagation delays.

  13. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  14. dynamical evolution of an ultra-relativistic fireball colliding with a freely expanding gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Akihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the hydrodynamical evolution of an ultra-relativistic fireball colliding with a freely expanding gas. The hydrodynamical interaction of the fireball and the gas results in the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We study the dynamical evolution of the shell analytically and perform a numerical simulation equipped with adaptive mesh refinement to investigate the internal structure of the shell. The shocked gas can give rise to bright emission in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy range. We propose that the breakout emission from the forward shock and the photospheric emission from the reverse-shocked fireball contribute to early gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W.H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

  16. Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV): Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Callahan, T.; Leone, D.; Naegeli, D.; Shouse, K.; Smith, L.; Whitney, K.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the 3.5 year project discussed in this report was to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or an ethanol blend) that can meet California`s Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light duty passenger car application. This particular report summarizes the third phase of the project, which lasted 12 months. Emissions tests were conducted with advanced after-treatment devices on one of the two, almost identical, test vehicles, a 1993 Ford Taurus flexible fuel vehicle. The report also covers tests on the engine removed from the second Taurus vehicle. This engine was modified for an increased compression ratio, fitted with air assist injectors, and included an advanced engine control system with model-based control.

  17. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  18. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  19. A magnetically shielded room with ultra low residual field and gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altarev, I.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Kuchler, F.; Lins, T.; Marino, M.; McAndrew, J.; Niessen, B.; Paul, S.; Petzoldt, G.; Singh, J.; Stoepler, R.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taubenheim, B. [Physikdepartment, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Babcock, E. [Jlich Center for Neutron Science, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Beck, D.; Sharma, S. [Physics Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Burghoff, M.; Fan, I. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Berlin, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-07-15

    A versatile and portable magnetically shielded room with a field of (700200) pT within a central volume of 1 m 1 m 1 m and a field gradient less than 300 pT/m, achieved without any external field stabilization or compensation, is described. This performance represents more than a hundredfold improvement of the state of the art for a two-layer magnetic shield and provides an environment suitable for a next generation of precision experiments in fundamental physics at low energies; in particular, searches for electric dipole moments of fundamental systems and tests of Lorentz-invariance based on spin-precession experiments. Studies of the residual fields and their sources enable improved design of future ultra-low gradient environments and experimental apparatus. This has implications for developments of magnetometry beyond the femto-Tesla scale in, for example, biomagnetism, geosciences, and security applications and in general low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.

  20. Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2006-01-01

    This report describes activities for the thirteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. EnviRes initiated a wire transfer of funds for procurement of a pressure vessel and associated refractory lining. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  1. Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2006-04-01

    Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the thirteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. MEFOS, the gasification testing subcontractor, reported to EnviRes that they were having difficulty with refractory vendors meeting specifications for the lining of the pressure vessel. EnviRes is working to resolve this issue.

  2. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  3. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  4. Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abbasi, R.; Takai, H.; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Abou Bakr Othman, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; et al

    2014-08-19

    Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe themore » design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.« less

  5. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  6. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  7. AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Civic hybrid electric vehicle with an advanced experimental ultra-lead acid battery, an experimental vehicle not for sale. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of uranium by ICP-AES technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Nadraswala, K.H.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Mallapurkar, V.S.; Joshi, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    An atomic emission spectrometric method based on the use of Inductively coupled argon plasma source has been developed for the determination of ultra trace concentrations of uranium in aqueous solutions. Using the optimized experimental conditions for the ICP source, uranium can be determined at 0.05 ..mu..g/ml concentration in 0.3M HNO/sub 3/ solutions with either of the two analytical lines viz. 3859.6 A/sup 0/ or 4090.1 A/sup 0/. The precision of determinations at the lowest detection limit is better than 2% R.S.D. The uranium estimation has been corrected for the interference due to the presence of eighteen metallic elements using an inter-element correction procedure. A number of spiked samples and NBL reference samples with concomitant impurities have been analysed using the standardised procedure and good agreement has been observed with their certified values.

  9. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  10. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  11. Conceptual Design of an Ultra-Dense Phase Injector and Feed System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-03-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the design of an ultra-dense phase multi-element injector and feed system for use on PWR gasifiers operating at pressures to 1,000 psia. For the design of this injector and feed system, the pulverized coal's Bingham fluid yield stress is approximately 11 Pascals (Pa) with a coefficient of rigidity of 10 centipoise (cp). These values are typical of earlier experimental testing conducted with dried pulverized coal below 18 wt% moisture -- see, e.g., Sprouse and Schuman (1983, 1986). Each individual injector element is designed for a coal flow rate between 3 and 4 tons/hr (0.76 to 1.0 kg/sec) at full flow conditions. Hence, a small 400 to 500 tons/day (4.2 to 5.25 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 6-element injector, a 1,500 tons/day (15.7 kg/sec) gasifier will require an 18-element injector and a 3,000 tons/day (31.5 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 36-element injector. These injectors and feed systems are capable of 'turn-down' below 50% of full-flow operation.

  12. Unconventional states and geometric effects in mesoscopic systems of ultra-cold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolech, C. J.

    2014-10-15

    During the last decade, experiments all over the world started to test the superconducting state of matter using a newly developed mesoscopic tunable system: trapped ultra-cold atomic gases. Theorists and experimentalists hand-in-hand are now able to advance our understanding of the superconducting state by asking new questions that probe further into the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomenon and the door is open to the exploration of exotic unconventional superconducting states. In particular, a series of experiments on systems of trapped cold atomic gases were aimed at studying the effects of polarization on superconducting pairing. Two different experimental groups encountered surprising qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seemed to be a function of the confining geometry and the cooling protocol. Our numerical studies demonstrate a tendency towards metastability and suggest an explanation for the observed discrepancy. From our calculations, the most likely solution which is consistent with the experiments supports a state strikingly similar to the so called FFLO state (after Ferrell, Fulde, Larkin and Ovchinnikov), which had been theorized long ago but eluded detection so far. Moreover, the three-dimensional scenario described above is reminiscent of predictions for one-dimensional systems of dilute polarized attractive gases and another set of ultra-cold-atom experiments incorporates optical lattices to study this reduced-dimensionality setting. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations (using a wide array of numerical and analytic techniques) in which a partially polarized phase is found to be the one-dimensional analogue of the FFLO state. Moreover, exploring the dimensional-crossover regime, our latest findings indicate that the mesoscopic nature of these quasi-one-dimensional systems favors the appearance of a new type of Mott phase transition involving an emergent pair-superfluid of equal-spin fermions.

  13. Calcium spray dryer waste management: Design guidelines: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Calcium spray drying is a commercially available and applied technology used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions. This process is rapidly gaining utility acceptance. Because physical and chemical properties of wastes generated by calcium spray drying differ from those of conventional coal combustion by-products (fly ash and scrubber sludge) typical waste management practices may need to be altered. This report presents technical guidelines for designing and operating a calcium spray drying waste management system. Waste transfer, storage, pretreatment/conditioning, transport and disposal are addressed. The report briefly describes eighteen existing or planned calcium spray drying waste management systems. Results of waste property tests conducted as part of this study, and test data from other studies are reported and compared. Conceptual designs of both new and retrofit calcium spray drying waste management systems also are presented to demonstrate the economic impact of spray drying on waste management. Parametric cost sensitivity analyses illustrate the impact of significant design parameters on waste management costs. Existing calcium spray drying waste management experiences, as well as spray drying waste property data provided the basis for guideline development. Because existing calcium spray drying facilities burn low sulfur coal, this report is considered applicable only to calcium spray drying wastes produced from low sulfur coal. At this time, calcium spray drying is not expected to be feasible for high sulfur coal applications.

  14. Further experience for environmental improvement in fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzeri, L.; Santis, R. de

    1998-12-31

    Reburning is a technology which has proven, by plant demonstration, capable of providing compliance with very stringent regulatory emissions requests (less than 90 ppm NO{sub x} firing oil and gas and less than 160--170 ppm firing coal). Designing a Reburn System requires a contemporary control of many parameters like flow rates, local stoichiometries residence times, etc.; it also requires the availability and capability of using complex and sophisticated numerical modeling. Although the system can be adapted to any already installed hardware it should be noted that the availability of reliable LNB`s and of specifically designed OFA`s and Reburn fuel injectors can greatly enhance the system performance. Design of OFA system is a subcase of a Reburn System design, as it implies same concepts of mixing and residence times which are the basis of Reburn System. As shown in the cases previously presented Reburning always provides additional margins to OFA operation specifically when very low emission limits are pursued. Finally it should be noted that the use of Reburning may create problems of unburned specifically when very low local stoichiometries and when very low sulfur oils are used which are often characterized by asphaltene instability especially when STZ oil is the result of blending high and low sulfur oils. A specific know-how has been jointly developed by Ansaldo and ENEL to solve these problems acting on both atomizer type selection and operation.

