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Sample records for uinta piceance paradox

  1. 05671_UintaWaterStudy | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-Related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Last Reviewed 5152012 DE-NT0005671 Goal The goal of...

  2. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  3. INTRODUCTION The Uinta Mountain region contains a relatively

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pederson, Joel L.

    as the major drainage reversal that resulted in the Green River traversing and incising the Uinta uplift. This regional drainage change is important because it integrated the upper Green River into the greater Colorado River drainage, lowering baselevel and setting the stage for the late Cenozoic erosion that defines

  4. Uinta County, Wyoming: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin, New York: EnergyU.S. EPAEnergy Informationin AfricaUinta

  5. HYDROGEOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORTING PROCESS, PICEANCE CREEK BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehran, M.

    2014-01-01

    Water Management in Oil Shale Mining," Volumes I and II,and Technology of Oil Shale," Ann Arbor Science PublishersRequirements at an Oil Shale Surface Mine, Piceance Creek

  6. A better understanding of a Uinta Basin channelized analog reservoir through geostatistics and reservoir simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbana, Enis

    2002-01-01

    The Green River Formation is located in the Uinta basin of northeastern Utah. It contains several reservoirs that can be classified as lacustrine such as the Altamont-Bluebell and Red Wash. Lacustrine reservoirs are ...

  7. 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMECHANICAL MODELING OF A TIGHT GAS RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3-DIMENSIONAL GEOMECHANICAL MODELING OF A TIGHT GAS RESERVOIR, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO by Kurtis R. Wikel #12;ii #12;iii ABSTRACT An integrated 3-dimensional geomechanical model have used the predictive geomechanical model to compare production and effective stress change

  8. P-WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P-WAVE TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO by Donald-lapse seismic surveys, shot by the Reservoir Characterization Project in the fall of 2003 and 2004, at Rulison seismic can monitor tight gas reservoirs, to a limited extent, over a short period of time. Repeat surveys

  9. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  10. Sequence-Stratigraphic Analysis of the Rollins and the Cozzette Sandstone Members, the Upper Cretaceous Mount Garfield Formation of the Piceance Basin, Colorado.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaichouche, Fatma Zahra

    2011-08-31

    Sequence-stratigraphic study of the Cozzette and the Rollins Sandstone members, of the Mt. Garfield Formation of the Mesaverde Group, in the southern part of the Piceance basin (western Colorado), utilizes mainly well-log data along with limited...

  11. The Firewall Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furkan Semih Dündar

    2014-11-20

    In this MSc. thesis, we have attempted to give an overview of the firewall paradox and various approaches towards its resolution. After an introductory chapter on some basic concepts in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes such as Hawking radiation, we introduce the paradox. It arises out of application of principles each of which is thought or assumed to be correct: 1) unitary black hole evaporation, 2) validity of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, 3) a measure of the number of black hole quantum states, 4) Einstein's equivalence principle. Then, we present various approaches that exist in the literature towards the resolution of the paradox.

  12. Types of Paradox in Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragoljub A. Cucic

    2009-12-09

    Paradoxes are a relatively frequent occurrence in physics. The nature of their genesis is diverse and they are found in all branches of physics. There are a number of general and special classifications of paradoxes, but there are no classifications of paradoxes in physics. Nowadays, physics is a fundamental and rather formalized science, the paradoxes of which imply falsity and imprecision. One of the basic methods of addressing a problem is to present classifications that facilitate its formulation and study. This work groups together the paradoxes in physics according to certain common characteristics, which should assist in explaining the causes for paradox formation.

  13. Cultivating Sustainable Coffee: Persistent Paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bacon, Christopher M.; Mendez, Ernesto; Fox, Jonathan A

    2008-01-01

    Paradoxes Christopher M . Bacon, V. Ernesto Méndez, andfood: Good food? December 9. Bacon, C. M . 2006. Estudio deProductores de Comercio Justo. Bacon, C. M . forthcoming. A

  14. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace; Craig Morgan; Stephanie Carney

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  15. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  16. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor encountered many technical challenging and hasn't been done in the past for any oil shale basin. The database built during this study remains valuable for any other future studies involving oil shale and water resource management in the Piceance Basin. The methodology applied in the development of the GIS based Geospatial Infrastructure can be readily adapted for other professionals to develop database structure for other similar basins.

  17. Errors and paradoxes in quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rohrlich

    2007-08-28

    Errors and paradoxes in quantum mechanics, entry in the Compendium of Quantum Physics: Concepts, Experiments, History and Philosophy, ed. F. Weinert, K. Hentschel, D. Greenberger and B. Falkenburg (Springer), to appear

  18. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996, 11th Quarter of the project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, E.; Morgan, C.D.

    1996-07-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil production and reserves in the Uinta Basin by demonstrating improved completion techniques. Low productivity of Uinta Basin wells is caused by gross production intervals of several thousand feet that contain perforated thief zones, water-bearing zones, and unperforated oil-bearing intervals. Geologic and engineering characterization and computer simulation of the Green River and Wasatch formations in the Bluebell field will determine reservoir heterogeneities related to fractures and depositional trends. This will be followed by drilling and recompletion of several wells to demonstrate improved completion techniques based on the reservoir characterization. Transfer of the project results will be an ongoing component of the project.

  19. Managing the Paradoxes of Perfection in Women's Daily Lives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampsten, Katherine

    2012-10-19

    This study explores the paradoxical nature of cultural norms of feminine perfection and the strategies women employ to manage those paradoxes. Following an analysis of the cultural discourses surrounding women and perfection, ...

  20. Bueno and Colyvan on Yablo’s Paradox 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketland, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This is a response to a paper “Paradox without satisfaction”, Analysis 63, 152-6 (2003) by Otavio Bueno and Mark Colyvan on Yablo’s paradox. I argue that this paper makes several substantial mathematical errors which vitiate ...

  1. Evidence Against Klein Paradox in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniela Dragoman

    2008-02-23

    It is demonstrated that both transmission and reflection coefficients associated to the Klein paradox at a step barrier are positive and less than unity, so that the particle-antiparticle pair creation mechanism commonly linked to this phenomenon is not necessary. Because graphene is a solid-state testing ground for quantum electrodynamics phenomena involving massless Dirac fermions we suggest that the transport characteristic through a p-n graphene junction can decide between the results obtained in this paper and the common Klein paradox theory, which imply negative transmission and higher-than-unity reflection coefficients. Recent experimental evidence supports our findings.

  2. Quantum, Photo-Electric Single Capacitor Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darko Kapor; Vladan Pankovic

    2009-12-10

    In this work single capacitor paradox (a variation of the remarkable two capacitor paradox) is considered in a new, quantum discrete form. Simply speaking we consider well-known usual, photoelectric effect experimental device, i.e. photo electric cell, where cathode and anode are equivalently charged but non-connected. It, obviously, represents a capacitor that initially, i.e. before action of the photons with individual energy equivalent to work function, holds corresponding energy of the electrical fields between cathode and anode. Further, we direct quantum discretely photons, one by one, toward cathode where according to photo-electrical effect electrons discretely, one by one, will be emitted and directed toward anode. It causes discrete discharge of the cell, i.e. capacitor and discrete decrease of the electrical field. Finally, total discharge of the cell, i.e. capacitor, and total disappearance of the electrical field and its energy will occur. Given, seemingly paradoxical, capacitor total energy loss can be simply explained without any dissipative effects (Joule heating or electromagnetic waves emission can be neglected as high order small corrections) by work done by the electrical field by movement of the electrons from cathode to anode. (Remarkable two capacitors paradox can be, obviously, formulated and explained in the completely analogous way.)

  3. Quantum Mechanics: Structures, Axioms and Paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerts, Diederik

    Quantum Mechanics: Structures, Axioms and Paradoxes Diederik Aerts Center Leo Apostel, Brussels present an analysis of quantum mechanics and its problems and para- doxes taking into account the results a genuine incomplete- ness of standard quantum mechanics, however not an incompleteness that means

  4. Quantum simulation of the Klein paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerritsma, R; Kirchmair, G; Zähringer, F; Hempel, C; Casanova, J; García-Ripoll, J J; Solano, E; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2010-01-01

    In 1929 Oskar Klein obtained a surprising result when investigating the scattering of a relativistic electron from an electrostatic potential step using the Dirac equation. Klein found that the electron can propagate through the step, without damping, and that the probability for this happening increases with the step height---a result commonly known as the Klein paradox. Since direct experimental investigations are lacking, and would be very challenging, the Klein paradox remains a much debated and investigated topic in relativistic quantum mechanics. Driven by the experimental inaccessibility of relativistic quantum systems there has been recent interest in performing quantum simulations. In this paper we report on the quantum simulation of relativistic scattering dynamics and the observation of Klein tunneling, using trapped ions. The combination of precise engineering of all terms in the simulated Hamiltonian and the ability to prepare arbitrary initial states enables the investigation of a wide range of ...

