While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

1

The ultimate downscaling limit of FETs.

We created a highly efficient, universal 3D quant um transport simulator. We demonstrated that the simulator scales linearly - both with the problem size (N) and number of CPUs, which presents an important break-through in the field of computational nanoelectronics. It allowed us, for the first time, to accurately simulate and optim ize a large number of realistic nanodevices in a much shorter time, when compared to other methods/codes such as RGF[~N 2.333 ]/KNIT, KWANT, and QTBM[~N 3 ]/NEMO5. In order to determine the best-in-class for different beyond-CMOS paradigms, we performed rigorous device optimization for high-performance logic devices at 6-, 5- and 4-nm gate lengths. We have discovered that there exists a fundamental down-scaling limit for CMOS technology and other Field-Effect Transistors (FETs). We have found that, at room temperatures, all FETs, irre spective of their channel material, will start experiencing unacceptable level of thermally induced errors around 5-nm gate lengths.

Mamaluy, Denis; Gao, Xujiao; Tierney, Brian David

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Novel Materials Become Multifunctional at the Ultimate Quantum...

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the limits of current conventional computers and develop multiple functions for a single device, possibly allowing everyday electronics to become smaller and faster than they are...

3

Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Edward D. Tate

00FTT-50 Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Edward D. Tate Stephen electric vehicles are seen as a solution to improving fuel economy and reducing pollution emissions from including: Â· nonlinear fuel/power maps Â· min and max battery charge Â· battery efficiency Â· nonlinear vehicle

4

Quantum limits to estimation of photon deformation

We address potential deviations of radiation field from the bosonic behaviour and employ local quantum estimation theory to evaluate the ultimate bounds to precision in the estimation of these deviations using quantum-limited measurements on optical signals. We consider different classes of boson deformation and found that intensity measurement on coherent or thermal states would be suitable for their detection making, at least in principle, tests of boson deformation feasible with current quantum optical technology. On the other hand, we found that the quantum signal-to-noise ratio (QSNR) is vanishing with the deformation itself for all the considered classes of deformations and probe signals, thus making any estimation procedure of photon deformation inherently inefficient. A partial way out is provided by the polynomial dependence of the QSNR on the average number of photon, which suggests that, in principle, it would be possible to detect deformation by intensity measurements on high-energy thermal states.

Giovanni De Cillis; Matteo G. A. Paris

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

5

Quantum resources for purification and cooling: fundamental limits and opportunities

Preparing a quantum system in a pure state is ultimately limited by the nature of the system's evolution in the presence of its environment and by the initial state of the environment itself. We show that, when the system and environment are initially uncorrelated and arbitrary joint unitary dynamics is allowed, the system may be purified up to a certain (possibly arbitrarily small) threshold if and only if its environment, either natural or engineered, contains a "virtual subsystem" which has the same dimension and is in a state with the desired purity. Beside providing a unified understanding of quantum purification dynamics in terms of a "generalized swap process," our results shed light on the significance of a no-go theorem for exact ground-state cooling, as well as on the quantum resources needed for achieving an intended purification task.

Francesco Ticozzi; Lorenza Viola

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

Ideal Quantum Gases with Planck Scale Limitations

A thermodynamic system of non-interacting quantum particles changes its statistical distribution formulas if there is a universal limitation for the size of energetic quantum leaps (magnitude of quantum leaps smaller than Planck energy). By means of a restriction of the a priori equiprobability postulate one can reach a thermodynamic foundation of these corrected distribution formulas. The number of microstates is determined by means of a suitable counting method and combined with thermodynamics via the Boltzmann principle. The result is that, for particle energies that come close to the Planck energy, the thermodynamic difference between fermion and boson distribution vanishes. Both distributions then approximate a Boltzmann distribution. The wave and particle character of the quantum particles, too, can be influenced by choosing the size of the temperature and particle energy parameters relative to the Planck energy, as you can see from the associated fluctuation formulas. In the case of non-relativistic de...

Collier, Rainer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Quantum dynamics in the thermodynamic limit

The description of spontaneous symmetry breaking that underlies the connection between classically ordered objects in the thermodynamic limit and their individual quantum-mechanical building blocks is one of the cornerstones of modern condensed-matter theory and has found applications in many different areas of physics. The theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, however, is inherently an equilibrium theory, which does not address the dynamics of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we will use the example of a particular antiferromagnetic model system to show that the presence of a so-called thin spectrum of collective excitations with vanishing energy - one of the well-known characteristic properties shared by all symmetry-breaking objects - can allow these objects to also spontaneously break time-translation symmetry in the thermodynamic limit. As a result, that limit is found to be able, not only to reduce quantum-mechanical equilibrium averages to their classical counterparts, but also to turn individual-state quantum dynamics into classical physics. In the process, we find that the dynamical description of spontaneous symmetry breaking can also be used to shed some light on the possible origins of Born's rule. We conclude by describing an experiment on a condensate of exciton polaritons which could potentially be used to experimentally test the proposed mechanism.

Wezel, Jasper van [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Probabilistic metrology defeats ultimate deterministic bound

Quantum-enhanced measurements exploit quantum mechanical effects to provide ultra-precise estimates of physical variables for use in advanced technologies, such as frequency calibration of atomic clocks, gravitational waves detection, and biosensing. Quantum metrology studies the fundamental limits in the estimation precision given a certain amount of resources (e.g. the number of probe systems) and restrictions (e.g. limited interaction time, or coping with unavoidable presence of noise). Here we show that, even in the presence of noise, probabilistic measurement strategies (which have a certain probability of failure or abstention) can provide, upon a heralded successful outcome, estimates with a precision that violates the deterministic bounds. This establishes a new ultimate quantum metrology limit. For probe systems subject to local dephasing, we quantify such precision limit as a function of the probability of failure that can be tolerated. We show that the possibility of abstaining can substantially set back the detrimental effects of noise.

J. Calsamiglia; B. Gendra; R. Munoz-Tapia; E. Bagan

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

9

Efficiency limits of quantum well solar cells

The quantum well solar cell (QWSC) has been proposed as a flexible means to ensuring current matching for tandem cells. This paper explores the further advantage afforded by the indication that QWSCs operate in the radiative limit because radiative contribution to the dark current is seen to dominate in experimental data at biases corresponding to operation under concentration. The dark currents of QWSCs are analysed in terms of a light and dark current model. The model calculates the spectral response (QE) from field bearing regions and charge neutral layers and from the quantum wells by calculating the confined densities of states and absorption coefficient, and solving transport equations analytically. The total dark current is expressed as the sum of depletion layer and charge neutral radiative and non radiative currents consistent with parameter values extracted from QE fits to data. The depletion layer dark current is a sum of Shockley-Read-Hall non radiative, and radiative contributions. The charge neu...

Connolly, J P; Barnham, K W J; Bushnell, D B; Tibbits, T N D; Roberts, J S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Limits of quantum speedup in photosynthetic light harvesting

It has been suggested that excitation transport in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes features speedups analogous to those found in quantum algorithms. Here we compare the dynamics in these light harvesting systems to the dynamics of quantum walks, in order to elucidate the limits of such quantum speedups. For the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur bacteria, we show that while there is indeed speedup at short times, this is short lived (70 fs) despite longer lived (ps) quantum coherence. Remarkably, this time scale is independent of the details of the decoherence model. More generally, we show that the distinguishing features of light-harvesting complexes not only limit the extent of quantum speedup but also reduce rates of diffusive transport. These results suggest that quantum coherent effects in biological systems are optimized for efficiency or robustness rather than the more elusive goal of quantum speedup.

Stephan Hoyer; Mohan Sarovar; K. Birgitta Whaley

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

On the limiting absorption principle and spectra of quantum graphs

The main result of the article is validity of the limiting absorption principle and thus absence of the singular continuous spectrum for compact quantum graphs with several infinite leads attached. The technique used involves Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators.

Beng-Seong Ong

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

Thermodynamic Limits, Non-commutative Probability, and Quantum Entanglement

We construct a rigourous model of quantum measurement. A two-state model of a negative temperature amplifier, such as a laser, is taken to a classical thermodynamic limit. In the limit, it becomes a classical measurement apparatus obeying the stochastic axioms of quantum mechanics. Thus we derive the probabilities from a deterministic Schroedinger's equation by procedures analogous to those of classical statistical mechanics. This requires making precise the notion of `macroscopic.'

Joseph F. Johnson

2005-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

13

Superconducting quantum interference device as a near-quantum-limited amplifier at 0.5 GHz

Superconducting quantum interference device as a near-quantum-limited amplifier at 0.5 GHz Michael 94720 Received 10 October 2000; accepted for publication 14 December 2000 A dc superconducting quantum, for example, superconducting transition-edge sensors for infrared, optical, and ultraviolet wavelengths,2

Le Roy, Robert J.

14

Discrimination of quantum observables using limited resources

We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination and identification among quantum observables. We set a general framework and investigate in details the case of qubit observables. In particular, we show that perfect discrimination with two shots is possible only for sharp qubit observables (e.g. Stern-Gerlach apparatuses) associated with mutually orthogonal directions. We also show that for sharp qubit observables associated to nonorthogonal directions unambiguous discrimination with an inconclusive result is always possible.

Mario Ziman; Teiko Heinosaari

2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Quantum Apices: Identifying Limits of Entanglement, Nonlocality, & Contextuality

This work develops analytic methods to quantitatively demarcate quantum reality from its subset of classical phenomenon, as well as from the superset of general probabilistic theories. Regarding quantum nonlocality, we discuss how to determine the quantum limit of Bell-type linear inequalities. In contrast to semidefinite programming approaches, our method allows for the consideration of inequalities with abstract weights, by means of leveraging the Hermiticity of quantum states. Recognizing that classical correlations correspond to measurements made on separable states, we also introduce a practical method for obtaining sufficient separability criteria. We specifically vet the candidacy of driven and undriven superradiance as schema for entanglement generation. We conclude by reviewing current approaches to quantum contextuality, emphasizing the operational distinction between nonlocal and contextual quantum statistics. We utilize our abstractly-weighted linear quantum bounds to explicitly demonstrate a set of conditional probability distributions which are simultaneously compatible with quantum contextuality while being incompatible with quantum nonlocality. It is noted that this novel statistical regime implies an experimentally-testable target for the Consistent Histories theory of quantum gravity.

Elie Wolfe

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

16

Quantum system characterization with limited resources

The construction and operation of large scale quantum information devices presents a grand challenge. A major issue is the effective control of coherent evolution, which requires accurate knowledge of the system dynamics that may vary from device to device. We review strategies for obtaining such knowledge from minimal initial resources and in an efficient manner, and apply these to the problem of characterization of a qubit embedded into a larger state manifold, made tractable by exploiting prior structural knowledge. We also investigate adaptive sampling for estimation of multiple parameters.

Daniel Oi; Sophie Schirmer

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Squeezed-light-enhanced atom interferometry below the standard quantum limit

We investigate the prospect of enhancing the phase sensitivity of atom interferometers in the Mach-Zehnder configuration with squeezed light. Ultimately, this enhancement is achieved by transferring the quantum state of squeezed light to one or more of the atomic input beams, thereby allowing operation below the standard quantum limit. We analyze in detail three specific schemes that utilize (1) single-mode squeezed optical vacuum (i.e. low frequency squeezing), (2) two-mode squeezed optical vacuum (i.e. high frequency squeezing) transferred to both atomic inputs, and (3) two-mode squeezed optical vacuum transferred to a single atomic input. Crucially, our analysis considers incomplete quantum state transfer (QST) between the optical and atomic modes, and the effects of depleting the initially-prepared atomic source. Unsurprisingly, incomplete QST degrades the sensitivity in all three schemes. We show that by measuring the transmitted photons and using information recycling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053002 (2013)], the degrading effects of incomplete QST on the sensitivity can be substantially reduced. In particular, information recycling allows scheme (2) to operate at the Heisenberg limit irrespective of the QST efficiency, even when depletion is significant. Although we concentrate on Bose-condensed atomic systems, our scheme is equally applicable to ultracold thermal vapors.

Stuart S. Szigeti; Behnam Tonekaboni; Wing Yung S. Lau; Samantha N. Hood; Simon A. Haine

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

18

Doppler cooling to the Quantum limit M. Chalony,1

is canceled. PACS numbers: 37.10.De, 37.10.Gh Laser cooling of atoms is a technique widely used, mainly of laser cooling and trapping techniques, in parallel with precise measure- ments of the momentumDoppler cooling to the Quantum limit M. Chalony,1 A. Kastberg,2 B. Klappauf,3 and D. Wilkowski1, 4

19

Quantum Limit on Stability of Clocks in a Gravitational Field

Good clocks are of importance both to fundamental physics and for applications in astronomy, metrology and global positioning systems. In a recent technological breakthrough, researchers at NIST have been able to achieve a stability of 1 part in $10^{18}$ using an Ytterbium clock. This naturally raises the question of whether there are fundamental limits to the stability of clocks. In this paper we point out that gravity and quantum mechanics set a fundamental limit on the stability of clocks. This limit comes from a combination of the uncertainty relation, the gravitational redshift and the relativistic time dilation effect. For example, a single ion hydrogen maser clock in a terrestrial gravitational field cannot achieve a stability better than one part in $10^{22}$. This observation has implications for laboratory experiments involving both gravity and quantum theory.

Supurna Sinha; Joseph Samuel

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

20

Quantum Limits and Robustness of Nonlinear Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy

We investigate the limits of intracavity absorption spectroscopy with nonlinear media. Using a common theoretical framework, we compare the detection of a trace gas within an undriven cavity with gain near and above threshold, a driven cavity with gain kept just below threshold, and a cavity driven close to the saturation point of a saturable absorber. These phase-transition-based metrology methods are typically quantum-limited by spontaneous emission, and we compare them to the empty cavity shotnoise-limited case. Although the fundamental limits achievable with nonlinear media do not surpass the empty cavity limits, we show that nonlinear methods are more robust against certain technical noise models. This recognition may have applications in spectrometer design for devices operating in non-ideal field environments.

John K. Stockton; Ari K. Tuchman

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

21

The optimal bound of quantum erasure with limited means

In practical applications of quantum information science, quantum systems can have non-negligible interactions with the environment, and this generally degrades the power of quantum protocols as it introduces noise. Counteracting this by appropriately measuring the environment (and therefore projecting its state) would require access all the necessary degrees of freedom, which in practice can be far too hard to achieve. To better understand one's limitations, we calculate the upper bound of optimal quantum erasure (i.e. the highest recoverable visibility, or "coherence"), when erasure is realistically limited to an accessible subspace of the whole environment. In the particular case of a two-dimensional accessible environment, the bound is given by the sub-fidelity of two particular states of the \\emph{inaccessible} environment, which opens a new window into understanding the connection between correlated systems. We also provide an analytical solution for a three-dimensional accessible environment. This result provides also an interesting operational interpretation of sub-fidelity. We end with a statistical analysis of the expected visibility of an optimally erased random state and we find that 1) if one picks a random pure state of 2 qubits, there is an optimal measurement that allows one to distill a 1-qubit state with almost 90\\% visibility and 2) if one picks a random pure state of 2 qubits in an inaccessible environment, there is an optimal measurement that allows one to distill a 1-qubit state with almost twice its initial visibility.

Filippo M. Miatto; Kevin Piché; Thomas Brougham; Robert W. Boyd

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

22

Private Database Queries Using Quantum States with Limited Coherence Times

We describe a method for private database queries using exchange of quantum states with bits encoded in mutually incompatible bases. For technology with limited coherence time, the database vendor can announce the encoding after a suitable delay to allow the user to privately learn one of two items in the database without the ability to also definitely infer the second item. This quantum approach also allows the user to choose to learn other functions of the items, such as the exclusive-or of their bits, but not to gain more information than equivalent to learning one item, on average. This method is especially useful for items consisting of a few bits by avoiding the substantial overhead of conventional cryptographic approaches.

Tad Hogg; Li Zhang

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

An optically trapped mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit

The preparation of a mechanical oscillator driven by quantum back-action is a fundamental requirement to reach the standard quantum limit (SQL) for force measurement, in optomechanical systems. However, thermal fluctuating force generally dominates a disturbance on the oscillator. In the macroscopic scale, an optical linear cavity including a suspended mirror has been used for the weak force measurement, such as gravitational-wave detectors. This configuration has the advantages of reducing the dissipation of the pendulum (i.e., suspension thermal noise) due to a gravitational dilution by using a thin wire, and of increasing the circulating laser power. However, the use of the thin wire is weak for an optical torsional anti-spring effect in the cavity, due to the low mechanical restoring force of the wire. Thus, there is the trade-off between the stability of the system and the sensitivity. Here, we describe using a triangular optical cavity to overcome this limitation for reaching the SQL. The triangular cavity can provide a sensitive and stable system, because it can optically trap the mirror's motion of the yaw, through an optical positive torsional spring effect. To show this, we demonstrate a measurement of the torsional spring effect caused by radiation pressure forces.

Nobuyuki Matsumoto; Yuta Michimura; Yoichi Aso; Kimio Tsubono

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Quantum Limits of Interferometer Topologies for Gravitational Radiation Detection

In order to expand the astrophysical reach of gravitational wave detectors, several interferometer topologies have been proposed to evade the thermodynamic and quantum mechanical limits in future detectors. In this work, we make a systematic comparison among them by considering their sensitivities and complexities. We numerically optimize their sensitivities by introducing a cost function that tries to maximize the broadband improvement over the sensitivity of current detectors. We find that frequency-dependent squeezed-light injection with a hundred-meter scale filter cavity yields a good broadband sensitivity, with low complexity, and good robustness against optical loss. This study gives us a guideline for the near-term experimental research programs in enhancing the performance of future gravitational-wave detectors.

Haixing Miao; Huan Yang; Rana X Adhikari; Yanbei Chen

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

25

Within the quantum phase representation we derive Heisenberg limits, in closed form, for N00N states and two other classes of states that can perform better in terms of local performance metrics relevant for multiply-peaked distributions. One of these can also enhance the super-resolution factor beyond that of a N00N state of the same power, at the expense of diminished fringe visibility. An accurate phase estimation algorithm, which can be applied to the minimally resourced apparatus of a standard interferometer, is shown to be resilient to the presence of additive white-Gaussian noise (AWGN). In the limit of no AWGN the algorithm achieves over nine digits of accuracy for the case of a four-photon N00N state - orders of magnitude below its Heisenberg limit.

Scott Roger Shepard; Frederick Ira Moxley III; Jonathan P. Dowling

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

26

Landauer's principle sets fundamental thermodynamic constraints for classical and quantum information processing. Here we measure, for the first time, the heat dissipated in elementary quantum logic gates, at the Landauer limit, implemented in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance system. This allows for the detailed study of irreversible entropy production in quantum information processors.

John P. P. Silva; Roberto S. Sarthour; Alexandre M. Souza; Ivan S. Oliveira; John Goold; Kavan Modi; Diogo O. Soares-Pinto; Lucas C. Céleri

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

Inequalities for quantum channels assisted by limited resources

The information capacities and ``distillability'' of a quantum channel are studied in the presence of auxiliary resources. These include prior entanglement shared between the sender and receiver and free classical bits of forward and backward communication. Inequalities and trade-off curves are derived. In particular an alternative proof is given that in the absence of feedback and shared entanglement, forward classical communication does not increase the quantum capacity of a channel.

Vittorio Giovannetti

2005-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

28

Quantum Criticality at the Large-Dimensional Limit: Three-Body

-electron atoms, a second-order phase transition [5] occurs at Zc 2.0. The estima- tion of critical nuclear chargeQuantum Criticality at the Large-Dimensional Limit: Three-Body Coulomb Systems QICUN SHI, SABRE; revised 3 May 2001; accepted 14 May 2001 ABSTRACT: We present quantum phase transitions and critical

Kais, Sabre

29

Quantum-projection-noise-limited interferometry with coherent atoms in a Ramsey-type setup

Every measurement of the population in an uncorrelated ensemble of two-level systems is limited by what is known as the quantum projection noise limit. Here, we present quantum-projection-noise-limited performance of a Ramsey-type interferometer using freely propagating coherent atoms. The experimental setup is based on an electro-optic modulator in an inherently stable Sagnac interferometer, optically coupling the two interfering atomic states via a two-photon Raman transition. Going beyond the quantum projection noise limit requires the use of reduced quantum uncertainty (squeezed) states. The experiment described demonstrates atom interferometry at the fundamental noise level and allows the observation of possible squeezing effects in an atom laser, potentially leading to improved sensitivity in atom interferometers.

Doering, D.; McDonald, G.; Debs, J. E.; Figl, C.; Altin, P. A.; Bachor, H.-A.; Robins, N. P.; Close, J. D. [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Department of Quantum Science, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Wavelength limits for InGaN quantum wells on GaN

The emission wavelength of coherently strained InGaN quantum wells (QW) is limited by the maximum thickness before relaxation starts. For high indium contents x>40% the resulting wavelength decreases because quantum confinement dominates. For low indium content x<40% the electron hole wave function overlap (and hence radiative emission) is strongly reduced with increasing QW thickness due to the quantum confined Stark effect and imposes another limit. This results in a maximum usable emission wavelength at around 600?nm for QWs with 40%-50% indium content. Relaxed InGaN buffer layers could help to push this further, especially on non- and semi-polar orientations.

Pristovsek, Markus, E-mail: markus@pristovsek.de [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Quantum-limited metrology and Bose-Einstein condensates

We discuss a quantum-metrology protocol designed to estimate a physical parameter in a Bose-Einstein condensate of N atoms, and we show that the measurement uncertainty can decrease faster than 1/N. The 1/N scaling is usually thought to be the best possible in any measurement scheme. From the perspective of quantum information theory, we outline the main idea that leads to a measurement uncertainty that scales better than 1/N. We examine in detail some potential problems and challenges that arise in implementing such a measurement protocol using a Bose-Einstein condensate. We discuss how some of these issues can be dealt with by using lower-dimensional condensates trapped in nonharmonic potentials.

Sergio Boixo; Animesh Datta; Matthew J. Davis; Anil Shaji; Alexandre B. Tacla; Carlton M. Caves

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

White noise approach to the low density limit of a quantum particle in a gas

The white noise approach to the investigation of the dynamics of a quantum particle interacting with a dilute and in general non-equilibrium gaseous environment in the low density limit is outlined. The low density limit is the kinetic Markovian regime when only pair collisions (i.e., collisions of the test particle with one particle of the gas at one time moment) contribute to the dynamics. In the white noise approach one first proves that the appropriate operators describing the gas converge in the sense of appropriate matrix elements to certain operators of quantum white noise. Then these white noise operators are used to derive quantum white noise and quantum stochastic equations describing the approximate dynamics of the total system consisting of the particle and the gas. The derivation is given ab initio, starting from the exact microscopic quantum dynamics. The limiting dynamics is described by a quantum stochastic equation driven by a quantum Poisson process. This equation then applied to the derivation of quantum Langevin equation and linear Boltzmann equation for the reduced density matrix of the test particle. The first part of the paper describes the approach which was developed by L. Accardi, I.V. Volovich and the author and uses the Fock-antiFock (or GNS) representation for the CCR algebra of the gas. The second part presents the approach to the derivation of the limiting equations directly in terms of the correlation functions, without use of the Fock-antiFock representation. This approach simplifies the derivation and allows to express the strength of the quantum number process directly in terms of the one-particle $S$-matrix.

Alexander Pechen

2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

33

Trajectories without quantum uncertainties

A common knowledge suggests that trajectories of particles in quantum mechanics always have quantum uncertainties. These quantum uncertainties set by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle limit precision of measurements of fields and forces, and ultimately give rise to the standard quantum limit in metrology. With the rapid developments of sensitivity of measurements these limits have been approached in various types of measurements including measurements of fields and acceleration. Here we show that a quantum trajectory of one system measured relatively to the other "reference system" with an effective negative mass can be quantum uncertainty--free. The method crucially relies on the generation of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state of two objects, one of which has an effective negative mass. From a practical perspective these ideas open the way towards force and acceleration measurements at new levels of sensitivity far below the standard quantum limit.

Eugene S. Polzik; Klemens Hammerer

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

16-QAM Quantum Receiver with Hybrid Structure Outperforming the Standard Quantum Limit

We present a quantum receiver for 16-QAM signals discrimination with hybrid structure containing a homodyne receiver and a displacement receiver, which can outperform the SQL, and the performance can be improved by an optimized displacement.

Yuan Zuo; Ke Li; Bing Zhu

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Einstein gravity as the thermodynamic limit of an underlying quantum statistics

The black hole area theorem suggests that classical general relativity is the thermodynamic limit of a quantum statistics. The degrees of freedom of the statistical theory cannot be the spacetime metric. We argue that the statistical theory should be constructed from a noncommutative gravity, whose classical, and thermodynamic, approximation is Einstein gravity. The noncommutative gravity theory exhibits a duality between quantum fields and macroscopic black holes, which is used to show that the black hole possesses an entropy of the order of its area. The principle on which this work is based also provides a possible explanation for the smallness of the cosmological constant, and for the quantum measurement problem, indicating that this is a promising avenue towards the merger of quantum mechanics and gravity.

T. P. Singh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Quantum Behavior of Graphene Transistors near the Scaling Limit Yanqing Wu,,

Quantum Behavior of Graphene Transistors near the Scaling Limit Yanqing Wu,, * Vasili Perebeinos properties of graphene have been a key research focus for the past few years. However, external components interference effects were demonstrated in graphene heterojunctions formed by a top gate. Here phase coherent

Perebeinos, Vasili

37

Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for super-sensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shotnoise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has thought to have been resource intensive to create in the first place --- typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feed-forward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multi-photon walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer --- fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection --- is capable of significantly beating the shotnoise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.

Keith R. Motes; Jonathan P. Olson; Evan J. Rabeaux; Jonathan P. Dowling; S. Jay Olson; Peter P. Rohde

2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

Quantum Dynamical Model for Wave Function Reduction in Classical and Macroscopic Limits

In this papper, a quantum dynamical model describing the quantum measurement process is presented as an extensive generalization of the Coleman-Hepp model. In both the classical limit with very large quantum number and macroscopic limit with very large particle number in measuring instrument, this model generally realizes the wave packet collapse in quantum measurement as a consequence of the Schrodinger time evolution in either the exactly-solvable case or the non-(exactly-)solvable case. For the latter, its quasi-adiabatic case is explicitly analysed by making use of the high-order adiabatic approximation method and then manifests the wave packet collapse as well as the exactly-solvable case. By highlighting these analysis, it is finally found that an essence of the dynamical model of wave packet collapse is the factorization of the Schrodinger evolution other than the exact solvability. So many dynamical models including the well-known ones before, which are exactly-solvable or not, can be shown only to be the concrete realizations of this factorizability

Chang-Pu Sun

1993-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ultimate strength of carbon nanotubes: A theoretical study Qingzhong Zhao, Marco Buongiorno 27695-8202 Received 7 June 2001; published 27 March 2002 The ultimate strength of carbon nanotubes is investigated by large-scale quantum calculations. While the formation energy of strain-induced topological

40

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

41

Limits to Quantum Gravity Effects from Observations of TeV Flares in Active Galaxies

We have used data from the TeV gamma-ray flare associated with the active galaxy Markarian 421 observed on 15 May 1996 to place bounds on the possible energy-dependence of the speed of light in the context of an effective quantum gravitational energy scale. The possibility of an observable time dispersion in high energy radiation has recently received attention in the literature, with some suggestions that the relevant energy scale could be less than the Planck mass and perhaps as low as 10^16 GeV. The limits derived here indicate this energy scale to be in excess of 4x10^16 GeV at the 95% confidence level. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the first convincing limit on such phenomena in this energy regime.

S. D. Biller; A. C. Breslin; J. Buckley; M. Catanese; M. Carson; D. A. Carter-Lewis; M. F. Cawley; D. J. Fegan; J. Finley; J. A. Gaidos; A. M. Hillas; F. Krennrich; R. C. Lamb; R. Lessard; C. Masterson; J. E. McEnery; B. McKernan; P. Moriarty; J. Quinn; H. J. Rose; F. Samuelson; G. Sembroski; P. Skelton; T. C. Weekes

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

42

Quantum dynamics in light-harvesting complexes: Beyond the single-exciton limit

Primitive photosynthetic cells appear over three billion years prior to any other more complex life-forms, thus it is reasonable to assume that Nature has designed a photosynthetic mechanism using minimal resources but honed to perfection under the action of evolution. A number of different quantum models have been proposed to understand the high degree of efficient energy transport, most of them are limited to the scenario of single-exciton. Here we present a study on the dynamics in light-harvesting complexes beyond the single exciton limit, and show how this model describes the energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthew-Olson (FMO) complex. We find that the energy transfer efficiency above 90% under realistic conditions is achievable.

B. Cui; X. Y. Zhang; X. X. Yi

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

43

Limitations on the quantum non-Gaussian characteristic of Schrödinger kitten state generation

A quantitative analysis is conducted on the impacts of experimental imperfections in the input state, the detector properties, and their interactions on photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states in terms of a quantum non-Gaussian character witness and Wigner function. Limitations of the non-classicality and quantum non-Gaussian characteristic of Schr\\"{o}dinger kitten states are identified and addressed. The detrimental effects of a photon-number detector on the generation of odd Schr\\"{o}dinger kitten state at near-infrared wavelengths ($\\sim$ 860 nm) and telecommunication wavelengths ($\\sim$ 1550 nm) are presented and analysed. This analysis demonstrates that the high dark count probability of telecommunication-wavelength photon-number detectors significantly undermines the negativity of the Wigner function in Schr\\"{o}dinger kitten state generation experiments. For a one-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum state at $\\sim$ 1550 nm, an APD-based photon-number-resolving detector provides no significant advantage over a non-photon-number-resolving detector when imperfections, such as dark count probability and inefficiency, are taken into account.

Hongbin Song; Katanya B. Kuntz; Elanor H. Huntington

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Square billiards are quantum systems complying with the dynamical quantum-classical correspondence. Hence an initially localized wavefunction launched along a classical periodic orbit evolves along that orbit, the spreading of the quantum amplitude being controlled by the spread of the corresponding classical statistical distribution. We investigate wavepacket dynamics and compute the corresponding de Broglie-Bohm trajectories in the quantum square billiard. We also determine the trajectories and statistical distribution dynamics for the equivalent classical billiard. Individual Bohmian trajectories follow the streamlines of the probability flow and are generically non-classical. This can also hold even for short times, when the wavepacket is still localized along a classical trajectory. This generic feature of Bohmian trajectories is expected to hold in the classical limit. We further argue that in this context decoherence cannot constitute a viable solution in order to recover classicality.

A. Matzkin

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

45

length for one- electron screened Coulomb potentials, the critical nuclear charges for twoQuantum criticality at the infinite complete basis set limit: A thermodynamic analog of the Yang Abstract Finite size scaling for calculations of the critical parameters of the few-body Schro

Kais, Sabre

46

I discuss an upper bound on the boost and the energy of elementary particles. The limit is derived utilizing the core principle of relativistic quantum mechanics stating that there is a lower limit for localization of an elementary quantum system and the suggestion that when the localization scale reaches the Planck length, elementary particles are removed from observables. The limit for the boost and energy, $M_{Planck}/m$ and $M_{Planck}c^{2}\\approx\\,8.6* 10^{27}$ eV, is defined in terms of fundamental constants and the mass of elementary particle and does not involve any dynamic scale. These bounds imply that the cosmic ray flux of any flavor may stretch up to energies of order $10^{18}$ GeV and will cut off at this value.

Japaridze, George

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Optimization of superconducting flux qubit readout using near-quantum-limited amplifiers

junctions . . . . . . . 1.4 Superconducting QuantumInterference 1.5 Superconducting qubits . . . . . . . . .2 Superconducting flux qubits 2.1 The one-junction flux

Johnson, Jedediah Edward Jensen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation Project...

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation Graphene as the Ultimate Membrane for Gas Separation GraphenePore.jpg Key Challenges: Investigate the permeability and...