  15. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  16. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.

    1994-12-31

    The primary goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, the authors will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach. This quarter pellet production work commenced and planning for collection and processing of a preparation plant fines fraction is underway.

  17. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.; Ho, Ken

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach.

  18. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  19. Effective Analysis of NGS Metagenomic Data with Ultra-Fast Clustering Algorithms (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Li, Weizhong [San Diego Supercomputer Center

    2013-01-22

    San Diego Supercomputer Center's Weizhong Li on "Effective Analysis of NGS Metagenomic Data with Ultra-fast Clustering Algorithms" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  20. Surface Studies of Ultra Strength Drilling Steel after Corrosion Fatigue in Simulated Sour Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; J.A. Hawk; R. Thodla; F. Gui

    2012-05-06

    The Unites States predicted 60% growth in energy demand by 2030 makes oil and natural gas primary target fuels for energy generation. The fact that the peak of oil production from shallow wells (< 5000 m) is about to be reached, thereby pushing the oil and natural gas industry into deeper wells. However, drilling to depths greater than 5000 m requires increasing the strength-to weight ratio of the drill pipe materials. Grade UD-165 is one of the ultra- high yield strength carbon steels developed for ultra deep drilling (UDD) activities. Drilling UDD wells exposes the drill pipes to Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and H{sub 2}S-containig corrosive environments (i.e., sour environments) at higher pressures and temperatures compared to those found in conventional wells. Because of the lack of synergism within the service environment, operational stresses can result in catastrophic brittle failures characteristic for environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Approximately 75% of all drill string failures are caused by fatigue or corrosion fatigue. Since there is no literature data on the corrosion fatigue performance of UD-165 in sour environments, research was initiated to better clarify the fatigue crack growth (FCGR) behavior of this alloy in UDD environments. The FCGR behavior of ultra-strength carbon steel, grade UD-165, was investigated by monitoring crack growth rate in deaerated 5%NaCl solution buffered with NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in contact with H{sub 2}S. The partial pressure of H{sub 2}S (p{sub H2S}) was 0.83 kPa and pH of the solution was adjusted by NaOH to 12. The fatigue experiments were performed at 20 and 85 C in an autoclave with surface investigations augmented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. In this study, research focused on surface analyses supported by the fatigue crack growth rate measurements. Fig. 1 shows an SEM micrograph of the crack that propagated from the notch in the solution at 20 C. Accumulation of the corrosion products is visible along the crack. The EDX chemical analysis near the crack tip found iron, sulfur and oxygen in the passive layer. The surface of the sample after the fatigue test in the sour environment at 85{sup o}, Fig. 2, C looks different from that fatigued surface at 20 C. The crack propagates across the passive film that covers the surface fairly uniformly. Some spallation of the passive film is observed near the notch. The EDX chemical analysis of the passive film near the crack tip identified mainly iron, carbon and oxygen. It appears that temperature plays a very important role in formation of the passive film. This may be associated with different solubility of H{sub 2}S in the solution, which will be further studied.

  1. Layered ultra-thin coherent structures used as electrical resistors having low-temperature coefficient of resistivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, T.R.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.

    1982-08-31

    A thin film resistor having a controlled temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) ranging from negative to positive degrees kelvin and having relatively high resistivity. The resistor is a multilayer superlattice crystal containing a plurality of alternating, ultra-thin layers of two different metals. TCR is varied by controlling the thickness of the individual layers. The resistor can be readily prepared by methods compatible with thin film circuitry manufacturing techniques.

  2. Modeling target bulk heating resulting from ultra-intense short pulse laser irradiation of solid density targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antici, P.; INRS-EMT, Varennes, Québec; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi, 40-00044 Frascati; LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau ; Gremillet, L.; Grismayer, T.; Audebert, P.; Mančic, A.; Fuchs, J.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C. A.

    2013-12-15

    Isochoric heating of solid-density matter up to a few tens of eV is of interest for investigating astrophysical or inertial fusion scenarios. Such ultra-fast heating can be achieved via the energy deposition of short-pulse laser generated electrons. Here, we report on experimental measurements of this process by means of time- and space-resolved optical interferometry. Our results are found in reasonable agreement with a simple numerical model of fast electron-induced heating.

  3. Spectral photoresponse of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures with CdSe ultra-thin quantum well insertions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valverde-Chvez, D. A.; Sutara, F.; Hernndez-Caldern, I.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the spectral photoresponse (SPR) of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures for different ZnSe film thickness with and without CdSe ultra-thin quantum well (UTQW) insertions. We observe a significant increase of the SPR of heterostructures containing 3 monolayer thick CdSe UTQW insertions; these results encourage their use in photodetectors and solar cells.

  4. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-03-08

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90[degree] angle of incidence. 8 figures.

  5. The enlargement of high reflectance range in ultra-narrow bandpass filter with disordered one-dimensional photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guibin, E-mail: gbchen@hytc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low Dimensional Material, Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu 223300 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics, Optoelectronic Technology and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yu, Haichun [Department of Physics and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low Dimensional Material, Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu 223300 (China)

    2014-01-21

    The conventional ultra-narrow bandpass filter structure has only a very limited width of high-reflectance range. This study, by introducing disorder into one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal, attempts to enlarge the width of high-reflectance range while keeping the ultra-narrow bandpass. Enlargement by 46.8% was obtained after theoretical design. Since this structure contains some degree of disorder already, it has a strong tolerance of the variation of layer thicknesses. Unlike studies using conventional periodic structures, theoretical statistical results in this study demonstrate that high quality remains even after allowing for 5% variation of layer thicknesses. This indicates that only a very low thickness control precision is required in the future and the production difficulty is immensely lowered. To put the construction to test, a structure has been developed and demonstrated by a magnetron reactive sputtering coating system, which agrees with the theoretical result very well. By introducing disorder into the periodic 1D photonic crystal structure, the high-reflectance range is significantly extended by 37%, with an ultra-narrow pass band of 0.8?nm and intensity of 82%.

  6. Ultra-fast Laser Synthesis of Nanopore Arrays in Silicon for Bio-molecule Separation and Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Ileri, N; Letant, S E; Stroeve, P; Shirk, M; Zaidi, S; Balhorn, R L; Siders, C W

    2008-02-07

    We demonstrate that interference of ultra-fast pulses of laser light can create regular patterns in thin silicon membranes that are compatible with the formation of a uniform array of nanopores. The spacing and size of these pores can be tuned by changing the laser energy, wavelength and number of ultra-short pulses. Short pulses and wavelengths ({approx}550 nm and smaller) are needed to define controllable nanoscale features in silicon. Energy must be localized in time and space to produce the etching, ablation or amorphization effects over the {approx}100 nm length scales appropriate for definition of single pores. Although in this brief study pattern uniformity was limited by laser beam quality, a complementary demonstration reported here used continuous-wave interferometric laser exposure of photoresist to show the promise of the ultra-fast approach for producing uniform pore arrays. The diameters of these interferometrically-defined features are significantly more uniform than the diameters of pores in state-of-the-art polycarbonate track etch membranes widely used for molecular separations.

  7. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  8. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Pendina, G. E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr Zianbetov, E. E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr; Beigne, E. E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr

    2015-05-07

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28?nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160?mV up to 920?mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154?pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  9. Ballistic penetration test results for Ductal and ultra-high performance concrete samples.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III

    2010-03-01

    This document provides detailed test results of ballistic impact experiments performed on several types of high performance concrete. These tests were performed at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility using a 50 caliber powder gun to study penetration resistance of concrete samples. This document provides test results for ballistic impact experiments performed on two types of concrete samples, (1) Ductal{reg_sign} concrete is a fiber reinforced high performance concrete patented by Lafarge Group and (2) ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) produced in-house by DoD. These tests were performed as part of a research demonstration project overseen by USACE and ERDC, at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research (STAR) facility. Ballistic penetration tests were performed on a single stage research powder gun of 50 caliber bore using a full metal jacket M33 ball projectile with a nominal velocity of 914 m/s (3000 ft/s). Testing was observed by Beverly DiPaolo from ERDC-GSL. In all, 31 tests were performed to achieve the test objectives which were: (1) recovery of concrete test specimens for post mortem analysis and characterization at outside labs, (2) measurement of projectile impact velocity and post-penetration residual velocity from electronic and radiographic techniques and, (3) high-speed photography of the projectile prior to impact, impact and exit of the rear surface of the concrete construct, and (4) summarize the results.