  5. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, C.D.; Allison, M.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Bluebell field is productive from the Tertiary lower Green River and Wasatch Formations of the Uinta Basin, Utah. The productive interval consists of thousands of feet of interbedded fractured clastic and carbonate beds deposited in a fluvial-dominated lacustrine environment. Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical feet (300-900 m), then stimulating the entire interval. This completion technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. Geologic and engineering characterization has been used to define improved completion techniques. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The characterization study resulted in recommendations for improved completion techniques and a field-demonstration program to test those techniques. The results of the characterization study and the proposed demonstration program are discussed in the second annual technical progress report. The operator of the wells was unable to begin the field demonstration this project year (October 1, 1995 to September 20, 1996). Correlation and thickness mapping of individual beds in the Wasatch Formation was completed and resulted in a. series of maps of each of the individual beds. These data were used in constructing the reservoir models. Non-fractured and fractured geostatistical models and reservoir simulations were generated for a 20-square-mile (51.8-km{sup 2}) portion of the Bluebell field. The modeling provides insights into the effects of fracture porosity and permeability in the Green River and Wasatch reservoirs.

  6. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bidstrup, Morten Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2014-07-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic.

  7. Zeno's First Paradox of Motion: A Cartesian Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balster, Lori

    Zeno's First Paradox of Motion: A Cartesian Perspective Lori Bolster University of Dayton Before I introduce some of Descartes' perspective into a discussion of Zeno's First Paradox of Motion, I would first like to restate in general what Zeno...'s First Paradox of Motion is. Essentially, Zeno says that, in order for motion from point A to point B to occur, one half of that distance must first be traveled. In order for one half of that distance to be traveled, one fourth of that distance must...

  8. The shadow interpretation versus quantum paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leffler, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of denying the "emptiness of paths not taken," EPNT, premise of Bernstein, Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (BGHZ) in their paper titled, Bell theorem without inequalities.[ ] Carrying out the negation of EPNT leads to the concept of a "shadow stream." Streams are essentially particle implementations of the paths in Feynman path-integrals, resulting in a simple and consistent extension of the standard axioms for quantum mechanics. The construct provides elegant resolutions of single- and multi-particle interference paradoxes. Moreover, combining the argument of this paper with that of BGHZ shows that there are just two choices for quantum foundations: interpretations closely similar to the present one or those that harbor instantaneous action at a distance.

  9. EPR, Bell, Schrodinger's cat, and the Monty Hall Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doron Cohen

    2007-04-09

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a short pedagogical explanation why "quantum collapse" is not a metaphysical event, by pointing out the analogy with a "classical collapse" which is associated with the Monty Hall Paradox.

  10. Mpemba paradox: Hydrogen bond memory and water-skin supersolidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2015-01-05

    Numerical reproduction of measurements, experimental evidence for skin super-solidity and hydrogen-bond memory clarified that Mpemba paradox integrates the heat emission-conduction-dissipation dynamics in the source-path-drain cycle system.

  11. LE PARADOXE DE L'AXE APPRENTISSAGE ORGANISATIONNEL ET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'exemple de BSC développés dans deux établissements hospitaliers. Au préalable une revue de la littérature for this management tool. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of various papers shows a certain paradox between

  12. LANDS WITH WILDERNESS CHARACTERISTICS, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN CONSTRAINTS, AND LAND EXCHANGES: CROSS-JURISDICTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND IMPACTS ON UNCONVENTIONAL FUEL DEVELOPMENT IN UTAH’S UINTA BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

    2012-10-01

    Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued Secretarial Order 3310, Protecting Wilderness Characteristics on Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Supporters argue that the Order merely provides guidance regarding implementation of existing legal obligations without creating new rights or duties. Opponents describe Order 3310 as subverting congressional authority to designate Wilderness Areas and as closing millions of acres of public lands to energy development and commodity production. While opponents succeeded in temporarily defunding the Order’s implementation and forcing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to adopt a more collaborative approach, the fundamental questions remain: Which federal public lands possess wilderness characteristics and how should those lands be managed? The closely related question is: How might management of such resources impact unconventional fuel development within Utah? These questions remain pressing independent of the Order because the BLM, which manages the majority of federal land in Utah, is statutorily obligated to maintain an up-to-date inventory of federal public lands and the resources they contain, including lands with wilderness characteristics. The BLM is also legally obligated to develop and periodically update land use plans, relying on information obtained in its public lands inventory. The BLM cannot sidestep these hard choices, and failure to consider wilderness characteristics during the planning process will derail the planning effort. Based on an analysis of the most recent inventory data, lands with wilderness characteristics — whether already subject to mandatory protection under the Wilderness Act, subject to discretionary protections as part of BLM Resource Management Plan revisions, or potentially subject to new protections under Order 3310 — are unlikely to profoundly impact oil shale development within Utah’s Uinta Basin. Lands with wilderness characteristics are likely to v have a greater impact on oil sands resources, particularly those resources found in the southern part of the state. Management requirements independent of l

  13. Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    Effect of Substrate Roughness on D Spacing Supports Theoretical Resolution of Vapor Pressure with and provides experimental support for a recently proposed theoretical resolution of the vapor pressure paradox has been called the vapor pressure paradox (Rand and Parsegian, 1989). Resolving this paradox

  14. "Audacity or Precision": The Paradoxes of Henri Villat's Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubin, David

    1 "Audacity or Precision": The Paradoxes of Henri Villat's Fluid Mechanics in Interwar France David researches on fluid mechanics. Most of his original work was done before the First Word War; it was highly on, he held the fluid mechanics chair established by the Air Ministry at the Sorbonne in Paris

  15. Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux Paul G. Falkowski The discovery 0960-9822 Photosynthesis in the world oceans accounts for approximately 40% of the global carbon fixed each year on Earth [1]. The vast majority of photosynthetic carbon fixation, by far, is carried out

  16. 1-D Dirac Equation, Klein Paradox and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Bowen

    2008-07-23

    Solutions of the one dimensional Dirac equation with piece-wise constant potentials are presented using standard methods. These solutions show that the Klein Paradox is non-existent and represents a failure to correctly match solutions across a step potential. Consequences of this exact solution are studied for the step potential and a square barrier. Characteristics of massless Dirac states and the momentum linear band energies for Graphene are shown to have quite different current and momentum properties.

  17. Globalization and Religion in Historical Perspective: A Paradoxical Relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrington, Luke M.

    might characterize this as a kind of negative feedback loop, but the truth is that religion-globalization relationships are not couched exclusively in conflict. For this reason, the agent-opponent paradox is the subject of this article. Religions 2013... stream_size 79476 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Herrington_globalization and religion.pdf.txt stream_source_info Herrington_globalization and religion.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  18. WORKING PAPER N 2011 30 Measuring Poverty Without The Mortality Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    WORKING PAPER N° 2011 ­ 30 Measuring Poverty Without The Mortality Paradox Mathieu Lefebvre Pierre, poverty measurement, censored income profile PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES ECONOMIQUES 48, BD JOURDAN ­ E;Measuring Poverty Without The Mortality Paradox Mathieu Lefebvre, Pierre Pestieauy and Gregory Ponthierez

  19. In Dale Jacquette (ed), Philosophy of Logic: 485518 The Mathematics of Skolem's Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bays, Timothy

    --and quite a bit more interesting--than it's usually taken to be. Further, because philosophical discussions side of Skolem's Paradox. In particular, I don't attempt to survey all the things philosophers have simplest form, Skolem's Paradox involves a (seeming) conflict between two theorems of modern logic: Cantor

  20. A Case where a Paradox Like Braess's Occurs in the Nash Equilibrium but Does Not Occur in the Wardrop Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Case where a Paradox Like Braess's Occurs in the Nash Equilibrium but Does Not Occur of the other individuals. Another framework in which such a paradox may occur is that of the Nash equilibrium­ negligible eoeect on the other players. It is natural to expect the same type of paradox in the Nash equilib

  1. Working Paper --Department of Operations and Information Management, The Wharton School THE ENVIRONMENTAL PARADOX OF BICYCLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    requirements of transportation by bicycle relative to automobiles. The environmental benefits of human power longevity of those who engage in physical activity. Paradoxically, increased use of human power Meyer Keywords: environment, energy, bicycle, bicycling, human power, transportation, longevity, human

  2. Time operator for the quantum harmonic oscillator: resolution of an apparent paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Granik; H. Ralph Lewis

    2000-06-14

    An apparent paradox is resolved that concerns the existence of time operators which have been derived for the quantum harmonic oscillator. There is an apparent paradox because, although a time operator is canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian, it has been asserted that no operator exists that is canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian. In order to resolve the apparent paradox, we work in a representation where the phase operator is diagonal. The boundary condition on wave functions is such that they be periodic in the phase variable, which is related to the (continuous) eigenvalue of the time operator. Matrix elements of the commutator of the time operator with the Hamiltonian involve the phase variable itself in addition to periodic functions of the phase variable. The Hamiltonian is not hermitian when operating in space that includes the phase variable itself. The apparent paradox is resolved when this non-hermeticity is taken into account correctly in the evaluation of matrix elements of the commutation relation.