50

Recently, quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field have been observed for the first time. From the fact that they are consistent with Newtonian gravity on the 10 %-level, analytical limits on alpha and lambda of short-range Yukawa-like additional interactions are derived between lambda = 1 micrometer and 1 mm. We arrive for lambda > 10 micrometer at alpha < 2 \\cdot 10^11 at 90 % confidence level. This translates into a limit g_s g_p / (\\hbar c) < 2 \\cdot 10^{-15} on the pseudo-scalar coupling of axions in the previously experimentally unaccessible astrophysical axion window.

Alexander Westphal; Hartmut Abele; Stefan Baessler

2007-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

In this review, we present and discussed the main trends in photovoltaics with emphasize on the conversion efficiency limits. The theoretical limits of various photovoltaics device concepts are presented and analyzed using a flexible detailed balance model where more discussion emphasize is toward the losses. Also, few lessons from nature and other fields to improve the conversion efficiency in photovoltaics are presented and discussed as well. From photosynthesis, the perfect exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes can be utilized for PVs. Also, we present some lessons learned from other fields like recombination suppression by quantum coherence. For example, the coupling in photosynthetic reaction centers is used to suppress recombination in photocells.

Fahhad H Alharbi; Sabre Kais

2014-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Relativeness in Quantum Gravity: Limitations and Frame Dependence of Semiclassical Descriptions

Consistency between quantum mechanical and general relativistic views of the world is a longstanding problem, which becomes particularly prominent in black hole physics. We develop a coherent picture addressing this issue by studying the quantum mechanics of an evolving black hole. After interpreting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy as the entropy representing the degrees of freedom that are coarse-grained to obtain a semiclassical description from the microscopic theory of quantum gravity, we discuss the properties these degrees of freedom exhibit when viewed from the semiclassical standpoint. We are led to the conclusion that they show features which we call extreme relativeness and spacetime-matter duality---a nontrivial reference frame dependence of their spacetime distribution and the dual roles they play as the "constituents" of spacetime and as thermal radiation. We describe black hole formation and evaporation processes in distant and infalling reference frames, showing that these two properties allow u...

Nomura, Yasunori; Weinberg, Sean J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Quantum-noise quenching in quantum tweezers

The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited and constitute the ultimate noise sources. This quantum noise can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies, and showing that this protocol can be applied for quantum information processing based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

Zippilli, Stefano; Lutz, Eric; Morigi, Giovanna; Schleich, Wolfgang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Dynamics of geometric phase in the adiabatic limit of quantum phase transition

The geometric phase associated with a many body ground state exhibits a signature of quantum phase transition. In this context, we have studied the behaviour of the geometric phase during a linear quench caused by a gradual turning off of the magnetic field interacting with a spin chain.

B. Basu

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

56

Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 Update

Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schr\\"odinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission MAQRO may overcome these limitations and allow addressing those fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal of MAQRO is to probe the vastly unexplored "quantum-classical" transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for truly macroscopic objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware for the mission will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the (M4) Cosmic Vision call of the European Space Agency for a medium-size mission opportunity with a possible launch in 2025.

Rainer Kaltenbaek; Markus Arndt; Markus Aspelmeyer; Peter F. Barker; Angelo Bassi; James Bateman; Kai Bongs; Sougato Bose; Claus Braxmaier; ?aslav Brukner; Bruno Christophe; Michael Chwalla; Pierre-François Cohadon; Adrian M. Cruise; Catalina Curceanu; Kishan Dholakia; Klaus Döringshoff; Wolfgang Ertmer; Jan Gieseler; Norman Gürlebeck; Gerald Hechenblaikner; Antoine Heidmann; Sven Herrmann; Sabine Hossenfelder; Ulrich Johann; Nikolai Kiesel; Myungshik Kim; Claus Lämmerzahl; Astrid Lambrecht; Michael Mazilu; Gerard J. Milburn; Holger Müller; Lukas Novotny; Mauro Paternostro; Achim Peters; Igor Pikovski; André Pilan-Zanoni; Ernst M. Rasel; Serge Reynaud; C. Jess Riedel; Manuel Rodrigues; Loïc Rondin; Albert Roura; Wolfgang P. Schleich; Jörg Schmiedmayer; Thilo Schuldt; Keith C. Schwab; Martin Tajmar; Guglielmo M. Tino; Hendrik Ulbricht; Rupert Ursin; Vlatko Vedral

2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

57

We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

A. V. Kotikov; S. Teber

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

58

Quantum enhanced estimation of optical detector efficiencies

Quantum mechanics establishes the ultimate limit to the scaling of the precision on any parameter, by iden- tifying optimal probe states and measurements. While this paradigm is, at least in principle, adequate for the metrology of quantum channels involving the estimation of phase and loss parameters, we show that estimat- ing the loss parameters associated with a quantum channel and a realistic quantum detector are fundamentally different. While Fock states are provably optimal for the former, we identify a crossover in the nature of the optimal probe state for estimating detector imperfections as a function of the loss parameter. We provide explicit results for on-off and homodyne detectors, the most widely used detectors in quantum photonics technologies.

Barbieri, Marco; Bartley, Tim J; Jin, Xian-Min; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Ris-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines

RisÃ¸-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines Gunner Chr. Larsen, Knut Ronold, Hans E analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition to establish

60

Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade Find Mølholt Jensen Risø-PhD-34(EN) ISBN 978 2008 #12;#12;Author: Find Mølholt Jensen Title: Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade contains a study of the structural static strength of wind turbine blades loaded in flap-wise direction

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

61

The applicability of quantum molecular dynamics to the calculation of the equation of state of a dense plasma is limited at high temperature by computational cost. Orbital-free molecular dynamics, based on a semiclassical approximation and possibly on a gradient correction, is a simulation method available at high temperature. For a high-Z element such as lutetium, we examine how orbital-free molecular dynamics applied to the equation of state of a dense plasma can be regarded as the limit of quantum molecular dynamics at high temperature. For the normal mass density and twice the normal mass density, we show that the pressures calculated with the quantum approach converge monotonically towards those calculated with the orbital-free approach; we observe a faster convergence when the orbital-free approach includes the gradient correction. We propose a method to obtain an equation of state reproducing quantum molecular dynamics results up to high temperatures where this approach cannot be directly implemented. With the results already obtained for low-Z plasmas, the present study opens the way for reproducing the quantum molecular dynamics pressure for all elements up to high temperatures.

Danel, J.-F.; Blottiau, P.; Kazandjian, L.; Piron, R.; Torrent, M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

The Legacy of Rolf Hagedorn: Statistical Bootstrap and Ultimate Temperature

In the latter half of the last century, it became evident that there exists an ever increasing number of different states of the so-called elementary particles. The usual reductionist approach to this problem was to search for a simpler infrastructure, culminating in the formulation of the quark model and quantum chromodynamics. In a complementary, completely novel approach, Hagedorn suggested that the mass distribution of the produced particles follows a self-similar composition pattern, predicting an unbounded number of states of increasing mass. He then concluded that such a growth would lead to a limiting temperature for strongly interacting matter. We discuss the conceptual basis for this approach, its relation to critical behavior, and its subsequent applications in different areas of high energy physics.

Redlich, Krzysztof

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

THERMAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS ON ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS - COOLING...

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

(and-eventually, spray ponds) that are proposed to be used as ultimate heat sinks in nuclear power plant emergency core cooling systems. The need is derived from the concern...

64

Relativistic Quantum Metrology in Open System Dynamics

Quantum metrology studies the ultimate limit of precision in estimating a physical quantity if quantum strategies are exploited. Here we investigate the evolution of a two-level atom as a detector which interacts with a massless scalar field using the master equation approach for open quantum system. We employ local quantum estimation theory to estimate the Unruh temperature when probed by a uniformly accelerated detector in the Minkowski vacuum. In particular, we evaluate the Fisher information (FI) for population measurement, maximize its value over all possible detector preparations and evolution times, and compare its behavior with that of the quantum Fisher information (QFI). We find that the optimal precision of estimation is achieved when the detector evolves for a long enough time. Furthermore, we find that in this case the FI for population measurement is independent of initial preparations of the detector and is exactly equal to the QFI, which means that population measurement is optimal. This result demonstrates that the achievement of the ultimate bound of precision imposed by quantum mechanics is possible. Finally, we note that the same configuration is also available to the maximum of the QFI itself.

Zehua Tian; Jieci Wang; Heng Fan; Jiliang Jing

2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hybrid Dynamical Systems, or HDS: The Ultimate Switching Experience

Hybrid Dynamical Systems, or HDS: The Ultimate Switching Experience Michael S. Branicky Laboratory concentrated on formalizing the notion of a hybrid system as switching among an indexed collection of dynamical give a quick overview of the area of hybrid systems. I also briefly review the formal definition

Branicky, Michael S.

66

Hamiltonian formulation of quantum error correction and correlated noise: Effects of syndrome find formal expressions for the probability of a given syndrome history and the associated residual lost to the environment 12 . However, as we discuss below, QEC can very effectively slow down this loss

Baranger, Harold U.

67

the rate-limiting step of mevalonate and ultimately, cholesterol biosynthesis, accounting for Cu's

's effect on cholesterol levels in the rat [Valsala and Krump (1987) J Biosci 12, 137-142]. In a recent

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

68

', giving rise to the persistent photoconductivity (PPC). As the density of 2-DEG carriers in- creased the systematic shift of the quantum Hall plateaus and corresponding 40 12. 10. T = 75mK Iso= 500 nA 0 b cd c hl 6. Q. 0. 0. 0 1. 0 2. 0 3. 0 4... resistance between 0. 0 and 0. 3 T. 16, 2-DEG carrier density determined from SdH oscillations versus natural logarithm of photon dose at 75 mK. 17, (a) Deviation of the Hall resistance from quantized value at i = 4 plateau versus photon dose; (b...

Kobiela, Pawel Stanislaw

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Excess optical quantum noise in atomic sensors

Enhanced nonlinear optical response of a coherent atomic medium is the basis for many atomic sensors, and their performance is ultimately limited by the quantum fluctuations of the optical read-out. Here we demonstrate that off-resonant interactions can significantly modify the quantum noise of the optical field, even when their effect on the mean signal is negligible. We illustrate this concept by using an atomic magnetometer based on the nonlinear Faraday effect: the rotation of the light polarization is mainly determined by the resonant light-induced spin alignment, which alone does not change the photon statistics of the optical probe. Yet, we found that the minimum noise of output polarization rotation measurements is above the expected shot noise limit. This excess quantum noise is due to off-resonant coupling and grows with atomic density. We also show that the detection scheme can be modified to reduce the measured quantum noise (even below the shot-noise limit) but only at the expense of the reduced rotational sensitivity. These results show the existence of previously unnoticed factors in fundamental limitations in atomic magnetometry and could have impacts in many other atom-light based precision measurements.

Irina Novikova; Eugeniy E. Mikhailov; Yanhong Xiao

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

70

Nonadiabatic quantum state engineering driven by fast quench dynamics

There are a number of tasks in quantum information science that exploit non-transitional adiabatic dynamics. Such a dynamics is bounded by the adiabatic theorem, which naturally imposes a speed limit in the evolution of quantum systems. Here, we investigate an approach for quantum state engineering exploiting a shortcut to the adiabatic evolution, which is based on rapid quenches in a continuous-time Hamiltonian evolution. In particular, this procedure is able to provide state preparation faster than the adiabatic brachistochrone. Remarkably, the evolution time in this approach is shown to be ultimately limited by its "thermodynamical cost,"provided in terms of the average work rate (average power) of the quench process. We illustrate this result in a scenario that can be experimentally implemented in a nuclear magnetic resonance setup.

Marcela Herrera; Marcelo S. Sarandy; Eduardo I. Duzzioni; Roberto M. Serra

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

71

A semiclassical theory of quantum noise in open chaotic systems

We consider the quantum evolution of classically chaotic systems in contact with surroundings. Based on $\\hbar$-scaling of an equation for time evolution of the Wigner's quasi-probability distribution function in presence of dissipation and thermal diffusion we derive a semiclassical equation for quantum fluctuations. This identifies an early regime of evolution dominated by fluctuations in the curvature of the potential due to classical chaos and dissipation. A stochastic treatment of this classical fluctuations leads us to a Fokker-Planck equation which is reminiscent of Kramers' equation for thermally activated processes. This reveals an interplay of three aspects of evolution of quantum noise in weakly dissipative open systems; the reversible Liouville flow, the irreversible chaotic diffusion which is characteristic of the system itself, and irreversible dissipation induced by the external reservoir. It has been demonstrated that in the dissipation-free case a competition between Liouville flow in the contracting direction of phase space and chaotic diffusion sets a critical width in the Wigner function for quantum fluctuations. We also show how the initial quantum noise gets amplified by classical chaos and ultimately equilibrated under the influence of dissipation. We establish that there exists a critical limit to the expansion of phase space. The limit is determined by chaotic diffusion and dissipation. Making use of appropriate quantum-classical correspondence we verify the semiclassical analysis by the fully quantum simulation in a chaotic quartic oscillator.

B. C. Bag; S. Chaudhuri; J. Ray Chaudhuri; D. S. Ray

1998-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

72

Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial

Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited for Commercial Landscape Maintenance Application: http://www.flaes.org/ pdf/lndspckt.pdf Limited Certification.floridatermitehelp.org or request by phone at 850-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance

Watson, Craig A.

73

Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial

Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control (SM 7&O/Structural only). See web locations below for applications. Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape

Jawitz, James W.

74

PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

75

ULTimateCO2 : A FP7 European Project dedicated to the understanding of the long term fate of geologically stored CO2 Audigane, P.1 , Brown, S.2 , Dimier A.3 , Frykman P.4 , Gherardi F.5 , Le Gallo Y.6 Recherches GÃ©ologiques et miniÃ¨res - France 2 CO2SENSE limited, United Kingdom 3 EIFER, EIFER europaisches

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

76

Precision bounds in noisy quantum metrology

In an idealistic setting, quantum metrology protocols allow to sense physical parameters with mean squared error that scales as $1/N^2$ with the number of particles involved---substantially surpassing the $1/N$-scaling characteristic to classical statistics. A natural question arises, whether such an impressive enhancement persists when one takes into account the decoherence effects that are unavoidable in any real-life implementation. In this thesis, we resolve a major part of this issue by describing general techniques that allow to quantify the attainable precision in metrological schemes in the presence of uncorrelated noise. We show that the abstract geometrical structure of a quantum channel describing the noisy evolution of a single particle dictates then critical bounds on the ultimate quantum enhancement. Our results prove that an infinitesimal amount of noise is enough to restrict the precision to scale classically in the asymptotic $N$ limit, and thus constrain the maximal improvement to a constant factor. Although for low numbers of particles the decoherence may be ignored, for large $N$ the presence of noise heavily alters the form of both optimal states and measurements attaining the ultimate resolution. However, the established bounds are then typically achievable with use of techniques natural to current experiments. In this work, we thoroughly introduce the necessary concepts and mathematical tools lying behind metrological tasks, including both frequentist and Bayesian estimation theory frameworks. We provide examples of applications of the methods presented to typical qubit noise models, yet we also discuss in detail the phase estimation tasks in Mach-Zehnder interferometry both in the classical and quantum setting---with particular emphasis given to photonic losses while analysing the impact of decoherence.

Jan Kolodynski

2015-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Theoretical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols commonly rely on the use of qubits (quantum bits). In reality, however, due to practical limitations, the legitimate users are forced to employ a larger quantum (Hilbert) space, say a quhexit (quantum six-dimensional) space, or even a much larger quantum Hilbert space. Various specific attacks exploit of these limitations. Although security can still be proved in some very special cases, a general framework that considers such realistic QKD protocols, as well as} attacks on such protocols, is still missing. We describe a general method of attacking realistic QKD protocols, which we call the `quantum-space attack'. The description is based on assessing the enlarged quantum space actually used by a protocol, the `quantum space of the protocol'. We demonstrate these new methods by classifying various (known) recent attacks against several QKD schemes, and by analyzing a novel attack on interferometry-based QKD.

Ran Gelles; Tal Mor

2007-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

78

and longitudinal bar buckling. The purpose of this research is to develop a model for the full compressive behavior of longitudinal steel including the effects of bar buckling. A computational algorithm is developed whereby experimental data can be rigorously...

Urmson, Christopher R.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

79

Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries

The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalised, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally,we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope (ET) to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with meter- and kilometre-long baselines.

S. L. Danilishin; C. Graef; S. S. Leavey; J. Hennig; E. A. Houston; D. Pascucci; S. Steinlechner; J. Wright; S. Hild

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

80

Quantum Bootstrapping via Compressed Quantum Hamiltonian Learning

Recent work has shown that quantum simulation is a valuable tool for learning empirical models for quantum systems. We build upon these results by showing that a small quantum simulators can be used to characterize and learn control models for larger devices for wide classes of physically realistic Hamiltonians. This leads to a new application for small quantum computers: characterizing and controlling larger quantum computers. Our protocol achieves this by using Bayesian inference in concert with Lieb-Robinson bounds and interactive quantum learning methods to achieve compressed simulations for characterization. Whereas Fisher information analysis shows that current methods which employ short-time evolution are suboptimal, interactive quantum learning allows us to overcome this limitation. We illustrate the efficiency of our bootstrapping protocol by showing numerically that an 8-qubit Ising model simulator can be used to calibrate and control a 50 qubit Ising simulator while using only about 750 kilobits of experimental data.

Nathan Wiebe; Christopher Granade; David G. Cory

2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

81

The success of the abstract model of computation, in terms of bits, logical operations, programming language constructs, and the like, makes it easy to forget that computation is a physical process. Our cherished notions of computation and information are grounded in classical mechanics, but the physics underlying our world is quantum. In the early 80s researchers began to ask how computation would change if we adopted a quantum mechanical, instead of a classical mechanical, view of computation. Slowly, a new picture of computation arose, one that gave rise to a variety of faster algorithms, novel cryptographic mechanisms, and alternative methods of communication. Small quantum information processing devices have been built, and efforts are underway to build larger ones. Even apart from the existence of these devices, the quantum view on information processing has provided significant insight into the nature of computation and information, and a deeper understanding of the physics of our universe and its connections with computation. We start by describing aspects of quantum mechanics that are at the heart of a quantum view of information processing. We give our own idiosyncratic view of a number of these topics in the hopes of correcting common misconceptions and highlighting aspects that are often overlooked. A number of the phenomena described were initially viewed as oddities of quantum mechanics. It was quantum information processing, first quantum cryptography and then, more dramatically, quantum computing, that turned the tables and showed that these oddities could be put to practical effect. It is these application we describe next. We conclude with a section describing some of the many questions left for future work, especially the mysteries surrounding where the power of quantum information ultimately comes from.

Joseph F. Fitzsimons; Eleanor G. Rieffel; Valerio Scarani

2013-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

82

The ultimate goal "Deciphering" the DNA nucleotide sequence of a living system*.

The ultimate goal "Deciphering" the DNA nucleotide sequence of a living system*. Tools difficult macromolecule to analyse. Now it is possible to determine the nucleotide sequence at a rate of several hundred nucleotide a day. (August 2005: 1011 bases) #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12; = 0.283 #12

Morante, Silvia

83

Temperature dependent elastic constants and ultimate strength of graphene and graphyne

Temperature dependent elastic constants and ultimate strength of graphene and graphyne Tianjiao strength of graphene and graphyne Tianjiao Shao,1,2 Bin Wen,1,a) Roderick Melnik,3,4 Shan Yao,2 Yoshiyuki strength of graphene and graphyne. For the linear thermal expan- sion coefficient, both graphene

Melnik, Roderick

84

The Ultimate-Sustainable-Yield Problem in Nonlinear Age-Structured Populations*

that it assumes that recruitment is independent of population density. *This work was partially supportedThe Ultimate-Sustainable-Yield Problem in Nonlinear Age-Structured Populations* WAYNE M. GETZ Africa Received 24 January 1979; revised IO Ju& 1979 ABSTRACT The Beverton-Holt theory of harvesting

Getz, Wayne M.

85

on ``testing'' the real structure rather than trying to model it. Experiments on reinforced concrete (RC) beamsPredicting the ultimate bending capacity of concrete beams from the ``relaxation ratio'' analysis the unloading and loading phases of a cycle test and it showed a clear correlation with the bending failure load

86

The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only {approx}2{radical}(N) quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas {approx}N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix.

Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Fukui University, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Limitations on entropic Bell inequalities

The derivation of Bell inequalities in terms of quantum statistical (thermodynamic) entropies is considered. Inequalities of the Wigner form are derived but shown to be extremely limiting in their applicability due to the nature of the density matrices involved. This also helps to identify a limitation in the Cerf-Adami inequalities.

Ian T. Durham

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

In 2001 all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single photon sources, linear optical elements, and single photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high efficiency single photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.

Jeremy L. O'Brien

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

89

In this review article we revisit and spell out the details of previous work on how Berry phase can be used to construct a precision quantum thermometer. An important advantage of such a scheme is that there is no need for the thermometer to acquire thermal equilibrium with the sample. This reduces measurement times and avoids precision limitations. We also review how such methods can be used to detect the Unruh effect.

Robert B. Mann; Eduardo Martin-Martinez

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

90

Analysis of Various Pumping Methods With Respect to the Lowest Achievable Ultimate Pressure

Jefferson Labzs CEBAF Accelerator Facility uses most of the currently available vacuum pumping systems for its successful operations.These vacuum systems include turbo, ion, NEG and cryo pumps.The theoretical lowest pressure obtainable with these pumps is different and also the effective pumping speeds of all these pumps at lowest pressures are likely to vary depending on the prevailing conditions. Consequently, the ultimate pressure of a given vacuum system pumped by each of the above mentioned pumps could be expected to vary under the same operating conditions. In this paper the results of the analysis of above pumps with respect to their lowest achievable ultimate pressures are presented.z This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-84ER40150

Myneni, Ganapati; Rao Myneni, Ganapati; Favale, Anthony; Poelker, Benard; Stutzman, Marcy

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

On description of quantum plasma

A plasma becomes quantum when the quantum nature of its particles significantly affects its macroscopic properties. To answer the question of when the collective quantum plasma effects are important, a proper description of such effects is necessary. We consider here the most common methods of description of quantum plasma, along with the related assumptions and applicability limits. In particular, we analyze in detail the hydrodynamic description of quantum plasma, as well as discuss some kinetic features of analytic properties of linear dielectric response function in quantum plasma. We point out the most important, in our view, fundamental problems occurring already in the linear approximation and requiring further investigation. (submitted to Physics-Uspekhi)

S. V. Vladimirov; Yu. O. Tyshetskiy

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

92

1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier

We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

Zhuo Wang; Kai Sun; Hen Fan; Vlatko Vedral

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hybrid Quantum Computation in Quantum Optics

We propose a hybrid quantum computing scheme where qubit degrees of freedom for computation are combined with quantum continuous variables for communication. In particular, universal two-qubit gates can be implemented deterministically through qubit-qubit communication, mediated by a continuous-variable bus mode ("qubus"), without direct interaction between the qubits and without any measurement of the qubus. The key ingredients are controlled rotations of the qubus and unconditional qubus displacements. The controlled rotations are realizable through typical atom-light interactions in quantum optics. For such interactions, our scheme is universal and works in any regime, including the limits of weak and strong nonlinearities.

P. van Loock; W. J. Munro; Kae Nemoto; T. P. Spiller; T. D. Ladd; Samuel L. Braunstein; G. J. Milburn

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect.

Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B., E-mail: liubin@tsinghua.edu.cn [AML, CNMM, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

96

Classical limits of unconstrained QFT

In nonrelativistic limits for states labeled by minimum packets with constrained spatial spreads and over a short term, states of unconstrained quantum field theories evolve on trajectories described by Newton's equations for the $1/r^2$ force. These states include bound solutions in the attractive force case.

Glenn Eric Johnson

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

97

With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

transformation of the light into reducing power (NADPH) and chemical energy (ATP) and its ultimate utilization can be divided into two principal components. Adaptation is a geno- typic response to long

Sarhan, Fathey

99

Quantum limited particle sensing in optical tweezers

Particle sensing in optical tweezers systems provides information on the position, velocity and force of the specimen particles. The conventional quadrant detection scheme is applied ubiquitously in optical tweezers experiments to quantify these parameters. In this paper we show that quadrant detection is non-optimal for particle sensing in optical tweezers and propose an alternative optimal particle sensing scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. A formalism for particle sensing in terms of transverse spatial modes is developed and numerical simulations of the efficacy of both quadrant and spatial homodyne detection are shown. We demonstrate that an order of magnitude improvement in particle sensing sensitivity can be achieved using spatial homodyne over quadrant detection.

Jian Wei Tay; Magnus T. L. Hsu; Warwick P. Bowen

2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

100

What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?

We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia (QI). Quantum Inertia theory states that in Newton's 2nd law of motion (F=MA), inertia is caused by the strictly local electrical force interactions bewteen matter (ultimately composed of electrically charged quantum particles) and the surrounding electrically charged virtual particles of the quantum vacuum. When an electrically charged particle is accelerated, an electrical force results between the particle and the surrounding electrically charged virtual particles of the quantum vacuum appears in a direction to oppose...

Ostoma, T; Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

101

Hybrid quantum-classical models as constrained quantum systems

Constrained Hamiltonian description of the classical limit is utilized in order to derive consistent dynamical equations for hybrid quantum-classical systems. Starting with a compound quantum system in the Hamiltonian formulation conditions for classical behavior are imposed on one of its subsystems and the corresponding hybrid dynamical equations are derived. The presented formalism suggests that the hybrid systems have properties that are not exhausted by those of quantum and classical systems.

M. Radonjic; S. Prvanovic; N. Buric

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Quantum ballistic evolution in quantum mechanics: Application to quantum computers

Quantum computers are important examples of processes whose evolution can be described in terms of iterations of single-step operators or their adjoints. Based on this, Hamiltonian evolution of processes with associated step operators {ital T} is investigated here. The main limitation of this paper is to processes which evolve quantum ballistically, i.e., motion restricted to a collection of nonintersecting or distinct paths on an arbitrary basis. The main goal of this paper is proof of a theorem which gives necessary and sufficient conditions that {ital T} must satisfy so that there exists a Hamiltonian description of quantum ballistic evolution for the process, namely, that {ital T} is a partial isometry and is orthogonality preserving and stable on some basis. Simple examples of quantum ballistic evolution for quantum Turing machines with one and with more than one type of elementary step are discussed. It is seen that for nondeterministic machines the basis set can be quite complex with much entanglement present. It is also proven that, given a step operator {ital T} for an arbitrary {ital deterministic} quantum Turing machine, it is decidable if {ital T} is stable and orthogonality preserving, and if quantum ballistic evolution is possible. The proof fails if {ital T} is a step operator for a {ital nondeterministic} machine. It is an open question if such a decision procedure exists for nondeterministic machines. This problem does not occur in classical mechanics. Also the definition of quantum Turing machines used here is compared with that used by other authors. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Benioff, P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Recently the Fermi GBM and LAT Collaborations reported their new observational data disfavoring quite a number of the quantum gravity theories, including the one suggesting the nonlinear (logarithmic) modification of a quantum wave equation. We show that the latter is still far from being ruled out: it is not only able to explain the new data but also its phenomenological implications turn out to be more vast (and more interesting) than one expected before.

Konstantin G. Zloshchastiev

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

Simulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficulty may be overcome by using some controllable quantum system to study another less controllable or accessible quantum system, i.e., quantum simulation. Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry and cosmology. Quantum simulation could be implemented using quantum computers, but also with simpler, analog devices that would require less control, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar molecules, electrons in semiconductors, superconducting circuits, nuclear spins and photons have been proposed as quantum simulators. This review outlines the main theoretical and experimental aspects of quantum simulation and emphasizes some of the challenges and promises of this fast-growing field.

I. M. Georgescu; S. Ashhab; Franco Nori

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

105

Cover image in semiconductor quantum

nuclear spins limits the attainable electron-spin-coherence time. But the nuclear-spin reservoir can take Amselem and Mohamed Bourennane N&V p711 753 antiferromagnetic criticality at a heavy-fermion quantum excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization C. Latta, A. HÃ¶gele, Y. Zhao, A. N

Loss, Daniel

106

Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

We discuss quantum information processing machines. We start with single purpose machines that either redistribute quantum information or identify quantum states. We then move on to machines that can perform a number of functions, with the function they perform being determined by a program, which is itself a quantum state. Examples of both deterministic and probabilistic programmable machines are given, and we conclude with a discussion of the utility of quantum programs.

Mark Hillery; Vladimir Buzek

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

108

Quantum discord between relatively accelerated observers

We calculate the quantum discord between two free modes of a scalar field which start in a maximally entangled state and then undergo a relative, constant acceleration. In a regime where there is no distillable entanglement due to the Unruh effect, we show that there is a finite amount of quantum discord, which is a measure of purely quantum correlations in a state, over and above quantum entanglement. Even in the limit of infinite acceleration of the observer detecting one of the modes, we provide evidence for a non-zero amount of purely quantum correlations, which might be exploited to gain non-trivial quantum advantages.

Animesh Datta

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

109

Limit theorems and absorption problems for one-dimensional correlated random walks

There has recently been considerable interest in quantum walks in connection with quantum computing. The walk can be considered as a quantum version of the so-called correlated random walk. We clarify a strong structural similarity between both walks and study limit theorems and absorption problems for correlated random walks by our PQRS method, which was used in our analysis of quantum walks.

Norio Konno

2010-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

110

Characterization of anisotropy and quantum thermometry in Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick critical systems

The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model describes critical systems with interaction beyond the first-neighbor approximation. Here we address the characterization of LMG systems, i.e. the estimation of anisotropy, and show how criticality may be exploited to improve precision. In particular, we provide exact results for the Quantum Fisher Information of small-size LMG chains made of $N=2, 3$ and $4$ lattice sites and analyze the same quantity in the thermodynamical limit by means of a zero-th order approximation of the system Hamiltonian. We then show that the ultimate bounds to precision may be achieved by tuning the external field and by measuring the total magnetization of the system. We also address the use of LMG systems as quantum thermometers and show that: i) precision is governed by the gap between the lowest energy levels of the systems, ii) field-dependent level crossing provides a resource to extend the operating range of the quantum thermometer.

Giulio Salvatori; Antonio Mandarino; Matteo G. A. Paris

2014-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

111

Remnant quantum resources of collapsed macroscopic quantum superpositions

We consider the collapse of a macroscopic quantum superposition occurring due to the measurement which optimally distinguishes its branches. Given a macroscopic superposition of N spin-1/2 particles, we use such a Helstrom measurement to construct the local unitary operator which maximizes the usefulness of the superposition for Heisenberg-limited phase estimation (i.e., with quantum Cram\\'{e}r Rao bound proportional to 1/N). In contrast, the collapsed state is not useful as a probe for phase estimation below the standard quantum limit. For the case N=2, we compute the entanglement entropy of the collapsed state and show that it is reduced below that of the initial superposition when the superposition is macroscopic. We consider the remnant quantum resources of collapsed hierarchical Schr\\"{o}dinger cat states to show that collapsed macroscopic superpositions can still be useful for ultraprecise quantum metrology.

T. J. Volkoff

2015-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

112

Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

Shuntaro Takeda; Akira Furusawa

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

Coherent Quantum-Noise Cancellation for Optomechanical Sensors

Using a flowchart representation of quantum optomechanical dynamics, we design coherent quantum-noise-cancellation schemes that can eliminate the back-action noise induced by radiation pressure at all frequencies and thus overcome the standard quantum limit of force sensing. The proposed schemes can be regarded as novel examples of coherent feedforward quantum control.

Mankei Tsang; Carlton M. Caves

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

114

Berry Phase Quantum Thermometer

We show how Berry phase can be used to construct an ultra-high precision quantum thermometer. An important advantage of our scheme is that there is no need for the thermometer to acquire thermal equilibrium with the sample. This reduces measurement times and avoids precision limitations.

Martin-Martinez, E; Mann, R B; Fuentes, I

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Berry Phase Quantum Thermometer

We show how Berry phase can be used to construct an ultra-high precision quantum thermometer. An important advantage of our scheme is that there is no need for the thermometer to acquire thermal equilibrium with the sample. This reduces measurement times and avoids precision limitations.