  10. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P.

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate X{sub max}(E) and dispersion ?(X{sub max}) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ?E{sup -?} with ??1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ?5Zנ10{sup 18} eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ?E{sup -2.7}). In this sense, at the ankle E{sub A}?5נ10{sup 18} eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  11. Mechanical flip-chip for ultra-high electron mobility devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennaceur, Keyan; Schmidt, Benjamin A.; Gaucher, Samuel; Laroche, Dominique; Sandia National Lab.; Lilly, Michael P.; Reno, John L.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-09-22

    In this study, electrostatic gates are of paramount importance for the physics of devices based on high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) since they allow depletion of electrons in selected areas. This field-effect gating enables the fabrication of a wide range of devices such as, for example, quantum point contacts (QPC), electron interferometers and quantum dots. To fabricate these gates, processing is usually performed on the 2DEG material, which is in many cases detrimental to its electron mobility. Here we propose an alternative process which does not require any processing of the 2DEG material other than for the ohmic contacts. Thismore » approach relies on processing a separate wafer that is then mechanically mounted on the 2DEG material in a flip-chip fashion. This technique proved successful to fabricate quantum point contacts on both GaAs/AlGaAs materials with both moderate and ultra-high electron mobility.« less

  12. Standing electromagnetic solitons in hot ultra-relativistic electron-positron plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heidari, E.; Aslaninejad, M.; Eshraghi, H.; Rajaee, L.

    2014-03-15

    Using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model, we investigate standing relativistic bright solitons in hot electron-positron plasmas. The positron dynamics is taken into account. A set of nonlinear coupled differential equations describing the evolution of electromagnetic waves in fully relativistic two-fluid plasma is derived analytically and solved numerically. As a necessary condition for the existence of standing solitons the system should be relativistic. For the case of ultra-relativistic plasma, we investigate non-drifting bright solitary waves. Detailed discussions of the acceptable solutions are presented. New single hump non-trivial symmetric solutions for the scalar potential were found, and single and multi-nodal symmetric and anti-symmetric solutions for the vector potential are presented. It is shown that for a fixed value of the fluid velocity excited modes with more zeros in the profile of the vector potential show a higher magnitude for the scalar potential. An increase in the plasma fluid velocity also increases the magnitude of the scalar potential. Furthermore, the Hamiltonian and the first integral of the system are given.

  13. Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

  14. A hybrid approach for generating ultra-short bunches for advanced accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-09-01

    Generation of electron beams with high phase-space density, short bunch length and high peak current is an essential requirement for future linear colliders and bright electron beam sources. Unfortunately, such bunches cannot be produced directly from the source since forces from the mutual repulsion of electrons would destroy the brilliance of the beam within a short distance. Here, we detail a beam dynamics study of an innovative two-stage compression scheme that can generate ultra-short bunches without degrading the beam quality. In the first stage, the beam is compressed with an advanced velocity bunching technique in which the longitudinal phase space is rotated so that electrons on the bunch tail become faster than electrons in the bunch head. In the second stage, the beam is further compressed with a conventional magnetic chicane. With the aid of numerical simulations we show that our two-staged scheme is capable to increase the current of a 50 pC bunch to a notable factor of 100 while the emittance growth can be suppressed to 1% with appropriate tailoring of the initial beam distribution.

  15. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  16. The BetaCage, an ultra-sensitive screener for surface contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunker, R.; Bowles, M. A.; Schnee, R. W.; Wang, B. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.; Nelson, R. H.; Rider, A.; Zahn, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grant, D. R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3 (Canada)] [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3 (Canada); Kos, M. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Material screening for identifying low-energy electron emitters and alpha-decaying isotopes is now a prerequisite for rare-event searches (e.g., dark-matter direct detection and neutrinoless double-beta decay) for which surface radiocon-tamination has become an increasingly important background. The BetaCage, a gaseous neon time-projection chamber, is a proposed ultra-sensitive (and nondestructive) screener for alpha-and beta-emitting surface contaminants to which existing screening facilities are insufficiently sensitive. Sensitivity goals are 0.1 betas keV{sup ?1} m{sup ?2} day{sup ?1} and 0.1 alphas m{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, with the former limited by Compton scattering of photons in the screening samples and (thanks to tracking) the latter expected to be signal-limited; radioassays and simulations indicate backgrounds from detector materials and radon daughters should be subdominant. We report on details of the background simulations and detector design that provide the discrimination, shielding, and radiopurity necessary to reach our sensitivity goals for a chamber with a 95 95 cm{sup 2} sample area positioned below a 40 cm drift region and monitored by crisscrossed anode and cathode planes consisting of 151 wires each.

  17. Fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Alger, Terry W.; Lord, David E.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter using a fluid drive system, a nozzle with an orifice having a small ratio of length to diameter, and mechanism for vibrating the nozzle along its axis at high frequencies. The orifice is provided with a sharp edge at its inlet, and a conical section at its outlet for a transition from a short cylindrical aperture of small length to diameter ratio to free space. Sample and sheath fluids in separate low pressure reservoirs are transferred into separate high pressure buffer reservoirs through a valve arrangement which first permit the fluids to be loaded into the buffer reservoirs under low pressure. Once loaded, the buffer reservoirs are subjected to high pressure and valves are operated to permit the buffer reservoirs to be emptied through the nozzle under high pressure. A sensor and decision logic is positioned at the exit of the nozzle, and a charging pulse is applied to the jet when a particle reaches a position further downstream where the droplets are formed. In order to adjust the timing of charge pulses, the distance between the sensing station at the outlet of the nozzle and the droplet breakoff point is determined by stroboscopic illumination of the droplet breakoff region using a laser and a revolving lucite cylinder, and a beam on/off modulator. The breakoff point in the region thus illuminated may then be viewed, using a television monitor.

  18. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  19. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  20. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  1. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-07-07

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  2. Large doppler shift in radar detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    Radar detection of cosmic ray air showers has been discussed for 60 years, but never clearly observed. The topic was reexamined by Gorham in 2001 and some serious simulations were done by Takai, who also initiated the Mariachi project utilizing commercial television transmissions as a signal source. The air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays are expected to generate a plasma with plasma frequency in the high VHF region. One factor limiting the received signal strength is the short ion recombination time in air at low altitude. However, a major factor which has not been the center of attention so far is the possible large Doppler shifts for non-specular reflection, and the soft transition between specular and diffuse for small objects and short time scales. We discuss recent work on receivers, and simulations of the Doppler shift. These simulations assume a very short ion recombination time in the lower atmosphere, and use an extremely simple mathematical model. A central feature of our simulations is large Doppler shift from non-moving material.

  3. Design of an ultra low power CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Hu-Guo, C.; Husson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Despite a continuously increasing demand, neutron electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are still far from being completely established because their development is a very difficult task. A low-noise, ultra low power consumption CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter has been implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. The prototype is composed of a pixel array for detection of charged particles, and the readout electronics is integrated on the same substrate for signal processing. The excess electrons generated by an impinging particle are collected by the pixel array. The charge collection time and the efficiency are the crucial points of a CMOS detector. The 3-D device simulations using the commercially available Synopsys-SENTAURUS package address the detailed charge collection process. Within a time of 1.9 {mu}s, about 59% electrons created by the impact particle are collected in a cluster of 4 x 4 pixels with the pixel pitch of 80 {mu}m. A charge sensitive preamplifier (CSA) and a shaper are employed in the frond-end readout. The tests with electrical signals indicate that our prototype with a total active area of 2.56 x 2.56 mm{sup 2} performs an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of less than 400 e - and 314 {mu}W power consumption, leading to a promising prototype. (authors)

  4. Development of Ultra High Gradient and High Q{sub 0} Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Clemens, William A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Follkie, James E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Harris, Teena M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kushnick, Peter W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Machie, Danny [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Martin, Robert E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, Ari D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Perry, Era A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Slack, Gary L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Williams, R. S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC, Menlo Park, California, (United States); Li, Z. [SLAC, Menlo Park, California, (United States); Hao, J. K. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Liu, K. X. [Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-01

    We report on the recent progress at Jefferson Lab in developing ultra high gradient and high Q{sub 0} superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for future SRF based machines. A new 1300 MHz 9-cell prototype cavity is being fabricated. This cavity has an optimized shape in terms of the ratio of the peak surface field (both magnetic and electric) to the acceleration gradient, hence the name low surface field (LSF) shape. The goal of the effort is to demonstrate an acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m with Q{sub 0} of 10{sup 10} at 2 K in a 9-cell SRF cavity. Fine-grain niobium material is used. Conventional forming, machining and electron beam welding method are used for cavity fabrication. New techniques are adopted to ensure repeatable, accurate and inexpensive fabrication of components and the full assembly. The completed cavity is to be first mechanically polished to a mirror-finish, a newly acquired in-house capability at JLab, followed by the proven ILC-style processing recipe established already at JLab. In parallel, new single-cell cavities made from large-grain niobium material are made to further advance the cavity treatment and processing procedures, aiming for the demonstration of an acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m with Q{sub 0} of 2?10{sup 10} at 2K.