  3. The Uinta Basin Case Robert J. Bayer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Overburden Tailings Oil Shale Mining Open Pit Underground Ex situ extraction Ex situ thermal conversion EIS for Oil Sands and Oil Shale Ongoing concerns with Basin-wide air quality Wildlife and wildlife

  4. Paradoxes of cosmological physics in the beginning of the 21-st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yurij Baryshev

    2015-01-04

    In the history of cosmology physical paradoxes played important role for development of contemporary world models. Within the modern standard cosmological model there are both observational and conceptual cosmological paradoxes which stimulate to search their solution. Confrontation of theoretical predictions of the standard cosmological model with the latest astrophysical observational data is considered. A review of conceptual problems of the Friedmann space expending models, which are in the bases of modern cosmological model, is discussed. The main paradoxes, which are discussed in modern literature, are the Newtonian character of the exact Friedmann equation, the violation of the energy conservation within any comoving local volume, violation of the limiting recession velocity of galaxies for the observed high redshift objects. Possible observational tests of the nature of the cosmological redshift are discussed

  5. Paradoxes of cosmological physics in the beginning of the 21-st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baryshev, Yurij

    2015-01-01

    In the history of cosmology physical paradoxes played important role for development of contemporary world models. Within the modern standard cosmological model there are both observational and conceptual cosmological paradoxes which stimulate to search their solution. Confrontation of theoretical predictions of the standard cosmological model with the latest astrophysical observational data is considered. A review of conceptual problems of the Friedmann space expending models, which are in the bases of modern cosmological model, is discussed. The main paradoxes, which are discussed in modern literature, are the Newtonian character of the exact Friedmann equation, the violation of the energy conservation within any comoving local volume, violation of the limiting recession velocity of galaxies for the observed high redshift objects. Possible observational tests of the nature of the cosmological redshift are discussed

  6. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R.; Pradal, M.-A.

    2014-11-20

    This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in the earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a fewmore »hundred m2 s?1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Because helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, but radiocarbon equilibrates slowly, it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the Southeast Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi in the deep ocean than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.« less

  7. Paradox Farm cold climate greenhouse Photo: Sue Wika Section I: Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    #12;#12;Contents Paradox Farm cold climate greenhouse Photo: Sue Wika Contents Section I Towards the Sun 17 Site and Space Planning 19 Documentation and Monitoring 21 Section III: Greenhouse Components Greenhouse Components 23 Foundations 24 Soil and Containers 25 Greenhouse Frames 27 Light

  8. The St. Petersburg Paradox and the Crash of High-Tech Stocks in 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Donald St. P.

    . P. RICHARDS During the late 1990s high technology growth stock prices were raised to unprecedented in which the valuation of growth stocks is related to the St. Petersburg paradox. Our conclusion- ball team; Fair game of chance; Geometric distribution; High technology stocks; Irrational exuberance

  9. BARRY LOEWER AND MARVIN BELZER HELP FOR THE GOOD SAMARITAN PARADOX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loewer, Barry

    with in this way. The "parad6x of the knower''4 goes like this: If Arabella is going to commit a murder FOR THE GOOD SAMARITAN PARADOX 119 murder. It seems to follow that Columbo ought to know that Arabella will commit a murder. Up to this point the best representation of the story in SDL seems to be: m-~ OKra, m

  10. Buffed energy landscapes: Another solution to the kinetic paradoxes of protein folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Steven S.

    Buffed energy landscapes: Another solution to the kinetic paradoxes of protein folding Steven S, February 6, 2003 The energy landscapes of proteins have evolved to be different from most random structure that is stable at biological temperatures leads to energy landscapes having a single dominant

  11. Megascience and the Powers and Paradoxes of Pushing Frontiers at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hoddeson, Lillian [University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois, United States

    2009-09-01

    To help begin the year of celebration of Fermilab's fortieth anniversary (June 15, 1967), this colloquium will characterize the special brand of bigger 'Big Science' that emerged at Fermilab under Robert R. Wilson and Leon M. Lederman, with attention not only to its powers and beauties but to some of its paradoxes, conflicts, and ironies, due in part to funding limitations.

  12. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium–heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth system models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Abernathey, R.

    2015-07-27

    This paper uses a suite of Earth system models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science, each of which results from an inconsistency between theoretically motivated global energy balances and direct observations. The helium–heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in Earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedimore »that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s?1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere and thus exhibit large gradients along isopycnals while radiocarbon equilibrates slowly and thus exhibits smaller gradients along isopycnals. Thus it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox, by increasing the transport of mantle helium to the surface more than it would radiocarbon. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the southeastern Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi below the thermocline than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so-called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.« less

  13. Renewable Electric Plant Information System user interface manual: Paradox 7 Runtime for Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) is a comprehensive database with detailed information on grid-connected renewable electric plants in the US. The current version, REPiS3 beta, was developed in Paradox for Windows. The user interface (UI) was developed to facilitate easy access to information in the database, without the need to have, or know how to use, Paradox for Windows. The UI is designed to provide quick responses to commonly requested sorts of the database. A quick perusal of this manual will familiarize one with the functions of the UI and will make use of the system easier. There are six parts to this manual: (1) Quick Start: Instructions for Users Familiar with Database Applications; (2) Getting Started: The Installation Process; (3) Choosing the Appropriate Report; (4) Using the User Interface; (5) Troubleshooting; (6) Appendices A and B.

  14. A model that solves to the wave-particle duality paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo V. Flores

    2014-10-13

    Bohmian mechanics solves the wave-particle duality paradox by introducing the concept of a physical particle that is always point-like and a separate wavefunction with some sort of physical reality. However, this model has not been satisfactorily extended to relativistic levels. Here we introduce a model of permanent point-like particles that works at any energy level. Our model seems to have the benefits of Bohmian mechanics without its shortcomings. We propose an experiment for which the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics and our model make different predictions.

  15. Western consciousness, absurdity, and rebellion: the influence of paradox in the early works of Albert Camus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanier, Clinton David

    1994-01-01

    comes from the Greek word paradoxon with the roots para, which means "contrary to, " and doza, which means "opinion. " To state it simply, paradox is defined as a statement which is contrary to accepted opinion. This simple definition has evolved over... valuable and enduring lessons. "' In 1914, Camus's father was drafted into the French army and was killed in the first battle of the Marne. Camus's mother moved herself and her two sons, Lucien, the eldest, and Albert, to the working-class district...

  16. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  17. To label or not to label, the GMO food paradox Is labeling of foods containing GMOs a consumer right? Or does labeling of GMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    To label or not to label, the GMO food paradox Is labeling of foods containing GMOs a consumer right? Or does labeling of GMO foods create a false warning? Are voluntary initiatives sufficient and government agencies? As States and the nation grapple with the GMO labeling paradox, the Finding Common

  18. An intuitive approach to inertial forces and the centrifugal force paradox in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-18

    As the velocity of a rocket in a circular orbit near a black hole increases, the outwardly directed rocket thrust must increase to keep the rocket in its orbit. This feature might appear paradoxical from a Newtonian viewpoint, but we show that it follows naturally from the equivalence principle together with special relativity and a few general features of black holes. We also derive a general relativistic formalism of inertial forces for reference frames with acceleration and rotation. The resulting equation relates the real experienced forces to the time derivative of the speed and the spatial curvature of the particle trajectory relative to the reference frame. We show that an observer who follows the path taken by a free (geodesic) photon will experience a force perpendicular to the direction of motion that is independent of the observers velocity. We apply our approach to resolve the submarine paradox, which regards whether a submerged submarine in a balanced state of rest will sink or float when given a horizontal velocity if we take relativistic effects into account. We extend earlier treatments of this topic to include spherical oceans and show that for the case of the Earth the submarine floats upward if we take the curvature of the ocean into account.

  19. Generated using version 3.2 of the official AMS LATEX template Slippery thermals and the cumulus entrainment paradox1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    entrainment paradox1 Steven C. Sherwood, Daniel Hern´andez-Deckers, and Maxime Colin Climate Change Research of momentum dilution for cumulus development are explored using a16 simple model of a heterogeneous entraining parcel. Without friction, parcels reach the upper17 troposphere even at a high entrainment rates ( (2 km

  20. The Faint Young Sun Paradox in the Context of Modern Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumin, Yurii V

    2015-01-01

    The Faint Young Sun Paradox comes from the fact that solar luminosity (2-4)x10^9 years ago was insufficient to support the Earth's temperature necessary for the efficient development of geological and biological evolution (particularly, for the existence of considerable volumes of liquid water). It remains unclear by now if the so-called greenhouse effect on the Earth can resolve this problem. An interesting alternative explanation was put forward recently by M.Krizek (New Ast. 2012, 17, 1), who suggested that planetary orbits expand with time due to the local Hubble effect, caused by the uniformly-distributed Dark Energy. Then, under a reasonable value of the local Hubble constant, it is easy to explain why the Earth was receiving an approximately constant amount of solar irradiation for a long period in the past and will continue to do so for a quite long time in future.