E. Martin-Martinez; A. Dragan; R. B. Mann; I. Fuentes

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

116

Quantum Data Compression of a Qubit Ensemble

Data compression is a ubiquitous aspect of modern information technology, and the advent of quantum information raises the question of what types of compression are feasible for quantum data, where it is especially relevant given the extreme difficulty involved in creating reliable quantum memories. We present a protocol in which an ensemble of quantum bits (qubits) can in principle be perfectly compressed into exponentially fewer qubits. We then experimentally implement our algorithm, compressing three photonic qubits into two. This protocol sheds light on the subtle differences between quantum and classical information. Furthermore, since data compression stores all of the available information about the quantum state in fewer physical qubits, it could provide a vast reduction in the amount of quantum memory required to store a quantum ensemble, making even today's limited quantum memories far more powerful than previously recognized.

Lee A. Rozema; Dylan H. Mahler; Alex Hayat; Peter S. Turner; Aephraim M. Steinberg

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Quantum metrology and its application in biology

Quantum metrology provides a route to overcome practical limits in sensing devices. It holds particular relevance in biology, where sensitivity and resolution constraints restrict applications both in fundamental biophysics and in medicine. Here, we review quantum metrology from this biological context. The understanding of quantum mechanics developed over the past century has already enabled important applications in biology, including positron emission tomography (PET) with entangled photons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using nuclear magnetic resonance, and bio-magnetic imaging with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). With the birth of quantum information science came the realization that an even greater range of applications arise from the ability to not just understand, but to engineer coherence and correlations in systems at the quantum level. In quantum metrology, quantum coherence and quantum correlations are engineered to enable new approaches to sensing. This review focusses specifically on optical quantum metrology, where states of light that exhibit non-classical photon correlations are used to overcome practical and fundamental constraints, such as the shot-noise and diffraction limits. Recent experiments have demonstrated quantum enhanced sensing of biological systems, and established the potential for quantum metrology in biophysical research. These experiments have achieved capabilities that may be of significant practical benefit, including enhanced sensitivity and resolution, immunity to imaging artifacts, and characterisation of the biological response to light at the single-photon level. New quantum measurement techniques offer even greater promise, raising the prospect for improved multi-photon microscopy and magnetic imaging, among many other possible applications.

Michael A. Taylor; Warwick P. Bowen

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Reality without Realism: On the Ontological and Epistemological Architecture of Quantum Mechanics

First, the article considers the nature of quantum reality (the reality responsible for quantum phenomena) and the concept of realism (our ability to represent this reality) in quantum theory, in conjunction with the roles of locality, causality, and probability and statistics there. Second, it offers two interpretations of quantum mechanics, developed by the authors of this article, the second of which is also a different (from quantum mechanics) theory of quantum phenomena. Both of these interpretations are statistical. The first interpretation, by A. Plotnitsky, "the statistical Copenhagen interpretation," is non-realist, insofar as the description or even conception of the nature of quantum objects and processes is precluded. The second, by A. Khrennikov, is ultimately realist, because it assumes that the quantum-mechanical level of reality is underlain by a deeper level of reality, described, in a realist fashion, by a model based on the pre-quantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), the predict...

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Quantum robots and quantum computers

Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

Benioff, P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.

Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

121

Quantum optical technologies for metrology, sensing and imaging

Over the past 20 years, bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quantum optical interferometry. Optical interferometry has been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the novel ideas associated with quantum entanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and quantum metrology. In this paper, we focus on the new ways that have been developed to exploit quantum optical entanglement in quantum metrology to beat the shot-noise limit, which can be used, e.g., in fiber optical gyroscopes and in sensors for biological or chemical targets. We also discuss how this entanglement can be used to beat the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging systems such as in LIDAR and optical lithography.

Jonathan P. Dowling; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan

2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

122

Quantum optical technologies for metrology, sensing and imaging

Over the past 20 years, bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quantum optical interferometry. Optical interferometry has been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the novel ideas associated with quantum entanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and quantum metrology. In this paper, we focus on the new ways that have been developed to exploit quantum optical entanglement in quantum metrology to beat the shot-noise limit, which can be used, e.g., in fiber optical gyroscopes and in sensors for biological or chemical targets. We also discuss how this entanglement can be used to beat the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging systems such as in LIDAR and optical lithography.

Jonathan P. Dowling; Kaushik P. Seshadreesan

2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

123

Effective equations for quantum dynamics

We report on recent results concerning the derivation of effective evolution equations starting from many body quantum dynamics. In particular, we obtain rigorous derivations of nonlinear Hartree equations in the bosonic mean field limit, with precise bounds on the rate of convergence. Moreover, we present a central limit theorem for the fluctuations around the Hartree dynamics.

Benjamin Schlein

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs

In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K{sub 2} graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.

Salimi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.ir

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Mediated Semi-Quantum Key Distribution

In this paper, we design a new quantum key distribution protocol, allowing two limited semi-quantum or "classical" users to establish a shared secret key with the help of a fully quantum server. A semi-quantum user can only prepare and measure qubits in the computational basis and so must rely on this quantum server to produce qubits in alternative bases and also to perform alternative measurements. However, we assume that the sever is untrusted and we prove the unconditional security of our protocol even in the worst case: when this quantum server is an all-powerful adversary. We also compute a lower bound of the key rate of our protocol, in the asymptotic scenario, as a function of the observed error rate in the channel allowing us to compute the maximally tolerated error of our protocol. Our results show that a semi-quantum protocol may hold similar security to a fully quantum one.

Walter O. Krawec

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

127

Zeno Dynamics for Open Quantum Systems

In this paper we formulate limit Zeno dynamics of general open systems as the adiabatic elimination of fast components. We are able to exploit previous work on adiabatic elimination of quantum stochastic models to give explicitly the conditions under which open Zeno dynamics will exist. The open systems formulation is further developed as a framework for Zeno master equations, and Zeno filtering (that is, quantum trajectories based on a limit Zeno dynamical model). We discuss several models from the point of view of quantum control. For the case of linear quantum stochastic systems we present a condition for stability of the asymptotic Zeno dynamics.

J. E. Gough

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

128

Quantum Interferometric Sensors

Quantum entanglement has the potential to revolutionize the entire field of interferometric sensing by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum-entangled particle interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like $1/\\sqrt{N}$, where $N$ is the number of particles passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of $\\sqrt{N}$ to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. This effect can translate into a tremendous science pay-off for space missions. For example, one application of this new effect is to fiber optical gyroscopes for deep-space inertial guidance and tests of General Relativity (Gravity Probe B). Another application is to ground and orbiting optical interferometers for gravity wave detection, Laser Interferometer Gravity Observatory (LIGO) and the European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), respectively. Other applications are to Satellite-to-Satellite laser Interferometry (SSI) proposed for the next generation Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE II).

Kishore T. Kapale; Leo D. Didomenico; Hwang Lee; Pieter Kok; Jonathan P. Dowling

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Brownian motion of a light quantum particle in a heavy classical gas is theoretically described and a new expression for the friction coefficient is obtained for arbitrary temperature. At zero temperature it equals to the de Broglie momentum of the mean free path divided by the mean free path. Alternatively, the corresponding mobility of the quantum particle in the classical gas is equal to the square of the mean free path divided by the Planck constant. The Brownian motion of a quantum particle in a quantum environment is also discussed.

R. Tsekov

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

130

The science of quantum information has arisen over the last two decades centered on the manipulation of individual quanta of information, known as quantum bits or qubits. Quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum ...

Weedbrook, Christian

131

Effective constrained polymeric theories and their continuum limit

The classical limit of polymer quantum theories yields a one parameter family of `effective' theories labeled by \\lambda. Here we consider such families for constrained theories and pose the problem of taking the `continuum limit', \\lambda -> 0. We put forward criteria for such question to be well posed, and propose a concrete strategy based in the definition of appropriately constructed Dirac observables. We analyze two models in detail, namely a constrained oscillator and a cosmological model arising from loop quantum cosmology. For both these models we show that the program can indeed be completed, provided one makes a particular choice of \\lambda-dependent internal time with respect to which the dynamics is described and compared. We show that the limiting theories exist and discuss the corresponding limit. These results might shed some light in the problem of defining a renormalization group approach, and its associated continuum limit, for quantum constrained systems.

Alejandro Corichi; Tatjana Vukasinac

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

132

Photon and graviton mass limits

We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Using a single particle density distribution for a system of self-gravitating particles which ultimately forms a black hole, we from a condensed matter point of view derive the Schwarzschild radius and by including the quantum mechanical exchange energy we find a small correction to the Schwarzschild radius, which we designate as the skin of the black hole.

Subodha Mishra

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

134

The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

Rines, Kenneth [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: kenneth.rines@wwu.edu, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Quantum Gravity and Precision Tests

This article provides a cartoon of the quantization of General Relativity using the ideas of effective field theory. These ideas underpin the use of General Relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible, since they show why quantum corrections to standard classical calculations are small. Quantum corrections can be computed controllably provided they are made for the weakly-curved geometries associated with precision tests of General Relativity, such as within the solar system or for binary pulsars. They also bring gravity back into the mainstream of physics, by showing that its quantization (at low energies) exactly parallels the quantization of other, better understood, non-renormalizable field theories which arise elsewhere in physics. Of course effective field theory techniques do not solve the fundamental problems of quantum gravity discussed elsewhere in these pages, but they do helpfully show that these problems are specific to applications on very small distance scales. They also show why we may safely reject any proposals to modify gravity at long distances if these involve low-energy problems (like ghosts or instabilities), since such problems are unlikely to be removed by the details of the ultimate understanding of gravity at microscopic scales.

C. P. Burgess

2006-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

136

In 1990 Alcubierre, within the General Relativity model for space-time, proposed a scenario for `warp drive' faster than light travel, in which objects would achieve such speeds by actually being stationary within a bubble of space which itself was moving through space, the idea being that the speed of the bubble was not itself limited by the speed of light. However that scenario required exotic matter to stabilise the boundary of the bubble. Here that proposal is re-examined within the context of the new modelling of space in which space is a quantum system, viz a quantum foam, with on-going classicalisation. This model has lead to the resolution of a number of longstanding problems, including a dynamical explanation for the so-called `dark matter' effect. It has also given the first evidence of quantum gravity effects, as experimental data has shown that a new dimensionless constant characterising the self-interaction of space is the fine structure constant. The studies here begin the task of examining to what extent the new spatial self-interaction dynamics can play a role in stabilising the boundary without exotic matter, and whether the boundary stabilisation dynamics can be engineered; this would amount to quantum gravity engineering.

Reginald T. Cahill

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

137

A Process Model of Quantum Mechanics

A process model of quantum mechanics utilizes a combinatorial game to generate a discrete and finite causal space upon which can be defined a self-consistent quantum mechanics. An emergent space-time M and continuous wave function arise through a non-uniform interpolation process. Standard non-relativistic quantum mechanics emerges under the limit of infinite information (the causal space grows to infinity) and infinitesimal scale (the separation between points goes to zero). The model has the potential to address several paradoxes in quantum mechanics while remaining computationally powerful.

William Sulis

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

138

Theoretical analysis of perfect quantum state transfer with superconducting qubits

Superconducting quantum circuits, fabricated with multiple layers, are proposed to implement perfect quantum state transfer between nodes of a hypercube network. For tunable devices such as the phase qubit, each node can transmit quantum information to any other node at a constant rate independent of the distance between qubits. The physical limits of quantum state transfer in this network are theoretically analyzed, including the effects of disorder, decoherence, and higher-order couplings.

Frederick W. Strauch; Carl J. Williams

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

139

Conditional quantum distinguishability and pure quantum communication

I design a simple way of distinguishing non-orthogonal quantum states with perfect reliability using only quantum control-not gates in one condition. In this way, we can implement pure quantum communication in directly sending classical information, Ekert quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation without the help of classical communications channel.

Tian-Hai Zeng

2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

On the choice of time in the continuum limit of polymeric effective theories

In polymeric quantum theories, a natural question pertains to the so called continuum limit, corresponding to the limit where the `discreteness parameter' $\\lambda$ approaches zero. In particular one might ask whether the limit exists and, in that case, what the limiting theory is. Here we review recent results on the classical formulation of the problem for a soluble model in loop quantum cosmology. We show that it is only through the introduction of a particular $\\lambda$-dependent internal time function that the limit $\\lambda\\to 0$ can be well defined. We then compare this result with the existing analysis in the quantum theory, where the dynamics was cast in terms of an internal ($\\lambda$-independent) parameter for which the limit does not exist. We briefly comment on the steps needed to define the corresponding time parameter in the quantum theory for which the limit was shown to exist classically.

Alejandro Corichi; Tatjana Vukasinac

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

141

Spin networks in quantum gravity

This is a review paper about one of the approaches to unify Quantum Mechanics and the theory of General Relativity. Starting from the pioneer work of Regge and Penrose other scientists have constructed state sum models, as Feymann path integrals, that are topological invariant on the triangulated Riemannian surfaces, and that in the continuous limit become the Hilbert-Einstein action.

M. Lorente

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Robustness of topological order and formation of quantum well states in topological insulators

Robustness of topological order and formation of quantum well states in topological insulators (like transport measurements) and ultimate application of the topological insulators usually in- volve-resolved photoemission measurements to directly probe the surface state of the prototypical topological insulators, Bi2Se

Wang, Wei Hua

143

How energy conservation limits our measurements

Observations in Quantum Mechanics are subject to complex restrictions arising from the principle of energy conservation. Determining such restrictions, however, has been so far an elusive task, and only partial results are known. In this paper we discuss how constraints on the energy spectrum of a measurement device translate into limitations on the measurements which we can effect on a target system with non-trivial energy operator. We provide efficient algorithms to characterize such limitations and we quantify them exactly when the target is a two-level quantum system. Our work thus identifies the boundaries between what is possible or impossible to measure, i.e., between what we can see or not, when energy conservation is at stake.

Miguel Navascues; Sandu Popescu

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

The term 'ultimate risk' is used here to describe the probabilities and radiological consequences that should be incorporated in siting, containment design and accident management of nuclear power plants for hypothetical accidents. It is closely related with the source terms specified in siting criteria which assures an adequate separation of radioactive inventories of the plants from the public, in the event of a hypothetical and severe accident situation. The author would like to point out that current source terms which are based on the information from the Windscale accident (1957) through TID-14844 are very outdated and do not incorporate lessons learned from either the Three Miles Island (TMI, 1979) nor Chernobyl accident (1986), two of the most severe accidents ever experienced. As a result of the observations of benign radionuclides released at TMI, the technical community in the US felt that a more realistic evaluation of severe reactor accident source terms was necessary. In this background, the 'source term research project' was organized in 1984 to respond to these challenges. Unfortunately, soon after the time of the final report from this project was released, the Chernobyl accident occurred. Due to the enormous consequences induced by then accident, the one time optimistic perspectives in establishing a more realistic source term were completely shattered. The Chernobyl accident, with its human death toll and dispersion of a large part of the fission fragments inventories into the environment, created a significant degradation in the public's acceptance of nuclear energy throughout the world. In spite of this, nuclear communities have been prudent in responding to the public's anxiety towards the ultimate safety of nuclear plants, since there still remained many unknown points revolving around the mechanism of the Chernobyl accident. In order to resolve some of these mysteries, the author has performed a scoping study of the dispersion and deposition mechanisms of fuel particles and fission fragments during the initial phase of the Chernobyl accident. Through this study, it is now possible to generally reconstruct the radiological consequences by using a dispersion calculation technique, combined with the meteorological data at the time of the accident and land contamination densities of {sup 137}Cs measured and reported around the Chernobyl area. Although it is challenging to incorporate lessons learned from the Chernobyl accident into the source term issues, the author has already developed an example of safety goals by incorporating the radiological consequences of the accident. The example provides safety goals by specifying source term releases in a graded approach in combination with probabilities, i.e. risks. The author believes that the future source term specification should be directly linked with safety goals. (author)

Genn Saji [Ex-Secretariate of Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

146

The various formulae for calculating calorific values for coals from ultimate analyses depend essentially on a propositon due to Dulong, that the heat of combustion of an organic compound is nearly equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in it, multiplied by their percentage content in the compound in question. This proposition assumes that the enthalpy of decomposition is negligible compared with the heat of combustion. The various published formulae, such as that due to Mott and Spooner, include empirical adjustments to allow for the fact that the enthalpy of formation or decomposition of no organic compound is zero (except rarely by chance). A new equation is proposed, which excludes empirical correction terms but includes a term explicitly related to the enthalpy of decomposition. As expected from the behavior of known compounds, this enthalpy varies with rank, but it also varies at the same level of rank with the geological history of the sample: rank is not the only source of variance in coal properties. The new equation is at least as effective in predicting calorific values for a set of 992 coals as equivalent equations derived for 6 subsets of the coals. On the whole, the distributions of differences between observed and calculated calorific values are skewed to only a small extent. About 86% of the differences lie between -300 and +300 Btu/lb (+- 700 kJ/kg). 10 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

Given, P.H.; Weldon, D.; Zoeller, J.H.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since without it most (if not all) of the biological structures and signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-range quantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization, may be invoked to explain signal amplification process in biological systems in general.

Alessandro Sergi

2009-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

148

Toward quantum opto-mechanics in a gram-scale suspended mirror interferometer

A new generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors, currently under construction, will closely approach the fundamental quantum limits of measurement, serving as a prominent example of quantum mechanics at ...

Wipf, Christopher (Christopher Conrad)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Quantum Catalysis of Magnetic Phase Transitions in a Quantum Simulator

We control quantum fluctuations to create the ground state magnetic phases of a classical Ising model with a tunable longitudinal magnetic field using a system of 6 to 10 atomic ion spins. Due to the long-range Ising interactions, the various ground state spin configurations are separated by multiple first-order phase transitions, which in our zero temperature system cannot be driven by thermal fluctuations. We instead use a transverse magnetic field as a quantum catalyst to observe the first steps of the complete fractal devil's staircase, which emerges in the thermodynamic limit and can be mapped to a large number of many-body and energy-optimization problems.

Philip Richerme; Crystal Senko; Simcha Korenblit; Jacob Smith; Aaron Lee; Rajibul Islam; Wesley C. Campbell; Christopher Monroe

2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

150

We consider the theoretical setting of a superfluid like 3He in a rotating container, which is set between the two layers of a type-II superconductor. We describe the superfluid vortices as a 2-dimensional Ising-like model on a triangular lattice in presence of local magnetic fields. The interaction term of the superfluid vortices with the Abrikosov vortices of the superconductor appears then as a symmetry breaking term in the free energy. Such a term gives a higher probability of quantum tunnelling across the potential barrier for bubbles nucleation, thus favouring quantum cavitation.

Paola Zizzi; Eliano Pessa; Fabio Cardone

2010-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

151

Waste Not, Want Not: Heisenberg-Limited Metrology With Information Recycling

Information recycling has been shown to improve the sensitivity of interferometers when the input quantum state has been partially transferred from some donor system. In this paper we demonstrate that when the quantum state of this donor system is from a particular class of Heisenberg-limited states, information recycling yields a Heisenberg-limited phase measurement. Crucially, this result holds irrespective of the fraction of the quantum state transferred to the interferometer input and also for a general class of number-conserving quantum-state-transfer processes, including ones that destroy the first-order phase coherence between the branches of the interferometer. This result could have significant applications in Heisenberg-limited atom interferometry, where the quantum state is transferred from a Heisenberg-limited photon source, and in optical interferometry where the loss can be monitored.

Simon A. Haine; Stuart S. Szigeti; Matthias D. Lang; Carlton M. Caves

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)

The Dahlem Conference on controlling CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere focused on research needs broadly defined. The RD D needs discussed tended to be social-institutional rather than technically oriented perhaps because of the propensity of most attendees, but many important ideas emerged, including those related to questions on technology adoption by both developed, emerging, or transition economics. The European attendees appeared to be strongly devoted to reducing emissions, and doing it soon using efficiency improvement and ultimately renewables. The importance of efficiency improvement was universally accepted, but the extent to which it can be relied upon is a major uncertainty for everyone except the most zealous. There was no detailed discussion of what could be done to encourage the more rapid adoption of renewables. Most attendees seemed to have discounted nuclear, but, at any rate, the problems of reviving nuclear worldwide were not discussed in detail.

Fulkerson, W.

1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

Surface code quantum communication

Quantum communication typically involves a linear chain of repeater stations, each capable of reliable local quantum computation and connected to their nearest neighbors by unreliable communication links. The communication rate in existing protocols is low as two-way classical communication is used. We show that, if Bell pairs are generated between neighboring stations with a probability of heralded success greater than 0.65 and fidelity greater than 0.96, two-way classical communication can be entirely avoided and quantum information can be sent over arbitrary distances with arbitrarily low error at a rate limited only by the local gate speed. The number of qubits per repeater scales logarithmically with the communication distance. If the probability of heralded success is less than 0.65 and Bell pairs between neighboring stations with fidelity no less than 0.92 are generated only every T_B seconds, the logarithmic resource scaling remains and the communication rate through N links is proportional to 1/(T_B log^2 N).

Austin G. Fowler; David S. Wang; Charles D. Hill; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Rodney Van Meter; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Review of Procedure to Evolve Quantum Procedures

There exist quantum algorithms that are more efficient than their classical counterparts; such algorithms were invented by Shor in 1994 and then Grover in 1996. A lack of invention since Grover's algorithm has been commonly attributed to the non-intuitive nature of quantum algorithms to the classically trained person. Thus, the idea of using computers to automatically generate quantum algorithms based on an evolutionary model emerged. A limitation of this approach is that quantum computers do not yet exist and quantum simulation on a classical machine has an exponential order overhead. Nevertheless, early research into evolving quantum algorithms has shown promise. This paper provides an introduction into quantum and evolutionary algorithms for the computer scientist not familiar with these fields. The exciting field of using evolutionary algorithms to evolve quantum algorithms is then reviewed.

Adrian Gepp; Phil Stocks

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

Quantum++ - A C++11 quantum computing library

Quantum++ is a general-purpose multi-threaded quantum computing library written in C++11 and composed solely of header files. The library is not restricted to qubit systems or specific quantum information processing tasks, being capable of simulating arbitrary quantum processes. The main design factors taken in consideration were ease of use, portability, and performance.

Vlad Gheorghiu

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform

The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.

Lidia Ruiz-Perez; Juan Carlos Garcia-Escartin

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

157

Quantum measurement of hyperfine interaction in nitrogen-vacancy center

We propose an efficient quantum measurement protocol for the hyperfine interaction between the electron spin and the $^{15}$N nuclear spin of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center. In this protocol, a sequence of quantum operations of successively increasing duration is utilized to estimate the hyperfine interaction with successively higher precision approaching the quantum metrology limit. This protocol does not need the preparation of the nuclear spin state. In the presence of realistic operation errors and electron spin decoherence, the overall precision of our protocol still surpasses the standard quantum limit.

Kilhyun Bang; Wen Yang; L. J. Sham

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Quantum Geometry and Quantum Gravity

The purpose of this contribution is to give an introduction to quantum geometry and loop quantum gravity for a wide audience of both physicists and mathematicians. From a physical point of view the emphasis will be on conceptual issues concerning the relationship of the formalism with other more traditional approaches inspired in the treatment of the fundamental interactions in the standard model. Mathematically I will pay special attention to functional analytic issues, the construction of the relevant Hilbert spaces and the definition and properties of geometric operators: areas and volumes.

J. Fernando Barbero G.

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

159

Quantum Error Correction for Quantum Memories

Active quantum error correction using qubit stabilizer codes has emerged as a promising, but experimentally challenging, engineering program for building a universal quantum computer. In this review we consider the formalism of qubit stabilizer and subsystem stabilizer codes and their possible use in protecting quantum information in a quantum memory. We review the theory of fault-tolerance and quantum error-correction, discuss examples of various codes and code constructions, the general quantum error correction conditions, the noise threshold, the special role played by Clifford gates and the route towards fault-tolerant universal quantum computation. The second part of the review is focused on providing an overview of quantum error correction using two-dimensional (topological) codes, in particular the surface code architecture. We discuss the complexity of decoding and the notion of passive or self-correcting quantum memories. The review does not focus on a particular technology but discusses topics that will be relevant for various quantum technologies.

Barbara M. Terhal

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

160

Pulsed homodyne Gaussian quantum tomography with low detection efficiency

Pulsed homodyne quantum tomography usually requires a high detection efficiency limiting its applicability in quantum optics. Here, it is shown that the presence of low detection efficiency ($<50\\%$) does not prevent the tomographic reconstruction of quantum states of light, specifically, of Gaussian type. This result is obtained by applying the so-called "minimax" adaptive reconstruction of the Wigner function to pulsed homodyne detection. In particular, we prove, by both numerical and real experiments, that an effective discrimination of different Gaussian quantum states can be achieved. Our finding paves the way to a more extensive use of quantum tomographic methods, even in physical situations in which high detection efficiency is unattainable.

Martina Esposito; Fabio Benatti; Roberto Floreanini; Stefano Olivares; Francesco Randi; Kelvin Titimbo; Marco Pividori; Fabio Novelli; Federico Cilento; Fulvio Parmigiani; Daniele Fausti

2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

161

Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped.

Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A. [Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

162

Quantum Heat Engines Using Superconducting Quantum Circuits

We propose a quantum analog of the internal combustion engine used in most cars. Specifically, we study how to implement the Otto-type quantum heat engine (QHE) with the assistance of a Maxwell's demon. Three steps are required: thermalization, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback controlled by the Maxwell demon. We derive the positive-work condition of this composite QHE. Our QHE can be constructed using superconducting quantum circuits. We explicitly demonstrate the essential role of the demon in this macroscopic QHE.

H. T. Quan; Y. D. Wang; Yu-xi Liu; C. P. Sun; Franco Nori

2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

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volcano. Experience the culture and history of Hawaii, and the impact of human activitiesApply early! Limited enrollment. Environmental Science in the Hawaiian Islands Observe, research

164

The implementation of polarization-based quantum communication is limited by signal loss and decoherence caused by the birefringence of a single-mode fiber. We investigate the Knill dynamical decoupling scheme, implemented using half-wave plates, to minimize decoherence and show that a fidelity greater than $99\\%$ can be achieved in absence of rotation error and fidelity greater than $96\\%$ can be achieved in presence of rotation error. Such a scheme can be used to preserve any quantum state with high fidelity and has potential application for constructing all optical quantum delay line, quantum memory, and quantum repeater.

Manish K. Gupta; Erik J. Navarro; Todd A. Moulder; Jason D. Mueller; Ashkan Balouchi; Katherine L. Brown; Hwang Lee; Jonathan P. Dowling

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

165

Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement

Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources.

Uttam Singh; Utkarsh Mishra; Himadri Shekhar Dhar

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

166

Time-optimal navigation through quantum wind

The quantum navigation problem of finding the time-optimal control Hamiltonian that transports a given initial state to a target state through quantum wind, that is, under the influence of external fields, is analysed. By lifting the problem from the state space to the space of unitary gates realising the required task, we are able to deduce the form of the solution to the problem by deriving a universal quantum speed limit. The expression thus obtained indicates that further simplifications of this apparently difficult problem are possible if we switch to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. A complete solution to the navigation problem for an arbitrary quantum system is then obtained, and the behaviour of the solution is illustrated in the case of a two-level system.

Dorje C. Brody; Gary W. Gibbons; David M. Meier

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

167

Time-optimal navigation through quantum wind

The quantum navigation problem of finding the time-optimal control Hamiltonian that transports a given initial state to a target state through quantum wind, that is, under the influence of external fields or potentials, is analysed. By lifting the problem from the state space to the space of unitary gates realising the required task, we are able to deduce the form of the solution to the problem by deriving a universal quantum speed limit. The expression thus obtained indicates that further simplifications of this apparently difficult problem are possible if we switch to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. A complete solution to the navigation problem for an arbitrary quantum system is then obtained, and the behaviour of the solution is illustrated in the case of a two-level system.

Dorje C. Brody; Gary W. Gibbons; David M. Meier

2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

168

Quantum Energy Regression using Scattering Transforms

We present a novel approach to the regression of quantum mechanical energies based on a scattering transform of an intermediate electron density representation. A scattering transform is a deep convolution network computed with a cascade of multiscale wavelet transforms. It possesses appropriate invariant and stability properties for quantum energy regression. This new framework removes fundamental limitations of Coulomb matrix based energy regressions, and numerical experiments give state-of-the-art accuracy over planar molecules.

Hirn, Matthew; Mallat, Stephane

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Dynamics of Quantum Dot Photonic Crystal Lasers

Quantum dot photonic crystal membrane lasers were fabricated and the large signal modulation characteristics were studied. We find that the modulation characteristics of quantum dot lasers can be significantly improved using cavities with large spontaneous emission coupling factor. Our experiments show, and simulations confirm, that the modulation rate is limited by the rate of carrier capture into the dots to around 30GHz in our present system.

Bryan Ellis; Ilya Fushman; Dirk Englund; Bingyang Zhang; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Jelena Vuckovic

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

It is argued that the validity of the predictions of quantum theory in certain spin-correlation experiments entails a violation of Einstein's locality idea that no causal influence can act outside the forward light cone. First, two preliminary arguments suggesting such a violation are reviewed. They both depend, in intermediate stages, on the idea that the results of certain unperformed experiments are physically determinate. The second argument is entangled also with the problem of the meaning of physical reality. A new argument having neither of these characteristics is constructed. It is based strictly on the orthodox ideas of Bohr and Heisenberg, and has no realistic elements, or other ingredients, that are alien to orthodox quantum thinking.

Stapp, H.P.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Quantum thermal machines with single nonequilibrium environments

We propose a scheme for a quantum thermal machine made by atoms interacting with a single non-equilibrium electromagnetic field. The field is produced by a simple configuration of macroscopic objects held at thermal equilibrium at different temperatures. We show that these machines can deliver all thermodynamic tasks (cooling, heating and population inversion), and this by establishing quantum coherence with the body on which they act. Remarkably, this system allows to reach efficiencies at maximum power very close to the Carnot limit, much more than in existing models. Our findings offer a new paradigm for efficient quantum energy flux management, and can be relevant for both experimental and technological purposes.

Bruno Leggio; Bruno Bellomo; Mauro Antezza

2015-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

172

How red is a quantum black hole?

Radiating black holes pose a number of puzzles for semiclassical and quantum gravity. These include the transplanckian problem -- the nearly infinite energies of Hawking particles created near the horizon, and the final state of evaporation. A definitive resolution of these questions likely requires robust inputs from quantum gravity. We argue that one such input is a quantum bound on curvature. We show how this leads to an upper limit on the redshift of a Hawking emitted particle, to a maximum temperature for a black hole, and to the prediction of a Planck scale remnant.

Viqar Husain; Oliver Winkler

2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Quantum Information Science | ornl.gov

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geographic Information Science and Technology Quantum Information Science Quantum Communication and Security Quantum-Enhanced Sensing Quantum Computing Supercomputing and...

174

Next steps in understanding the asymptotics of $3d$ quantum gravity

Based on a combinatorial approach and random matrix theory, we show a central limit theorem that gives important insight into causally triangulated $3d$ quantum gravity.

Maria Simonetta Bernabei; Horst Thaler

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

175

Quantum superconducting criticality in graphene and topological insulators

The field theory of the semimetal-superconductor quantum phase transition for graphene and surface states of topological insulators is presented. The Lagrangian possesses the global U(1) symmetry, with the self-interacting complex bosonic order-parameter and the massless Dirac fermions coupled through a Yukawa term. The same theory also governs the quantum critical behavior of graphene near the transition towards the bond-density-wave (Kekule) insulator. The local U(1) gauged version of the theory which describes the quantum semimetal-superconductor transition in the ultimate critical regime is also considered. Due to the Yukawa coupling the transitions are found to be always continuous, both with and without the fluctuating gauge field. The critical behavior is addressed within the dimensional regularization near four space-time dimensions, and the calculation of various universal quantities, including critical exponents and the universal mass-ratio, is reported.