  5. Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2006-09-30

    This report describes activities for the sixteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. MEFOS, the gasification testing subcontractor, reported to EnviRes that the vendor for the pressure vessel for above atmospheric testing now plans to deliver it by November 20, 2006 instead of October 20, 2006 as previously reported. MEFOS performed a hazardous operation review of pressurized testing. The current schedule anticipates above atmospheric pressure testing to begin during the week of April 16, 2007. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 3 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  6. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Sutherland, Ralph

    2015-01-30

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (M{sub vir}∼10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems.

  7. Full sky harmonic analysis hints at large ultra-high energy cosmic ray deflections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinyakov, P. G. Urban, F. R.

    2015-03-15

    The full-sky multipole coefficients of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) flux have been measured for the first time by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array collaborations using a joint data set with E > 10 EeV. We calculate these harmonic coefficients in the model where UHECR are protons and sources trace the local matter distribution, and compare our results with observations. We find that the expected power for low multipoles (dipole and quadrupole, in particular) is sytematically higher than in the data: the observed flux is too isotropic. We then investigate to which degree our predictions are influenced by UHECR deflections in the regular Galactic magnetic field. It turns out that the UHECR power spectrum coefficients C{sub l} are quite insensitive to the effects of the Galactic magnetic field, so it is unlikely that the discordance can be reconciled by tuning the Galactic magnetic field model. On the contrary, a sizeable fraction of uniformly distributed flux (representing for instance an admixture of heavy nuclei with considerably larger deflections) can bring simulations and observations to an accord.

  8. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  9. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  10. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of ultra-pure rare-earth-coped glass for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Wendy M; Hehlen, Markus P; Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in synthesizing and characterizing ultra-pure, rare-earth doped ZIBLAN (ZrF{sub 4}-InF{sub 3}BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF) glass capable of laser refrigeration. The glass was produced from fluorides which were purified and subsequently treated with hydrofluoric gas at elevated temperatures to remove impurities before glass formation. Several Yb3 +-doped samples were studied with degrees of purity and composition with successive iterations producing an improved material. We have developed a non-invasive, spectroscopic technique, two band differential luminescence thermometry (TBDLT), to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the ytterbium doped ZIBLAN used for laser cooling experiments. TBDLT measures local temperature changes within an illuminated volume resulting solely from changes in the relative thermal population of the excited state levels. This TBDLT technique utilizes two commercially available band pass filters to select and integrate the 'difference regions' of interest in the luminescence spectra. The goal is to determine the minimum temperature to which the ytterbium sample can cool on the local scale, unphased by surface heating. This temperature where heating and cooling are exactly balanced is the zero crossing temperature (ZCT) and can be used as a measure for the presence of impurities and the overall quality of the laser cooling material. Overall, favorable results were obtained from 1 % Yb3+-doped glass, indicating our glasses are desirable for laser refrigeration.

  12. Electronic Raman scattering as an ultra-sensitive probe of strain effects in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fluegel., Brian; Mialitsin, Aleksej V.; Beaton, Daniel A.; Reno, John L.; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-05-28

    Semiconductor strain engineering has become a critical feature of high-performance electronics because of the significant device performance enhancements that it enables. These improvements, which emerge from strain-induced modifications to the electronic band structure, necessitate new ultra-sensitive tools to probe the strain in semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate that minute amounts of strain in thin semiconductor epilayers can be measured using electronic Raman scattering. We also applied this strain measurement technique to two different semiconductor alloy systems using coherently strained epitaxial thin films specifically designed to produce lattice-mismatch strains as small as 10-4. Thus, comparing our strain sensitivity and signal strength in AlxGa 1-x As with those obtained using the industry-standard technique of phonon Raman scattering, we found that there was a sensitivity improvement of 200-fold and a signal enhancement of 4 103, thus obviating key constraints in semiconductor strain metrology.

  13. Ultra-high speed permanent magnet axial gap alternator with multiple stators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton

    1991-01-01

    An ultra-high speed, axial gap alternator that can provide an output to a plurality of loads, the alternator providing magnetic isolation such that operating conditions in one load will not affect operating conditions of another load. This improved alternator uses a rotor member disposed between a pair of stator members, with magnets disposed in each of the rotor member surfaces facing the stator members. The magnets in one surface of the rotor member, which alternate in polarity, are isolated from the magnets in the other surface of the rotor member by a disk of magnetic material disposed between the two sets of magents. In the preferred embodiment, this disk of magnetic material is laminated between two layers of non-magnetic material that support the magnets, and the magnetic material has a peripheral rim that extends to both surfaces of the rotor member to enhance the structural integrity. The stator members are substantially conventional in construction in that equally-spaced and radially-oriented slots are provided, and winding members are laid in these slots. A unit with multiple rotor members and stator members is also described.

  14. Aftertreatment Technologies for Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, M.D.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this program was to explore a combination of advanced injection control and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from a Tier 2 off-highway diesel engine to Tier 3 emission targets while maintaining fuel efficiency. The engine used in this investigation was a 2004 4.5L John Deere PowerTechTM; this engine was not equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to assess whether Tier 3 PM emission targets could be met solely by increasing the rail pressure. Although high rail pressure will lower the total PM emissions, it has a contrary effect to raise NOx emissions. To address this effect, a urea-SCR system was used to determine whether the enhanced NOx levels, associated with high rail pressure, could be reduced to Tier 3 levels. A key attraction for this approach is that it eliminates the need for a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) to remove PM emissions. The original CRADA effort was also performed using No.2 Diesel fuel having a maximum sulfur level of 500 ppm. After a few years, the CRADA scope was expanded to include exploration of advanced injection strategies to improve catalyst regeneration and to explore the influence of urea-SCR on PM formation. During this period the emission targets also shifted to meeting more stringent Tier 4 emissions for NOx and PM, and the fuel type was changed to ultra-low sulfur Diesel (ULSD) having a maximum sulfur concentration of 15 ppm. New discoveries were made regarding PM formation at high rail pressures and the influences of oxidation catalysts and urea-SCR catalysts. These results are expected to provide a pathway for lower PM and NOx emissions for both off- and on-highway applications. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by suggestions for improvement in ongoing work and direction for future work. A significant portion of the industrial support was in the form of experimentation, data analysis, data exchange, and technical consultation.

  15. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  16. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments. Normalizing the reaction rate to the total carbon surface area available for reaction allowed for the definition of a single reaction rate with constant activation energy (112.5 {+-} 5.8 kJ/mol) for the oxidation of PM, independent of its fuel source. A kinetic model incorporating the surface area dependence of fixed carbon oxidation rate and the impact of the mobile carbon fraction was constructed and validated against experimental data.

  17. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and engines. Each test vessel did experience a microbial growth bloom that produced a build up of material in the fuel purifiers similar to material witnessed in the 2004 fuel test. A biocide was added with each fuel shipment and the problem subsided. In January of 2009, the WSF successfully completed an eleven month biodiesel fuel test using approximately 1,395,000 gallons of biodiesel blended fuels. The project demonstrated that biodiesel can be used successfully in marine vessels and that current ASTM specifications are satisfactory for marine vessels. Microbial growth in biodiesel diesel interface should be monitored. An inspection of the engines showed no signs of being negatively impacted by the test.