  1. Uinta Basin Oil and Gas Development Air Quality Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Production EASTERN UTAH BLM Proposed Leasing for Oil Shale and Tar Sands Development "Indian Country" ­ Regulatory Authority Controlled by the Tribes and EPA Oil Shale Leasing Tar Sands Leasing "Indian Country

  2. 05671_UintaWaterStudy | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXuRod Hunt (208)InventorHowParallel

  3. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  4. Table 3a. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs from...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a","W","-","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","Alabama","W","-","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","California","-","W","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","Colorado","W","W","W","W","-","-"...

  5. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  6. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside the cell, ARG can no longer gain access to the membrane-bound eNOS. These observations indicate that the 'L-arginine paradox' should not consider intracellular ARG concentration as a reference point.

  7. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  8. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone. Examination of upper Ismay cores identified seven depositional facies: open marine, middle shelf, inner shelf/tidal flat, bryozoan mounds, phylloid-algal mounds, quartz sand dunes, and anhydritic salinas. Lower Desert Creek facies include open marine, middle shelf, protomounds/collapse breccia, and phylloid-algal mounds. Mapping the upper Ismay zone facies delineates very prospective reservoir trends that contain porous, productive buildups around the anhydrite-filled intra-shelf basins. Facies and reservoir controls imposed by the anhydritic intra-shelf basins should be considered when selecting the optimal location and orientation of any horizontal drilling from known phylloidalgal reservoirs to undrained reserves, as well as identifying new exploration trends. Although intra-shelf basins are not present in the lower Desert Creek zone of the Blanding sub-basin, drilling horizontally along linear shoreline trends could also encounter previously undrilled, porous intervals and buildups. Technology transfer activities consisted of a technical presentation at a Class II Review conference sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory at the Center for Energy and Economic Diversification in Odessa, Texas. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  9. Characterization and interwell connectivity evaluation of Green Rver reservoirs, Wells Draw study area, Uinta Basin, Utah 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiazie, Joseph Uchechukwu

    2009-05-15

    in the Wells Draw study area where oil production response to implemented waterflood is poor and a better understanding of the reservoir connectivity is required to enhance future secondary oil recovery. Correlating the sand bodies between well locations...

  10. STRATAL PATTERNS OF THE WILLIAMS FORK (HUNTER CANYON) FORMATION, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ost, Rebekah Corrie

    2010-12-31

    highstand systems tracts. Units 2 and 3 both contain stacked, repetitive stratal packages interpreted as depositional sequences. Depositional sequences contain lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. A complicated interplay between eustatic...

  11. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, David Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    ), and are chemically distinct and therefore Renetically different from gases between 2450 and 2791 M (513C ci =-37.9 +-O.2%og 813C C2 =-26.4 0?.5%09 CI/Cl-3 = 0.88 0?.01). Gases of the latter group were probably derived from coalbeds that comprise the Cameo Group...

  12. AN INVESTIGATION OF DEWATERING FOR THE MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORTING PROCESS, PICEANCE CREEK BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehran, M.

    2013-01-01

    Commercially Producing Oil Shale: World Oil, Vol. 190, No.A Tech~ nology Assessment. of Oil Shale Development,"13th Oil Shale Symposium Proceedings, Colorado School of

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF DEWATERING FOR THE MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORTING PROCESS, PICEANCE CREEK BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehran, M.

    2013-01-01

    cost-effective source of crude oil if economically feasibleoil (Yen, 1976; Weeks et al. , 1974). costs of crude

  14. Rationale for finding and exploiting fractured reservoirs, based on the MWX/SHCT-Piceance basin experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    The deliverability of a reservoir depends primarily on its permeability, which, in many reservoirs, is controlled by a combination of natural fractures and the in situ stresses. Therefore it is important to be able to predict which parts of a basin are most likely to contain naturally fractured strata, what the characteristics of those fractures might be, and what the most likely in situ stresses are at a given location. This paper presents a set of geologic criteria that can be superimposed onto factors, such as levels of maturation and porosity development, in order to predict whether fractures are present once the likelihood of petroleum presence and reservoir development have been determined. Stress causes fracturing, but stresses are not permanent. A natural-fracture permeability pathway opened by one system of stresses may be held open by those stresses, or narrowed or even closed by changes of the stress to an oblique or normal orientation. The origin of stresses and stress anisotropies in a basin, the potential for stress to create natural fractures, and the causes of stress reorientation are examined in this paper. The appendices to this paper present specific techniques for exploiting and characterizing natural fractures, for measuring the present-day in situ stresses, and for reconstructing a computerized stress history for a basin.

  15. Evaluation of Production of Oil & Gas From Oil Shale in the Piceance Basin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 InfographiclighbulbsDepartmentDeveloping new| Department of Energy

  16. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2003-07-10

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado''. Optimizing development of highly heterogeneous reservoirs where porosity and permeability vary in unpredictable ways due to facies variations can be challenging. An important example of this is in the algal mounds of the Lower and Upper Ismay reservoirs of the Paradox Basin in Utah and Colorado. It is nearly impossible to develop a forward predictive model to delineate regions of better reservoir development, and so enhanced recovery processes must be selected and designed based upon data that can quantitatively or qualitatively distinguish regions of good or bad reservoir permeability and porosity between existing well control. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing offer new ways to see smaller features with more confidence, and to characterize the internal structure of reservoirs such as algal mounds. However, these methods have not been tested. This project will acquire cutting edge, three-dimensional, nine-component (3D9C) seismic data and utilize recently-developed processing algorithms, including the mapping of azimuthal velocity changes in amplitude variation with offset, to extract attributes that relate to variations in reservoir permeability and porosity. In order to apply advanced seismic methods a detailed reservoir study is needed to calibrate the seismic data to reservoir permeability, porosity and lithofacies. This will be done by developing a petrological and geological characterization of the mounds from well data; acquiring and processing the 3D9C data; and comparing the two using advanced pattern recognition tools such as neural nets. In addition, should the correlation prove successful, the resulting data will be evaluated from the perspective of selecting alternative enhanced recovery processes, and their possible implementation. The work is being carried out on the Roadrunner/Towaoc Fields of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, located in the southwestern corner of Colorado. Although this project is focused on development of existing resources, the calibration established between the reservoir properties and the 3D9C seismic data can also enhance exploration success. During the time period covered by this report, the majority of the project effort has gone into the permitting, planning and design of the 3D seismic survey, and to select a well for the VSP acquisition. The business decision in October, 2002 by WesternGeco, the projects' seismic acquisition contractor, to leave North America, has delayed the acquisition until late summer, 2003. The project has contracted Solid State, a division of Grant Geophysical, to carry out the acquisition. Moreover, the survey has been upgraded to a 3D9C from the originally planned 3D3C survey, which should provide even greater resolution of mounds and internal mound structure.

  17. Methane recovery from coalbeds project. Monthly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Progress made on the Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project (MRCP) is reported in the Raton Mesa Coal Region. The Uinta and Warrior basin reports have been reviewed and will be published and delivered in early December. A cooperative core test with R and P Coal Company on a well in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was negotiated. In a cooperative effort with the USGS Coal Branch on three wells in the Wind River Basin, desorption of coal samples showed little or no gas. Completed field testing at the Dugan Petroleum well in the San Juan Basin. Coal samples showed minimal gas. Initial desorption of coal samples suggests that at least a moderate amount of gas was obtained from the Coors well test in the Piceance Basin. Field work for the Piceance Basin Detailed Site Investigation was completed. In the Occidental Research Corporation (ORC) project, a higher capacity vacuum pump to increase CH/sub 4/ venting operations has been installed. Drilling of Oxy No. 12 experienced delays caused by mine gas-offs and was eventually terminated at 460 ft after an attempt to drill through a roll which produced a severe dog leg and severely damaged the drill pipe. ORC moved the second drill rig and equipment to a new location in the same panel as Oxy No. 12 and set the stand pipe for Oxy No. 13. Drill rig No. 1 has been moved east of the longwall mining area in anticipation of drilling cross-panel on 500 foot intervals. Waynesburg College project, Equitable Gas Company has received the contract from Waynesburg College and has applied to the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission for a new tariff rate. Waynesburg College has identified a contractor to make the piping connections to the gas line after Equitable establishes their meter and valve requirements.