Bitan Roy; Vladimir Juricic; Igor F. Herbut

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

The Noncommutative Anandan's Quantum Phase

In this work we study the noncommutative nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle, that possesses permanent magnetic and electric dipole momenta, in the presence of an electric and magnetic fields. We use the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac spinor with a non-minimal coupling to obtain the nonrelativistic limit. In this limit, we will study the noncommutative quantum dynamics and obtain the noncommutative Anandan's geometric phase. We analyze the situation where magnetic dipole moment of the particle is zero and we obtain the noncommutative version of the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect. We demonstrate that this phase in the noncommutative case is a geometric dispersive phase. We also investigate this geometric phase considering the noncommutativity in the phase space and the Anandan's phase is obtained.

E. Passos; L. R. Ribeiro; C. Furtado; J. R. Nascimento

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Noncommutative Anandan's Quantum Phase

In this work we study the noncommutative nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle, that possesses permanent magnetic and electric dipole momenta, in the presence of an electric and magnetic fields. We use the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac spinor with a non-minimal coupling to obtain the nonrelativistic limit. In this limit, we will study the noncommutative quantum dynamics and obtain the noncommutative Anandan's geometric phase. We analyze the situation where magnetic dipole moment of the particle is zero and we obtain the noncommutative version of the He-McKellar-Wilkens effect. We demonstrate that this phase in the noncommutative case is a geometric dispersive phase. We also investigate this geometric phase considering the noncommutativity in the phase space and the Anandan's phase is obtained.

Passos, E; Nascimento, J R; Ribeiro, L R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration

system Schmidt et al., PRL 93, 045901 (2004) Meschke et al., Nature 444, 187 (2006) Ojanen et al., PRB 76, 073414 (2007), PRL 100, 155902 (2008) D. Segal, PRL 100, 105901 (2008) G #12;Heat transported between two

Fominov, Yakov

179

Vibronic Raman Scattering at the Quantum Limit of Plasmons. | EMSL

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500IIVasudha PatriPhotoelectron Spectroscopy of ColdVibronic

180

AN EXPERIMENT ON THE LIMITS OF QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS HEPL-170

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDeliveredÂ‰PNGExperience4AJ01) (See95TI07)Operations2 Print258Department of Energytt^ \ #

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

181

Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

Stapp, Henry

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

It has recently been shown that if there is a large hidden sector in Nature, the scale of quantum gravity could be much lower than traditionally expected. We study the production of massless gravitons at the LHC and compare our results to those obtained in extra dimensional models. The signature in both cases is missing energy plus jets. In case of non observation, the LHC could be used to put the tightest limit to date on the value of the Planck mass.

Xavier Calmet; Priscila de Aquino

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

183

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

We propose a novel notion of a quantum learning machine for automatically controlling quantum coherence and for developing quantum algorithms. A quantum learning machine can be trained to learn a certain task with no a priori knowledge on its algorithm. As an example, it is demonstrated that the quantum learning machine learns Deutsch's task and finds itself a quantum algorithm, that is different from but equivalent to the original one.

Jeongho Bang; James Lim; M. S. Kim; Jinhyoung Lee

2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

185

Kinetic limits of dynamical systems

Since the pioneering work of Maxwell and Boltzmann in the 1860s and 1870s, a major challenge in mathematical physics has been the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations from the fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Macroscopic transport equations lie at the heart of many important physical theories, including fluid dynamics, condensed matter theory and nuclear physics. The rigorous derivation of macroscopic transport equations is thus not only a conceptual exercise that establishes their consistency with the fundamental laws of physics: the possibility of finding deviations and corrections to classical evolution equations makes this subject both intellectually exciting and relevant in practical applications. The plan of these lectures is to develop a renormalisation technique that will allow us to derive transport equations for the kinetic limits of two classes of simple dynamical systems, the Lorentz gas and kicked Hamiltonians (or linked twist maps). The technique uses the ergodic theory of flows on homogeneous spaces (homogeneous flows for short), and is based on joint work with Andreas Str\\"ombergsson.

Jens Marklof

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

186

Elementary quantum cloning machines

The task of reception of a copy of an arbitrary quantum state with use of a minimum quantity of quantum operations is considered.

V. N. Dumachev

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

187

Thermodynamics of discrete quantum processes

We define thermodynamic configurations and identify two primitives of discrete quantum processes between configurations for which heat and work can be defined in a natural way. This allows us to uncover a general second law for any discrete trajectory that consists of a sequence of these primitives, linking both equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations. Moreover, in the limit of a discrete trajectory that passes through an infinite number of configurations, i.e. in the reversible limit, we recover the saturation of the second law. Finally, we show that for a discrete Carnot cycle operating between four configurations one recovers Carnot's thermal efficiency.

Janet Anders; Vittorio Giovannetti

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Speed Meter As a Quantum Nondemolition Measuring Device for Force

Quantum noise is an important issue for advanced LIGO. Although it is in principle possible to beat the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL), no practical recipe has been found yet. This paper dicusses quantum noise in the context of speedmeter-a devise monitoring the speed of the testmass. The scheme proposed to overcome SQL in this case might be more practical than the methods based on monitoring position of the testmass.

F. Ya. Khalili; Yu. Levin

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

189

Extractable work from ensembles of quantum batteries. Entanglement helps

Motivated by the recent interest in thermodynamics of micro- and mesoscopic quantum systems we study the maximal amount of work that can be reversibly extracted from a quantum system used to store temporarily energy. Guided by the notion of passivity of a quantum state we show that entangling unitary controls extract in general more work than independent ones. In the limit of large number of copies one can reach the thermodynamical bound given by the variational principle for free energy.

Robert Alicki; Mark Fannes

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

190

In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO)

, Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance, Ornamental & Turf, Private Ag, or General Standards CORE for Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance (LCLM), you must attend all day to earn the 6 CEUs required. Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO) Training & Exams Date

Florida, University of

192

Security Proof of a Semi-Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

Semi-quantum key distribution protocols are designed to allow two users to establish a secure secret key when one of the two users is limited to performing certain "classical" operations. There have been several such protocols developed recently, however, due to their reliance on a two-way quantum communication channel (and thus, the attacker's opportunity to interact with the qubit twice), their security analysis is difficult and little is known concerning how secure they are compared to their fully quantum counterparts. In this paper we prove the unconditional security of a particular semi-quantum protocol. We derive an expression for the key rate of this protocol, in the asymptotic scenario, as a function of the quantum channel's noise. Finally, we will show that this semi-quantum protocol can tolerate a maximal noise level comparable to certain fully quantum protocols.

Walter O. Krawec

2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quantum mechanical approaches to in silico enzyme characterization and drug design

The astonishing, exponentially increasing rates of genome sequencing has led to one of the most significant challenges for the biological and computational sciences in the 21st century: assigning the likely functions of the encoded proteins. Enzymes represent a particular challenge, and a critical one, because the universe of enzymes is likely to contain many novel functions that may be useful for synthetic biology, or as drug targets. Current approaches to protein annotation are largely based on bioinformatics. At the simplest level, this annotation involves transferring the annotations of characterized enzymes to related sequences. In practice, however, there is no simple, sequence based criterion for transferring annotations, and bioinformatics alone cannot propose new enzymatic functions. Structure-based computational methods have the potential to address these limitations, by identifying potential substrates of enzymes, as we and others have shown. One successful approach has used in silico 'docking' methods, more commonly applied in structure-based drug design, to identify possible metabolite substrates. A major limitation of this approach is that it only considers substrate binding, and does not directly assess the potential of the enzyme to catalyze a particular reaction using a particular substrate. That is, substrate binding affinity is necessary but not sufficient to assign function. A reaction profile is ultimately what is needed for a more complete quantitative description of function. To address this rather fundamental limitation, they propose to use quantum mechanical methods to explicitly compute transition state barriers that govern the rates of catalysis. Although quantum mechanical, and mixed quantum/classical (QM/MM), methods have been used extensively to investigate enzymatic reactions, the focus has been primarily on elucidating complex reaction mechanisms. Here, the key catalytic steps are known, and they use these methods quantify substrate specificity. That is, we bring the power of quantum mechanics to bear on the problem of annotating enzyme function, which is a novel approach. Although it has been clear to us at the Jacobson group for some time that enzyme specificity may be encoded in transition states, rather than simply substrate recognition, the main limitation has always been computational expense. Using a hierarchy of different methods, they can reduce the list of plausible substrates of an enzyme to a small number in most cases, but even identifying the transition states for a dozen plausible substrates requires significant computational effort, beyond what is practical using standard QM/MM methods. For this project, they have chosen two enzyme superfamilies which they have used as 'model systems' for functional assignment. The enolase superfamily is a large group of {alpha}-{beta} barrel enzymes with highly diverse substrates and chemical transformations. Despite decades of work, over a third of the superfamily remains unassigned, which means that the remaining cases are by definition difficult to assign. They have focused on acid sugar dehydratases, and have considerable expertise on the matter. They are also interested in the isoprenoid synthase superfamily, which is of central interest to the synthetic biology community, because these enzymes are used by nature to create complex rare natural products of medicinal value. the most notable example of this is the artemisinin, an antimalarial compound that is found in trace amounts in the wormwod root. From the standpoint of enzyme function assignment, these enzymes are intriguing because they use a small number of chemically simple substrates to generate, potentially, tens of thousands of different products. Hence, substrate binding specificity is only a small part of the challenge; the key is determining how the enzyme directs the carbocation chemistry to specific products. These more complex modeling approaches clearly require quantum mechanical methods.

Nilmeier, J P; Fattebert, J L; Jacobson, M P; Kalyanaraman, C

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

194

Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system

Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we firstly give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. Then, we obtain three trade-offs among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system.As a consequence, we obtain that the relative entropy of coherence satisfies the super-additivity. Finally, we discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence.

Zhengjun Xi; Yongming Li; Heng Fan

2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

By introducing a quantum entropy functional of the reduced density matrix, the principle of quantum maximum entropy is asserted as fundamental principle of quantum statistical mechanics. Accordingly, we develop a comprehensive theoretical formalism to construct rigorously a closed quantum hydrodynamic transport within a Wigner function approach. The theoretical formalism is formulated in both thermodynamic equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, and the quantum contributions are obtained by only assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of ({h_bar}/2{pi}){sup 2}. In particular, by using an arbitrary number of moments, we prove that (1) on a macroscopic scale all nonlocal effects, compatible with the uncertainty principle, are imputable to high-order spatial derivatives, both of the numerical density n and of the effective temperature T; (2) the results available from the literature in the framework of both a quantum Boltzmann gas and a degenerate quantum Fermi gas are recovered as a particular case; (3) the statistics for the quantum Fermi and Bose gases at different levels of degeneracy are explicitly incorporated; (4) a set of relevant applications admitting exact analytical equations are explicitly given and discussed; (5) the quantum maximum entropy principle keeps full validity in the classical limit, when ({h_bar}/2{pi}){yields}0.

Trovato, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Reggiani, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione and CNISM, Universita del Salento, Via Arnesano s/n, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Born--Oppenheimer decomposition for quantum fields on quantum spacetimes

Quantum Field Theory on Curved Spacetime (QFT on CS) is a well established theoretical framework which intuitively should be a an extremely effective description of the quantum nature of matter when propagating on a given background spacetime. If one wants to take care of backreaction effects, then a theory of quantum gravity is needed. It is now widely believed that such a theory should be formulated in a non-perturbative and therefore background independent fashion. Hence, it is a priori a puzzle how a background dependent QFT on CS should emerge as a semiclassical limit out of a background independent quantum gravity theory. In this article we point out that the Born-Oppenheimer decomposition (BOD) of the Hilbert space is ideally suited in order to establish such a link, provided that the Hilbert space representation of the gravitational field algebra satisfies an important condition. If the condition is satisfied, then the framework of QFT on CS can be, in a certain sense, embedded into a theory of quantum gravity. The unique representation of the holonomy-flux algebra underlying Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) violates that condition. While it is conceivable that the condition on the representation can be relaxed, for convenience in this article we consider a new classical gravitational field algebra and a Hilbert space representation of its restriction to an algebraic graph for which the condition is satisfied. An important question that remains and for which we have only partial answers is how to construct eigenstates of the full gravity-matter Hamiltonian whose BOD is confined to a small neighbourhood of a physically interesting vacuum spacetime.

Kristina Giesel; Johannes Tambornino; Thomas Thiemann

2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

197

Entropy-energy balance in noisy quantum computers

We use entropy-energy arguments to assess the limitations on the running time and on the system size, as measured in qubits, of noisy macroscopic circuit-based quantum computers.

Maxim Raginsky

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

198

Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ground State Quantum Computation

We formulate a novel ground state quantum computation approach that requires no unitary evolution of qubits in time: the qubits are fixed in stationary states of the Hamiltonian. This formulation supplies a completely time-independent approach to realizing quantum computers. We give a concrete suggestion for a ground state quantum computer involving linked quantum dots.

Ari Mizel; M. W. Mitchell; Marvin L. Cohen

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

Performance limits for exo-clutter Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar.

The performance of a Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to 'get your arms around' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall GMTI radar system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the 'seek time'.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

201

Localized quantum walks as secured quantum memory

We show that a quantum walk process can be used to construct and secure quantum memory. More precisely, we show that a localized quantum walk with temporal disorder can be engineered to store the information of a single, unknown qubit on a compact position space and faithfully recover it on demand. Since the localization occurss with a finite spread in position space, the stored information of the qubit will be naturally secured from the simple eavesdropper. Our protocol can be adopted to any quantum system for which experimental control over quantum walk dynamics can be achieved.

C. M. Chandrashekar; Th. Busch

2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

Hybrid quantum devices and quantum engineering

We discuss prospects of building hybrid quantum devices involving elements of atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics and solid state elements with the attempt to combine advantages of the respective systems in compatible experimental setups. In particular, we summarize our recent work on quantum hybrid devices and briefly discuss recent ideas for quantum networks. These include interfacing of molecular quantum memory with circuit QED, and using nanomechanical elements strongly coupled to qubits represented by electronic spins, as well as single atoms or atomic ensembles.

Margareta Wallquist; Klemens Hammerer; Peter Rabl; Mikhail Lukin; Peter Zoller

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

203

Investigation of Microscopic Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

The high-field performance of SRF cavities is often limited by breakdown events below the intrinsic limiting surface fields of Nb, and there is abundant evidence that these breakdown events are localized in space inside the cavity. Also, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the causal links between surface treatments and ultimate RF performance at low temperatures. An understanding of these links would provide a clear roadmap for improvement of SRF cavity performance, and establish a cause-and-effect ‘RF materials science’ of Nb. We propose two specific microscopic approaches to addressing these issues. First is a spatially-resolved local microwave-microscope probe that operates at SRF frequencies and temperatures to discover the microscopic origins of breakdown, and produce quantitative measurements of RF critical fields of coatings and films. Second, RF Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has allowed visualization of RF current flow and sources of nonlinear RF response in superconducting devices with micro-meter spatial resolution. The LSM will be used in conjunction with surface preparation and characterization techniques to create definitive links between physical and chemical processing steps and ultimate cryogenic microwave performance. We propose to develop RF laser scanning microscopy of small-sample Nb pieces to establish surface-processing / RF performance relations through measurement of RF current distributions on micron-length scales and low temperatures.

Anlage, Steven [University of Maryland

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

204

Hybrid Quantum Cloning Machine

In this work, we introduce a special kind of quantum cloning machine called Hybrid quantum cloning machine. The introduced Hybrid quantum cloning machine or transformation is nothing but a combination of pre-existing quantum cloning transformations. In this sense it creates its own identity in the field of quantum cloners. Hybrid quantum cloning machine can be of two types: (i) State dependent and (ii) State independent or Universal. We study here the above two types of Hybrid quantum cloning machines. Later we will show that the state dependent hybrid quantum-cloning machine can be applied on only four input states. We will also find in this paper another asymmetric universal quantum cloning machine constructed from the combination of optimal universal B-H quantum cloning machine and universal anti-cloning machine. The fidelities of the two outputs are different and their values lie in the neighborhood of ${5/6} $

Satyabrata Adhikari; A. K. Pati; Indranil Chakrabarty; B. S. Choudhury

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

205

Quantum optical waveform conversion

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

206

Quantum Ice : a quantum Monte Carlo study

Ice states, in which frustrated interactions lead to a macroscopic ground-state degeneracy, occur in water ice, in problems of frustrated charge order on the pyrochlore lattice, and in the family of rare-earth magnets collectively known as spin ice. Of particular interest at the moment are "quantum spin ice" materials, where large quantum fluctuations may permit tunnelling between a macroscopic number of different classical ground states. Here we use zero-temperature quantum Monte Carlo simulations to show how such tunnelling can lift the degeneracy of a spin or charge ice, stabilising a unique "quantum ice" ground state --- a quantum liquid with excitations described by the Maxwell action of 3+1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. We further identify a competing ordered "squiggle" state, and show how both squiggle and quantum ice states might be distinguished in neutron scattering experiments on a spin ice material.

Nic Shannon; Olga Sikora; Frank Pollmann; Karlo Penc; Peter Fulde

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

207

Quantum Thermodynamic Cycles and quantum heat engines

In order to describe quantum heat engines, here we systematically study isothermal and isochoric processes for quantum thermodynamic cycles. Based on these results the quantum versions of both the Carnot heat engine and the Otto heat engine are defined without ambiguities. We also study the properties of quantum Carnot and Otto heat engines in comparison with their classical counterparts. Relations and mappings between these two quantum heat engines are also investigated by considering their respective quantum thermodynamic processes. In addition, we discuss the role of Maxwell's demon in quantum thermodynamic cycles. We find that there is no violation of the second law, even in the existence of such a demon, when the demon is included correctly as part of the working substance of the heat engine.

H. T. Quan; Yu-xi Liu; C. P. Sun; Franco Nori

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

208

Generalized quantum instruments correspond to measurements where the input and output are either states or more generally quantum circuits. These measurements describe any quantum protocol including games, communications, and algorithms. The set of generalized quantum instruments with a given input and output structure is a convex set. Here we investigate the extremal points of this set for the case of finite dimensional quantum systems and generalized instruments with finitely many outcomes. We derive algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality.

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

209

Real-time Information, Uncertainty and Quantum Feedback Control

Feedback is the core concept in cybernetics and its effective use has made great success in but not limited to the fields of engineering, biology, and computer science. When feedback is used to quantum systems, two major types of feedback control protocols including coherent feedback control (CFC) and measurement-based feedback control (MFC) have been developed. In this paper, we compare the two types of quantum feedback control protocols by focusing on the real-time information used in the feedback loop and the capability in dealing with parameter uncertainty. An equivalent relationship is established between quantum CFC and non-selective quantum MFC in the form of operator-sum representation. Using several examples of quantum feedback control, we show that quantum MFC can theoretically achieve better performance than quantum CFC in stabilizing a quantum state and dealing with Hamiltonian parameter uncertainty. The results enrich understanding of the relative advantages between quantum MFC and quantum CFC, and can provide useful information in choosing suitable feedback protocols for quantum systems.

Bo Qi; Daoyi Dong; Chunlin Chen; Lijun Liu; Zairong Xi

2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

210

Loop is a powerful program construct in classical computation, but its power is still not exploited fully in quantum computation. The exploitation of such power definitely requires a deep understanding of the mechanism of quantum loop programs. In this paper, we introduce a general scheme of quantum loops and describe its computational process. The notions of termination and almost termination are proposed for quantum loops, and the function computed by a quantum loop is defined. To show their expressive power, quantum loops are applied in describing quantum walks. Necessary and sufficient conditions for termination and almost termination of a general quantum loop on any mixed input state are presented. A quantum loop is said to be (almost) terminating if it (almost) terminates on any input state. We show that a quantum loop is almost terminating if and only if it is uniformly almost terminating. It is observed that a small disturbance either on the unitary transformation in the loop body or on the measurement in the loop guard can make any quantum loop (almost) terminating. Moreover, a representation of the function computed by a quantum loop is given in terms of finite summations of matrices. To illustrate the notions and results obtained in this paper, two simplest classes of quantum loop programs, one qubit quantum loops, and two qubit quantum loops defined by controlled gates, are carefully examined.

Mingsheng Ying; Yuan Feng

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

211

Robust quantum data locking from phase modulation

Quantum data locking is a unique quantum phenomenon that allows a relatively short key to (un)lock an arbitrarily long message encoded in a quantum state, in such a way that an eavesdropper who measures the state but does not know the key has essentially no information about the encrypted message. The application of quantum data locking in cryptography would allow one to overcome the limitations of the one-time pad encryption, which requires the key to have the same length as the message. However, it is known that the strength of quantum data locking is also its Achilles heel, as the leakage of a few bits of the key or the message may in principle allow the eavesdropper to unlock a disproportionate amount of information. In this paper we show that there exist quantum data locking schemes that can be made robust against information leakage by increasing the length of the shared key by a proportionate amount. This implies that a constant size key can still encrypt an arbitrarily long message as long as a fraction of it remains secret to the eavesdropper. Moreover, we greatly simplify the structure of the protocol by proving that phase modulation suffices to generate strong locking schemes, paving the way to optical experimental realizations. Also, we show that successful data locking protocols can be constructed using random codewords, which very well could be helpful in discovering random codes for data locking over noisy quantum channels.

Cosmo Lupo; Mark M. Wilde; Seth Lloyd

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

212

Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture

First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed computer. Firstly, we reveal a perfect storage of external photon qubits to multi-mode quantum memory node and demonstrate a reversible exchange of the qubits between any arbitrary nodes. We found optimal parameters of atoms in the circuit and self quantum modes for quantum processing. The predicted perfect storage has been observed experimentally for microwave radiation on the lithium phthalocyaninate molecule ensemble. Then also, for the first time we show a realization of the efficient basic two-qubit gate with direct coupling of two arbitrary nodes by using appropriate atomic frequency shifts in the circuit nodes. Proposed two-qubit gate runs with a speed drastically accelerated proportionally to the number of atoms in the node. The direct coupling and accelerated two-qubit gate can be realized for large number of the circuit nodes. Finally, we describe two and three-dimensional scalable architectures that pave the road to construction of universal multi-qubit quantum computer operating at room temperatures.

S. A. Moiseev; F. F. Gubaidullin; S. N. Andrianov

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

Weyl laws for partially open quantum maps

We study a toy model for "partially open" wave-mechanical system, like for instance a dielectric micro-cavity, in the semiclassical limit where ray dynamics is applicable. Our model is a quantized map on the 2-dimensional torus, with an additional damping at each time step, resulting in a subunitary propagator, or "damped quantum map". We obtain analogues of Weyl's laws for such maps in the semiclassical limit, and draw some more precise estimates when the classical dynamic is chaotic.

Emmanuel Schenck

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Quantum Phase Transition in a Graphene Model

We present results for the equation of state of a graphene-like model in an effort to understand the properties of its quantum phase transition. The N_f fermion species interact through a three dimensional instantaneous Coulomb potential. Since there are no reliable analytical tools that work for all values of N_f and the coupling constant g, we rely on Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the critical properties of the model near the phase transition. We consider the four-component formulation for the fermion fields, which arises naturally as the continuum limit of the staggered fermion construction in (2+1) dimensions. In the limit of infinitely strong Coulomb interaction, the system undergoes a quantum phase transition at a critical number of fermion species N_fc ~ 4.7. We also calculate the values of the critical exponents at the quantum phase transition.

Simon Hands; Costas Strouthos

2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

215

Quantum theory of nonequilibrium processes, 1

Green's function techniques for studying nonequilibrium quantum processes are discussed. Perturbation expansions and Green's function equations of motion are developed for noncorrelated and correlated initial states of a system. A transition, from the Kadanoff-Baym Green's function equations of motion to the Boltzmann equation, and specifications of the respective limit, are examined in detail.

Danielewicz, P.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry

Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California; published 20 January 2010 Extreme correlations arise as the limit of strong correlations, when the local-J model, embodying such extreme correlations. We formulate the picture of an extremely correlated electron

California at Santa Cruz, University of

217

A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Addition plays a central role in mathematics and physics, while adders are ubiquitous devices in computation and electronics. In this sense, usual sum operations can be realized by classical Turing machines and also, with a suitable algorithm, by quantum Turing machines. Moreover, the sum of state vectors in the same Hilbert space, known as quantum superposition, is at the core of quantum physics. In fact, entanglement and the promised exponential speed-up of quantum computing are based on such superpositions. Here, we consider the existence of a quantum adder, defined as a unitary operation mapping two unknown quantum states encoded in different quantum systems onto their sum codified in a single one. The surprising answer is that this quantum adder is forbidden and it has the quantum cloning machine as a special case. This no-go result is of fundamental nature and its deep implications should be further studied.

U. Alvarez-Rodriguez; M. Sanz; L. Lamata; E. Solano

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

A Causal Net Approach to Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum mechanics. Each vertex on the causal net represents a possible point event or particle observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction, phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be embedded in 3+1 dimensions and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation. In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrodinger equation and Pauli equation for an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

R. D. Bateson

2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

Experimental feedback control of quantum systems using weak measurements

A goal of the emerging field of quantum control is to develop methods for quantum technologies to function robustly in the presence of noise. Central issues are the fundamental limitations on the available information about quantum systems and the disturbance they suffer in the process of measurement. In the context of a simple quantum control scenario--the stabilization of non-orthogonal states of a qubit against dephasing--we experimentally explore the use of weak measurements in feedback control. We find that, despite the intrinsic difficultly of implementing them, weak measurements allow us to control the qubit better in practice than is even theoretically possible without them. Our work shows that these more general quantum measurements can play an important role for feedback control of quantum systems.

G. G. Gillett; R. B. Dalton; B. P. Lanyon; M. P. Almeida; M. Barbieri; G. J. Pryde; J. L. O'Brien; K. J. Resch; S. D. Bartlett; A. G. White

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

221

We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered chaotic dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behavior deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems.

David Viennot; Lucile Aubourg

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

222

Efficient Quantum Filtering for Quantum Feedback Control

We discuss an efficient numerical scheme for the recursive filtering of diffusive quantum stochastic master equations. We show that the resultant quantum trajectory is robust and may be used for feedback based on inefficient measurements. The proposed numerical scheme is amenable to approximation, which can be used to further reduce the computational burden associated with calculating quantum trajectories and may allow real-time quantum filtering. We provide a two-qubit example where feedback control of entanglement may be within the scope of current experimental systems.

Pierre Rouchon; Jason F. Ralph

2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

223

Feasible quantum engineering of quantum multiphoton superpositions

We examine an experimental setup implementing a family of quantum non-Gaussian filters. The filters can be applied to an arbitrary two-mode input state. We assume realistic photodetection in the filtering process and explore two different models of inefficient detection: a beam splitter of a small reflectivity located in front of a perfect detector and a Weierstrass transform applied to the unperturbed measurement outcomes. We explicitly give an operator which describes the coherent action of the filters in the realistic experimental conditions. The filtered states may find applications in quantum metrology, quantum communication and other quantum tasks.

Magdalena Stobi?ska

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

Darmann, Francis Anthony

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

This report has been submitted for publication outside of IBM and will probably be copyrighted is accepted for publication. It has been issued as a Research Report for early dissemination of its contents. In view of the transfer of copyright to the outside publisher, its distribution outside of IBM prior to publication should be limited to peer communications and specific requests. After outside publication, requests should be filled only by reprints or legally obtained copies of the article (e.g., payment of royalties). Some reports are available at

Josh Hailpern; John Jay High; Charles C. Palmer

226

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentationsSRS RespondsLift Plan ProcedureProcess Limits

227

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Generalized concatenated quantum codes

We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using ...

Grassl, Markus

229

Efficient distributed quantum computing

We provide algorithms for efficiently moving and addressing quantum memory in parallel. These imply that the standard circuit model can be simulated with a low overhead by a more realistic model of a distributed quantum ...

Beals, Robert

230

Nonequilibrium quantum kinetics

This paper contains viewgraphs on non-equilibrium quantum kinetics of nuclear reactions at the intermediate and high energy ranges.

Danielewicz, P.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

231

Changing quantum reference frames

We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects including reference frames are necessarily quantum.

Matthew C. Palmer; Florian Girelli; Stephen D. Bartlett

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Generalized Concatenated Quantum Codes

We introduce the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of new single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length, but also asymptotically achieve the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

Markus Grassl; Peter Shor; Graeme Smith; John Smolin; Bei Zeng

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

233

Quantum money is a cryptographic protocol in which a mint can produce a quantum state, no one else can copy the state, and anyone (with a quantum computer) can verify that the state came from the mint. We present a concrete quantum money scheme based on superpositions of diagrams that encode oriented links with the same Alexander polynomial. We expect our scheme to be secure against computationally bounded adversaries.

Edward Farhi; David Gosset; Avinatan Hassidim; Andrew Lutomirski; Peter Shor

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

234

Distinctive Signature of Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Lasing in Microdisks Cavities

Low threshold lasers realized within compact, high quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we utilize the distinctive, high quality (Q~5500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest ...

Woolf, Alexander; Aharanovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel A; Hu, Evelyn L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Quantum weak chaos in a degenerate system

Quantum weak chaos is studied in a perturbed degenerate system --- a charged particle interacting with a monochromatic wave in a transverse magnetic field. The evolution operator for an arbitrary number of periods of the external field is built and its structure is explored in terms of the QE (quasienergy eigenstates) under resonance condition (wave frequency $=$ cyclotron frequency) in the regime of weak classical chaos. The new phenomenon of diffusion via the quantum separatrices and the influence of chaos on diffusion are investigated and, in the quasi classical limit, compared with its classical dynamics. We determine the crossover from purely quantum diffusion to a diffusion which is the quantum manifestation of classical diffusion along the stochastic web. This crossover results from the non-monotonic dependence of the characteristic localization length of the QE states on the wave amplitude. The width of the quantum separatrices was computed and compared with the width of the classical stochastic web. We give the physical parameters which can be realized experimentally to show the manifestation of quantum chaos in nonlinear acoustic resonance.

V. Ya. Demikhovskii; D. I. Kamenev; G. A. Luna-Acosta

1998-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

236

Secure Quantum Communication with Orthogonal States

In majority of protocols of secure quantum communication (such as, BB84, B92, etc.), the unconditional security of the protocols are obtained by using conjugate coding (two or more mutually unbiased bases). Initially all the conjugate-coding-based protocols of secure quantum communication were restricted to quantum key distribution (QKD), but later on they were extended to other cryptographic tasks (such as, secure direct quantum communication and quantum key agreement). In contrast to the conjugate-coding-based protocols, a few completely orthogonal-state-based protocols of unconditionally secure QKD (such as, Goldenberg-Vaidman (GV) and N09) were also proposed. However, till the recent past orthogonal-state-based protocols were only a theoretical concept and were limited to QKD. Only recently, orthogonal-state-based protocols of QKD are experimentally realized and extended to cryptographic tasks beyond QKD. This paper aims to briefly review the orthogonal-state-based protocols of secure quantum communication that are recently introduced by our group and other researchers.

Chitra Shukla; Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak; R. Srikanth

2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Minisuperspace as a Quantum Open System

We trace the development of ideas on dissipative processes in chaotic cosmology and on minisuperspace quantum cosmology from the time Misner proposed them to current research. We show 1) how the effect of quantum processes like particle creation in the early universe can address the issues of the isotropy and homogeneity of the observed universe, 2) how viewing minisuperspace as a quantum open system can address the issue of the validity of such approximations customarily adopted in quantum cosmology, and 3) how invoking statistical processes like decoherence and correlation when considered together can help to establish a theory of quantum fields in curved spacetime as the semiclassical limit of quantum gravity. {\\it Dedicated to Professor Misner on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, June 1992.} To appear in the Proceedings of a Symposium on {\\it Directions in General Relativity}, College Park, May 1993, Volume 1, edited by B. L. Hu, M. P. Ryan and C. V. Vishveshwara (Cambridge University Press 1993)~~~~umdpp 93-60

B. L. Hu; Juan Pablo Paz; Sukanya Sinha

1993-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

238

Quantum model of microcavity intersubband electroluminescent devices

We present a quantum theoretical analysis of the electroluminescence from an intersubband transition of a quantum well structure embedded in a planar microcavity. By using a cluster factorization method, we have derived a closed set of dynamical equations for the quantum well carrier and cavity photon occupation numbers, the correlation between the cavity field and the intersubband polarization, as well as polarization-polarization contributions. In order to model the electrical excitation, we have considered electron population tunneling from an injector and into an extractor contact. The tunneling rates have been obtained by considering the bare electronic states in the quantum well and the limit of validity of this approximation (broad-band injection) are discussed in detail. We apply the present quantum model to provide a comprehensive description of the electronic transport and optical properties of an intersubband microcavity light emitting diode, accounting for non-radiative carrier relaxation and Pauli blocking. We study the enhancement of the electroluminescence quantum efficiency passing from the weak to the strong polariton coupling regime.