  18. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

  19. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  20. Ultra-High-Efficiency Multijunction Cell and Receiver Module, Phase 1B: High Performance PV Exploring and Accelerating Ultimate Pathways; Final Subcontract Report, 13 May 2005 - 10 December 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R. R.

    2010-03-01

    Spectrolab's two High Performance Photovoltaics primary objectives: (1) develop ultra-high-efficiency concentrator multijunction cells and (2) develop a robust concentrator cell receiver package.

  1. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer lab evaluation; cold-start test-cell evaluations; overall feasibility, economics, and efficiency of SFP fuel production; and an economic analysis. Two unexpected issues that arose during the project were further studied and resolved: variations in NOx emissions were accounted for and fuel-injection nozzle fouling issues were traced to the non-combustible (ash) content of the engine oil, not the F-T fuel. The F-T fuel domestically produced and evaluated in this effort appears to be a good replacement candidate for petroleum-based transportation fuels. However, in order for domestic F-T fuels to become a viable cost-comparable alternative to petroleum fuels, the F-T fuels will need to be produced from abundant U.S. domestic resources such as coal and biomass, rather than stranded natural gas.

  2. Fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, J.W.; Alger, T.W.; Lord, D.E.

    1978-11-26

    A fluidic assembly for an ultra-high-speed chromosome flow sorter using a fluid drive system of high pressure in the range of 250 to 1000 psi for greater flow velocity, a nozzle with an orifice having a small ratio of length to diameter for laminar flow rates well above the critical Reynolds number for the high flow velocity, and means for vibrating the nozzle along its axis at high frequencies in a range of about 300 kHz to 800 kHz ae described. The orifice is provided with a sharp edge at its inlet, and a conical section at its outlet for a transition from a short cylindrical aperture of small length to diameter ratio to free space. Sample and sheath fluids in separte low pressure reservoirs are transferred into separate high pressure buffer reservoirs through valve means which first permit the fluids to be loaded into the buffer reservoirs under low pressure. Once loaded, the buffer reservoirs are subjected ato high pressure and valves are operated to permit the buffer reservoirs to be emptied through the nozzle under high pressure. A sensor and decision logic is positioned at the exit of the nozzle, and a charging pulse is applied to the jet when a particle reaches a position further downstream where the droplets are formed. In order to adjust the timing of charge pulses, the distance between the sensing station at the outlet of the nozzle and the droplet breakoff point is determined by stroboscopic illumination of the droplet breakoff region using a laser and a revolving lucite cylinder for breaking up the coherency of the laser, and a beam on/off modulator. The breakoff point in the region thus illuminated may then be viewed, using a television monitor.

  3. Ordered Mesoporous CMK-5 Carbon with Ultra-Thin Pore Walls and Highly Dispersed Nickel Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pawquale F; Liang, Chengdu; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2009-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous CMK-5 carbons with ultra-thin carbon pore walls and highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by using two different SBA-15 silicas as hard templates and 2, 3-di-hydroxynaphtalene (DHN) as a carbon precursor. The nickel precursor was a concentrated nickel nitrate hexahydrate [Ni(NO3)2.6H2O] solution in isopropanol added to the carbon-silica nanocomposites prior to thermal treatments. The samples studied were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG), nitrogen adsorption at -196 C, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and in situ electron diffraction X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). While TG revealed carbon contents lower than 30 wt%, nitrogen adsorption provided information about homogeneity of carbon thin film deposited onto mesopore walls of ordered silica templates, SBA-15. The templates, carbon-silica nanocomposites and carbon inverse replicas with nickel nanoparticles exhibited uniform pores, high surface areas and large pore volumes. Graphitic carbon was identified by the presence of a characteristic G band on Raman spectra, whereas the diffraction peak attributed to the stacking of graphene planes was not observed by powder XRD.The presence of ordered domains in the carbon materials studied was confirmed by small angle XRD and STEM imaging. In addition, the STEM images revealed that the nickel nanoparticles were uniform in size, ~3nm, and were homogeneously dispersed within ordered tubular carbon walls. A few larger clusters of nickel, ~60nm, present on the external surface, were identified by powder XRD as metallic Ni. The in situ EDX revealed that the small nanoparticles were largely composed of Ni with traces of NiO. Similar nanoparticles dispersions have been reported only for Ni-containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whereas previously reported ordered mesoporous carbons possessed larger Ni/NiO nanoparticles within CMK-3 nanostructure.

  4. A new population of ultra-long duration gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levan, A. J.; Brown, G. C.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Tanvir, N. R.; Starling, R. L. C.; Wiersema, K.; Page, K. L.; Wynn, G. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Perley, D. A.; Schulze, S.; Chornock, R.; Malesani, D.; Watson, D.; Berger, E.; Hjorth, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fruchter, A. S.; Jakobsson, P.; Bersier, D.; and others

    2014-01-20

    We present comprehensive multiwavelength observations of three gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with durations of several thousand seconds. We demonstrate that these events are extragalactic transients; in particular, we resolve the long-standing conundrum of the distance of GRB 101225A (the 'Christmas-day burst'), finding it to have a redshift z = 0.847 and showing that two apparently similar events (GRB 111209A and GRB 121027A) lie at z = 0.677 and z = 1.773, respectively. The systems show extremely unusual X-ray and optical light curves, very different from classical GRBs, with long-lasting, highly variable X-ray emission and optical light curves that exhibit little correlation with the behavior seen in the X-ray. Their host galaxies are faint, compact, and highly star-forming dwarf galaxies, typical of 'blue compact galaxies'. We propose that these bursts are the prototypes of a hitherto largely unrecognized population of ultra-long GRBs, which while observationally difficult to detect may be astrophysically relatively common. The long durations may naturally be explained by the engine-driven explosions of stars of much larger radii than normally considered for GRB progenitors, which are thought to have compact Wolf-Rayet progenitor stars. However, we cannot unambiguously identify supernova signatures within their light curves or spectra. We also consider the alternative possibility that they arise from the tidal disruption of stars by massive black holes and conclude that the associated timescales are only consistent with the disruption of compact stars (e.g., white dwarfs) by black holes of relatively low mass (<10{sup 5} M {sub ?}).

  5. The Design of an Ultra-Low Background Thermosyphon for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Busch, Matthew; Daniels, Randy; Fast, James E.; Green, Matthew P.; Reid, Douglas J.

    2013-05-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is an ultra-low background neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???) experiment that will deploy up to 40 kg of high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a detector array with less than 1 event/ton-year in a 4 keV region of interest around the 0??? signal. HPGe diodes, when used as ionizing radiation detectors, need to be maintained at a temperature close to that of liquid nitrogen (77 K). This work describes the R&D results of a cryogenic system capable of meeting the requirements of low background and the cooling capacity required to successfully operate such a detector system. The MJD germanium detector modules will operate at liquid nitrogen temperature to provide adequate cooling for a full range of HPGe impurity concentrations. This paper shows the experimental results obtained using a two-phase horizontal thermosyphon using liquid nitrogen as the MJDs cooling system. The cold test shows that the proposed thermosyphon has sufficient cooling power to handle the heat load of an MJD module. Results for the temperature gradient across the thermosyphon, cooling capacity, and design considerations demonstrate that the thermosyphon can effectively remove the calculated heat load of each module of the experiment. The thermosyphon will be bolted to a cold plate from which detector strings will hang. The thermal conductivity of a mockup of the MJD bolted thermal joint is experimentally determined to be below 0.1 K/W.

  6. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158?m line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ?}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158?m line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) 10{sup 3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ?10times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ? 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  7. Frustrated incomplete donor ionization in ultra-low resistivity germanium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chi; Menndez, J.; Senaratne, C. L.; Kouvetakis, J.

    2014-12-08

    The relationship between carrier concentration and donor atomic concentration has been determined in n-type Ge films doped with P. The samples were carefully engineered to minimize non-active dopant incorporation by using specially designed P(SiH{sub 3}){sub 3} and P(GeH{sub 3}){sub 3} hydride precursors. The in situ nature of the doping and the growth at low temperatures, facilitated by the Ge{sub 3}H{sub 8} and Ge{sub 4}H{sub 10} Ge sources, promote the creation of ultra-low resistivity films with flat doping profiles that help reduce the errors in the concentration measurements. The results show that Ge deviates strongly from the incomplete ionization expected when the donor atomic concentration exceeds N{sub d}?=?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, at which the energy separation between the donor and Fermi levels ceases to be much larger than the thermal energy. Instead, essentially full ionization is seen even at the highest doping levels beyond the solubility limit of P in Ge. The results can be explained using a model developed for silicon by Altermatt and coworkers, provided the relevant model parameter is properly scaled. The findings confirm that donor solubility and/or defect formation, not incomplete ionization, are the major factors limiting the achievement of very high carrier concentrations in n-type Ge. The commercially viable chemistry approach applied here enables fabrication of supersaturated and fully ionized prototypes with potential for broad applications in group-IV semiconductor technologies.