  18. A second row Parking Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Fleurke; C. Kuelske

    2008-11-28

    We consider two variations of the discrete car parking problem where at every vertex of the integers a car arrives with rate one, now allowing for parking in two lines. a) The car parks in the first line whenever the vertex and all of its nearest neighbors are not occupied yet. It can reach the first line if it is not obstructed by cars already parked in the second line (screening). b) The car parks according to the same rules, but parking in the first line can not be obstructed by parked cars in the second line (no screening). In both models, a car that can not park in the first line will attempt to park in the second line. If it is obstructed in the second line as well, the attempt is discarded. We show that both models are solvable in terms of finite-dimensional ODEs. We compare numerically the limits of first and second line densities, with time going to infinity. While it is not surprising that model a) exhibits an increase of the density in the second line from the first line, more remarkably this is also true for model b), albeit in a less pronounced way.

  19. Langevin's `Twin Paradox' paper revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Field

    2015-08-04

    An in-depth and mathematically-detailed analysis of Langevin's popular 1911 article on the special theory of relativity is presented. For the reader's convenience, English translations of large parts of the original French text are given. The self-contradictory nature of many of Langevin's assertions is pointed out. Of special interest is the analysis of the exchange of light signals between the travelling and stay-at-home twins in Langevin's thought experiment, in which antinomies are found in the conventional relativistic treatment. Their resolution shows that the physical basis of the differential aging effect in the experiment is not `length contraction', as in the conventional interpretation, but instead the application of the correct relative velocity transformation formula. The spurious nature of the correlated `length contraction' and `relativity of simultaneity' effects of conventional special relativity is also demonstrated. In consequence, an argument given, claiming to demonstrate that an upper limit of $c$ on the speed of any physical signal is required by causality, is invalid. Its conclusion is also in contradiction with astronomical observations and the results of a recent experiment.

  20. Cultivating Sustainable Coffee: Persistent Paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bacon, Christopher M.; Mendez, Ernesto; Fox, Jonathan A

    2008-01-01

    G. Schroth et al. Island. Starbucks Coffee. 2005. Beyond thecelebrate together when Starbucks, McDonald's, and Procterthreat to campaign against Starbucks after the Seattle World

  1. Teaching Quantum Physics Without Paradoxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobson, Art

    that fundamental fields such as the electromagnetic (EM) field are physi- cally real, and not simply mathematical continuous but energetically quantized fields. But because the resolution resides in quantum field theory.) of introduc- tory quantum physics, and I certainly do not propose teaching quantum field theory

  2. The KLEIN -paradox Werner Schosser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a conventional semiconductor (from [2]) Electronic states in graphene (from [2]) - chemical potential - velocity for nonchiral semiconductor even though the dispersion for both bilayer graphene and conventional semiconductor of Chirality KLEIN ­ Tunneling in Single-layer Graphene KLEIN ­ Tunneling and Conductivity KLEIN ­ Tunneling

  3. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  4. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsparg, Paul (Cornell University) [Cornell University

    2009-05-06

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  5. Nanoparticles and atherosclerosis : resolving the paradox 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftis, Jennifer

    2013-11-29

    Air pollution is increasingly recognised as an important and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Exposure is associated with a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina and myocardial infarction...

  6. LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

  7. Information-driven societies and Fermi's paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for accelerating the expansion of our Universe in recent cosmic times, and Cold Dark Matter (CDM) responsible is increasingly focused on information. If ETCs shared a similar growth pattern, and if advanced physics allows an amazing variety of observations. However, there are cracks in its foundation: why does CDM require

  8. The Nitrogen Paradox in Tropical Forest Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , by an abundance of N-fixing plants, and by sustained export of bioavailable N at the ecosystem scale. However and biogeochemical cycles through their vast exchanges of energy, water, carbon, and nutrients with the global, recycle, and export (via leaching and denitrification) very large quantities of N (e.g., Davidson et al

  9. Paradoxical Interpretations of Urban Scaling Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottineau, Clementine; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Scaling laws are powerful summaries of the variations of urban attributes with city size. However, the validity of their universal meaning for cities is hampered by the observation that different scaling regimes can be encountered for the same territory, time and attribute, depending on the criteria used to delineate cities. The aim of this paper is to present new insights concerning this variation, coupled with a sensitivity analysis of urban scaling in France, for several socio-economic and infrastructural attributes from data collected exhaustively at the local level. The sensitivity analysis considers different aggregations of local units for which data are given by the Population Census. We produce a large variety of definitions of cities (approximatively 5000) by aggregating local Census units corresponding to the systematic combination of three definitional criteria: density, commuting flows and population cutoffs. We then measure the magnitude of scaling estimations and their sensitivity to city defin...

  10. Open Access: From Myth to Paradox

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ginsparg, Paul [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

    2010-01-08

    True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

  11. The Paradoxes of Military Risk Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.W.

    Johnson,C.W. A.G. Boyer and N.J. Gauthier (eds.), Proceedings of the 25th International Systems Safety Conference, Baltimore, USA, International Systems Safety Society, Unionville, VA, USA. pp 859-869

  12. Acknowledgement and the Paradox of Tragedy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evers, Daan; Deng, Natalja

    2015-05-08

    to yourself. If you hear someone make a racist statement, you may feel irritation. You would not feel this unless you were against racism yourself. But in order for your irritation to arise, you needn’t have been thinking consciously about your own commitments...

  13. Jacquette on Grelling’s Paradox 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketland, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    This discusses a mistake (concerning what a definition is) in “Grelling’s revenge”, Analysis 64, 251-6 (2004), by Dale Jacquette, who claims that the simple theory of types is inconsistent.

  14. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  15. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text briefly discusses the nature of these questions. Section I.2 briefly discusses the objective of the study with respect to the problems reviewed.

  16. Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A. Lee, W. John

    2010-12-15

    Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty surrounding potential unconventional gas resources.

  17. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed by overlying argillaceous and non-fractured units. The best outcrop analogs for Twin Creek reservoirs are found at Devils Slide and near the town of Peoa, Utah, where fractures in dense, homogeneous non-porous limestone beds are in contact with the basal siltstone units (containing sealed fractures) of the overlying units. The shallow marine, Mississippian Leadville Limestone is a major oil and gas reservoir in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado. Hydrocarbons are produced from basement-involved, northwest-trending structural traps with closure on both anticlines and faults. Excellent outcrops of Leadville-equivalent rocks are found along the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. For example, like the Leadville, the Mississippian Madison Limestone contains zones of solution breccia, fractures, and facies variations. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. In the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of: (1) owning drilling rigs and frac holding tanks; (2) perforating sandstone beds with more than 8 percent neutron porosity and stimulate with separate fracture treatments; (3) placing completed wells on primary production using artificial lift; (4) converting wells relatively soon to secondary waterflooding maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point to maximize oil recovery; (5) developing waterflood units using an alternating injector--producer pattern on 40-acre (16-ha) spacing; and (6) recompleting producing wells by perforating all beds that are productive in the waterflood unit. As part of technology transfer activities during this quarter, an abstract describing outcrop reservoir analogs was accepted by the American Assoc

  18. Gut Microbiota and the Paradox of Cancer Immunotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poutahidis, Theofilos

    It is recently shown that beneficial environmental microbes stimulate integrated immune and neuroendocrine factors throughout the body, consequently modulating regulatory T-lymphocyte phenotypes, maintaining systemic immune ...

  19. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Energy Target (MRET) (Australia), 94, 220 Matas, Jaume, 179 McGinty, Kathleen, 142–?43 Mexico,

  20. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Fundación Príncipe de Asturias. 2007. Al Gore, Winner 2007:won the presti- gious Premio Príncipe de Asturias (Princeof Asturias Prize) for excellence in international

  1. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    taxes to assist Spanish governments with maximizing theirtaken by different Spanish governments toward economicas Costa explains, “the Spanish government understood that

  2. Sustainability and Market Conditions:The Resource Efficiency paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delmas, Magali; Pekovic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    in electric generation. Strategic Management Journal 19(12),organizing framework. Strategic Management Journal 19, 363-Utility Industry. Strategic Management Journal 13(1), 13-27.

  3. Cineplastic : temporal paradox in the movement-image medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Travis W. (Travis Wesley)

    2006-01-01

    It could be argued that the term 'digital' as a prefix to architecture is evidence that contemporary design practice is lost in time. Modernity's predilection of spatial constructs over temporal ones continues to cast a ...