Simone De Liberato; Cristiano Ciuti

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

Quantum chaos in quantum Turing machines

We investigate a 2-spin quantum Turing architecture, in which discrete local rotations \\alpha_m of the Turing head spin alternate with quantum controlled NOT-operations. We demonstrate that a single chaotic parameter input \\alpha_m leads to a chaotic dynamics in the entire Hilbert-space.

Ilki Kim; Guenter Mahler

1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

240

Stephen Hawking Quantum Gravity

Stephen Hawking and Quantum Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 4 Nov 2000 #12; Stephen Hawking and Quantum Gravity Abstract: Through research, Stephen Hawking has captured a place in the popular imagina- tion. Quantum gravity in its various

Visser, Matt

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

241

We present a method for optimizing quantum circuits architecture. The method is based on the notion of "quantum comb", which describes a circuit board in which one can insert variable subcircuits. The method allows one to efficiently address novel kinds of quantum information processing tasks, such as storing-retrieving, and cloning of channels.

Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

Quantum money is a cryptographic protocol in which a mint can produce a quantum state, no one else can copy the state, and anyone (with a quantum computer) can verify that the state came from the mint. We present a concrete ...

Farhi, Edward

243

Finding the consequences of symmetry for open system quantum dynamics is a problem with broad applications, including describing thermal relaxation, deriving quantum limits on the performance of amplifiers, and exploring quantum metrology in the presence of noise. The symmetry of the dynamics may reflect a symmetry of the fundamental laws of nature, a symmetry of a low-energy effective theory, or it may describe a practical restriction such as the lack of a reference frame. In this paper, we apply some tools of harmonic analysis together with ideas from quantum information theory to this problem. The central idea is to study the decomposition of quantum operations---in particular, states, measurements and channels---into different modes, which we call modes of asymmetry. Under symmetric processing, a given mode of the input is mapped to the corresponding mode of the output, implying that one can only generate a given output if the input contains all of the necessary modes. By defining monotones that quantify the asymmetry in a particular mode, we also derive quantitative constraints on the resources of asymmetry that are required to simulate a given asymmetric operation. We present applications of our results for deriving bounds on the probability of success in nondeterministic state transitions, such as quantum amplification, and a simplified formalism for studying the degradation of quantum reference frames.

Iman Marvian; Robert W. Spekkens

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cavity mode entanglement in relativistic quantum information

A central aim of relativistic quantum information (RQI) is the investigation of quantum information tasks and resources taking into account the relativistic aspects of nature. More precisely, it is of fundamental interest to understand how the storage, manipulation, and transmission of information utilizing quantum systems are influenced by the fact that these processes take place in a relativistic spacetime. In particular, many studies in RQI have been focused on the effects of non-uniform motion on entanglement, the main resource of quantum information protocols. Early investigations in this direction were performed in highly idealized settings that prompted questions as to the practical accessibility of these results. To overcome these limitations it is necessary to consider quantum systems that are in principle accessible to localized observers. In this thesis we present such a model, the rigid relativistic cavity, and its extensions, focusing on the effects of motion on entanglement and applications such as quantum teleportation. We study cavities in (1+1) dimensions undergoing non-uniform motion, consisting of segments of uniform acceleration and inertial motion of arbitrary duration that allow the involved velocities to become relativistic. The transitions between segments can be sharp or smooth and higher dimensions can be incorporated. The primary focus lies in the Bogoliubov transformations of the quantum fields, real scalar fields or Dirac fields, confined to the cavities. The Bogoliubov transformations change the particle content and the occupation of the energy levels of the cavity. We show how these effects generate entanglement between the modes of the quantum fields inside a single cavity for various initial states. The entanglement between several cavities, on the other hand, is degraded by the non-uniform motion, influencing the fidelity of tasks such as teleportation.

Nicolai Friis

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

245

Hierarchical quantum communication

A general approach to study the hierarchical quantum information splitting (HQIS) is proposed and the same is used to systematically investigate the possibility of realizing HQIS using different classes of 4-qubit entangled states that are not connected by SLOCC. Explicit examples of HQIS using 4-qubit cluster state and 4-qubit |\\Omega> state are provided. Further, the proposed HQIS scheme is generalized to introduce two new aspects of hierarchical quantum communication. To be precise, schemes of probabilistic hierarchical quantum information splitting and hierarchical quantum secret sharing are obtained by modifying the proposed HQIS scheme. A number of practical situations where hierarchical quantum communication would be of use are also presented.

Chitra Shukla; Anirban Pathak

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

Quantum Physics and Nanotechnology

Experimental studies of infinite (unrestricted at least in one direction) quantum particle motion using probe nanotechnologies have revealed the necessity of revising previous concepts of their motion. Particularly, quantum particles transfer quantum motion nonlocality energy beside classical kinetic energy, in other words, they are in two different kinds of motion simultaneously. The quantum component of the motion energy may be quite considerable under certain circumstances. Some new effects were predicted and proved experimentally in terms of this phenomenon. A new prototype refrigerating device was tested, its principle of operation being based on the effect of transferring the quantum component of the motion energy.

Vladimir K. Nevolin

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

247

Quantum Catalysis of Magnetic Phase Transitions in a Quantum Simulator P. Richerme,1

a transverse magnetic field as a quantum catalyst to observe the first steps of the complete fractal devil's staircase, which emerges in the thermodynamic limit and can be mapped to a large number of many on to a number of energy minimization problems [25,26], and shows the first steps of the complete devil

Richerme, Phil

248

Quantum Physics and Human Language

Human languages employ constructions that tacitly assume specific properties of the limited range of phenomena they evolved to describe. These assumed properties are true features of that limited context, but may not be general or precise properties of all the physical situations allowed by fundamental physics. In brief, human languages contain `excess baggage' that must be qualified, discarded, or otherwise reformed to give a clear account in the context of fundamental physics of even the everyday phenomena that the languages evolved to describe. The surest route to clarity is to express the constructions of human languages in the language of fundamental physical theory, not the other way around. These ideas are illustrated by an analysis of the verb `to happen' and the word `reality' in special relativity and the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems.

James B. Hartle

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

249

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We describe a many-body quantum system that can be made to quantum compute by the adiabatic application of a large applied field to the system. Prior to the application of the field, quantum information is localized on one boundary of the device, and after the application of the field, this information propagates to the other side of the device, with a quantum circuit applied to the information. The applied circuit depends on the many-body Hamiltonian of the material, and the computation takes place in a degenerate ground space with symmetry-protected topological order. Such “adiabatic quantum transistors” are universal adiabatic quantum computing devices that have the added benefit of being modular. Here, we describe this model, provide arguments for why it is an efficient model of quantum computing, and examine these many-body systems in the presence of a noisy environment.

Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Crosswhite, Gregory M.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Adiabatic topological quantum computing

Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.

Chris Cesare; Andrew J. Landahl; Dave Bacon; Steven T. Flammia; Alice Neels

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

251

Quantum manifestation of classical chaos has been one of the extensively studied subjects for more than a decade. Yet clear understanding of its nature still remains to be an open question partly due to the lack of a canonical definition of quantum chaos. The classical definition seems to be unsuitable in quantum mechanics partly because of the Heisenberg quantum uncertainty. In this regard, quantum chaos is somewhat misleading and needs to be clarified at the very fundamental level of physics. Since it is well known that quantum mechanics is more fundamental than classical mechanics, the quantum description of classically chaotic nature should be attainable in the limit of large quantum numbers. The focus of my research, therefore, lies on the correspondence principle for classically chaotic systems. The chaotic damped driven pendulum is mainly studied numerically using the split operator method that solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. For classically dissipative chaotic systems in which (multi)fractal strange attractors often emerge, several quantum dissipative mechanisms are also considered. For instance, Hoover`s and Kubo-Fox-Keizer`s approaches are studied with some computational analyses. But the notion of complex energy with non-Hermiticity is extensively applied. Moreover, the Wigner and Husimi distribution functions are examined with an equivalent classical distribution in phase-space, and dynamical properties of the wave packet in configuration and momentum spaces are also explored. The results indicate that quantum dynamics embraces classical dynamics although the classicalquantum correspondence fails to be observed in the classically chaotic regime. Even in the semi-classical limits, classically chaotic phenomena would eventually be suppressed by the quantum uncertainty.

Lee, Sang-Bong

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

FED pumped limiter configuration issues

Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge.

Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quantum Thermodynamic Cycles and Quantum Heat Engines (II)

We study the quantum mechanical generalization of force or pressure, and then we extend the classical thermodynamic isobaric process to quantum mechanical systems. Based on these efforts, we are able to study the quantum version of thermodynamic cycles that consist of quantum isobaric process, such as quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle. We also consider the implementation of quantum Brayton cycle and quantum Diesel cycle with some model systems, such as single particle in 1D box and single-mode radiation field in a cavity. These studies lay the microscopic (quantum mechanical) foundation for Szilard-Zurek single molecule engine.

H. T. Quan

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

254

Confined quantum Zeno dynamics of a watched atomic arrow

In a quantum world, a watched arrow never moves. This is the Quantum Zeno Effect (QZE). Repeatedly asking a quantum system "are you still in your initial state?" blocks its coherent evolution through measurement back-action. Quantum Zeno Dynamics (QZD) leaves more freedom to the system. Instead of pinning it to a single state, it sets a border in its evolution space. Repeatedly asking the system "did you cross the border?" makes it impenetrable. Since the border can be designed at will by choosing the measured observable, QZD allows one to tailor the system's evolution space. Recent proposals, particularly in the Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (CQED) context, highlight the interest of QZD for quantum state engineering tasks, which are the key to quantumenabled technologies and quantum information processing. We report the observation of QZD in the 51-dimension Hilbert space of a large angular momentum J = 25. Continuous selective interrogation limits the evolution of this angular momentum to an adjustable multi-dimensional subspace. This confined dynamics leads to the production of non-classical "Schr\\"odinger cat" states, quantum superpositions of angular momentums pointing in different directions. These states are promising for sensitive metrology of electric and magnetic fields. This QZD approach could be generalized to other systems, opening novel perspectives for quantum information processing.

Adrien Signoles; Adrien Facon; Dorian Grosso; Igor Dotsenko; Serge Haroche; Jean-Michel Raimond; Michel Brune; Sébastien Gleyzes

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

255

Semiclassical Foundation of Universality in Quantum Chaos

We sketch the semiclassical core of a proof of the so-called Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture: A dynamical system with full classical chaos has a quantum energy spectrum with universal fluctuations on the scale of the mean level spacing. We show how in the semiclassical limit all system specific properties fade away, leaving only ergodicity, hyperbolicity, and combinatorics as agents determining the contributions of pairs of classical periodic orbits to the quantum spectral form factor. The small-time form factor is thus reproduced semiclassically. Bridges between classical orbits and (the non-linear sigma model of) quantum field theory are built by revealing the contributing orbit pairs as topologically equivalent to Feynman diagrams.

Sebastian Müller; Stefan Heusler; Petr Braun; Fritz Haake; Alexander Altland

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

256

Adiabatic quantum computing for random satisfiability problems

The discrete formulation of adiabatic quantum computing is compared with other search methods, classical and quantum, for random satisfiability (SAT) problems. With the number of steps growing only as the cube of the number of variables, the adiabatic method gives solution probabilities close to 1 for problem sizes feasible to evaluate via simulation on current computers. However, for these sizes the minimum energy gaps of most instances are fairly large, so the good performance scaling seen for small problems may not reflect asymptotic behavior where costs are dominated by tiny gaps. Moreover, the resulting search costs are much higher than for other methods. Variants of the quantum algorithm that do not match the adiabatic limit give lower costs, on average, and slower growth than the conventional GSAT heuristic method.

Hogg, Tad [HP Labs, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Quantum Information: an invitation for mathematicians

Quantum Information is the science that aims to use the unusual behavior of the microscopic world, governed by the laws of Quantum Mechanics, in order to improve the way in which we compute or communicate information. Though the first ideas in this direction come from the early 80's, it is in the last decade when Quantum Information has suffered an spectacular development. It is impossible to resume in a paper like this one the importance and complexity of the field. Therefore, I will limit to briefly explain some of the initial ideas (considered classical by now), and to briefly suggest some of the modern lines of research. By the nature of this exposition, I have decided to avoid rigor and to concentrate more in ideas and intuitions. Anyhow, I have tried to provide with enough references, in such a way that an interested reader could find there proper theorems and proofs.

Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Analisis Matematico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

258

Quantum fields on closed timelike curves

Recently, there has been much interest in the evolution of quantum particles on closed timelike curves (CTCs). However, such models typically assume pointlike particles with only two degrees of freedom; a very questionable assumption given the relativistic setting of the problem. We show that it is possible to generalize the Deutsch model of CTCs to fields using the equivalent circuit formalism. We give examples for coherent, squeezed, and single-photon states interacting with the CTC via a beamsplitter. The model is then generalized further to account for the smooth transition to normal quantum mechanics as the CTC becomes much smaller than the size of the modes interacting on it. In this limit, we find that the system behaves like a standard quantum-mechanical feedback loop.

Pienaar, J. L.; Myers, C. R.; Ralph, T. C. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Queensland (Australia)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Coherent Quantum Dynamics: What Fluctuations Can Tell

Coherent states provide a natural connection of quantum systems to their classical limit and are employed in various fields of physics. Here we derive general systematic expansions, with respect to quantum parameters, of expectation values of products of arbitrary operators within both oscillator coherent states and SU(2) coherent states. In particular, we generally prove that the energy fluctuations of an arbitrary Hamiltonian are in leading order entirely due to the time dependence of the classical variables. These results add to the list of wellknown properties of coherent states and are applied here to the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model, the Dicke model, and to coherent intertwiners in spin networks as considered in Loop Quantum Gravity.

Schliemann, John

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

261

We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

Pablo Arrighi; Louis Salvail

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

262

Generalized quantum defect methods in quantum chemistry

The reaction matrix of multichannel quantum defect theory, K, gives a complete picture of the electronic structure and the electron - nuclear dynamics for a molecule. The reaction matrix can be used to examine both bound ...

Altunata, Serhan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Nested Quantum Walks with Quantum Data Structures

We develop a new framework that extends the quantum walk framework of Magniez, Nayak, Roland, and Santha, by utilizing the idea of quantum data structures to construct an efficient method of nesting quantum walks. Surprisingly, only classical data structures were considered before for searching via quantum walks. The recently proposed learning graph framework of Belovs has yielded improved upper bounds for several problems, including triangle finding and more general subgraph detection. We exhibit the power of our framework by giving a simple explicit constructions that reproduce both the $O(n^{35/27})$ and $O(n^{9/7})$ learning graph upper bounds (up to logarithmic factors) for triangle finding, and discuss how other known upper bounds in the original learning graph framework can be converted to algorithms in our framework. We hope that the ease of use of this framework will lead to the discovery of new upper bounds.

Stacey Jeffery; Robin Kothari; Frederic Magniez

2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

264

Quantum Copy-Protection and Quantum Money

Forty years ago, Wiesner proposed using quantum states to create money that is physically impossible to counterfeit, something that cannot be done in the classical world. However, Wiesner's scheme required a central bank ...

Aaronson, Scott

265

Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately $ 0.34%$. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%.

Shirish M. Chitanvis

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

266

Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately $ 0.34%$. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%.

Chitanvis, S M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Quantum Copy-Protection and Quantum Money

Forty years ago, Wiesner proposed using quantum states to create money that is physically impossible to counterfeit, something that cannot be done in the classical world. However, Wiesner's scheme required a central bank to verify the money, and the question of whether there can be unclonable quantum money that anyone can verify has remained open since. One can also ask a related question, which seems to be new: can quantum states be used as copy-protected programs, which let the user evaluate some function f, but not create more programs for f? This paper tackles both questions using the arsenal of modern computational complexity. Our main result is that there exist quantum oracles relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money is possible, and any family of functions that cannot be efficiently learned from its input-output behavior can be quantumly copy-protected. This provides the first formal evidence that these tasks are achievable. The technical core of our result is a "Complexity-Theoretic No-Cloning Theorem," which generalizes both the standard No-Cloning Theorem and the optimality of Grover search, and might be of independent interest. Our security argument also requires explicit constructions of quantum t-designs. Moving beyond the oracle world, we also present an explicit candidate scheme for publicly-verifiable quantum money, based on random stabilizer states; as well as two explicit schemes for copy-protecting the family of point functions. We do not know how to base the security of these schemes on any existing cryptographic assumption. (Note that without an oracle, we can only hope for security under some computational assumption.)

Scott Aaronson

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

268

Revealing Quantum Advantage in a Quantum Network

The assumption of source independence was used to reveal nonlocal (apart from standard Bell-CHSH scenario) nature of correlations generated in entanglement swapping experiments. In this work, we have derived a set of sufficient criteria, imposed on the states (produced by the sources) under which source independence can reveal nonbilocal nature of correlations in a quantum network. To show this, we have considered real two qubit X states thereby discussing the various utilities of assuming source independence in a quantum network.

Kaushiki Mukherjee; Biswajit Paul; Debasis Sarkar

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Quantum Copy-Protection and Quantum Money

Forty years ago, Wiesner proposed using quantum states to create money that is physically impossible to counterfeit, something that cannot be done in the classical world. However, Wiesner's scheme required a central bank to verify the money, and the question of whether there can be unclonable quantum money that anyone can verify has remained open since. One can also ask a related question, which seems to be new: can quantum states be used as copy-protected programs, which let the user evaluate some function f, but not create more programs for f? This paper tackles both questions using the arsenal of modern computational complexity. Our main result is that there exist quantum oracles relative to which publicly-verifiable quantum money is possible, and any family of functions that cannot be efficiently learned from its input-output behavior can be quantumly copy-protected. This provides the first formal evidence that these tasks are achievable. The technical core of our result is a "Complexity-Theoretic No-Clon...

Aaronson, Scott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Spatially dependent decoherence and anomalous diffussion of quantum walks

We analyze the long time behavior of a discrete time quantum walk subject to decoherence with a strong spatial dependence, acting on one half of the lattice. We show that, except for limiting cases on the decoherence parameter, the quantum walk at late times behaves sub-ballistically, meaning that the characteristic features of the quantum walk are not completely spoiled. Contrarily to expectations, the asymptotic behavior is non Markovian, and depends on the amount of decoherence. This feature can be clearly shown on the long time value of the Generalized Chiral Distribution (GCD).

A. Perez; A. Romanelli

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Quantum Process Tomography via L1-norm Minimization

For an initially well designed but imperfect quantum information system, the process matrix is almost sparse in an appropriate basis. Existing theory and associated computational methods (L1-norm minimization) for reconstructing sparse signals establish conditions under which the sparse signal can be perfectly reconstructed from a very limited number of measurements (resources). Although a direct extension to quantum process tomography of the L1-norm minimization theory has not yet emerged, the numerical examples presented here, which apply L1-norm minimization to quantum process tomography, show a significant reduction in resources to achieve a desired estimation accuracy over existing methods.

Robert L. Kosut

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

272

Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

Markus Arndt; Thomas Juffmann; Vlatko Vedral

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The first quantum technology, which harnesses uniquely quantum mechanical effects for its core operation, has arrived in the form of commercially available quantum key distribution systems that achieve enhanced security by encoding information in photons such that information gained by an eavesdropper can be detected. Anticipated future quantum technologies include large-scale secure networks, enhanced measurement and lithography, and quantum information processors, promising exponentially greater computation power for particular tasks. Photonics is destined for a central role in such technologies owing to the need for high-speed transmission and the outstanding low-noise properties of photons. These technologies may use single photons or quantum states of bright laser beams, or both, and will undoubtably apply and drive state-of-the-art developments in photonics.

Jeremy L. O'Brien; Akira Furusawa; Jelena Vu?kovi?

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

274

In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabilities of success of each algorithm and show the Amplified-QFT is quadratically faster than the QFT and QHS algorithms. Third, we examine the Amplified-QFT algorithm for solving The Local Period Problem with an Error Stream. Fourth, we produce an uncertainty relation for the Amplified-QFT algorithm. Fifth, we show how the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform can solve the Local Constant or Balanced Signal Decision Problem which is a generalization of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.

David Cornwell

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Quantum process tomography with coherent states

We develop an enhanced technique for characterizing quantum optical processes based on probing unknown quantum processes only with coherent states. Our method substantially improves the original proposal [M. Lobino et al., Science 322, 563 (2008)], which uses a filtered Glauber-Sudarshan decomposition to determine the effect of the process on an arbitrary state. We introduce a new relation between the action of a general quantum process on coherent state inputs and its action on an arbitrary quantum state. This relation eliminates the need to invoke the Glauber-Sudarshan representation for states; hence it dramatically simplifies the task of process identification and removes a potential source of error. The new relation also enables straightforward extensions of the method to multi-mode and non-trace-preserving processes. We illustrate our formalism with several examples, in which we derive analytic representations of several fundamental quantum optical processes in the Fock basis. In particular, we introduce photon-number cutoff as a reasonable physical resource limitation and address resource vs accuracy trade-off in practical applications. We show that the accuracy of process estimation scales inversely with the square root of photon-number cutoff.

Saleh Rahimi-Keshari; Artur Scherer; Ady Mann; Ali T. Rezakhani; A. I. Lvovsky; Barry C. Sanders

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

We investigate the quantum ratchet effect under the influence of weak dissipation which we treat within a Floquet-Markov master equation approach. A ratchet current emerges when all relevant symmetries are violated. Using time-reversal symmetric driving we predict a purely dissipation-induced quantum ratchet current. This directed quantum transport results from bath-induced superpositions of non-transporting Floquet states.

S. Denisov; S. Kohler; P. Hanggi

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

277

Quantum dense key distribution

This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G. [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale G. Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); ELSAG SpA, Via Puccini 2, 16154, Genova (Italy)

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

We tackle the question of motion in Quantum Gravity: what does motion mean at the Planck scale? Although we are still far from a complete answer we consider here a toy model in which the problem can be formulated and resolved precisely. The setting of the toy model is three dimensional Euclidean gravity. Before studying the model in detail, we argue that Loop Quantum Gravity may provide a very useful approach when discussing the question of motion in Quantum Gravity.

Karim Noui

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

Reducing Quantum Errors and Improving Large Scale Quantum Cryptography

Noise causes severe difficulties in implementing quantum computing and quantum cryptography. Several schemes have been suggested to reduce this problem, mainly focusing on quantum computation. Motivated by quantum cryptography, we suggest a coding which uses $N$ quantum bits ($N=n^2$) to encode one quantum bit, and reduces the error exponentially with $n$. Our result suggests the possibility of distributing a secure key over very long distances, and maintaining quantum states for very long times. It also provides a new quantum privacy amplification against a strong adversary.

T. Mor

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Coherent control of quantum information

Quantum computation requires the ability to efficiently control quantum information in the presence of noise. In this thesis, NMR quantum information processors (QIPs) are used to study noise processes that compromise ...

Henry, Michael Kevin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

281

Quantum Money with Classical Verification

We construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification.

Gavinsky, Dmitry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

We study the relative ability of several models of x-ray absorption spectra to capture the Franck-Condon structure apparent from an experiment on gaseous nitrogen. In doing so, we adopt the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and a constrained density functional theory method for computing the energies of the x-ray-excited molecule. Starting from an otherwise classical model for the spectrum, we systematically introduce more realistic physics, first by substituting the quantum mechanical nuclear radial density in the bond separation R for the classical radial density, then by adding the effect of zero-point energy and other level shifts, and finally by including explicit rovibrational quantization of both the ground and excited states. The quantization is determined exactly, using a discrete variable representation (DVR). We show that the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectrum can be predicted semiquantitatively within this framework. We also address the possibility of non-trivial temperature dependence in the spectrum. By using constrained density functional theory in combination with more accurate potentials, we demonstrate that it is possible to improve the predicted spectrum. Ultimately, we establish the predictive limits of our method with respect to vibrational fine structure in NEXAFS spectra.

Fatehi, Shervin; Schwartz, Craig P.; Saykally, Richard J. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Prendergast, David [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Melvin Calvin Januaryas it occurs in modern photosynthesis can only take place inof the problem or photosynthesis, or any specific aspect of

Calvin, Melvin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

We investigate the frictional forces due to quantum fluctuations acting on a small sphere rotating near a surface. At zero temperature, we find the frictional force near a surface to be several orders of magnitude larger than that for the sphere rotating in vacuum. For metallic materials with typical conductivity, quantum friction is maximized by matching the frequency of rotation with the conductivity. Materials with poor conductivity are favored to obtain large quantum frictions. For semiconductor materials that are able to support surface plasmon polaritons, quantum friction can be further enhanced by several orders of magnitude due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons.

Rongkuo Zhao; Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier García de Abajo; J. B. Pendry

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

285

Classical and Quantum Polyhedra

Quantum polyhedra constructed from angular momentum operators are the building blocks of space in its quantum description as advocated by Loop Quantum Gravity. Here we extend previous results on the semiclassical properties of quantum polyhedra. Regarding tetrahedra, we compare the results from a canonical quantization of the classical system with a recent wave function based approach to the large-volume sector of the quantum system. Both methods agree in the leading order of the resulting effective operator (given by an harmonic oscillator), while minor differences occur in higher corrections. Perturbative inclusion of such corrections improves the approximation to the eigenstates. Moreover, the comparison of both methods leads also to a full wave function description of the eigenstates of the (square of the) volume operator at negative eigenvalues of large modulus. For the case of general quantum polyhedra described by discrete angular momentum quantum numbers we formulate a set of quantum operators fulfilling in the semiclassical regime the standard commutation relations between momentum and position. Differently from previous formulations, the position variable here is chosen to have dimension of (Planck) length squared which facilitates the identification of quantum corrections. Finally, we provide expressions for the pentahedral volume in terms of Kapovich-Millson variables.

John Schliemann

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

286

Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

Quantum physics has revolutionized the classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. It modernized our society with many advances such as lasers and transistors. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to the quantum regimes. Inevitably, development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires investigations of thermodynamical principles from quantum mechanical perspective, and motivates the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate on whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative that quantum coherence can be a catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work capability of the QHE becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up a QHE, our results reveal a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Özgür E. Müstecapl?oglu

2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

287

The classical Landau-Lifshitz equation has been derived from quantum mechanics. Starting point is the assumption of a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator to take the energy dissipation into account. The corresponding quantum mechanical time dependent Schr\\"odinger, Liouville and Heisenberg equation have been described and the similarities and differences between classical and quantum mechanical spin dynamics have been discussed. Furthermore, a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation corresponding to the classical Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and two ways to include temperature into the quantum mechanical spin dynamics have been proposed.

Robert Wieser

2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Quantum Field Theory & Gravity

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Field Theory & Gravity Quantum Field Theory & Gravity Understanding discoveries at the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers Get Expertise Rajan Gupta (505) 667-7664 Email...

289

Nested Cluster Algorithm for Frustrated Quantum Antiferromagnets

Simulations of frustrated quantum antiferromagnets suffer from a severe sign problem. We solve the ergodicity problem of the loop-cluster algorithm in a natural way and apply a powerful strategy to address the sign problem. For the spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a kagome and on a frustrated square lattice, a nested cluster algorithm eliminates the sign problem for large systems. The method is applicable to general lattice geometries but limited to moderate temperatures.

M. Nyfeler; F. -J. Jiang; F. Kämpfer; U. -J. Wiese

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fast quantum algorithm for numerical gradient estimation

Given a blackbox for f, a smooth real scalar function of d real variables, one wants to estimate the gradient of f at a given point with n bits of precision. On a classical computer this requires a minimum of d+1 blackbox queries, whereas on a quantum computer it requires only one query regardless of d. The number of bits of precision to which f must be evaluated matches the classical requirement in the limit of large n.

Stephen P. Jordan

2005-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

Extreme commutative quantum observables are sharp

It is well known that, in the description of quantum observables, positive operator valued measures (POVMs) generalize projection valued measures (PVMs) and they also turn out be more optimal in many tasks. We show that a commutative POVM is an extreme point in the convex set of all POVMs if and only if it is a PVM. This results implies that non-commutativity is a necessary ingredient to overcome the limitations of PVMs.

Teiko Heinosaari; Juha-Pekka Pellonpää

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

292

A detailed natural gas ultimate recovery growth (URG) analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas has been undertaken. The key to such analysis was determined to be the disaggregation of the resource base to the play level. A play is defined as a conceptual geologic unit having one or more reservoirs that can be genetically related on the basis of depositional origin of the reservoir, structural or trap style, source rocks and hydrocarbon generation, migration mechanism, seals for entrapment, and type of hydrocarbon produced. Plays are the geologically homogeneous subdivision of the universe of petroleum pools within a basin. Therefore, individual plays have unique geological features that can be used as a conceptual model that incorporates geologic processes and depositional environments to explain the distribution of petroleum. Play disaggregation revealed important URG trends for the major natural gas fields in the Texas Gulf Coast Basin and East Texas. Although significant growth and future potential were observed for the major fields, important URG trends were masked by total, aggregated analysis based on a broad geological province. When disaggregated by plays, significant growth and future potential were displayed for plays that were associated with relatively recently discovered fields, deeper reservoir depths, high structural complexities due to fault compartmentalization, reservoirs designated as tight gas/low-permeability, and high initial reservoir pressures. Continued technology applications and advancements are crucial in achieving URG potential in these plays.

William L. Fisher; Eugene M. Kim

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.

Don L. Hanosh

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

Souza Dos Santos, R. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear CNEN/IEN, Cidade Universitaria, Rua Helio de Almeida, 75 - Ilha do Fundiao, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores / CNPq (Brazil)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Quantum Walk of Two Interacting Bosons

We study the effect of interactions on the bosonic two-particle quantum walk and its corresponding spatial correlations. The combined effect of interactions and Hanbury-Brown Twiss interference results in unique spatial correlations which depend on the strength of the interaction, but not on its sign. The results are explained in light of the two-particle spectrum and the physics of attractively and repulsively bound pairs. We experimentally measure the weak interaction limit of these effects in nonlinear photonic lattices. Finally, we discuss an experimental approach to observe the strong interaction limit using single atoms in optical lattices.

Yoav Lahini; Mor Verbin; Sebastian D. Huber; Yaron Bromberg; Rami Pugatch; Yaron Silberberg

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

Some foundational aspects of quantum computers and quantum robots.

This paper addresses foundational issues related to quantum computing. The need for a universally valid theory such as quantum mechanics to describe to some extent its own validation is noted. This includes quantum mechanical descriptions of systems that do theoretical calculations (i.e. quantum computers) and systems that perform experiments. Quantum robots interacting with an environment are a small first step in this direction. Quantum robots are described here as mobile quantum systems with on-board quantum computers that interact with environments. Included are discussions on the carrying out of tasks and the division of tasks into computation and action phases. Specific models based on quantum Turing machines are described. Differences and similarities between quantum robots plus environments and quantum computers are discussed.

Benioff, P.; Physics

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Quantum Mind from a Classical Field Theory of the Brain

We suggest that, with regard to a theory of quantum mind, brain processes can be described by a classical, dissipative, non-abelian gauge theory. In fact, such a theory has a hidden quantum nature due to its non-abelian character, which is revealed through dissipation, when the theory reduces to a quantum vacuum, where temperatures are of the order of absolute zero, and coherence of quantum states is preserved. We consider in particular the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory with a special anzatz for the gauge field, which breaks Lorentz invariance. In the ansatz, a contraction mapping plays the role of dissipation. In the limit of maximal dissipation, which corresponds to the attractive fixed point of the contraction mapping, the gauge fields reduce, up to constant factors, to the Pauli quantum gates for one-qubit states. Then tubuline-qubits can be processed in the quantum vacuum of the classical field theory of the brain, where decoherence is avoided due to the extremely low temperature. Finally, we interpret the classical SU(2) dissipative gauge theory as the quantum metalanguage (relative to the quantum logic of qubits), which holds the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind.