  8. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, J. D.

    2015-07-23

    With this study, we present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of $62.8\\pm 0.5\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$ and a velocity dispersion of $3.3\\pm 0.7\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is $470\\pm 210\\ {M}_{\\odot }/{L}_{\\odot }$, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 $\\mathrm{km}\\ {{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with ${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3$. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of ${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65\\pm 0.07$, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is ${\\mathrm{log}}_{10}(J)=18.8\\pm 0.6\\;\\;\\mathrm{GeV}{\\;}^{2}\\;{\\mathrm{cm}}^{-5}\\;$ within 0fdg2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.

  9. The coherent acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays and the galactic dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1995-05-01

    In order to accelerate cosmic rays to ultra high energy, >10{sup 18} ev, requires that the step size in energy in a diffusive process be very much larger than occurs in galactic or extra galactic hydrodynamic mechanisms where {Delta}E/F {approximately} v/c{approximately}1/300 per step. This step size requires >10{sup 5} scatterings per doubling in energy (the shock mechanism) and therefore <10{sup {minus}5} energy loss per scattering. Coherent acceleration (CA), on the other hand, is proposed in which the energy gained, {Delta}E per particle in the CA region is very much larger so that only one or several scatterings are required to reach the final energy. The power law spectrum is created by the probability of loss from the CA region where this probability is inversely proportional to the particle`s rigidity, E. Therefore the fractional loss in number per fractional gain in energy, dN/N {approximately} {minus}{Gamma} dE/E, results in a power law spectrum. CA depends upon the electric field, E = {eta}J, J, the current density, in a force free field, where magnetic helicity, J={alpha}B, arises universally in all evolving mass condensations due to twisting of magnetic flux by the large number of turns before pressure support. The acceleration process is E*v, where universe beam instabilities enhance {eta} leading to phased coherent acceleration (PCA). The result of the energy transfer from field energy to matter energy is the relaxation of the field helicity, or reconnection but with J{parallel}B rather than J{perpendicular}B.

  10. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  11. Ion Acceleration from the Interaction of Ultra-Intense Lasers with Solid Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M

    2004-11-24

    The discovery that ultra-intense laser pulses (I > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) can produce short pulse, high energy proton beams has renewed interest in the fundamental mechanisms that govern particle acceleration from laser-solid interactions. Experiments have shown that protons present as hydrocarbon contaminants on laser targets can be accelerated up to energies > 50 MeV. Different theoretical models that explain the observed results have been proposed. One model describes a front-surface acceleration mechanism based on the ponderomotive potential of the laser pulse. At high intensities (I > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}), the quiver energy of an electron oscillating in the electric field of the laser pulse exceeds the electron rest mass, requiring the consideration of relativistic effects. The relativistically correct ponderomotive potential is given by U{sub p} = ([1 + I{lambda}{sup 2}/1.3 x 10{sup 18}]{sup 1/2} - 1) m{sub o}c{sup 2}, where I{lambda}{sup 2} is the irradiance in W {micro}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 2} and m{sub o}c{sup 2} is the electron rest mass. At laser irradiance of I{lambda}{sup 2} {approx} 10{sup 20} W {micro}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}, the ponderomotive potential can be of order several MeV. A few recent experiments--discussed in Chapter 3 of this thesis--consider this ponderomotive potential sufficiently strong to accelerate protons from the front surface of the target to energies up to tens of MeV. Another model, known as Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA), describes the mechanism as an electrostatic sheath on the back surface of the laser target. According to the TNSA model, relativistic hot electrons created at the laser-solid interaction penetrate the foil where a few escape to infinity. The remaining hot electrons are retained by the target potential and establish an electrostatic sheath on the back surface of the target. In this thesis we present several experiments that study the accelerated ions by affecting the contamination layer from which they originate. Radiative heating was employed as a method of removing contamination from palladium targets doped with deuterium. We present evidence that ions heavier than protons can be accelerated if hydrogenous contaminants that cover the laser target can be removed. We show that deuterons can be accelerated from the deuterated-palladium target, which has been radiatively heated to remove contaminants. Impinging a deuteron beam onto a tritiated-titanium catcher could lead to the development of a table-top source of short-pulse, 14-MeV fusion neutrons. We also show that by using an argon-ion sputter gun, contaminants from one side of the laser target can be selectively removed without affecting the other side. We show that irradiating a thin metallic foil with an ultra-intense laser pulse produces a proton beam with a yield of 1.5-2.5 10{sup 11} and temperature, kT = 1.5 MeV with a maximum proton energy > 9 MeV. Removing contaminants from the front surface of the laser target with an argon-ion sputter gun, had no observable effect on the proton beam. However, removing contaminants from the back surface of the laser target reduced the proton beam by two orders of magnitude to, at most, a yield of {approx} 10{sup 9} and a maximum proton energy < 4 MeV. Based on these observations, we conclude that the majority (> 99%) of high energy protons (E > 5 MeV) from the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a thin foil originate on the back surface of the foil--as predicted by the TNSA model. Our experimental results are in agreement with PIC simulations showing back surface protons reach energies up to 13 MeV, while front surface protons reach a maximum energy of 4 MeV. Well diagnosed and controllable proton beams will have many applications: neutron radiography, material damage studies, production of medical isotopes, and as a high-resolution radiography tool for diagnosing opaque materials and plasmas. Well collimated and focusable ion beams may also prove beneficial for alternative inertial-fusion concepts such as proton fast ignition, a pote

  12. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to these same feature surfaces to withstand the pulsating UHIP diesel injection without fatigue failure, through the expected life of the fuel system's components (10,000 hours for the pump and common rail, 5000 hours for the injector). The potential to Caterpillar of this fueling approach and the overall emissions reduction system is the cost savings of the fuel, the cost savings of not requiring a full emissions module and other emissions hardware, and the enabling of the use of biodiesel fuel due to the reduced dependency on after-treatment. A proprietary production CRS generating process was developed to treat the interior of the sac-type injector nozzle tip region (particularly for the sac region). Ninety-five tips passed ultra high pulsed pressure fatigue testing with no failures assignable to treated surfaces or materials. It was determined that the CRS impartation method does not weaken the tip internal seat area. Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development accepts that the CRS method initial production technical readiness level has been established. A method to gage CRS levels in production was not yet accomplished, but it is believed that monitoring process parameters call be used to guarantee quality. A precision profiling process for injector seat and sac regions has been shown to be promising but not yet fully confirmed. It was demonstrated that this precision profiling process can achieve form and geometry to well under an aggressively small micron peak-to-valley and that there are no surface flaws that approach an even tighter micron peak-to-valley tolerance. It is planned to purchase machines to further develop and move the process towards production. The system is targeted towards the high-power diesel electric power generators and high-power diesel marine power generators, with displacement from 20 liters to 80 liters and with power from 800 brake horsepower (BHP) to 3200BHP (0.6 megawatts to 2.4 megawatts). However, with market adoption, this system has the potential to meet EPA exhaust standards for all diesel engines nine liters and up, or 300B

  13. Membership and Behavior of Ultra-Low-Diversity Pathogen Communities Present in the Gut of Humans during Prolonged Critical Illness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaborin, A.; Smith, D.; Garfield, K.; Quensen, J.; Shakhsheer, B.; Kade, M.; Tirrell, M.; Tiedje, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zaborina, O.; et al

    2014-09-23

    We analyzed the 16S rRNA amplicon composition in fecal samples of selected patients during their prolonged stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) and observed the emergence of ultra-low-diversity communities (1 to 4 bacterial taxa) in 30% of the patients. Bacteria associated with the genera Enterococcus and Staphylococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae comprised the majority of these communities. The composition of cultured species from stool samples correlated to the 16S rRNA analysis and additionally revealed the emergence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in ~75% of cases. Four of 14 ICU patients harbored 2-member pathogen communities consisting of one Candidamore » taxon and one bacterial taxon. Bacterial members displayed a high degree of resistance to multiple antibiotics. The virulence potential of the 2-member communities was examined in C. elegans during nutrient deprivation and exposure to opioids in order to mimic local conditions in the gut during critical illness. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, the bacterial members attenuated the virulence of fungal members, leading to a “commensal lifestyle.” However, exposure to opioids led to a breakdown in this commensalism in 2 of the ultra-low-diversity communities. Application of a novel antivirulence agent (phosphate-polyethylene glycol [Pi-PEG]) that creates local phosphate abundance prevented opioid-induced virulence among these pathogen communities, thus rescuing the commensal lifestyle. To conclude, the gut microflora in critically ill patients can consist of ultra-low-diversity communities of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Local environmental conditions in gut may direct pathogen communities to adapt to either a commensal style or a pathogenic style.« less

  14. Membership and Behavior of Ultra-Low-Diversity Pathogen Communities Present in the Gut of Humans during Prolonged Critical Illness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaborin, A.; Smith, D.; Garfield, K.; Quensen, J.; Shakhsheer, B.; Kade, M.; Tirrell, M.; Tiedje, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J. C.