  4. Sustainability and Market Conditions:The Resource Efficiency paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delmas, Magali; Pekovic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Economics 23, 1- 14. Sustainability and Market Conditionsof environmental sustainability. Management InternationalJournal 44, 170-179. Sustainability and Market Conditions

  5. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    76; and emissions trading, 96–? 99; energy culture of, 65–?emissions trading, 15, 32–?34, 96–?99, Energy and Resourcesand emissions trading, 179, 184, 186–?87; energy culture of,

  6. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    on International Emissions Trading. Global Envi- ronmentalTask Group on Emissions Trading. Final Report: Introductionand Crawshaw, David. 2006. Emissions Trading Inquiry a Joke:

  7. Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Nestler 2005). Most commonly used psychoactive drugs are plant secondary metabolites (e.g. alkaloids secondary metabolites, including alkaloids such as nicotine, morphine and cocaine, are potent neurotoxins. However, the most commonly used drugs are plant neurotoxins that evolved to punish, not reward

  8. Paradoxical Republics: Tropes of Civic Longing in Postcolonial Caribbean Writing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    ni de artificios de oratoria para provocarlo. La elocuencia,and “artificios de oratoria” (oratory artifices) a

  9. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    national Climate Governance. Global Environmental Politicsof Global Climate Governance change and other environmentalenvironmental foreign policymakers in responding to global climate governance

  10. The Piracy Paradox: Innovation and Intellectual Property in Fashion Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprigman, Chris; Raustiala, K

    2006-01-01

    January 2006 to non-functional design elements. 30 Perhapstrade dress is limited to design elements that are “sourcenoted that few clothing design elements are protected under

  11. Information-Driven Societies and Fermi's Paradox Michael Lampton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the expansion of our Universe in recent cosmic times, and Cold Dark Matter (CDM) responsible for the rapid on information. If ETCs shared a similar growth pattern, and if advanced physics allows easier exploration variety of observations. However there are cracks in its foundation: why does CDM require at least six

  12. Ani Geh Bisrael: Zionism and the Paradox of Gay Rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Tallie Ben

    2007-01-01

    Ben Daniel Thinking Gender Ani Geh Bisrael: Zionism and thebumper stickers with the statement “Ani G’eh Bisrael,” which

  13. The Piracy Paradox: Innovation and Intellectual Property in Fashion Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprigman, Chris; Raustiala, K

    2006-01-01

    predict. Yet competition, innovation, and investment remaina constant stream of new innovation. Music, books, and theand technological innovations, as well as music, books,

  14. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    www.maec.es/es/Home/Documents/ESPA% C3%91AHACIAASIAYELPAC%comercial. Información Comercial Espa- ñola, ICE: Revista deCompromisos para España. Revista Espa- ñola de Salud Pública

  15. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    ecologistas critican la Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficien­ciaReferences / 241 ———. 2007. Estrategia española de cambio2002. Críticas ecologistas a la estrategia española para el

  16. Latino, Eu? The Paradoxical Interplay of Identity in Brazuca Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosta, Antonio Luciano

    2004-09-01

    in Belchior Neto's novel arrive in the US via Mexico and from San Diego they travel to cities such as Cambridge, Lowell and Fall River in Massachusetts, as well as to places in New York and New Jersey—some of the areas where the biggest Brazilian... Manhattan by Silviano Santiago, who is a character "pouco latino na sua beleza baby face" (Santiago 44) and Ana Celia, a character in Febre Brasil em Nova York, who is a "brasileirinha loira, de olhos tao azuis, que mais parecia uma alema" (Guimar&es 25...

  17. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    bilateral agreements on security and energy matters. PerhapsEnergy Development and Energy Security. Paper presented toAshok. 2007. India and Energy Security. Asian Affairs 38 (

  18. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Diesendorf, Mark. 2003. Is “Clean Coal” an Oxymoron? Papercarbon sequestration and “clean coal” technology, for which149, 191, 206. See also clean coal Carr, Bob, 96 cars, 35,

  19. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    able natural wealth. Energy exports earn more than $54s economic dependence on energy exports would inevitablyinstead on the export of nonrenewable energy, minerals and

  20. Sustainability and Market Conditions:The Resource Efficiency paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delmas, Magali; Pekovic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Strategy, Corporate Sustainability, Energy Efficiency,of Sustainability and Market Conditions energy conservationSustainability and Market Conditions LITERATURE REVIEW Energy

  1. Sustainability and Market Conditions:The Resource Efficiency paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delmas, Magali; Pekovic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Strategy, Corporate Sustainability, Energy Efficiency,of Sustainability and Market Conditions energy conservationSustainability and Market Conditions LITERATURE REVIEW Energy and

  2. Sustainability and Market Conditions:The Resource Efficiency paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delmas, Magali; Pekovic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The Determinants of ISO 9000 Certification: A Comparison ofWhy firms seek ISO 9000 certification: Regulatory compliance

  3. Sustainability and Market Conditions:The Resource Efficiency paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delmas, Magali; Pekovic, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    C. , 2009. Increasing energy and resource efficiency throughor services. Energy and resource efficiency practices haveproportion of energy and resource efficiency improvement

  4. Migration Chronicles: Reporting on the Paradoxes of Migrant Visibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    in the history of migration from Mexico to the U.S. Themigration experience, awarded prizes to authors living in both the U.S. and Mexicomigration as it relates to the village of Cherán, a traditional sending community in the mountains of western Mexico.

  5. Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wozny, Nathan

    It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

  6. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    pdf. Sharma, Ashok. 2007. India and Energy Security. Asianof New and Renewable Energy [India]). 2006. Eleventh Planglobal.factiva.com. India’s Energy Portal, n.d. Indian

  7. The paradox of conformational constraint in the design of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borgstahl, Gloria

    . Borgstahl1 & Amarnath Natarajan1 1 Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University

  8. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    energy sup- plies and developing relations with numerous fossil fuel exporting coun- tries, including Venezuela, Nigeria,

  9. The Piracy Paradox: Innovation and Intellectual Property in Fashion Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprigman, Chris; Raustiala, K

    2006-01-01

    Sprigman: IP and Fashion Design Working Draft: January 2006distributed) fashion designs. See, e.g. Imperial Homes Corp.Sprigman: IP and Fashion Design Working Draft: January 2006

  10. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    critican la Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficien­cia Energéticaacronym for Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética enin Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en

  11. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    ozone protection, desertification, biolog- ical diversity,rise; increas- ing desertification above the 31.5 percent ofchange itself — increased desertification and soil erosion,

  12. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    of New and Renewable Energy [India]). 2006. Eleventh PlanMinistry of New and Renewable Energy (India) Ministry ofof New and Renewable Energy (India), 110 mitigation, ix 2–?

  13. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    a countrywide “hydraulic artery system” of dams and channelshydraulic artery system. Therefore, between 1939 and 1955 a relatively small number of dams

  14. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil Shale Development in the Uinta Basin Utah Michael Vanden Berg Paul Anderson Janae Wallace Craig...

  15. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  16. ForestRangelandandWatershedStewardship 1472CampusDelivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lessons From 35 Years of Research on Oil Shale Lands in the Piceance Basin Fort Collins Fort Collins with oil shale extraction. The project involved approximately ten independent field studies, which were established on a 20-ha site located near what was then the focal point of oil shale activity in the Piceance

  17. Microsoft Word - S07285_LTHMP

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to fracture the tight, gas-bearing formations in the Piceance Basin for enhanced natural gas production. A 43-kiloton device was detonated on September 10, 1969, at a...

  18. Microsoft Word - S06010_Ltr.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to fracture the tight, gas-bearing formations in the Piceance Basin for enhanced natural gas production. A 43 kiloton device was detonated on September 10, 1969, at a...

  19. Microsoft Word - S04902_LetterReport Cover Letter.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to fracture the tight gas-bearing sandstone formations in the Piceance Basin for enhanced natural gas production. A 43 kiloton device was detonated on September 10, 1969, at a...

  20. Microsoft Word - S08407_LTHMP

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to fracture the tight, gas-bearing formations in the Piceance Basin for enhanced natural gas production. A 43-kiloton device was detonated on September 10, 1969, at a...

  1. RETORT ABANDONMENT -- ISSUES AND RESEARCH NEEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Water Management In Oil Shale Mining, Golder Associates,R. D. , IIDisposal of oil Shale Ash,1I Quarterly of theRequirements at an oil Shale Surface Mine, Piceance Creek

  2. Solution to the Twin Paradox : The problem of the twin paradox can be solved with the use of proper time and proper acceleration. Let

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    that the clock in K remains inertial, we only need to concern ourselves with the calculation of the proper time. The proper time is calculated via : Where : If the ship is travelling at a constant velocity time on the ship is thus : While for the person in K, aka on earth the elapsed time is : This time

  3. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah","Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  4. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah which displays large-scale dunal cross-strata with excellent reservoir properties and interdunal features such as oases, wadi, and playa lithofacies with poor reservoir properties. Hydrocarbons in the Paradox Formation are stratigraphically trapped in carbonate buildups (or phylloid-algal mounds). Similar carbonate buildups are exposed in the Paradox along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. Reservoir-quality porosity may develop in the types of facies associated with buildups such as troughs, detrital wedges, and fans, identified from these outcrops. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. During this quarter, technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting the project plans, objectives, and products at a booth at the 2003 annual convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. The project home page was updated on the Utah Geological Survey Internet web site.