Paola Zizzi

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

298

Optical Devices based on Limit Cycles and Amplification in Semiconductor Optical Cavities

At strong pump powers, a semiconductor optical cavity passes through a Hopf bifurcation and undergoes self-oscillation. We simulate this device using semiclassical Langevin equations and assess the effect of quantum fluctuations on the dynamics. Below threshold, the cavity acts as a phase-insensitive linear amplifier, with noise $\\sim 5\\times$ larger than the Caves bound. Above threshold, the limit cycle acts as an analog memory, and the phase diffusion is $\\sim 10\\times$ larger than the bound set by the standard quantum limit. We also simulate entrainment of this oscillator and propose an optical Ising machine and classical CNOT gate based on the effect.

Hamerly, Ryan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Tropical Limit in Statistical Physics

Tropical limit for macroscopic systems in equilibrium defined as the formal limit of Boltzmann constant k going to 0 is discussed. It is shown that such tropical limit is well-adapted to analyse properties of systems with highly degenerated energy levels, particularly of frustrated systems like spin ice and spin glasses. Tropical free energy is a piecewise linear function of temperature, tropical entropy is a piecewise constant function and the system has energy for which tropical Gibbs' probability has maximum. Properties of systems in the points of jump of entropy are studied. Systems with finite and infinitely many energy levels and phenomena of limiting temperatures are discussed.

M. Angelelli; B. Konopelchenko

2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

300

Dynamics of a Simple Quantum System in a Complex Environment

We present a theory for the dynamical evolution of a quantum system coupled to a complex many-body intrinsic system/environment. By modelling the intrinsic many-body system with parametric random matrices, we study the types of effective stochastic models which emerge from random matrix theory. Using the Feynman-Vernon path integral formalism, we derive the influence functional and obtain either analytical or numerical solutions for the time evolution of the entire quantum system. We discuss thoroughly the structure of the solutions for some representative cases and make connections to well known limiting results, particularly to Brownian motion, Kramers classical limit and the Caldeira-Leggett approach.

Aurel Bulgac; Gui DoDang; Dimitri Kusnezov

1997-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

301

Quantum Physics Einstein's Gravity

Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity Matt Visser Physics Department Washington University Saint Louis USA Science Saturdays 13 October 2001 #12; Quantum Physics confronts Einstein's Gravity and with Einstein's theory of gravity (the general relativity) is still the single biggest theoretical problem

Visser, Matt

302

Quantum Gravity and Turbulence

We apply recent advances in quantum gravity to the problem of turbulence. Adopting the AdS/CFT approach we propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. In the gravitational context, turbulence is intimately related to the properties of spacetime, or quantum, foam.

Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

303

Quantum Spacetime Phenomenology

I review the current status of phenomenological programs inspired by quantum-spacetime research. I stress in particular the significance of results establishing that certain data analyses provide sensitivity to effects introduced genuinely at the Planck scale. And my main focus is on phenomenological programs that managed to affect the directions taken by studies of quantum-spacetime theories.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

304

Thermalization in Quantum Systems

of equilibrated states. iv. Definition for "quantum integrability". v. Many-body localization... vi. Open systems () 0 = ||2 . ETH: is approximately constant in the "energy window" of the state . ETH: For all 10 #12;Integrability 101 Quantum Integrability Classical systems: Definition: A system is integrable

305

High Performance Quantum Computing

The architecture scalability afforded by recent proposals of a large scale photonic based quantum computer, utilizing the theoretical developments of topological cluster states and the photonic chip, allows us to move on to a discussion of massively scaled Quantum Information Processing (QIP). In this letter we introduce the model for a secure and unsecured topological cluster mainframe. We consider the quantum analogue of High Performance Computing, where a dedicated server farm is utilized by many users to run algorithms and share quantum data. The scaling structure of photonics based topological cluster computing leads to an attractive future for server based QIP, where dedicated mainframes can be constructed and/or expanded to serve an increasingly hungry user base with the ideal resource for individual quantum information processing.

Simon J. Devitt; William J. Munro; Kae Nemoto

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

306

Permutational Quantum Computing

In topological quantum computation the geometric details of a particle trajectory are irrelevant; only the topology matters. Taking this one step further, we consider a model of computation that disregards even the topology of the particle trajectory, and computes by permuting particles. Whereas topological quantum computation requires anyons, permutational quantum computation can be performed with ordinary spin-1/2 particles, using a variant of the spin-network scheme of Marzuoli and Rasetti. We do not know whether permutational computation is universal. It may represent a new complexity class within BQP. Nevertheless, permutational quantum computers can in polynomial time approximate matrix elements of certain irreducible representations of the symmetric group and simulate certain processes in the Ponzano-Regge spin foam model of quantum gravity. No polynomial time classical algorithms for these problems are known.

Stephen P. Jordan

2009-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

307

FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude

as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

309

Universal blind quantum computation

We present a protocol which allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for her such that the client's inputs, outputs and computation remain perfectly private, and where she does not require any quantum computational power or memory. The client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. Our protocol is interactive: after the initial preparation of quantum states, the client and server use two-way classical communication which enables the client to drive the computation, giving single-qubit measurement instructions to the server, depending on previous measurement outcomes. Our protocol works for inputs and outputs that are either classical or quantum. We give an authentication protocol that allows the client to detect an interfering server; our scheme can also be made fault-tolerant. We also generalize our result to the setting of a purely classical client who communicates classically with two non-communicating entangled servers, in order to perform a blind quantum computation. By incorporating the authentication protocol, we show that any problem in BQP has an entangled two-prover interactive proof with a purely classical verifier. Our protocol is the first universal scheme which detects a cheating server, as well as the first protocol which does not require any quantum computation whatsoever on the client's side. The novelty of our approach is in using the unique features of measurement-based quantum computing which allows us to clearly distinguish between the quantum and classical aspects of a quantum computation.

Anne Broadbent; Joseph Fitzsimons; Elham Kashefi

2009-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

310

Quantum noise and radiation pressure effects in high power optical interferometers

In recent years, a variety of mechanical systems have been approaching quantum limits to their sensitivity of continuous position measurements imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Most notably, gravitational ...

Corbitt, Thomas Randall

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Cavity-enabled spin squeezing for a quantum-enhanced atomic clock

For the past decade, the stability of microwave atomic clocks has stood at the standard quantum limit, set by the projection noise inherent in measurements on ensembles of uncorrelated particles. Here, I demonstrate an ...

Schleier-Smith, Monika Helene

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement

Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.

Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy [Quantum Optics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Bowen, Warwick P. [Quantum Optics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Quantum Optics Group, Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Sanders, Barry C. [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Ralph, T.C. [Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia QLD 4072 (Australia)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Quantum Computing, Metrology, and Imaging

Information science is entering into a new era in which certain subtleties of quantum mechanics enables large enhancements in computational efficiency and communication security. Naturally, precise control of quantum systems required for the implementation of quantum information processing protocols implies potential breakthoughs in other sciences and technologies. We discuss recent developments in quantum control in optical systems and their applications in metrology and imaging.

Hwang Lee; Pavel Lougovski; Jonathan P. Dowling

2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nonlinear friction in quantum mechanics

The effect of nonlinear friction forces in quantum mechanics is studied via dissipative Madelung hydrodynamics. A new thermo-quantum diffusion equation is derived, which is solved for the particular case of quantum Brownian motion with a cubic friction. It is extended also by a chemical reaction term to describe quantum reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear friction as well.

Roumen Tsekov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS...

AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS... ...the light as you've never seen before... Optics:http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser5.htm #12;5 DEFINITION Quantum Optics: "Quantum optics is a field in quantum physics, dealing OPTICS OPERATORS Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

316

Magmatic "Quantum-Like" Systems

Quantum computation has suggested, among others, the consideration of "non-quantum" systems which in certain respects may behave "quantum-like". Here, what algebraically appears to be the most general possible known setup, namely, of {\\it magmas} is used in order to construct "quantum-like" systems. The resulting magmatic composition of systems has as a well known particular case the tensor products.

Elemer E Rosinger

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

317

Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit

Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit[R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient ExB shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of ExB shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Quantum Information Processing with Finite Resources - Mathematical Foundations

One of the predominant challenges when engineering future quantum information processors is that large quantum systems are notoriously hard to maintain and control accurately. It is therefore of immediate practical relevance to investigate quantum information processing with limited physical resources, for example to ask: How well can we perform information processing tasks if we only have access to a small quantum device? Can we beat fundamental limits imposed on information processing with classical resources? This book will introduce the reader to the mathematical framework required to answer such questions. The focus is on measures of entropy and information that underly finite resource information theory, in particular Renyi and smooth entropies. We will review quantum generalizations of Renyi entropies and discuss their properties in detail. Smooth entropies are variants of Renyi entropies that have found various applications ranging from quantum cryptography to thermodynamics. A particular goal of this book is to give simple and concise proofs of the most important properties of Renyi and smooth entropies. A few specific applications of the framework are discussed.

Marco Tomamichel

2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Advanced binary geothermal power plants: Limits of performance

The Heat Cycle Research Program is investigating potential improvements to power cycles utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources to produce electrical power. Investigations have specifically examined Rankine cycle binary power systems. Binary Rankine cycles are more efficient than the flash steam cycles at moderate resource temperature, achieving a higher net brine effectiveness. At resource conditions similar to those at the Heber binary plant, it has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating in a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over Rankine cycles with the pure working fluids executing single or dual boiling cycles or supercritical cycles. Recently, other types of cycles have been proposed for binary geothermal service. This report explores the feasible limits on efficiency of a plant given practical limits on equipment performance and discusses the methods used in these advanced concept plants to achieve the maximum possible efficiency. (Here feasible is intended to mean reasonably achievable and not cost-effective.) No direct economic analysis has been made because of the sensitivity of economic results to site specific input. The limit of performance of three advanced plants were considered in this report. The performance predictions were taken from the developers of each concept. The advanced plants considered appear to be approaching the feasible limit of performance. Ultimately, the plant designer must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the the different cycles to find the best plant for a given service. In addition, this report presents a standard of comparison of the work which has been done in the Heat Cycle Research Program and in the industrial sector by Exergy, Inc. and Polythermal Technologies. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Layered architecture for quantum computing

We develop a layered quantum computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The timescales of physical hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the timescale of days.

N. Cody Jones; Rodney Van Meter; Austin G. Fowler; Peter L. McMahon; Jungsang Kim; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

321

We have previously shown that quantum-enhanced atom interferometry can be achieved by mapping the quantum state of squeezed optical vacuum to one of the atomic inputs via a beamsplitter-like process [Phys.~Rev.~A \\textbf{90}, 063630 (2014)]. Here we ask the question: is a better phase sensitivity possible if the quantum state transfer (QST) is described by a three-mode-mixing model, rather than a beamsplitter? The answer is yes, but only if the portion of the optical state not transferred to the atoms is incorporated via information recycling. Surprisingly, our scheme gives a better sensitivity for lower QST efficiencies, and with a sufficiently large degree of squeezing can attain near-Heisenberg-limited sensitivities for arbitrarily small QST efficiencies. Furthermore, we use the quantum Fisher information to demonstrate the near-optimality of our scheme.

Tonekaboni, Behnam; Szigeti, Stuart S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

We have previously shown that quantum-enhanced atom interferometry can be achieved by mapping the quantum state of squeezed optical vacuum to one of the atomic inputs via a beamsplitter-like process [Phys.~Rev.~A \\textbf{90}, 063630 (2014)]. Here we ask the question: is a better phase sensitivity possible if the quantum state transfer (QST) is described by a three-mode-mixing model, rather than a beamsplitter? The answer is yes, but only if the portion of the optical state not transferred to the atoms is incorporated via information recycling. Surprisingly, our scheme gives a better sensitivity for lower QST efficiencies, and with a sufficiently large degree of squeezing can attain near-Heisenberg-limited sensitivities for arbitrarily small QST efficiencies. Furthermore, we use the quantum Fisher information to demonstrate the near-optimality of our scheme.

Behnam Tonekaboni; Simon A. Haine; Stuart S. Szigeti

2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

In the given work the first attempt to generalize quantum uncertainty relation on macro objects is made. Business company as one of economical process participants was chosen by the authors for this purpose. The analogies between quantum micro objects and the structures which from the first sight do not have anything in common with physics are given. The proof of generalized uncertainty relation is produced. With the help of generalized uncertainty relation the authors wanted to elaborate a new non-traditional approach to the description of companies' business activity and their developing and try to formulate some advice for them. Thus, our work makes the base of quantum theory of econimics

Vladimir I. Zverev; Alexander M. Tishin

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

324

Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

Eyo Eyo Ita III; Chopin Soo; Hoi-Lai Yu

2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

325

Critically damped quantum search

Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we have found that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum $O(\\sqrt{N})$ and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-point quantum search algorithm in which ignorance of the number of targets increases the number of oracle queries only by a factor of 1.5.

Ari Mizel

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

326

Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes

constructions of good quantum error-correcting codes were given by Steane [2] and Calderbank and Shor [3]. These codes protect the quantum information using additional qubits and make it possible to reverse the e®ects of the most likely errors. 10 Encouraged... is that accurate computation does not require perfect physical devices. B. Background The ¯rst quantum error correcting codes were discovered independently by Shor [1] and Steane [2], as mentioned in the previous section. Shor proved that 9 qubits could be used...

Chinthamani, Neelima

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Linear Quantum Feedback Networks

The mathematical theory of quantum feedback networks has recently been developed for general open quantum dynamical systems interacting with bosonic input fields. In this article we show, for the special case of linear dynamical systems Markovian systems with instantaneous feedback connections, that the transfer functions can be deduced and agree with the algebraic rules obtained in the nonlinear case. Using these rules, we derive the the transfer functions for linear quantum systems in series, in cascade, and in feedback arrangements mediated by beam splitter devices.

J. Gough; R. Gohm; M. Yanagisawa

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental canonical commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

Eyo Eyo Ita III; Chopin Soo; Hoi-Lai Yu

2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

329

Cognitive Limitations and Investment "Myopia"

Optimization of investment decisions in an uncertain and dynamically evolving environment is difficult due to the limitations of the decision maker’s cognitive capacity. Thus, actual investment decisions may deviate from ...

Chi, Tailan; Fan, Dashan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime

The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

331

Random unitary maps for quantum state reconstruction

We study the possibility of performing quantum state reconstruction from a measurement record that is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of a single random unitary map, U{sub 0}. We show that while this single-parameter orbit in operator space is not informationally complete, it can be used to yield surprisingly high-fidelity reconstruction. For a d-dimensional Hilbert space with the initial observable in su(d), the measurement record lacks information about a matrix subspace of dimension {>=}d-2 out of the total dimension d{sup 2}-1. We determine the conditions on U{sub 0} such that the bound is saturated, and show they are achieved by almost all pseudorandom unitary matrices. When we further impose the constraint that the physical density matrix must be positive, we obtain even higher fidelity than that predicted from the missing subspace. With prior knowledge that the state is pure, the reconstruction will be perfect (in the limit of vanishing noise) and for arbitrary mixed states, the fidelity is over 0.96, even for small d, and reaching F>0.99 for d>9. We also study the implementation of this protocol based on the relationship between random matrices and quantum chaos. We show that the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top provides a means of generating the required type of measurement record, with implications on the relationship between quantum chaos and information gain.

Merkel, Seth T. [Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Riofrio, Carlos A.; Deutsch, Ivan H. [Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 (United States); Flammia, Steven T. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

separately began interbreeding when pollution forced them together. Ultimately most of the lakes' remarkable favouring the lake bottom and others the surface layers. That all changed when the lakes became polluted and rivers, are most at risk. Journal reference: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature10824 ADVERTISEMENT Home | Life

333

Quantum-Secure Authentication with a Classical Key

Authentication provides the trust people need to engage in transactions. The advent of physical keys that are impossible to copy promises to revolutionize this field. Up to now, such keys have been verified by classical challenge-response protocols. Such protocols are in general susceptible to emulation attacks. Here we demonstrate Quantum-Secure Authentication ("QSA") of an unclonable classical physical key in a way that is inherently secure by virtue of quantum-physical principles. Our quantum-secure authentication operates in the limit of a large number of channels, represented by the more than thousand degrees of freedom of an optical wavefront shaped with a spatial light modulator. This allows us to reach quantum security with weak coherent pulses of light containing dozens of photons, too few for an adversary to determine their complex spatial shapes, thereby rigorously preventing emulation.

Sebastianus A. Goorden; Marcel Horstmann; Allard P. Mosk; Boris Škori?; Pepijn W. H. Pinkse

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

334

GRANIT project: a trap for gravitational quantum states of UCN

Previous studies of gravitationally bound states of ultracold neutrons showed the quantization of energy levels, and confirmed quantum mechanical predictions for the average size of the two lowest energy states wave functions. Improvements in position-like measurements can increase the accuracy by an order of magnitude only. We therefore develop another approach, consisting in accurate measurements of the energy levels. The GRANIT experiment is devoted to the study of resonant transitions between quantum states induced by an oscillating perturbation. According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, the accuracy of measurement of the energy levels is limited by the time available to perform the transitions. Thus, trapping quantum states will be necessary, and each source of losses has to be controlled in order to maximize the lifetime of the states. We discuss the general principles of transitions between quantum states, and consider the main systematical losses of neutrons in a trap.

Pignol, G; Rebreyend, D; Vezzu, F; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Petukhov, A K; Börner, H G; Soldner, T; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Kreuz, M; Forest, D; Ganau, P; Mackowski, J M; Michel, C; Montorio, J L; Morgado, N; Pinard, L; Remillieux, A; Gagarski, A M; Petrov, G A; Kusmina, A M; Strelkov, A V; Abele, H; Baeßler, S; Voronin, A Yu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

GRANIT project: a trap for gravitational quantum states of UCN

Previous studies of gravitationally bound states of ultracold neutrons showed the quantization of energy levels, and confirmed quantum mechanical predictions for the average size of the two lowest energy states wave functions. Improvements in position-like measurements can increase the accuracy by an order of magnitude only. We therefore develop another approach, consisting in accurate measurements of the energy levels. The GRANIT experiment is devoted to the study of resonant transitions between quantum states induced by an oscillating perturbation. According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, the accuracy of measurement of the energy levels is limited by the time available to perform the transitions. Thus, trapping quantum states will be necessary, and each source of losses has to be controlled in order to maximize the lifetime of the states. We discuss the general principles of transitions between quantum states, and consider the main systematical losses of neutrons in a trap.

G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov; D. Rebreyend; F. Vezzu; V. V. Nesvizhevsky; A. K. Petukhov; H. G. Börner; T. Soldner; P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; M. Kreuz; D. Forest; P. Ganau; J. M. Mackowski; C. Michel; J. L. Montorio; N. Morgado; L. Pinard; A. Remillieux; A. M. Gagarski; G. A. Petrov; A. M. Kusmina; A. V. Strelkov; H. Abele; S. Baeßler; A. Yu. Voronin

2007-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

336

On a super-selection rule in quantum cosmology

The discarding of negative frequency solutions in a quantum field theory brings about the absence of antiparticles which, after all, means the violation of 4-inversion symmetry $(x \\rightarrow -x, t \\rightarrow-t)$ which is a (improper) Lorentz transformation. Suppose you have a theory of quantum gravity which lacks the negative frequency solutions (like usually people have in quantum cosmology, invoking a super-selection rule). Taking some limit in this theory in order to obtain the weak (or null) gravitational regime, the result is a theory that does not respect that symmetry and does not have place for antiparticles. That is, a theory of fields is not obtained, as it should be. For the case of a quantum cosmology model we show that if we ignore the negative frequency solutions, the rich processes of creation/annihilation of universes at the Planck scale, are lost.

E. Sergio Santini

2014-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

A graph-separation theorem for quantum causal models

A causal model is an abstract representation of a physical system as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where the statistical dependencies are encoded using a graphical criterion called `d-separation'. Recent work by Wood & Spekkens shows that causal models cannot, in general, provide a faithful representation of quantum systems. Since d-separation encodes a form of Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle (RCCP), whose validity is questionable in quantum mechanics, we propose a generalised graph separation rule that does not assume the RCCP. We prove that the new rule faithfully captures the statistical dependencies between observables in a quantum network, encoded as a DAG, and is consistent with d-separation in a classical limit. We note that the resulting model is still unable to give a faithful representation of correlations stronger than quantum mechanics, such as the Popescu-Rorlich box.

Jacques Pienaar; Caslav Brukner

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Galilei covariance and Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum reference frames

The covariance of the Schr\\"odinger equation under Galilei boosts and the compatibility of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with Einstein's equivalence principle have been constrained for so long to the existence of a superselection rule which would prevent a quantum particle to be found in superposition states of different masses. In a effort to avoid this expedient, thus allowing for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to account for unstable particles, recent works have suggested that usual Galilean transformations are inconsistent with the nonrelativistic limit of the Lorentz transformation. Here we approach the issue in a fundamentally different way. Using a formalism of unitary transformations and employing quantum reference frames rather than immaterial coordinate systems, we show that the Schr\\"odinger equation, although form-variant, is fully compatible with the aforementioned principles of relativity.

S. T. Pereira; R. M. Angelo

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

Experimental Implementation of a Quantum Optical State Comparison Amplifier

Quantum optical amplification that beats the noise addition limit for deterministic amplifiers has been realized experimentally using several different nondeterministic protocols. These schemes either require single-photon sources, or operate by noise addition and photon subtraction. Here we present an experimental demonstration of a protocol that allows nondeterministic amplification of known sets of coherent states with high gain and high fidelity. The experimental system employs the two mature quantum optical technologies of state comparison and photon subtraction and does not rely on elaborate quantum resources such as single-photon sources. The use of coherent states rather than single photons allows for an increased rate of amplification and a less complex photon source. Furthermore it means that the amplification is not restricted to low amplitude states. With respect to the two key parameters, fidelity and amplified state production rate, we demonstrate, without the use of quantum resources, significant improvements over previous experimental implementations.

Ross J. Donaldson; Robert J. Collins; Electra Eleftheriadou; Stephen M. Barnett; John Jeffers; Gerald S. Buller

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

340

Quantum maximum entropy principle for a system of identical particles

By introducing a functional of the reduced density matrix, we generalize the definition of a quantum entropy which incorporates the indistinguishability principle of a system of identical particles. With the present definition, the principle of quantum maximum entropy permits us to solve the closure problem for a quantum hydrodynamic set of balance equations corresponding to an arbitrary number of moments in the framework of extended thermodynamics. The determination of the reduced Wigner function for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions is found to become possible only by assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of (Planck constant/2pi){sup 2}. Quantum contributions are expressed in powers of (Planck constant/2pi){sup 2} while classical results are recovered in the limit (Planck constant/2pi)->0.

Trovato, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria, 95125 Catania (Italy); Reggiani, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione and CNISM, Universita del Salento, Via Arnesano s/n, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

341

Spitzer White Dwarf Planet Limits

We present preliminary limits on the presence of planets around white dwarf stars using the IRAC photometer on the Spitzer space telescope. Planets emit strongly in the mid-infrared which allows their presence to be detected as an excess at these wavelengths. We place limits of $5 M_J$ for 8 stars assuming ages of $1 Gyr$, and $10 M_J$ for 23 stars.We describe our survey, present our results and comment on approaches to improve our methodology.

F. Mullally; Ted von Hippel; D. E. Winget

2006-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

342

Quantum lattice gas model of Fermi systems with relativistic energy relations

Presented are several example quantum computing representations of quantum systems with a relativistic energy relation. Basic unitary representations of free Dirac particles and BCS superconductivity are given. Then, these are combined into a novel unitary representation of a Fermi condensate superfluid. The modeling approach employs an operator splitting method that is an analytically closed-form product decomposition of the unitary evolution operator, applied in the high-energy limit. This allows the relativistic wave equations to be cast as unitary finite-difference equations. The split evolution operators (comprising separate kinetic and interaction energy evolution terms) serve as quantum lattice gas models useful for efficient quantum simulation.

Jeffrey Yepez

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Passive fault current limiting device

A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

Quantum metrology with imperfect states and detectors

Quantum enhancements of precision in metrology can be compromised by system imperfections. These may be mitigated by appropriate optimization of the input state to render it robust, at the expense of making the state difficult to prepare. In this paper, we identify the major sources of imperfection of an optical sensor: input state preparation inefficiency, sensor losses, and detector inefficiency. The second of these has received much attention; we show that it is the least damaging to surpassing the standard quantum limit in a optical interferometric sensor. Further, we show that photonic states that can be prepared in the laboratory using feasible resources allow a measurement strategy using photon-number-resolving detectors that not only attain the Heisenberg limit for phase estimation in the absence of losses, but also deliver close to the maximum possible precision in realistic scenarios including losses and inefficiencies. In particular, we give bounds for the tradeoff between the three sources of imperfection that will allow true quantum-enhanced optical metrology

Datta, Animesh; Zhang Lijian; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Smith, Brian J.; Walmsley, Ian A. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Dorner, Uwe [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Quench Dynamics of Isolated Many-Body Quantum Systems

We study isolated quantum systems with two-body interactions after a quench. In these systems, the energy shell is a Gaussian of width $\\sigma$, and it gives the maximum possible spreading of the energy distribution of the initial states. When the distribution achieves this shape, the fidelity decay can be Gaussian until saturation. This establishes a lower bound for the fidelity decay in realistic systems. An ultimate bound for systems with many-body interactions is also derived based on the analysis of full random matrices. We find excellent agreement between numerical and analytical results. We also provide the conditions under which the short-time dynamics of few-body observables is controlled by $\\sigma$. The analyses are developed for systems, initial states, and observables accessible to experiments.

E. J. Torres-Herrera; Lea F. Santos

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Analysis of InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells using Suns-Voc measurements

. Appl. Phys. 32 (1961) 510. [10] G. Wei, K. Shiu, N.C. Giebink, S.R. Forrest, Thermodynamic limits of quantum photovoltaic cell efficiency, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91 (2007) 223507. [11] A. Martí, A. Luque, Comment on Thermodynamics limits of quantum photo... /GaAs quantum dot solar cells and the influence on the open circuit voltage, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97 (2010) 123505. [26] A. Martí, A. Luque, Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency Through Full Spectrum Utilization, IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 2004. [27] H...

Beattie, N. S.; Zoppi, G.; See, P.; Farrer, I.; Duchamp, M.; Morrison, D. J.; Miles, R. W.; Ritchie, D. A.

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

347

Nonlinear quantum mechanics at the Planck scale can produce nonlocal effects contributing to resolution of singularities, to cosmic acceleration, and modified black-hole dynamics, while avoiding the usual causality issues.

George Svetlichny

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Terahertz quantum cascade lasers

The development of the terahertz frequency range has long been impeded by the relative dearth of compact, coherent radiation sources of reasonable power. This thesis details the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) ...

Williams, Benjamin S. (Benjamin Stanford), 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications

Quantum Communications on planetary scale require complementary channels including ground and satellite links. The former have progressed up to commercial stage using fiber-cables, while for satellite links, the absence of terminals in orbit has impaired theirs development. However, the demonstration of the feasibility of such links is crucial for designing space payloads and to eventually enable the realization of protocols such as quantum-key-distribution (QKD) and quantum teleportation along satellite-to-ground or intersatellite links. We demonstrated the faithful transmission of qubits from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors acting as transmitter in orbit, obtaining a low error rate suitable for QKD. We also propose a two-way QKD protocol exploiting modulated retroreflectors that necessitates a minimal payload on satellite, thus facilitating the expansion of Space Quantum Communications.

Giuseppe Vallone; Davide Bacco; Daniele Dequal; Simone Gaiarin; Vincenza Luceri; Giuseppe Bianco; Paolo Villoresi

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

350

Quantum Complex Minkowski Space

The complex Minkowski phase space has the physical interpretation of the phase space of the scalar massive conformal particle. The aim of the paper is the construction and investigation of the quantum complex Minkowski space.

Grzegorz Jakimowicz; Anatol Odzijewicz

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

351

The production system is a theoretical model of computation relevant to the artificial intelligence field allowing for problem solving procedures such as hierarchical tree search. In this work we explore some of the connections between artificial intelligence and quantum computation by presenting a model for a quantum production system. Our approach focuses on initially developing a model for a reversible production system which is a simple mapping of Bennett's reversible Turing machine. We then expand on this result in order to accommodate for the requirements of quantum computation. We present the details of how our proposition can be used alongside Grover's algorithm in order to yield a speedup comparatively to its classical counterpart. We discuss the requirements associated with such a speedup and how it compares against a similar quantum hierarchical search approach.

Luís Tarrataca; Andreas Wichert

2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

352

Geometrically frustrated quantum magnets

(cont.) more general lessons on frustrated quantum magnetism. At the end, we demonstrate some new mathematical tools on two other frustrated two-dimensional systems, and summarize our conclusions, with an outlook to remaining ...

NikoliÄ‡ , Predrag, 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

We review the field of Optical Quantum Computation, considering the various implementations that have been proposed and the experimental progress that has been made toward realizing them. We examine both linear and nonlinear approaches and both particle and field encodings. In particular we discuss the prospects for large scale optical quantum computing in terms of the most promising physical architectures and the technical requirements for realizing them.

T. C. Ralph; G. J. Pryde

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major... Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

We quantize subcritical bubbles which are formed in the weakly first order phase transition. We find that the typical size of the thermal fluctuation reduces in the quantum-statistical physics. We estimate the typical size and the amplitude of thermal fluctuations near the critical temperature in the electroweak phase transition using quantum statistical average. Furthermore based on our study, we give implication on the dynamics of phase transition.

Tomoko Uesugi; Masahiro Morikawa; Tetsuya Shiromizu

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

356

Adiabatic Charge Pumping in Open Quantum Systems JOSEPH E. AVRON

Adiabatic Charge Pumping in Open Quantum Systems JOSEPH E. AVRON Technion ALEXANDER ELGART Courant pumps con- nected to a number of external leads. It is proven that under the rather general assumption on the Hamiltonian describing the system, in the adiabatic limit, the current through the pump is given by a formula

Avron, Joseph

357

Giant Plasticity of a Quantum Crystal Ariel Haziot,1

Giant Plasticity of a Quantum Crystal Ariel Haziot,1 Xavier Rojas,1 Andrew D. Fefferman,1 John R crystals may irreversibly deform. This phenomenon is known as plasticity and it is due to the motion and in the zero temperature limit, helium 4 crystals present a giant plasticity that is anisotropic and reversible

Balibar, Sébastien

358

QUANTUM ERGODICITY AND REDUCTION BENJAMIN KUSTER AND PABLO RAMACHER

with an isometric effective action of a compact connected Lie group G, relying on recent results on singular of - in the limit of large eigenvalues. Concretely, let {uj} be an orthonormal basis of L2 (M) of eigenfunctions mechanics, quantum observables correspond to self-adjoint operators A in the Hilbert space L2 (M

Ramacher, Pablo

359

Turbocharging Quantum Tomography.

Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography su %7C ers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more e %7C ectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.

Blume-Kohout, Robin J; Gamble, John King,; Nielsen, Erik; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm; Scholten, Travis L.; Rudinger, Kenneth Michael

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Multi-stage quantum absorption heat pumps

It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized $N$-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging $N-2$ elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths, and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of $N$. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

Luis A. Correa

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

361

In quantum gravity, summing is refining

In perturbative QED, the approximation is improved by summing more Feynman graphs; in non-perturbative QCD, by refining the lattice. Here we observe that in quantum gravity the two procedures may well be the same. We outline the combinatorial structure of spinfoam quantum gravity, define the continuum limit, and show that under general conditions refining foams is the same as summing over them. The conditions bear on the cylindrical consistency of the spinfoam amplitudes and on the presence of appropriate combinatorial factors, related to the implementation of diffeomorphisms invariance. Intuitively, the sites of the lattice are points of space: these are themselves quanta of the gravitational field, and thus a lattice discretization is also a Feynman history of quanta.