    2014-09-23

    We analyzed the 16S rRNA amplicon composition in fecal samples of selected patients during their prolonged stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) and observed the emergence of ultra-low-diversity communities (1 to 4 bacterial taxa) in 30% of the patients. Bacteria associated with the genera Enterococcus and Staphylococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae comprised the majority of these communities. The composition of cultured species from stool samples correlated to the 16S rRNA analysis and additionally revealed the emergence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in ~75% of cases. Four of 14 ICU patients harbored 2-member pathogen communities consisting of one Candida taxon and one bacterial taxon. Bacterial members displayed a high degree of resistance to multiple antibiotics. The virulence potential of the 2-member communities was examined in C. elegans during nutrient deprivation and exposure to opioids in order to mimic local conditions in the gut during critical illness. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, the bacterial members attenuated the virulence of fungal members, leading to a “commensal lifestyle.” However, exposure to opioids led to a breakdown in this commensalism in 2 of the ultra-low-diversity communities. Application of a novel antivirulence agent (phosphate-polyethylene glycol [Pi-PEG]) that creates local phosphate abundance prevented opioid-induced virulence among these pathogen communities, thus rescuing the commensal lifestyle. To conclude, the gut microflora in critically ill patients can consist of ultra-low-diversity communities of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Local environmental conditions in gut may direct pathogen communities to adapt to either a commensal style or a pathogenic style.

  15. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  16. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than ∼ (0.06−5) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3} at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic deflections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2−7) × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −3}, were obtained for sources following the local matter distribution.

  17. A facile method for nickel catalyst immobilization on ultra fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T.; Wen, G.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Bai, H.W.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-07-15

    A pure nickel coating has been successfully plated on the surface of ultra fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles via a facile electroless plating method. Coating morphology and crystallite size can be tailored by pH values. Dense coating with the maximum crystallite size of 24 nm was obtained at pH 11.0 and porous coating with the minimum crystallite size of 15 nm was obtained at pH value 12.5. The plated powders have been demonstrated to be an effective catalyst for growing boron nitride nanotubes.

  18. Ultra-directional source of longitudinal acoustic waves based on a two-dimensional solid/solid phononic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-07

    Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.

  19. New Multijunction Design Leads to Ultra-Efficient Solar Cell; Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    NREL has demonstrated a 45.7% conversion efficiency for a four-junction solar cell at 234 suns concentration. This achievement represents one of the highest photovoltaic research cell efficiencies ever achieved across all types of solar cells. NREL's new solar cell, which is designed for operation in a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system where it can receive more than 1,000 suns of concentrated sunlight, greatly improves earlier designs by adding an additional high quality absorber layer to achieve an ultra-high efficiency.

  20. An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2013-12-09

    Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

  1. Investigation of Mechanical Activation on Li-N-H Systems Using 6Li Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Ultra-High Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2008-07-15

    Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.

  2. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the µ-Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

  3. THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE OF THE ULTRA-METAL-POOR STAR HE 0557-4840

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Eriksson, K.; Korn, A. J.

    2012-07-10

    We present a high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the ultra-metal-poor (UMP) carbon-enhanced red giant HE 0557-4840 (T{sub eff}/log g/[Fe/H] = 4900/2.2/-4.8). Combining these data with earlier observations, the radial velocity is 212.0 {+-} 0.4 km s{sup -1}, with no evidence of variability during 2006 February to 2007 December. One-dimensional (1D) LTE model-atmosphere analysis of UV Fe and CH lines confirms the iron and carbon abundances obtained previously ([Fe/H] = -4.8 and [C/Fe]{sub 1D} = +1.7), and places a more stringent limit on nitrogen abundance of [N/Fe]{sub 1D} < +1.0. Analysis of the UV OH lines yields [O/Fe]{sub 1D} = +2.3 {+-} 0.4. When corrections are made for three-dimensional (3D) effects we obtain [C/Fe]{sub 3D} = +1.1, [N/Fe]{sub 3D} < +0.1, and [O/Fe]{sub 3D} +1.4. Comparison of the abundances of HE 0557-4840 with those of supernova models of Nomoto et al. and Joggerst et al. suggests that none is able to explain fully the observed abundance pattern. For HE 0557-4840, the Frebel et al. transition discriminant D{sub trans}(log(10{sup [C/H]} + 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup [O/H]}) = -3.4 {+-} 0.2, consistent with fine-structure transitions of C II and O I being a major cooling mechanism of star-forming regions at the earliest times. Of the four stars known to have [Fe/H] {approx}< -4.3, three are strongly carbon and oxygen enhanced. If the suggestion by Caffau et al. that SDSS J102915+172927 ([Fe/H] = -4.7) does not belong to the class of C-rich, O-rich, UMP stars is supported by future similar discoveries, one will need to consider multiple channels for the production of stars having [Fe/H] {approx}< -4.3.

  4. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Simon, J. D.

    2015-07-23

    With this study, we present Magellan/M2FS, Very Large Telescope/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity ofmore » $$62.8\\pm 0.5\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ and a velocity dispersion of $$3.3\\pm 0.7\\;\\mathrm{km}\\;{{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is $$470\\pm 210\\ {M}_{\\odot }/{L}_{\\odot }$$, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 $$\\mathrm{km}\\ {{\\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 ± 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}\\lt -3$$. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a mean metallicity of $${\\rm{[Fe/H]}}=-2.65\\pm 0.07$$, Ret II matches Segue 1 as the most metal-poor galaxy known. Although Ret II is the third-closest dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way, the line-of-sight integral of the dark matter density squared is $${\\mathrm{log}}_{10}(J)=18.8\\pm 0.6\\;\\;\\mathrm{GeV}{\\;}^{2}\\;{\\mathrm{cm}}^{-5}\\;$$ within 0fdg2, indicating that the predicted gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation in Ret II is lower than that of several other dwarf galaxies.« less

  5. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ? z ? 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ?}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 ?m, as well as the molecular gas of z ? 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ? 0.3.

  6. Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-07-20

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Ultra-scale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) Team for the period of January 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. It discusses highlights, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project, please visit our UV-CDAT website (URL: http://uv-cdat.org). This report will be forwarded to the program manager for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), national and international collaborators and stakeholders, and to researchers working on a wide range of other climate model, reanalysis, and observation evaluation activities. The UV-CDAT executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dave Bader and Galen Shipman of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Phil Jones and James Ahrens of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Claudio Silva of Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly); and Berk Geveci of Kitware, Inc. The UV-CDAT team consists of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge whose home institutions also include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the University of Utah. All work is accomplished under DOE open-source guidelines and in close collaboration with the project's stakeholders, domain researchers, and scientists. Working directly with BER climate science analysis projects, this consortium will develop and deploy data and computational resources useful to a wide variety of stakeholders, including scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Members of this consortium already collaborate with other institutions and universities in researching data discovery, management, visualization, workflow analysis, and provenance. The UV-CDAT team will address the following high-level visualization requirements: (1) Alternative parallel streaming statistics and analysis pipelines - Data parallelism, Task parallelism, Visualization parallelism; (2) Optimized parallel input/output (I/O); (3) Remote interactive execution; (4) Advanced intercomparison visualization; (5) Data provenance processing and capture; and (6) Interfaces for scientists - Workflow data analysis and visualization construction tools, and Visualization interfaces.