  5. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    accumulated production from conventional crude oil, 371 butaccumulated production of conventional crude oil as z-bar ).crude oil before the model would switch to continuous production

  6. Narrative and (Meta)Physical Paradox in "Grande Sertao: Veredas" and "Pedro Paramo"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Caroline LeFeber

    2011-01-01

    Inclán, Gallegos and Asturias,” 803 Fuentes claims, and heInclán, Gallegos y Asturias” … “como lo recomendó Maquiaveloin her book: With Borges, Asturias, Carpentier, Rulfo, and

  7. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    substitutes, as conventional crude oil and shale oil are, aresults when the price of crude oil in the latter period ismotive to expel the crude oil and natural gas is another

  8. Paradoxical effects of cost reduction measures in managed care systems for treatment of severe psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    100% of the cost of a home light unit. With less out-of-rate for one year with home light, companies can potentiallycovering the cost of a home light unit or eliminating office

  9. The paradoxical Peking opera : performing tradition, history, and politics in 1949-1967 China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Fan

    2012-01-01

    containing propaganda for feudalism and capitalism should beContaining Propaganda of Feudalism and Capitalism. ” theproduction, and favored feudalism. Of course, it might also

  10. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    costs and freeze in power prices led many power companies tocycle -- a severe power shortage has led to an inferiorThe Northwest Electric Power Bureau was led by the Northwest

  11. Calligraphy, Poetry, and Paradoxical Power in Wenda Gu’s Neon Calligraphy Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cateforis, David

    2010-01-01

    Many contemporary Chinese artists demonstrate a strong interest in calligraphy, which they creatively reinterpret in the context of China’s swift economic development, physical modernization, and social and cultural ...

  12. A Morta de Oswald de Andrade: A Emergência de uma mímesis Paradoxal no Teatro Brasileiro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasconcelos Avelar, Idelber

    1995-10-01

    , é em A Morta (1937), "peça de menor viabilidade cénica" (191), segundo Sábato Magaldi, que Oswald mais avança na elaboração de um teatro de vanguarda. Cai definitivamente a quarta parede que separa os espaços do espectador e da representação... teatral," "performance," mas principalmente em termos semióticos mais amplos, no sentido da relação particular que o texto oswaldiano estabelece entre o signo teatral—seja ele sonor, visual, etc.—e seu referente? Não basta dizer que em Oswald esta...

  13. Negotiating the paradoxes of poverty: presidential rhetoric on welfare from Johnson to Clinton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carcasson, Martin

    2005-02-17

    This project examines how Presidents Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton discussed issues of poverty and welfare from Johnson?s declaration of War on Poverty in 1964 to Clinton?s signing of the Personal...

  14. The paradox of controlling complex networks: control inputs versus energy requirement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Wenxu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the linear controllability framework for complex networks from a physical point of view. There are three main results. (1) If one applies control signals as determined from the structural controllability theory, there is a high probability that the control energy will diverge. Especially, if a network is deemed controllable using a single driving signal, then most likely the energy will diverge. (2) The energy required for control exhibits a power-law scaling behavior. (3) Applying additional control signals at proper nodes in the network can reduce and optimize the energy cost. We identify the fundamental structures embedded in the network, the longest control chains, which determine the control energy and give rise to the power-scaling behavior. (To our knowledge, this was not reported in any previous work on control of complex networks.) In addition, the issue of control precision is addressed. These results are supported by extensive simulations from model and real networks, ...

  15. The paradox of controlling complex networks: control inputs versus energy requirement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Zhong Chen; Lezhi Wang; Wenxu Wang; Ying-Cheng Lai

    2015-09-10

    In this paper, we investigate the linear controllability framework for complex networks from a physical point of view. There are three main results. (1) If one applies control signals as determined from the structural controllability theory, there is a high probability that the control energy will diverge. Especially, if a network is deemed controllable using a single driving signal, then most likely the energy will diverge. (2) The energy required for control exhibits a power-law scaling behavior. (3) Applying additional control signals at proper nodes in the network can reduce and optimize the energy cost. We identify the fundamental structures embedded in the network, the longest control chains, which determine the control energy and give rise to the power-scaling behavior. (To our knowledge, this was not reported in any previous work on control of complex networks.) In addition, the issue of control precision is addressed. These results are supported by extensive simulations from model and real networks, physical reasoning, and mathematical analyses. Notes on the submission history of this work: This work started in late 2012. The phenomena of power-law energy scaling and energy divergence with a single controller were discovered in 2013. Strategies to reduce and optimize control energy was articulated and tested in 2013. The senior co-author (YCL) gave talks about these results at several conferences, including the NETSCI 2014 Satellite entitled "Controlling Complex Networks" on June 2, 2014. The paper was submitted to PNAS in September 2014 and was turned down. It was revised and submitted to PRX in early 2015 and was rejected. After that it was revised and submitted to Nature Communications in May 2015 and again was turned down.

  16. The Paradox of Domesticity: Resistance to the Myth of Home in Contemporary American Literature and Film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Kimberly O'Dell

    2012-07-16

    about mobility, historical and popular culture representations of the tramp, the body and surveillance, the home as spatial construct, and housekeeping as both oppressive and subversive. Drawing on historical and theoretical examinations of women within...

  17. Juegos paradojicos y maquinas termicas Paradoxical games and Brownian thermal engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrondo, Juan M.R.

    sobre motores moleculares y discutimos c´omo una Termodin´amica de motores brownianos ser´a b´asica para

  18. Holographic Thermalization, stability of AdS, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkat Balasubramanian; Alex Buchel; Stephen R. Green; Luis Lehner; Steven L. Liebling

    2014-06-16

    For a real massless scalar field in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, we uncover a large class of spherically symmetric initial conditions that are close to AdS, but whose numerical evolution does not result in black hole formation. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary, these bulk solutions are dual to states of a strongly interacting boundary CFT that fail to thermalize at late times. Furthermore, as these states are not stationary, they define dynamical CFT configurations that do not equilibrate. We develop a two-timescale perturbative formalism that captures both direct and inverse cascades of energy and agrees with our fully nonlinear evolutions in the appropriate regime. We also show that this formalism admits a large class of quasi-periodic solutions. Finally, we demonstrate a striking parallel between the dynamics of AdS and the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem.

  19. Remarks On The PARRONDO PARADOX Shalosh B. EKHAD 1 and Doron ZEILBERGER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    ;nitely many cities labelled by the integers. The train company Y (resp. Z) has service from city n by a Maple package PARRONDO downloadable from Zeilberger's website. 2 If your current capital is n dollars #12; The Maple Package PARRONDO Tells You the BEST Periodic Strategy The Maple package PARRONDO far

  20. Remarks On The PARRONDO PARADOX Shalosh B. EKHAD 1and Doron ZEILBERGER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    apt spatial analog. Suppose that we have infinitely * *many cities labelled by the integers is accompanied by a* * Maple package PARRONDO downloadable from Zeilberger's website. 2 If your current Package PARRONDO Tells You the BEST Periodic Strategy The Maple package PARRONDO far extends

  1. Extreme diversity in noncalcifying haptophytes explains a major pigment paradox in open oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris-Brosou, Stéphane

    and Statistics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 Communicated by W. A. Berggren, Woods Hole have significantly impacted the oceanic carbon pump. These results add to the growing evidence

  2. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    and collective-owned power stations sprouted quickly. Inand handling nuclear power station crisis management. See ?management to safety of power stations. The role of the MOF

  3. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    the cross-regional power exchange and administers the grandexample, there is little power exchange in Northeast China

  4. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations, Zeno's Paradox, and the Spectacular Financial Crisis of 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Donald St. P.

    designed in 2006 as a new product in the "synthetic" collateralized debt obligation market. CPDOs were-case scenario in which the coin is two-headed, we show that the goal of attaining the Cash-In event in a finite. In the worst-case scenario in which the coin is two-tailed, we prove that the Cash-Out event occurs in exactly

  5. Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. x, 200x, no. xx, xxx -xxx A Paradox of Altruism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    about Future Generations Can Result in Poverty for Everyone (Game-Theoretic Analysis) Tanja Magoc to disastrous "solutions" such as universal poverty. In other words, seemingly reasonable altruism can lead

  6. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    of replacing one fossil fuel with another or with renewablecontinue to over-consume fossil fuels because the costs ofremaining stock of fossil fuel. As S were to be depleted and

  7. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    as expected by Hotelling and peak oil models, but ratherspeaking, oil and gas fields begin at close to peak

  8. Where the Green Is: Examining the Paradox of Environmentally Conscious Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muldoon, Annie

    2006-01-01

    New York: William Morrow. Benyus, J.M. (1998, October 8).New York: Vintage Books. Benyus, J.M. (1997). Biomimicry:and no toxic outputs. (Benyus, 1997, p. 135) As science

  9. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    of Loss in the Ertan Hydropower Project). ? In Yingxiang17 Due to sensitivity of hydropower performance to seasonalwater resources for future hydropower development. Among 156

  10. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    33:61 choice of an alternative energy source. 27 In thisefforts to make alternative energy more cost-effective andthe support of alternative energy technologies, only

  11. Paradoxical effects of cost reduction measures in managed care systems for treatment of severe psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    A. The annual cost of psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28(Camisa C. Handbook of psoriasis. Malden, Mass. : ; BlackwellGottlieb AB, National Psoriasis Foundation ( U.S. ). Therapy

  12. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    Conspirators 5. Independent Power Producers: The VanishingStock Ownership Plan Independent Power Producer IndependentFirstly, private independent power producers (IPPs) were

  13. Exciton Lifetime Paradoxically Enhanced by Dissipation and Decoherence - Toward Efficient Energy Conversion of Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuhiro Yamada; Youhei Yamaji; Masatoshi Imada

    2015-02-25

    Energy dissipation and decoherence are at first glance harmful to acquiring long exciton lifetime desired for efficient photovoltaics. In the presence of both optically forbidden (namely, dark) and allowed (bright) excitons, however, they can be instrumental as suggested in photosynthesis. By simulating quantum dynamics of exciton relaxations, we show that the optimized decoherence that imposes a quantum-to-classical crossover with the dissipation realizes a dramatically longer lifetime. In an example of carbon nanotube, the exciton lifetime increases by nearly two orders of magnitude when the crossover triggers stable high population in the dark exciton.