Carlo Rovelli; Matteo Smerlak

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators

The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

363

Optimized quantum random-walk search algorithms

Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley's quantum random-walk search (SKW) algorithm [Phys. Rev. A 67, 052307 (2003)] is known to require $O(\\sqrt N)$ number of oracle queries to find the marked element, where $N$ is the size of the search space. The overall time complexity of the SKW algorithm differs from the best achievable on a quantum computer only by a constant factor. We present improvements to the SKW algorithm which yield significant increase in success probability, and an improvement on query complexity such that the theoretical limit of a search algorithm succeeding with probability close to one is reached. We point out which improvement can be applied if there is more than one marked element to find.

V. Potocek; A. Gabris; T. Kiss; I. Jex

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

364

Quantum Memory with a controlled homogeneous splitting

We propose a quantum memory protocol where a input light field can be stored onto and released from a single ground state atomic ensemble by controlling dynamically the strength of an external static and homogeneous field. The technique relies on the adiabatic following of a polaritonic excitation onto a state for which the forward collective radiative emission is forbidden. The resemblance with the archetypal Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency (EIT) is only formal because no ground state coherence based slow-light propagation is considered here. As compared to the other grand category of protocols derived from the photon-echo technique, our approach only involves a homogeneous static field. We discuss two physical situations where the effect can be observed, and show that in the limit where the excited state lifetime is longer than the storage time, the protocols are perfectly efficient and noise-free. We compare the technique to other quantum memories, and propose atomic systems where the experiment c...

Hétet, G; Chanelière, T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

Quantum-noise quenching in atomic tweezers

The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited. The noise due to these excitations can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies. These results show that this protocol can be applied to initializing a quantum register based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

Zippilli, Stefano [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Fachbereich Physik and Research Center OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mohring, Bernd; Schleich, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Lutz, Eric [Department of Physics, University of Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Quantum-noise quenching in atomic tweezers

The efficiency of extracting single atoms or molecules from an ultracold bosonic reservoir is theoretically investigated for a protocol based on lasers, coupling the hyperfine state in which the atoms form a condensate to another stable state, in which the atom experiences a tight potential in the regime of collisional blockade, the quantum tweezers. The transfer efficiency into the single-atom ground state of the tight trap is fundamentally limited by the collective modes of the condensate, which are thermally and dynamically excited. The noise due to these excitations can be quenched for sufficiently long laser pulses, thereby achieving high efficiencies. These results show that this protocol can be applied for initializing a quantum register based on tweezer traps for neutral atoms.

Stefano Zippilli; Bernd Mohring; Eric Lutz; Giovanna Morigi; Wolfgang Schleich

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Improving Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry

We present several improvements to the standard Trotter-Suzuki based algorithms used in the simulation of quantum chemistry on a quantum computer. First, we modify how Jordan-Wigner transformations are implemented to reduce their cost from linear or logarithmic in the number of orbitals to a constant. Our modification does not require additional ancilla qubits. Then, we demonstrate how many operations can be parallelized, leading to a further linear decrease in the parallel depth of the circuit, at the cost of a small constant factor increase in number of qubits required. Thirdly, we modify the term order in the Trotter-Suzuki decomposition, significantly reducing the error at given Trotter-Suzuki timestep. A final improvement modifies the Hamiltonian to reduce errors introduced by the non-zero Trotter-Suzuki timestep. All of these techniques are validated using numerical simulation and detailed gate counts are given for realistic molecules.

M. B. Hastings; D. Wecker; B. Bauer; M. Troyer

2014-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Quantum gravity and inventory accumulation

We begin by studying inventory accumulation at a LIFO (last-in-first-out) retailer with two products. In the simplest version, the following occur with equal probability at each time step: first product ordered, first product produced, second product ordered, second product produced. The inventory thus evolves as a simple random walk on Z^2. In more interesting versions, a p fraction of customers orders the "freshest available" product regardless of type. We show that the corresponding random walks scale to Brownian motions with diffusion matrices depending on p. We then turn our attention to the critical Fortuin-Kastelyn random planar map model, which gives, for each q>0, a probability measure on random (discretized) two-dimensional surfaces decorated by loops, related to the q-state Potts model. A longstanding open problem is to show that as the discretization gets finer, the surfaces converge in law to a limiting (loop-decorated) random surface. The limit is expected to be a Liouville quantum gravity surface decorated by a conformal loop ensemble, with parameters depending on q. Thanks to a bijection between decorated planar maps and inventory trajectories (closely related to bijections of Bernardi and Mullin), our results about the latter imply convergence of the former in a particular topology. A phase transition occurs at p = 1/2, q=4.

Scott Sheffield

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity

Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.

Agostino Prástaro

2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity

Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.

Agostino Prástaro

2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Strong reactions in quantum super PDEs. III: Exotic quantum supergravity

Following the previous two parts, of a work devoted to encode strong reaction dynamics in the A. Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super PDE's, nonlinear quantum propagators in the observed quantum super Yang-Mills PDE, $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$, are further characterized. In particular, nonlinear quantum propagators with non-zero defect quantum electric-charge, are interpreted as {\\em exotic-quantum supergravity} effects. As an application, the recently discovered bound-state called $Zc(3900)$, is obtained as a neutral quasi-particle, generated in a $Q$-quantum exotic supergravity process. {\\em Quantum entanglement} is justified by means of the algebraic topologic structure of nonlinear quantum propagators. Quantum Cheshire cats are considered as examples of quantum entanglements. Existence theorem for solutions of $\\hat{(YM)}[i]$ admitting negative local temperatures ({\\em quantum thermodynamic-exotic solutions}) is obtained too and related to quantum entanglement. Such exotic solutions are used to encode Universe at the Planck-epoch. It is proved that the Universe's expansion at the Planck epoch is justified by the fact that it is encoded by a nonlinear quantum propagator having thermodynamic quantum exotic components in its boundary. This effect produces also an increasing of energy in the Universe at the Einstein epoch: {\\em Planck-epoch-legacy} on the boundary of our Universe. This is the main source of the Universe's expansion and solves the problem of the non-apparent energy-matter ({\\em dark-energy-matter}) in the actual Universe. Breit-Wheeler-type processes have been proved in the framework of the Pr\\'astaro's algebraic topology of quantum super Yang-Mills PDEs. Numerical comparisons of nonlinear quantum propagators with Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory in Standard Model are given.

Agostino Prástaro

2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

373

A space-efficient quantum computer simulator suitable for high-speed FPGA implementation

Conventional vector-based simulators for quantum computers are quite limited in the size of the quantum circuits they can handle, due to the worst-case exponential growth of even sparse representations of the full quantum state vector as a function of the number of quantum operations applied. However, this exponential-space requirement can be avoided by using general space-time tradeoffs long known to complexity theorists, which can be appropriately optimized for this particular problem in a way that also illustrates some interesting reformulations of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we describe the design and empirical space-time complexity measurements of a working software prototype of a quantum computer simulator that avoids excessive space requirements. Due to its space-efficiency, this design is well-suited to embedding in single-chip environments, permitting especially fast execution that avoids access latencies to main memory. We plan to prototype our design on a standard FPGA development board.

Michael P. Frank; Liviu Oniciuc; Uwe Meyer-Baese; Irinel Chiorescu

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Input-output Analysis of Quantum Finite-level Systems in Response to Single Photon States

Single photon states, which carry quantum information and coherently interact with quantum systems, are vital to the realization of all-optical quantum networks and quantum memory. In this paper we derive the conditions that enable an exact analysis of the response of passive quantum finite-level systems under the weak driving of single photon input. We show that when a class of finite level systems is driven by single photon inputs, expressions for the output states may be derived exactly using linear systems transfer functions. This removes the need for physical approximations such as weak excitation limit in the analysis of quantum nonlinear systems under single photon driving. We apply this theory to the analysis of a single photon switch. The input-output relations are consistent with the existing results in the study of few photon transport through finite-level systems.

Yu Pan; Guofeng Zhang; Matthew R. James

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The modulational instability of quantum electrostatic acoustic waves in electron-hole quantum semiconductor plasmas is investigated using the quantum hydrodynamic model, from which a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation with damping effects is derived using the reductive perturbation method. Here, we consider the combined effects of quantum recoil, quantum degenerate pressures, as well as the exchange-correlation effect standing for the electrons (holes) spin. The modulational instability for different semiconductors (GaAs, GaSb, and InP) is discussed. The collision between electron (hole) and phonon is also investigated. The permitted maximum time for modulational instability and the damping features of quantum envelope solitary wave are all determined by the collision. The approximate solitary solution with damping effects is presented in weak collision limit. The damping properties were discussed by numerical method.

Wang, Yunliang, E-mail: ylwang@ustb.edu.cn; Lü, Xiaoxia [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)] [Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer (LMon) model and a mixed quantum-classical (MQC) model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics (TRPMD) as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D$_2$O doped with HOD and pure H$_2$O at three distinc...

Rossi, Mariana; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Quantum lattice gas model of Dirac particles in 1+1 dimensions

Presented is a quantum computing representation of Dirac particle dynamics. The approach employs an operator splitting method that is an analytically closed-form product decomposition of the unitary evolution operator. This allows the Dirac equation to be cast as a unitary finite-difference equation in a high-energy limit. The split evolution operator (with separate kinetic and interaction terms) is useful for efficient quantum simulation. For pedagogical purposes, here we restrict the treatment to Dirac particle dynamics in 1+1 spacetime dimensions. Independent derivations of the quantum algorithm are presented and the model's validity is tested in several quantum simulations by comparing the numerical results against analytical predictions. Using the relativistic quantum algorithm in the case when mc^2 >> pc, quantum simulations of a nonrelativistic particle in an external scalar square well and parabolic potential is presented.

Jeffrey Yepez

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Single photon absorption and dynamic control of a coupled quantum dot-cavity system

We theoretically investigate the dynamic interaction of a quantum dot in a nanocavity with timesymmetric single photon pulses. The simulations, based on a wavefunction approach, reveal that almost perfect single photon absorption occurs for quantum dot-cavity systems operating on the edge between strong and weak coupling regime. The computed maximum absorptions probability is close to unity for pulses with a typical length comparable to the half of the Rabi period. Furthermore, the dynamic control of the quantum dot energy via electric fields allows the freezing of the light-matter interaction leaving the quantum dot in its excited state. Shaping of single photon wavepackets by the electric field control is limited by the occurrence of chirping of the single photon pulse. This understanding of the interaction of single photon pulses with the quantum dot-cavity system provides the basis for the development of advanced protocols for quantum information processing in the solid state.

Robert Johne; Andrea Fiore

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

379

Quantum computation beyond the circuit model

The quantum circuit model is the most widely used model of quantum computation. It provides both a framework for formulating quantum algorithms and an architecture for the physical construction of quantum computers. However, ...

Jordan, Stephen Paul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

We identify a signature of quantum gravitational effects that survives from the early universe to the current era: Fluctuations of quantum fields as seen by comoving observers are significantly influenced by the history of the early universe. In particular we show how the existence (or not) of a quantum bounce leaves a trace in the background quantum noise that is not damped and would be non-negligible even nowadays. Furthermore, we estimate an upper bound for the typical energy and length scales where quantum effects are relevant. We discuss how this signature might be observed and therefore used to build falsifiability tests of quantum gravity theories.

Luis J. Garay; Mercedes Martin-Benito; Eduardo Martin-Martinez

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

381

A bird's eye view of quantum computers

Quantum computers are discussed in the general framework of computation, the laws of physics and the foundations of quantum mechanics.

Giuliano Benenti; Giuliano Strini

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

An algorithm for minimization of quantum cost

A new algorithm for minimization of quantum cost of quantum circuits has been designed. The quantum cost of different quantum circuits of particular interest (eg. circuits for EPR, quantum teleportation, shor code and different quantum arithmetic operations) are computed by using the proposed algorithm. The quantum costs obtained using the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing results and it is found that the algorithm has produced minimum quantum cost in all cases.

Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

383

Exploiting locality in quantum computation for quantum chemistry

Accurate prediction of chemical and material properties from first principles quantum chemistry is a challenging task on traditional computers. Recent developments in quantum computation offer a route towards highly accurate solutions with polynomial cost, however this solution still carries a large overhead. In this perspective, we aim to bring together known results about the locality of physical interactions from quantum chemistry with ideas from quantum computation. We show that the utilization of spatial locality combined with the Bravyi-Kitaev transformation offers an improvement in the scaling of known quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry and provide numerical examples to help illustrate this point. We combine these developments to improve the outlook for the future of quantum chemistry on quantum computers.

Jarrod R. McClean; Ryan Babbush; Peter J. Love; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

384

Quantum theory of gravitational collapse (lecture notes on quantum conchology)

Preliminary version No.~2 of the lecture notes for the talk ``Quantum theory of gravitational collapse'' given at the 271. WE-Heraeus-Seminar ``Aspects of Quantum Gravity'' at Bad Honnef, 25 February--1 March 2002

Petr Hajicek

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

A Note on Quantum Security for Post-Quantum Cryptography

Shor's quantum factoring algorithm and a few other efficient quantum algorithms break many classical crypto-systems. In response, people proposed post-quantum cryptography based on computational problems that are believed hard even for quantum computers. However, security of these schemes against \\emph{quantum} attacks is elusive. This is because existing security analysis (almost) only deals with classical attackers and arguing security in the presence of quantum adversaries is challenging due to unique quantum features such as no-cloning. This work proposes a general framework to study which classical security proofs can be restored in the quantum setting. Basically, we split a security proof into (a sequence of) classical security reductions, and investigate what security reductions are "quantum-friendly". We characterize sufficient conditions such that a classical reduction can be "lifted" to the quantum setting. We then apply our lifting theorems to post-quantum signature schemes. We are able to show that the classical generic construction of hash-tree based signatures from one-way functions and and a more efficient variant proposed in~\\cite{BDH11} carry over to the quantum setting. Namely, assuming existence of (classical) one-way functions that are resistant to efficient quantum inversion algorithms, there exists a quantum-secure signature scheme. We note that the scheme in~\\cite{BDH11} is a promising (post-quantum) candidate to be implemented in practice and our result further justifies it. Finally we demonstrate the generality of our framework by showing that several existing works (Full-Domain hash in the quantum random-oracle model~\\cite{Zha12ibe} and the simple hybrid arguments framework in~\\cite{HSS11}) can be reformulated under our unified framework.

Fang Song

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

386

Review and Exams Limited Certification

__________________________________ Check which exam you will be taking: Commercial Landscape Maintenance Lawn & Ornamental CEU's ONLY 8 Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape Maintenance A license is necessary for each commercial landscape maintenance person who applies pesticides to ornamental plant beds. Application available at: http

Watson, Craig A.

387

Highlighting the mechanism of the quantum speedup by time-symmetric and relational quantum mechanics

Bob hides a ball in one of four drawers. Alice is to locate it. Classically she has to open up to three drawers, quantally just one. The fundamental reason for this quantum speedup is not known. We explain it by extending the usual representation of the quantum algorithm, limited to the process of solving the problem, to the process of setting the problem. The number of the drawer with the ball becomes a unitary transformation of the random outcome of the preparation measurement. This brings in relational quantum mechanics: the extension is with respect to Bob and cannot be with respect to Alice. It would tell her the drawer number before she opens any drawer. To Alice, the projection of the quantum state due to the preparation measurement should be retarded at the end of her search; in the input state of the search, the drawer number is determined to Bob and undetermined to Alice. A second consequence is the emergence of an ambiguity. Either the preparation measurement or the final one required to read the solution selects the solution. For reasons of symmetry, we assume that the selection shares evenly between the two measurements. All is as if Alice, by reading the solution, selected half of the information that specifies the drawer number. This selection leaves the input state to Bob unaltered and projects that to Alice on a state of lower entropy where she knows that half in advance. The quantum algorithm is a sum over histories in each of which Alice knows in advance that the ball is in a pair of drawers and locates it by opening one of the two. More in general, given an oracle problem, this explanation of the speedup predicts the number of queries required to solve it in an optimal quantum way.

Giuseppe Castagnoli

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

388

Quantum Terahertz Electrodynamics and Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling in Layered Superconductors

of macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions. Because of the long numbers: 74.72.Hs, 74.78.Fk The recent surge of interest in stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions of stacks of Josephson junctions in quantum electronics [6]. This requires a quantum theory capable

Nori, Franco

389

Quantum ergodicity for graphs related to interval maps

We prove quantum ergodicity for a family of graphs that are obtained from ergodic one-dimensional maps of an interval using a procedure introduced by Pakonski et al (J. Phys. A, v. 34, 9303-9317 (2001)). As observables we take the L^2 functions on the interval. The proof is based on the periodic orbit expansion of a majorant of the quantum variance. Specifically, given a one-dimensional, Lebesgue-measure-preserving map of an interval, we consider an increasingly refined sequence of partitions of the interval. To this sequence we associate a sequence of graphs, whose directed edges correspond to elements of the partitions and on which the classical dynamics approximates the Perron-Frobenius operator corresponding to the map. We show that, except possibly for subsequences of density 0, the eigenstates of the quantum graphs equidistribute in the limit of large graphs. For a smaller class of observables we also show that the Egorov property, a correspondence between classical and quantum evolution in the semiclassical limit, holds for the quantum graphs in question.

G. Berkolaiko; J. P. Keating; U. Smilansky

2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

390

Damped quantum harmonic oscillator

In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems the damping of the harmonic oscillator is studied. A generalization of the fundamental constraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients which appear in the master equation for the damped quantum oscillator is presented; the Schr\\"odinger and Heisenberg representations of the Lindblad equation are given explicitly. On the basis of these representations it is shown that various master equations for the damped quantum oscillator used in the literature are particular cases of the Lindblad equation and that the majority of these equations are not satisfying the constraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients. Analytical expressions for the first two moments of coordinate and momentum are also obtained by using the characteristic function of the Lindblad master equation. The master equation is transformed into Fokker-Planck equations for quasiprobability distributions. A comparative study is made for the Glauber $P$ representation, the antinormal ordering $Q$ representation and the Wigner $W$ representation. It is proven that the variances for the damped harmonic oscillator found with these representations are the same. By solving the Fokker-Planck equations in the steady state, it is shown that the quasiprobability distributions are two-dimensional Gaussians with widths determined by the diffusion coefficients. The density matrix is represented via a generating function, which is obtained by solving a time-dependent linear partial differential equation derived from the master equation. Illustrative examples for specific initial conditions of the density matrix are provided.

A. Isar; A. Sandulescu

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

391

Heat Machines and Quantum Systems

Heat Machines and Quantum Systems: Towards the Third Law Thesis submitted for the degree of "Doctor Machines and Quantum Systems: Towards the Third Law Thesis submitted for the degree of "Doctor

Kosloff, Ronnie

392

A quantum dot heterojunction photodetector

This thesis presents a new device architecture for photodetectors utilizing colloidally grown quantum dots as the principle photo-active component. We implement a thin film of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot sensitizers, ...

Arango, Alexi Cosmos, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Generalized Concatenation for Quantum Codes

We show how good quantum error-correcting codes can be constructed using generalized concatenation. The inner codes are quantum codes, the outer codes can be linear or nonlinear classical codes. Many new good codes are ...

Grassl, Markus

394

Multiple Ising Spins Coupled to 2d Quantum Gravity

We study a model in which p independent Ising spins are coupled to 2d quantum gravity (in the form of dynamical planar phi-cubed graphs). Consideration is given to the p tends to infinity limit in which the partition function becomes dominated by certain graphs; we identify most of these graphs. A truncated model is solved exactly providing information about the behaviour of the full model in the limit of small beta. Finally, we derive a bound for the critical value of the coupling constant, beta_c and examine the magnetization transition in the limit p tends to zero.

M. G. Harris; J. F. Wheater

1994-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

395

Faster than Light Quantum Communication

Faster than light communication might be possible using the collapse of the quantum wave-function without any accompanying paradoxes.

A. Y. Shiekh

2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

396

STOPPING TIMES IN QUANTUM MECHANICS

(Stinespring, Kraus). 3". Time-dependant case General time evolution of an open quantum sys- tem = (Pt)t0

Attal, StÃ©phane

397

Fractal properties of quantum spacetime

We show that in general a spacetime having a quantum group symmetry has also a scale dependent fractal dimension which deviates from its classical value at short scales, a phenomenon that resembles what observed in some approaches to quantum gravity. In particular we analyze the cases of a quantum sphere and of $\\k$-Minkowski, the latter being relevant in the context of quantum gravity.

Dario Benedetti

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

398

Quantum Money with Classical Verification

We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

Dmitry Gavinsky

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Horizon entropy with loop quantum gravity methods

We show that the spherically symmetric isolated horizon can be described in terms of an SU(2) connection and a su(2) valued one form, obeying certain constraints. The horizon symplectic structure is precisely the one of 3d gravity in a first order formulation. We quantize the horizon degrees of freedom in the framework of loop quantum gravity, with methods recently developed for 3d gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant. Bulk excitations ending on the horizon act very similar to particles in 3d gravity. The Bekenstein-Hawking law is recovered in the limit of imaginary Barbero-Immirzi parameter. Alternative methods of quantization are also discussed.

Daniele Pranzetti; Hanno Sahlmann

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

400

Testing quantum correlations with nuclear probes

We investigated the feasibility of quantum-correlation measurements in nuclear physics experiments. In a first approach, we measured spin correlations of singlet-spin (1S0) proton pairs, which were generated in 1H(d,2He) and 12C(d,2He) nuclear charge-exchange reactions. The experiment was optimized for a clean preparation of the 2He singlet state and offered a 2pi detection geometry for both protons in the exit channel. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the setup for theses studies, despite limitations of a small data sample recorded during the feasibility studies.

S. Hamieh; H. J. Woertche; C. Baeumer; A. M. van den Berg; D. Frekers; M. N. Harakeh; J. Heyse; M. Hunyadi; M. A. de Huu; C. Polachic; S. Rakers; C. Rangacharyulu

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

401

Displacement Echoes: Classical Decay and Quantum Freeze

Motivated by neutron scattering experiments, we investigate the decay of the fidelity with which a wave packet is reconstructed by a perfect time-reversal operation performed after a phase space displacement. In the semiclassical limit, we show that the decay rate is generically given by the Lyapunov exponent of the classical dynamics. For small displacements, we additionally show that, following a short-time Lyapunov decay, the decay freezes well above the ergodic value because of quantum effects. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

Cyril Petitjean; Diego V. Bevilaqua; Eric J. Heller; Philippe Jacquod

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

402

Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of the computation process

As noted in the proceedings of this conference it is of importance to determine if quantum mechanics imposes fundamental limits on the computation process. Some aspects of this problem have been examined by the development of different types of quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of Turing machines. (Benioff 1980, 1982a, 1982b, 1982c). Turing machines were considered because they provide a standard representation of all digital computers. Thus, showing the existence of quantum mechanical models of all Turing machines is equivalent to showing the existence of quantum mechanical models of all digital computers. The types of models considered all had different properties. Some were constructed on two-dimensional lattices of quantum spin systems of spin 1/2 (Benioff 1982b, 1982c) or higher spins (Benioff 1980). All the models considered Turing machine computations which were made reversible by addition of a history tape. Quantum mechanical models of Bennett's reversible machines (Bennett 1973) in which the model makes a copy of the computation result and then erases the history and undoes the computation in lockstep to recover the input were also developed (Benioff 1982a). To avoid technical complications all the types of models were restricted to modelling an arbitrary but finite number of computation steps.

Benioff, P.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The world of quantum noise and the fundamental output process

A stationary theory of quantum stochastic processes of second order is outlined. It includes KMS processes in wide sense like the equilibrium finite temperature quantum noise given by the Planck's spectral formula. It is shown that for each stationary noise there exists a natural output process output process which is identical to the noise in the infinite temperature limit, and flipping with the noise if the time is reversed at finite temperature. A canonical Hilbert space representation of the quantum noise and the fundamental output process is established and a decomposition of their spectra is found. A brief explanation of quantum stochastic integration with respect to the input-output processes is given using only correlation functions. This provides a mathematical foundation for linear stationary filtering transformations of quantum stochastic processes. It is proved that the colored quantum stationary noise and its time-reversed version can be obtained in the second order theory by a linear nonadapted filtering of the standard vacuum noise uniquely defined by the canonical creation and annihilation operators on the spectrum of the input-output pair.

V. P. Belavkin; O. Hirota; R. Hudson

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

404

We introduce the notion of quantum computational webs: These are quantum states universal for measurement-based computation which can be built up from a collection of simple primitives. The primitive elements - reminiscent of building blocks in a construction kit - are (i) states on a one-dimensional chain of systems ("computational quantum wires") with the power to process one logical qubit and (ii) suitable couplings which connect the wires to a computationally universal "web". All elements are preparable by nearest-neighbor interactions in a single pass - a type of operation well-suited for a number of physical architectures. We provide a complete classification of qubit wires. This is first instance where a physically well-motivated class of universal resources can be fully understood. Finally, we sketch possible realizations in superlattices, and explore the power of coupling mechanisms based on Ising or exchange-interactions.

D. Gross; J. Eisert

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Quantum resonance is one of the main characteristics of the quantum kicked rotor, which has been used to induce accelerated ratchet current of the particles with a generalized asymmetry potential. Here we show that by desynchronizing the kicked potentials of the flashing ratchet [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110603 (2005)], new quantum resonances are stimulated to conduct directed currents more efficiently. Most distinctly, the missed resonances $\\kappa=1.0\\pi$ and $\\kappa=3.0\\pi$ are created out to induce even larger currents. At the same time, with the help of semiclassical analysis, we prove that our result is exact rather than phenomenon induced by errors of the numerical simulation. Our discovery may be used to realize directed transport efficiently, and may also lead to a deeper understanding of symmetry breaking for the dynamical evolution.

Chuan-Feng Li; Rong-Chun Ge; Guang-Can Guo

2012-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

406

In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

Bojowald, Martin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity: De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting "microscopic" degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

Martin Bojowald

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

408

QKD Quantum Channel Authentication

Several simple yet secure protocols to authenticate the quantum channel of various QKD schemes, by coupling the photon sender's knowledge of a shared secret and the QBER Bob observes, are presented. It is shown that Alice can encrypt certain portions of the information needed for the QKD protocols, using a sequence whose security is based on computational-complexity, without compromising all of the sequence's entropy. It is then shown that after a Man-in-the-Middle attack on the quantum and classical channels, there is still enough entropy left in the sequence for Bob to detect the presence of Eve by monitoring the QBER. Finally, it is shown that the principles presented can be implemented to authenticate the quantum channel associated with any type of QKD scheme, and they can also be used for Alice to authenticate Bob.

J. T. Kosloski

2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

409

We uncover a new type of unitary operation for quantum mechanics on the half-line which yields a transformation to ``Hyperbolic phase space''. We show that this new unitary change of basis from the position x on the half line to the Hyperbolic momentum $p_\\eta$, transforms the wavefunction via a Mellin transform on to the critial line $s=1/2-ip_\\eta$. We utilise this new transform to find quantum wavefunctions whose Hyperbolic momentum representation approximate a class of higher transcendental functions, and in particular, approximate the Riemann Zeta function. We finally give possible physical realisations to perform an indirect measurement of the Hyperbolic momentum of a quantum system on the half-line.

J. Twamley; G. J. Milburn

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

410

Extremal generalized quantum measurements

A measurement on a section K of the set of states of a finite dimensional C*-algebra is defined as an affine map from K to a probability simplex. Special cases of such sections are used in description of quantum networks, in particular quantum channels. Measurements on a section correspond to equivalence classes of so-called generalized POVMs, which are called quantum testers in the case of networks. We find extremality conditions for measurements on K and characterize generalized POVMs such that the corresponding measurement is extremal. These results are applied to the set of channels. We find explicit extremality conditions for two outcome measurements on qubit channels and give an example of an extremal qubit 1-tester such that the corresponding measurement is not extremal.

Anna Jencova

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

ON QUANTUM ERGODICITY FOR LINEAR MAPS OF PAR KURLBERG AND ZEEV RUDNICK

one to look for an analogous statement about the semi-classical limit of expectation values will use the quantized cat map to illuminate one of the few rigorous results available on the semi-classical limit of eigen- states of classically chaotic systems, namely Quantum Ergodicity [18, 3, 21

Kurlberg, Par

412

From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics?

From Quantum Mechanics to Thermodynamics? Dresden, 22.11.2004 Jochen Gemmer Universit¨at Osnabr to thermodynamical behavior · Quantum approach to thermodynamical behavior · The route to equilibrium · Summary of thermodynamical behavior entirely on the basis of Hamilton models and Schr¨odinger-type quantum dynamics. · define

Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

413

Time machines and quantum theory

There is a deep structural link between acausal spacetimes and quantum theory. As a consequence quantum theory may resolve some "paradoxes" of time travel. Conversely, non-time-orientable spacetimes naturally give rise to electric charges and spin half. If an explanation of quantum theory is possible, then general relativity with time travel could be it.

Mark J Hadley

2006-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

414

Quantum simulation I. M. Georgescu

, and therefore, would be easier to construct. A number of quantum systems such as neutral atoms, ions, polar, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Doha, Qatar Franco Nori CEMS, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry, and cosmology. Quantum simulation could

Nori, Franco

415

Loop quantum gravity and observations

Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.

A. Barrau; J. Grain

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

416

From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity

We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.

Kristina Giesel; Hanno Sahlmann

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

417

Electric Field effects on quantum correlations in semiconductor quantum dots

We study the effect of external electric bias on the quantum correlations in the array of optically excited coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The correlations are characterized by the quantum discord and concurrence and are observed using excitonic qubits. We employ the lower bound of concurrence for thermal density matrix at different temperatures. The effect of the F\\"orster interaction on correlations will be studied. Our theoretical model detects nonvanishing quantum discord when the electric field is on while concurrence dies, ensuring the existence of nonclassical correlations as measured by the quantum discord.

S. Shojaei; M. Mahdian; R. Yousefjani

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

Yueting Chen

2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

419

Bioethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTIONBioethanol Limited

420

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

421

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

422

The quantum field theories (QFT) constructed in [1,2] include phenomenology of interest. The constructions approximate: scattering by $1/r$ and Yukawa potentials in non-relativistic approximations; and the first contributing order of the Feynman series for Compton scattering. To have a semi-norm, photon states are constrained to transverse polarizations and for Compton scattering, the constructed cross section deviates at large momentum exchanges from the cross section prediction of the Feynman rules. Discussion includes the incompatibility of canonical quantization with the constructed interacting fields, and the role of interpretations of quantum mechanics in realizing QFT.

Glenn Eric Johnson

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

We study adiabatic quantum pumps on time scales that are short relative to the cycle of the pump. In this regime the pump is characterized by the matrix of energy shift which we introduce as the dual to Wigner's time delay. The energy shift determines the charge transport, the dissipation, the noise and the entropy production. We prove a general lower bound on dissipation in a quantum channel and define optimal pumps as those that saturate the bound. We give a geometric characterization of optimal pumps and show that they are noiseless and transport integral charge in a cycle. Finally we discuss an example of an optimal pump related to the Hall effect.

J. E. Avron; A. Elgart; G. M. Graf; L. Sadun

2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

424

In quantum theory, the curved spacetime of Einstein's general theory of relativity acts as a dispersive optical medium for the propagation of light. Gravitational rainbows and birefringence replace the classical picture of light rays mapping out the null geodesics of curved spacetime. Even more remarkably, {\\it superluminal} propagation becomes a real possibility, raising the question of whether it is possible to send signals into the past. In this article, we review recent developments in the quantum theory of light propagation in general relativity and discuss whether superluminal light is compatible with causality.

Graham M Shore

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 K. |Quantum Field Theory & GravityQuantum

426

Waste tank characterization sampling limits

This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ``TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories`` (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel.