  7. Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Dmitriev

    2007-06-30

    The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing better understanding of p-type GaN formation for Solid State Lighting community. Grown p-type GaN layers were used as substrates for blue and green InGaN-based LEDs made by HVPE technology at TDI. These results proved proposed technical approach and facilitate fabrication of highly conductive p-GaN materials by low-cost HVPE technology for solid state lighting applications. TDI has started the commercialization of p-GaN epitaxial materials.

  8. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  9. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  10. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer(tomlinson-uhsas)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tomlinson, Jason; Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-28

    Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSASA) A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  11. Densification of alkoxide-derived fine silica powder compact by ultra-high-pressure cold isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Suzuki, Hisao ); Kato, Daisuke; Jimbo, Genji . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Powder compacts of alkoxide-derived fine silica powders were consolidated into a highly dense and uniform structure by ultra-high-pressure cold isostatic pressing of granules with controlled structure. The diameters of spherical and nearly monosized amorphous silica particles, prepared from metal alkoxide, were successfully controlled in the range of 9 to 760 nm by varying the concentration of ammonia. Close-packed granules of these powders were produced by spray drying. These powders were isostatically pressed up to 1 GPa at room temperature. Although the average particle diameter was less than 100 nm, the maximum relative density of the compacts was more than 78% of theoretical density. The optimum particle size to obtain highly dense compacts was in the range of 30 to 300 nm at 1 GPa. Furthermore, the ratio of mode pore diameter in these compacts to particle diameter was less than 0.155, which corresponded to the minimum ratio of calculated three-particle pore channel radii for hexagonal close packing. Viscous deformation of particles under ultra-high isostatic pressure played an important role in the densification of the compacts.

  12. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchard, Frdric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded space for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ?. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ?=2q? per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ? values ranging from 1 to 25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6%??0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  13. The Design, Construction, and Initial Characterization of an Ultra-Low-Background Gas-Proportional Counting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Overman, Cory T.; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-05-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past several years, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an ultra-low background proportional counter (ULBPC) technology. The resulting detector is the product of an effort to produce a low-background, physically robust gas proportional counter for applications like radon emanation measurements, groundwater tritium, and 37Ar. In order to fully take advantage of the inherent low-background properties designed into the ULBPC, a comparably low-background dedicated counting system is required. An ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) was recently built in the new shallow underground laboratory at PNNL. With a design depth of 30 meters water-equivalent, the shallow underground laboratory provides approximately 100x fewer fast neutrons and 6x fewer muons than a surface location. The ULBCS itself provides additional shielding in the form of active anti-cosmic veto (via 2-in. thick plastic scintillator paddles) and passive borated poly (1 in.), lead (6 in.), and copper (~3 in.) shielding. This work will provide details on PNNLs new shallow underground laboratory, examine the motivation for the design of the counting system, and provide results from the characterization of the ULBCS, including initial detector background.

  14. TIDAL DISRUPTIONS OF WHITE DWARFS FROM ULTRA-CLOSE ENCOUNTERS WITH INTERMEDIATE-MASS SPINNING BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Roland; Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo; Shcherbakov, Roman V.

    2012-04-20

    We present numerical relativity results of tidal disruptions of white dwarfs from ultra-close encounters with a spinning, intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). These encounters require a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. We show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole (BH) spin. However, the late-time accretion onto the BH follows the same decay, M-dot {proportional_to} t{sup -5/3}, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. We compute the spectrum of the disk formed from the fallback material using a slim disk model. The disk spectrum peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1-3 yr after the disruption. For arbitrary BH spin orientations, the disrupted material is scattered away from the orbital plane by relativistic frame dragging, which often leads to obscuration of the inner fallback disk by the outflowing debris. The disruption events also yield bursts of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of {approx}3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of {approx}10{sup -18} for galactic IMBHs. The optimistic rate of considered ultra-close disruptions is consistent with no sources found in the ROSAT all-sky survey. Future missions like Wide-Field X-ray Telescope could observe dozens of events.

  15. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  16. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non-dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

  17. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000?°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500?°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300?°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  18. Ultra-Efficient and Power Dense Electric Motors for U. S. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Schiferl, Richard F.; Umans, Stephen D.

    2013-03-12

    The primary purpose of this project was to combine the ease-of-installation and ease-of-use attributes of industrial induction motors with the low-loss and small size and weight advantages of PM motors to create an ultra-efficient, high power density industrial motor that can be started across-the-line or operated from a standard, Volts/Hertz drive without the need for a rotor position feedback device. PM motor products that are currently available are largely variable speed motors that require a special adjustable speed drive with rotor position feedback. The reduced size and weight helps to offset the magnet cost in order make these motors commercially viable. The scope of this project covers horsepower ratings from 20 ? 500. Prototypes were built and tested at ratings ranging from 30 to 250 HP. Since fans, pumps and compressors make up a large portion of industrial motor applications, the motor characteristics are tailored to those applications. Also, since there is extensive use of adjustable frequency inverters in these applications, there is the opportunity to design for an optimal pole number and operate at other than 60 Hz frequency when inverters are utilized. Designs with four and eight pole configurations were prototyped as part of this work. Four pole motors are the most commonly used configuration in induction motors today. The results of the prototype design, fabrication, and testing were quite successful. The 50 HP rating met all of the design goals including efficiency and power density. Tested values of motor losses at 50 HP were 30% lower than energy efficient induction motors and the motor weight is 35% lower than the energy efficient induction motor of the same rating. Further, when tested at the 30 HP rating that is normally built in this 286T frame size, the efficiency far exceeds the project design goals with 30 HP efficiency levels indicating a 55% reduction in loss compared to energy efficient motors with a motor weight that is a few percentage points lower than the energy efficient motor. This 30 HP rating full load efficiency corresponds to a 46% reduction in loss compared to a 30 HP NEMA Premium? efficient motor. The cost goals were to provide a two year or shorter efficiency-based payback of a price premium associated with the magnet cost in these motors. That goal is based on 24/7 operation with a cost of electricity of 10 cents per kW-hr. Similarly, the 250 HP prototype efficiency testing was quite successful. In this case, the efficiency was maximized with a slightly less aggressive reduction in active material. The measured full load efficiency of 97.6% represents in excess of a 50% loss reduction compared to the equivalent NEMA Premium Efficiency induction motor. The active material weight reduction was a respectable 14.5% figure. This larger rating demonstrated both the scalability of this technology and also the ability to flexibly trade off power density and efficiency. In terms of starting performance, the 30 ? 50 HP prototypes were very extensively tested. The demonstrated capability included the ability to successfully start a load with an inertia of 25 times the motor?s own inertia while accelerating against a load torque following a fan profile at the motor?s full nameplate power rating. This capability will provide very wide applicability of this motor technology. The 250 HP prototype was also tested for starting characteristics, though without a coupled inertia and load torque. As a result it was not definitively proven that the same 25 times the motor?s own inertia could be started and synchronized successfully at 250 HP. Finite element modeling implies that this load could be successfully started, but it has not yet been confirmed by a test.

  19. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C.; Anderson, J.A.; Howden, Kenneth C.

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  20. Structural phase diagram for ultra-thin epitaxial Fe 3 O 4  / MgO(0 0 1) films: thickness and oxygen pressure dependence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alraddadi, S.; Hines, W.; Yilmaz, T.; Gu, G. D.; Sinkovic, B.

    2016-02-19

    A systematic investigation of the thickness and oxygen pressure dependence for the structural properties of ultra-thin epitaxial magnetite (Fe3O4) films has been carried out; for such films, the structural properties generally differ from those for the bulk when the thickness ≤10 nm. Iron oxide ultra-thin films with thicknesses varying from 3 nm to 20 nm were grown on MgO (001) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy under different oxygen pressures ranging from 1 × 10-7 torr to 1 × 10-5 torr. The crystallographic and electronic structures of the films were characterized using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopymore » (XPS), respectively. Moreover, the quality of the epitaxial Fe3O4 ultra-thin films was judged by magnetic measurements of the Verwey transition, along with complementary XPS spectra. We observed that under the same growth conditions the stoichiometry of ultra-thin films under 10 nm transforms from the Fe3O4 phase to the FeO phase. In this work, a phase diagram based on thickness and oxygen pressure has been constructed to explain the structural phase transformation. It was found that high-quality magnetite films with thicknesses ≤20 nm formed within a narrow range of oxygen pressure. An optimal and controlled growth process is a crucial requirement for the accurate study of the magnetic and electronic properties for ultra-thin Fe3O4 films. Furthermore, these results are significant because they may indicate a general trend in the growth of other oxide films, which has not been previously observed or considered.« less