Tusler, L.A.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

427

Energy diffusion in strongly driven quantum chaotic systems

The energy evolution of a quantum chaotic system under the perturbation that harmonically depends on time is studied for the case of large perturbation, in which the rate of transition calculated from the Fermi golden rule exceeds the frequency of perturbation. It is shown that the energy evolution retains its diffusive character, with the diffusion coefficient that is asymptotically proportional to the magnitude of perturbation and to the square root of the density of states. The results are supported by numerical calculation. They imply the absence of the quantum-classical correspondence for the energy diffusion and the energy absorption in the classical limit $\\hbar \\to 0$.

P. V. Elyutin

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Robust quantum parameter estimation: Coherent magnetometry with feedback

We describe the formalism for optimally estimating and controlling both the state of a spin ensemble and a scalar magnetic field with information obtained from a continuous quantum limited measurement of the spin precession due to the field. The full quantum parameter estimation model is reduced to a simplified equivalent representation to which classical estimation and control theory is applied. We consider both the tracking of static and fluctuating fields in the transient and steady-state regimes. By using feedback control, the field estimation can be made robust to uncertainty about the total spin number.

Stockton, John K.; Geremia, J.M.; Doherty, Andrew C.; Mabuchi, Hideo [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, Mail Code 12-33, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Tomography increases key rates of quantum-key-distribution protocols

We construct a practically implementable classical processing for the BB84 protocol and the six-state protocol that fully utilizes the accurate channel estimation method, which is also known as the quantum tomography. Our proposed processing yields at least as high key rate as the standard processing by Shor and Preskill. We show two examples of quantum channels over which the key rate of our proposed processing is strictly higher than the standard processing. In the second example, the BB84 protocol with our proposed processing yields a positive key rate even though the so-called error rate is higher than the 25% limit.

Shun Watanabe; Ryutaroh Matsumoto; Tomohiko Uyematsu

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

430

Quantum error correcting codes and 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds

Using 4-dimensional arithmetic hyperbolic manifolds, we construct some new homological quantum error correcting codes. They are low density parity check codes with linear rate and distance n{sup ?}. Their rate is evaluated via Euler characteristic arguments and their distance using Z{sub 2}-systolic geometry. This construction answers a question of Zémor [“On Cayley graphs, surface codes, and the limits of homological coding for quantum error correction,” in Proceedings of Second International Workshop on Coding and Cryptology (IWCC), Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5557 (2009), pp. 259–273], who asked whether homological codes with such parameters could exist at all.

Guth, Larry, E-mail: lguth@math.mit.edu [Department of Mathematics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lubotzky, Alexander, E-mail: alex.lubotzky@mail.huji.ac.il [Institute of Mathematics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Quantum remnants of absorptive bistability in the attojoule regime

Current approaches to high spatial-density, ultra-low power photonic switching utilize optical resonators with small mode-volume and high quality-factor to enhance the effective nonlinearity of bulk materials such as Si \\cite{Yang07} or InGaAsP \\cite{Noza10,Kuma10}. Such resonators likewise play a crucial role in cavity QED research with single emitters such as quantum dots \\cite{Srin07,Fara08} or diamond nv-centers \\cite{Barc09,Engl10}. Whereas atomic and solid-state cavity QED experiments are routinely analyzed using quantum models, research aimed towards switching applications typically employs classical electromagnetic methods to model nanophotonic versions of the bistability and hysteresis phenomena that have dominated optical computer engineering since the 1970s \\cite{Smit86}. Classical optical models are ultimately incompatible with the technological goal of low switching energy, however, as the characteristic scale of one attojoule corresponds to $\\lesssim 10$ photons at near-infrared wavelengths. Her...

Kerckhoff, Joseph; Mabuchi, Hideo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Quantum Robot: Structure, Algorithms and Applications

A kind of brand-new robot, quantum robot, is proposed through fusing quantum theory with robot technology. Quantum robot is essentially a complex quantum system and it is generally composed of three fundamental parts: MQCU (multi quantum computing units), quantum controller/actuator, and information acquisition units. Corresponding to the system structure, several learning control algorithms including quantum searching algorithm and quantum reinforcement learning are presented for quantum robot. The theoretic results show that quantum robot can reduce the complexity of O(N^2) in traditional robot to O(N^(3/2)) using quantum searching algorithm, and the simulation results demonstrate that quantum robot is also superior to traditional robot in efficient learning by novel quantum reinforcement learning algorithm. Considering the advantages of quantum robot, its some potential important applications are also analyzed and prospected.

Dao-Yi Dong; Chun-Lin Chen; Chen-Bin Zhang; Zong-Hai Chen

2005-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

433

Analogue model for quantum gravity phenomenology

So called "analogue models" use condensed matter systems (typically hydrodynamic) to set up an "effective metric" and to model curved-space quantum field theory in a physical system where all the microscopic degrees of freedom are well understood. Known analogue models typically lead to massless minimally coupled scalar fields. We present an extended "analogue space-time" programme by investigating a condensed-matter system - in and beyond the hydrodynamic limit - that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and an essential first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model suggests constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology in terms of the "naturalness problem" and "universality issue".

Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

434

The general structure of quantum resource theories

In recent years it was recognized that properties of physical systems such as entanglement, athermality, and asymmetry, can be viewed as resources for important tasks in quantum information, thermodynamics, and other areas of physics. This recognition followed by the development of specific quantum resource theories (QRTs), such as entanglement theory, determining how quantum states that cannot be prepared under certain restrictions may be manipulated and used to circumvent the restrictions. Here we show that all such QRTs have a general structure, consisting of three components: free states, restricted/allowed set of operations, and resource states. We show that under a few physically motivated assumptions, a QRT is asymptotically reversible if its set of allowed operations is maximal; that is, if the allowed operations are the set of all operations that do not generate (asymptotically) a resource. In this case, the asymptotic conversion rate is given in terms of the regularized relative entropy of a resource which is the unique measure/quantifier of the resource in the asymptotic limit of many copies of the state. We also show that this measure equals the smoothed version of the logarithmic robustness of the resource.

Fernando G. S. L. Brandão; Gilad Gour

2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term quantum defect does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. The authors present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments.

Rau, A.R.P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Inokuti, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Graph Concatenation for Quantum Codes

Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code, and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the construction of good quantum codes of relatively large block length, concatenated quantum codes and their generalizations play an important role. We develop a systematic method for constructing concatenated quantum codes based on "graph concatenation", where graphs representing the inner and outer codes are concatenated via a simple graph operation called "generalized local complementation." Our method applies to both binary and non-binary concatenated quantum codes as well as their generalizations.

Salman Beigi; Isaac Chuang; Markus Grassl; Peter Shor; Bei Zeng

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

437

Termination of Nondeterministic Quantum Programs

We define a language-independent model of nondeterministic quantum programs in which a quantum program consists of a finite set of quantum processes. These processes are represented by quantum Markov chains over the common state space. An execution of a nondeterministic quantum program is modeled by a sequence of actions of individual processes. These actions are described by super-operators on the state Hilbert space. At each step of an execution, a process is chosen nondeterministically to perform the next action. A characterization of reachable space and a characterization of diverging states of a nondeterministic quantum program are presented. We establish a zero-one law for termination probability of the states in the reachable space of a nondeterministic quantum program. A combination of these results leads to a necessary and sufficient condition for termination of nondeterministic quantum programs. Based on this condition, an algorithm is found for checking termination of nondeterministic quantum programs within a fixed finite-dimensional state space. A striking difference between nondeterministic classical and quantum programs is shown by example: it is possible that each of several quantum programs simulates the same classical program which terminates with probability 1, but the nondeterministic program consisting of them terminates with probability 0 due to the interference carried in the execution of them.

Yangjia Li; Nengkun Yu; Mingsheng Ying

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

438

Quantum stabilizer codes and beyond

The importance of quantum error correction in paving the way to build a practical quantum computer is no longer in doubt. This dissertation makes a threefold contribution to the mathematical theory of quantum error-correcting codes. Firstly, it extends the framework of an important class of quantum codes -- nonbinary stabilizer codes. It clarifies the connections of stabilizer codes to classical codes over quadratic extension fields, provides many new constructions of quantum codes, and develops further the theory of optimal quantum codes and punctured quantum codes. Secondly, it contributes to the theory of operator quantum error correcting codes also called as subsystem codes. These codes are expected to have efficient error recovery schemes than stabilizer codes. This dissertation develops a framework for study and analysis of subsystem codes using character theoretic methods. In particular, this work establishes a close link between subsystem codes and classical codes showing that the subsystem codes can be constructed from arbitrary classical codes. Thirdly, it seeks to exploit the knowledge of noise to design efficient quantum codes and considers more realistic channels than the commonly studied depolarizing channel. It gives systematic constructions of asymmetric quantum stabilizer codes that exploit the asymmetry of errors in certain quantum channels.

Pradeep Kiran Sarvepalli

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

439

Overcoming efficiency constraints on blind quantum computation

Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraints only hold in limited scenarios and show how to overcome it using a method based on iterated gate-teleportations. We present our results as a family of protocols, with varying degrees of computational-ability requirements on the client. Certain protocols in this family exponentially outperform previously known schemes in terms of total communication. The approach presented here can be adapted to other distributed computing protocols to reduce communication requirements.

Carlos A. Pérez-Delgado; Joseph F. Fitzsimons

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

440

A gravitational instanton is found that can tunnel into a new more stable vacuum phase where diffeomorphism invariance is broken and pitchfork bifurcations develop. This tunnelling process involves a double sphaleron-like transition which is associated with an extra level of quantization which is above that is contained in quantum field theory.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

1993-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

441

Phenomenological Quantum Gravity

Planck scale physics represents a future challenge, located between particle physics and general relativity. The Planck scale marks a threshold beyond which the old description of spacetime breaks down and conceptually new phenomena must appear. In the last years, increased efforts have been made to examine the phenomenology of quantum gravity, even if the full theory is still unknown.

S. Hossenfelder

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Quantum Mechanics and Gravitation

In summer 1999 an experiment at ILL, Grenoble was conducted. So-called ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) were trapped in the vertical direction between the Fermi-potential of a smooth mirror below and the gravitational potential of the earth above [Ne00, Ru00]. If quantum mechanics turns out to be a sufficiently correct description of the phenomena in the regime of classical, weak gravitation, one should observe the forming of quantized bound states in the vertical direction above a mirror. Already in a simplified view, the data of the experiment provides strong evidence for the existence of such gravitationally bound quantized states. A successful quantum-mechanical description would then provide a convincing argument, that the socalled first quantization can be used for gravitation as an interaction potential, as this is widely expected. Furthermore, looking at the characteristic length scales of about 10 mikron of such bound states formed by UCN, one sees, that a complete quantum mechanical description of this experiment additionally would enable one to check for possible modifications of Newtonian gravitation on distance scales being one order of magnitude below currently available tests [Ad00]. The work presented here deals mainly with the development of a quantum mechanical description of the experiment.

A. Westphal

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

443

Compatibility of quantum states

We introduce a measure of compatibility between quantum states--the likelihood that two density matrices describe the same object. Our measure is motivated by two elementary requirements, which lead to a natural definition. We list some properties of this measure, and discuss its relation to the problem of combining two observers' states of knowledge.

Poulin, David; Blume-Kohout, Robin [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-B210, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

We present the current status of the a new approach to quantum general relativity based on the exact resummation of its perturbative series as that series was formulated by Feynman. We show that the resummed theory is UV finite and we present some phenomenological applications as well.

B. F. L. Ward

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

445

We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-Z gates, and multi-qubit rotations around the z-axis. Every single-qubit- and the controlled-Z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multi-qubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model only needs an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multi-control gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrating example.

Arun Sehrawat; Daniel Zemann; Berthold-Georg Englert

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

446

The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around non-interacting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is `freer', in the sense that the non-interacting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree- and loop-level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behaviour is radically different to both classical fluids and quantum fields, with interesting physical consequences for fluids in the low temperature regime.

Ben Gripaios; Dave Sutherland

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

447

Simulating chemistry using quantum computers

The difficulty of simulating quantum systems, well-known to quantum chemists, prompted the idea of quantum computation. One can avoid the steep scaling associated with the exact simulation of increasingly large quantum systems on conventional computers, by mapping the quantum system to another, more controllable one. In this review, we discuss to what extent the ideas in quantum computation, now a well-established field, have been applied to chemical problems. We describe algorithms that achieve significant advantages for the electronic-structure problem, the simulation of chemical dynamics, protein folding, and other tasks. Although theory is still ahead of experiment, we outline recent advances that have led to the first chemical calculations on small quantum information processors.

Ivan Kassal; James D. Whitfield; Alejandro Perdomo-Ortiz; Man-Hong Yung; Alán Aspuru-Guzik

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Dose Limits | Department of Energy

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office of Audit ServicesMirant Potomac River Compliance Plan |DocumentDoingDorm RoomLimits

449

An integrated processor for photonic quantum states using a broadband light-matter interface

Faithful storage and coherent manipulation of quantum optical pulses are key for long distance quantum communications and quantum computing. Combining these functions in a light-matter interface that can be integrated on-chip with other photonic quantum technologies, e.g. sources of entangled photons, is an important step towards these applications. To date there have only been a few demonstrations of coherent pulse manipulation utilizing optical storage devices compatible with quantum states, and that only in atomic gas media (making integration difficult) and with limited capabilities. Here we describe how a broadband waveguide quantum memory based on the Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC) protocol can be used as a programmable processor for essentially arbitrary spectral and temporal manipulations of individual quantum optical pulses. Using weak coherent optical pulses at the few photon level, we experimentally demonstrate sequencing, time-to-frequency multiplexing and demultiplexing, splitting, interfering, temporal and spectral filtering, compressing and stretching as well as selective delaying. Our integrated light-matter interface offers high-rate, robust and easily configurable manipulation of quantum optical pulses and brings fully practical optical quantum devices one step closer to reality. Furthermore, as the AFC protocol is suitable for storage of intense light pulses, our processor may also find applications in classical communications.

Erhan Saglamyurek; Neil Sinclair; Joshua A. Slater; Khabat Heshami; Daniel Oblak; Wolfgang Tittel

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

450

Entropic fluctuations of XY quantum spin chains

We consider an XY quantum spin chain that consists of a left, center and right part initially at thermal equilibrium at temperatures $T_l$, $T_c$, and $T_r$, respectively. The left and right systems are infinitely extended thermal reservoirs and the central system is a small quantum system linking these two reservoirs. If there is a temperature differential, then heat and entropy will flow from one part of the chain to the other. We consider the Evans-Searles and Gallavotti-Cohen functionals which describe the fluctuations of this flux with respect to the initial state of the system and the non-equilibrium steady state reached by the system in the large time limit. We also define the full counting statistics for the XY chain and consider the associated entropic functional, as well a natural class of functionals that interpolate between the full counting statistics functional and the direct quantization of the variational characterization of the Evans-Searles functional which appears in classical non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. The Jordan-Wigner transformation associates a free Fermi gas and Jacobi matrix to our XY chain. Using this representation we are able to compute the entropic functionals in the large time limit in terms of the scattering data of the underlying Jacobi matrix. We show that the Gallavotti-Cohen and Evans-Searles functionals are identical in this limit. Furthermore, we show that all of these entropic functionals are equal in the large time limit if and only if the underlying Jacobi matrix is reflectionless.

Benjamin Landon

2015-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

451

Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are universal,'' in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett's discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman's quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics.

Lloyd, S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Digital computers are machines that can be programmed to perform logical and arithmetical operations. Contemporary digital computers are ``universal,`` in the sense that a program that runs on one computer can, if properly compiled, run on any other computer that has access to enough memory space and time. Any one universal computer can simulate the operation of any other; and the set of tasks that any such machine can perform is common to all universal machines. Since Bennett`s discovery that computation can be carried out in a non-dissipative fashion, a number of Hamiltonian quantum-mechanical systems have been proposed whose time-evolutions over discrete intervals are equivalent to those of specific universal computers. The first quantum-mechanical treatment of computers was given by Benioff, who exhibited a Hamiltonian system with a basis whose members corresponded to the logical states of a Turing machine. In order to make the Hamiltonian local, in the sense that its structure depended only on the part of the computation being performed at that time, Benioff found it necessary to make the Hamiltonian time-dependent. Feynman discovered a way to make the computational Hamiltonian both local and time-independent by incorporating the direction of computation in the initial condition. In Feynman`s quantum computer, the program is a carefully prepared wave packet that propagates through different computational states. Deutsch presented a quantum computer that exploits the possibility of existing in a superposition of computational states to perform tasks that a classical computer cannot, such as generating purely random numbers, and carrying out superpositions of computations as a method of parallel processing. In this paper, we show that such computers, by virtue of their common function, possess a common form for their quantum dynamics.

Lloyd, S.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were observed. The spatial and energy distributions of optically active excitons were used as thermodynamic quantities to construct a phase diagram of the exciton system, demonstrating the existence of distinct phases. Optical and electrical properties of the CQW sample were examined thoroughly to provide deeper understanding of the formation mechanisms of these cold exciton systems. These insights offer new strategies for producing cold exciton systems, which may lead to opportunities for the realization of BEC in solid-state systems.

Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

If ethanol could be produced at a low enough price to serve as the precursor to ethylene and butadiene, it and its derivatives could account for 159 billion lb, or 50% of the US production of 316 billion lb of synthetic organic chemicals, presently valued at $113 billion. This use would consume 3.4 billion bu of corn, or {approximately}40% of the corn crop. This study evaluates advance process engineering and genetic engineering techniques that could generate savings and reduce production costs. The most rewarding development strategy appears to be to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of immobilized Zymomonas mobilis bacteria in a fluidized-bed bioreactor operating in a continuous mode over an extended period of time. Throughput should be adjusted to control product concentration at {approximately}100 g/L (i.e., as close to the threshold of inhibition as possible). There appears to be no inherent design limitation to effect the engineering improvements required in the advanced process operation. The above scenario assumes that the presently available, product-inhibited organisms would be used. In a longer-term, more difficult research effort, it might be possible to reduce or eliminate product inhibition. As a result, price would be reduced further to $1.75 for the Zymomonas system or $1.85 for the yeast fermentation. It is recommended that the engineering proveout of the advanced process be continued at a pilot scale and that a laboratory program aimed at reducing product inhibition and/or increasing specific productivity be initiated. 49 refs., 11 figs., 19 tabs.

Busche, R.M. (Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)); Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lynd, L.R. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Composite quantum systems and environment-induced heating

In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development of techniques which transfer trapped particles to very low temperatures. Here we focus our attention on a heating mechanism which contributes to the finite temperature limit in laser sideband cooling experiments with trapped ions. It is emphasized that similar heating processes might be present in a variety of composite quantum systems whose components couple individually to different environments. For example, quantum optical heating effects might contribute significantly to the very high temperatures which occur during the collapse phase in sonoluminescence experiments. It might even be possible to design composite quantum systems, like atom-cavity systems, such that they continuously emit photons even in the absence of external driving.

Almut Beige; Andreas Kurcz; Adam Stokes

2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

456

Quantum metrology with rotating matter waves in different geometries

A promising practical application of entanglement is metrology, where quantum states can be used to make measurements beyond the shot noise limit. Here we consider how metrology schemes could be realised using atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in different potentials. In particular, we show that if a trapped BEC is rotated at just the right frequency, it can undergo a quantum phase transition characterised by large-scale entanglement spreading across the system. This simple process of stirring can generate interesting quantum states such as macroscopic superpositions of all the atoms flowing in opposite directions around a ring-shaped potential. We consider different trapping potentials and show how this leads to different entangled states. In particular, we find that by reducing the dimensionality of the system to one or two dimensions, it is possible to generate entangled states that are remarkably robust to the loss of atoms and so are ideally suited to precision measurement schemes.

Dunningham, J. A.; Cooper, J. J.; Hallwood, D. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102904, Auckland (New Zealand)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Effects of quantum space time foam in the neutrino sector

We discuss violations of CPT and quantum mechanics due to interactions of neutrinos with space-time quantum foam. Neutrinoless double beta decay and oscillations of neutrinos from astrophysical sources (supernovae, active galactic nuclei) are analysed. It is found that the propagation distance is the crucial quantity entering any bounds on EHNS parameters. Thus, while the bounds from neutrinoless double beta decay are not significant, the data of the supernova 1987a imply a bound being several orders of magnitude more stringent than the ones known from the literature. Even more stringent limits may be obtained from the investigation of neutrino oscillations from active galactic nuclei sources, which have an impressive potential for the search of quantum foam interactions in the neutrino sector.

H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; H. Päs; U. Sarkar

2000-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

458

Quantum resources for hybrid communication via qubit-oscillator states

We investigate a family of qubit-oscillator states as resources for hybrid quantum communication. They result from a mechanism of qubit-controlled displacement on the oscillator. For large displacements, we obtain analytical formulas for entanglement and other nonclassical correlations, such as entropic and geometric discord, in those states. We design two protocols for quantum communication using the considered resource states, a hybrid teleportation and a hybrid remote state preparation. The latter, in its standard formulation, is shown to have a performance limited by the initial mixedness of the oscillator, echoing the behaviour of the geometric discord. If one includes a further optimization over non-unitary correcting operations performed by the receiver, the performance is improved to match that of teleportation, which is directly linked to the amount of entanglement. Both protocols can then approach perfect efficiency even if the oscillator is originally highly thermal. We discuss the critical implications of these findings for the interpretation of general quantum correlations.

Tommaso Tufarelli; Davide Girolami; Ruggero Vasile; Sougato Bose; Gerardo Adesso

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

Codeword stabilized quantum codes on subsystems

Codeword stabilized quantum codes provide a unified approach to constructing quantum error-correcting codes, including both additive and non-additive quantum codes. Standard codeword stabilized quantum codes encode quantum information into subspaces. The more general notion of encoding quantum information into a subsystem is known as an operator (or subsystem) quantum error correcting code. Most operator codes studied to date are based in the usual stabilizer formalism. We introduce operator quantum codes based on the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Based on the necessary and sufficient conditions for operator quantum error correction, we derive a error correction condition for operator codeword stabilized quantum codes. Based on this condition, the word operators of a operator codeword stabilized quantum code are constructed from a set of classical binary errors induced by generators of the gauge group. We use this scheme to construct examples of both additive and non-additive codes that encode quantum information into a subsystem.

Jeonghwan Shin; Jun Heo; Todd A. Brun

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

460

Why the two-pulse photon echo is not a good quantum memory protocol

We consider in this paper a two-pulse photon echo sequence in the prospect of quantum light storage. We analyze the conditions where quantum storage could be realistically performed. We simply and analytically calculate the efficiency in that limit, and clarify the role of the exactly {pi}-rephasing pulse in the sequence. Our physical interpretation of the process is well supported by its experimental implementation in a Tm{sup 3+}:yttrium aluminum garnet crystal thanks to an accurate control of the rephasing pulse area. We finally address independently the fundamental limitations of the quantum fidelity. Our work allows us to point out on one side the real drawbacks of this scheme for quantum storage and on the other side its specificities which can be a source of inspiration to conceive more promising procedures with rare-earth ion doped crystals.

Ruggiero, Jerome; Le Goueet, Jean-Louis; Chaneliere, Thierry [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS-UPR 3321, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 505, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Simon, Christoph [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

While these samples are representative of the content of NLE

they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.

We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLE

to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.

461

Semiclassical analysis of quantum dynamics

Simulating the molecular dynamics (MD) using classical or semi-classical trajectories provides important details for the understanding of many chemical reactions, protein folding, drug design, and solvation effects. MD simulations using trajectories have achieved great successes in the computer simulations of various systems, but it is difficult to incorporate quantum effects in a robust way. Therefore, improving quantum wavepacket dynamics and incorporating nonadiabatic transitions and quantum effects into classical and semi-classical molecular dynamics is critical as well as challenging. In this paper, we present a MD scheme in which a new set of equations of motion (EOM) are proposed to effectively propagate nuclear trajectories while conserving quantum mechanical energy which is critical for describing quantum effects like tunneling. The new quantum EOM is tested on a one-state one-dimensional and a two-state two-dimensional model nonadiabatic systems. The global quantum force experienced by each trajectory promotes energy redistribution among the bundle of trajectories, and thus helps the individual trajectory tunnel through the potential barrier higher than the energy of the trajectory itself. Construction of the new quantum force and EOM also provides a better way to treat the issue of back-reaction in mixed quantum-classical (MQC) methods, i.e. self-consistency between quantum degrees of freedom (DOF) and classical DOF.

Siyang Yang

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Computational equivalence between quantum Turing machines

Computational equivalence between quantum Turing machines and quantum circuit families Christian Westergaard 21st November 2005 Contents 1 The quantum Turing machine model 5 1.1 Basics of quantum Turing machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Projections on the quantum state space

MÃ¸ller, Jesper Michael

463

Fractal states in quantum information processing

The fractal character of some quantum properties has been shown for systems described by continuous variables. Here, a definition of quantum fractal states is given that suits the discrete systems used in quantum information processing, including quantum coding and quantum computing. Several important examples are provided.

Gregg Jaeger

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fraunhofer FIRST develops a computing service and collaborative workspace providing a convenient tool for simulation and investigation of quantum algorithms. To broaden the twenty qubit limit of workstation-based simulations to the next qubit decade we provide a dedicated high memorized Linux cluster with fast Myrinet interconnection network together with a adapted parallel simulator engine. This simulation service supplemented by a collaborative workspace is usable everywhere via web interface and integrates both hardware and software as collaboration and investigation platform for the quantum community. The beta test version realizes all common one, two and three qubit gates, arbitrary one and two bit gates, orthogonal measurements as well as special gates like Oracle, Modulo function, Quantum Fourier Transformation and arbitrary Spin-Hamiltonians up to 31 qubits. For a restricted gate set it feasible to investigate circuits with up to sixty qubits. URL: http://www.qc.fraunhofer.de

Helge Rose'; Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga; Matthias Kolbe; Falk Niehoerster; Andreas Schramm

2004-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

465

We suggest that the randomness of the choices of measurement basis by Alice and Bob provides an additional important resource for quantum cryptography. As a specific application, we present a novel protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD) which enhances the BB84 scheme by encrypting the information sent over the classical channel during key sifting. We show that, in the limit of long keys, this process prevents an eavesdropper from reproducing the sifting process carried out by the legitimate users. The inability of the eavesdropper to sift the information gathered by tapping the quantum channel reduces the amount of information that an eavesdropper can gain on the sifted key. We further show that the protocol proposed is self sustaining, and thus allows the growing of a secret key.

Hannes R. Böhm; Paul S. Böhm; Markus Aspelmeyer; ?aslav Brukner; Anton Zeilinger

2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Limited View Angle Iterative CT Reconstruction

;Some Prior Literature in Limited View Tomography CT with limited-angle data and few views IRR algorithm Iterative Reconstruction-Reprojection (IRR) : An Algorithm for Limited Data Cardiac- Computed-views and limited-angle data in divergent-beam CT by E. Y. Sidky, CM Kao, and X. Pan (2006) Few-View Projection

467

Limited-life cartridge primers

A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

468

One of the central problems in quantum mechanics is to determine the ground state properties of a system of electrons interacting via the Coulomb potential. Since its introduction by Hohenberg, Kohn, and Sham, Density Functional Theory (DFT) has become the most widely used and successful method for simulating systems of interacting electrons, making their original work one of the most cited in physics. In this letter, we show that the field of computational complexity imposes fundamental limitations on DFT, as an efficient description of the associated universal functional would allow to solve any problem in the class QMA (the quantum version of NP) and thus particularly any problem in NP in polynomial time. This follows from the fact that finding the ground state energy of the Hubbard model in an external magnetic field is a hard problem even for a quantum computer, while given the universal functional it can be computed efficiently using DFT. This provides a clear illustration how the field of quantum computing is useful even if quantum computers would never be built.

Norbert Schuch; Frank Verstraete

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

469

Lessons in quantum gravity from quantum field theory

This paper reviews advances in the understanding of quantum gravity based on field theory calculations in the AdS/CFT correspondence.

Berenstein, David [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Science, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

470

Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide

Three different graphene nanostructure suspensions of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONSs), graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs), and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) are prepared and characterized. Using a typical two-step method, the GONSs, GONRs, and GOQDs are incorporated into a polyimide (PI) matrix to synthesize graphene/PI composite films, whose nonlinear optical (NLO) and optical limiting (OL) properties are investigated at 532?nm in the nanosecond regime. The GONR suspension exhibits superior NLO and OL effects compared with those of GONSs and GOQDs because of its stronger nonlinear scattering and excited-state absorption. The graphene/PI composite films exhibit NLO and OL performance superior to that of their corresponding suspensions, which is attributed primarily to a combination of nonlinear mechanisms, charge transfer between graphene materials and PI, and the matrix effect.

Gan, Yao; Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing, E-mail: hbzhan@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

471

We review some perturbative results obtained in quantum gravity in an accelerating cosmological background. We then describe a class of non-local, purely gravitational models which have the correct structure to reproduce the leading infrared logarithms of quantum gravitational back-reaction during the inflationary regime. These models end inflation in a distinctive phase of oscillations with slight and short violations of the weak energy condition and should, when coupled to matter, lead to rapid reheating. By elaborating this class of models we exhibit one that has the same behaviour during inflation, goes quiescent until the onset of matter domination, and induces a small, positive cosmological constant of about the right size thereafter. We also briefly comment on the primordial density perturbations that this class of models predict.

M. G. Romania; N. C. Tsamis; R. P. Woodard

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

472

Hybrid quantum information processing

The development of quantum information processing has traditionally followed two separate and not immediately connected lines of study. The main line has focused on the implementation of quantum bit (qubit) based protocols whereas the other line has been devoted to implementations based on high-dimensional Gaussian states (such as coherent and squeezed states). The separation has been driven by the experimental difficulty in interconnecting the standard technologies of the two lines. However, in recent years, there has been a significant experimental progress in refining and connecting the technologies of the two fields which has resulted in the development and experimental realization of numerous new hybrid protocols. In this Review, we summarize these recent efforts on hybridizing the two types of schemes based on discrete and continuous variables.

Ulrik L. Andersen; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Peter van Loock; Akira Furusawa

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

473

Fast Electrical Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nano-resonator

The resonance frequency of an InAs quantum dot strongly coupled to a GaAs photonic crystal cavity was electrically controlled via quantum confined Stark effect. Stark shifts up to 0.3meV were achieved using a lateral Schottky electrode that created a local depletion region at the location of the quantum dot. We report switching of a probe laser coherently coupled to the cavity up to speeds as high as 150MHz, limited by the RC constant of the transmission line. The coupling rate and the magnitude of the Stark shift with electric field were investigated while coherently probing the system.

Andrei Faraon; Arka Majumdar; Hyochul Kim; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

474

The Hydrogen Atom: a Review on the Birth of Modern Quantum Mechanics

The purpose of this work is to retrace the steps that were made by scientists of XIX century, like Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, Dirac, for the formulation of what today represents the modern quantum mechanics and that, within two decades, put in question the classical physics. In this context, the study of the electronic structure of hydrogen atom has been the main starting point for the formulation of the theory and, till now, remains the only real case for which the quantum equation of motion can be solved exactly. The results obtained by each theory will be discussed critically, highlighting limits and potentials that allowed the further development of the quantum theory.

Nanni, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Sub-microsecond correlations in photoluminescence from InAs quantum dots

Photon correlation measurements reveal memory effects in the optical emission of single InAs quantum dots with timescales from 10 to 800 ns. With above-band optical excitation, a long-timescale negative correlation (antibunching) is observed, while with quasi-resonant excitation, a positive correlation (blinking) is observed. A simple model based on long-lived charged states is presented that approximately explains the observed behavior, providing insight into the excitation process. Such memory effects can limit the internal efficiency of light emitters based on single quantum dots, and could also be problematic for proposed quantum-computation schemes.

Charles Santori; David Fattal; Jelena Vuckovic; Glenn S. Solomon; Edo Waks; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

2003-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

476

Codeword Stabilized Quantum Codes

We present a unifying approach to quantum error correcting code design that encompasses additive (stabilizer) codes, as well as all known examples of nonadditive codes with good parameters. We use this framework to generate new codes with