  14. The paradoxical Peking opera : performing tradition, history, and politics in 1949-1967 China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Fan

    2012-01-01

    integrity were normally given a color black. “Characters represent certain standardized and clearly gendered personalities

  15. Exciton Lifetime Paradoxically Enhanced by Dissipation and Decoherence - Toward Efficient Energy Conversion of Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Energy dissipation and decoherence are at first glance harmful to acquiring long exciton lifetime desired for efficient photovoltaics. In the presence of both optically forbidden (namely, dark) and allowed (bright) excitons, however, they can be instrumental as suggested in photosynthesis. By simulating quantum dynamics of exciton relaxations, we show that the optimized decoherence that imposes a quantum-to-classical crossover with the dissipation realizes a dramatically longer lifetime. In an example of carbon nanotube, the exciton lifetime increases by nearly two orders of magnitude when the crossover triggers stable high population in the dark exciton.

  16. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    drilling and development is costly, and the infrastructure to sustain on-going operations is costly to install; all these costs

  17. The political effectiveness of non-state violence : paradox, polarity, and the pursuit of power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Peter John Paul

    2011-01-01

    When is non-state violence politically effective? Existing scholarship suggests that insurgency and terrorism are generally effective or ineffective based on the analysis of unitary non-state coercers operating solely at ...

  18. RESOLVING AMERICA’S HUMAN CAPITAL PARADOX: A PROPOSAL FOR A JOBS COMPACT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochan, Thomas Anton

    It’s generally understood that the United States can’t be competitive—and won’t be able to support high, and rising, living standards—without a well-trained, well-paid, and continuously improving workforce that can compete ...

  19. Absence of a vestigial vapor pressure paradox John F. Nagle1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Building 459, Station 18, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 Received

  20. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    Ningling Wang. 2009. ?Power Generation from Pulverized Coaland Opening up Power Generation 1985~1997 4. Restructuringcompete. Therefore, the power generation companies feel it

  1. Gassmann's fluid substitution paradox on carbonates: seismic and ultrasonic frequencies Ludmila Adam 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and butane saturation. This is observed for both seismic and ultrasonic frequencies which involve independent for brine saturation, and is less for dry samples. This effect should also be considered when studying data on carbonate reservoir rocks have not been as thoroughly studied as clastic sedimentary reservoir

  2. Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. x, 200x, no. xx, xxx xxx A Paradox of Altruism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    about Future Generations Can Result in Poverty for Everyone (Game­Theoretic Analysis) Tanja Mago to disastrous ``solutions'' such as universal poverty. In other words, seemingly reasonable altruism can lead

  3. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    Airlines China Southern Power Grid Employee Stock Ownershipand China Southern Power Grid, which own the networkof power plants and power grids (changwang fenkai) and the

  4. The Bug-Rivet Paradox An idealised bug of negligible dimensions is hiding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    of length L . A rivet has a shaft length of a = the Lorentz factor). From the point of view (frame of reference) of the bug, the rivet shaft is even shorter to travel down the shaft of the rivet. Until each part of the shaft receives the information that the rivet

  5. Paradox of Peroxy Defects and Positive Holes in Rocks - Part I: Effect of Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freund, Friedemann T

    2015-01-01

    Though ubiquitous in minerals of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, peroxy defects have been widely overlooked in the past. The charge carriers of interest are positive holes, chemically equivalent to O$^-$ in a matrix of O$^{2-}$, physically defect electrons in the O$^{2-}$ sublattice, highly mobile, able to propagate fast and far. O$^-$ are oxidized relative to O$^{2-}$. As such O$^-$ are not supposed to exist in minerals and rocks that come from deep within the Earth crust or upper mantle, where the environments are overwhelmingly reduced. In order to understand how peroxy defects are introduced, we look at peroxy defects in a crystallographically and compositionally well characterized model system: single crystals of nominally high-purity MgO, grown from the melt under highly reducing conditions. During crystallization the MgO crystals incorporate OH$^-$ through dissolution of traces of H$_2$O into the MgO matrix, leading to a solid solution (ss) Mg$_{1-\\delta}$(OH)$_{2\\delta}$O$_{1-2\\delta}$, wher...

  6. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    zhongguo dianli chanye (China‘s Electricity Industry at themulti_page.pdf. State Electricity Regulatory Commission.The Annual Report on Electricity Regulation (2006). Beijing:

  7. Voice v. Vote: The Supreme Court's Paradox of Political Participation in American Liberalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snickars, Eric Stephen

    2015-01-01

    107-155 (2002). These "blackout" periods constituted the 30U.S. Supreme Court struck this "blackout" provision that hadadvertisement, and corporate blackout provisions of the BCRA

  8. Quantum Information Cannot Be Completely Hidden in Correlations: Implications for the Black-Hole Information Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braunstein, Samuel L.

    5DD, United Kingdom 2 Institute of Physics, Sainik School Post, Bhubaneswar-751005, Orissa, India, this classical result has fueled the conjecture that while black-hole information cannot strictly be found within whose details are unknown to her. In addition, she shares one-half of an entangled state with Bob. Alice

  9. Return of the Solow Paradox? IT, Productivity, and Employment in US Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    An increasingly influential "technological-discontinuity" paradigm suggests that IT-induced technological changes are rapidly raising productivity while making workers redundant. This paper explores the evidence for this ...

  10. Where the Green Is: Examining the Paradox of Environmentally Conscious Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muldoon, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Creating the next industrial revolution. Boston: Little,items began with the industrial revolution. Mass goods werewrite of the next “industrial revolution”, where, aided by ‘

  11. Is a Green Paradox Spectre Haunting International Climate Change Laws and Conventions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partain, Roy Andrew

    2015-01-01

    solar energy and nuclear fusion as such reproducible inputs,381. Herein Sinn suggested nuclear fusion as connected withlisting solar energy and nuclear fusion as examples of such

  12. The Paradox of Regulatory Development in China: The Case of the Electricity Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chung-min

    2010-01-01

    coal from inland to the coastal plants, the power companies bear high transportation and storage costs

  13. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone, or a low-permeability zone at the top of the Nugget. The Nugget Sandstone thrust belt play is divided into three subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored shallow structures, (2) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored deep structures, and (3) Absaroka thrust - Paleozoic-cored shallow structures. Both of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays represent a linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline parallel to the leading edge of the Absaroka thrust. Fields in the shallow Mesozoic subplay produce crude oil and associated gas; fields in the deep subplay produce retrograde condensate. The Paleozoic-cored structures subplay is located immediately west of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays. It represents a very continuous and linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline where the Nugget is truncated against a thrust splay. Fields in this subplay produce nonassociated gas and condensate. Traps in these subplays consist of long, narrow, doubly plunging anticlines. Prospective drilling targets are delineated using high-quality, two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data, forward modeling/visualization tools, and other state-of-the-art techniques. Future Nugget Sandstone exploration could focus on more structurally complex and subtle, thrust-related traps. Nugget structures may be present beneath the leading edge of the Hogsback thrust and North Flank fault of the Uinta uplift. The Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone play in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province has produced over 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 93 billion cubic feet (2.6 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity Twin Creek is extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Twin Creek reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and clastic beds, and non-fractured units within the Twin Creek. The Twin Creek Limestone thrust belt play is divided into two subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust-Mesozoic-cored structures and (2) A

  14. The Hatsopoulos-Gyftopoulos resolution of the Schroedinger-Park paradox about the concept of "state" in quantum statistical mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Paolo Beretta

    2006-10-16

    A seldom recognized fundamental difficulty undermines the concept of individual ``state'' in the present formulations of quantum statistical mechanics (and in its quantum information theory interpretation as well). The difficulty is an unavoidable consequence of an almost forgotten corollary proved by E. Schroedinger in 1936 and perused by J.L. Park, Am. J. Phys., Vol. 36, 211 (1968). To resolve it, we must either reject as unsound the concept of state, or else undertake a serious reformulation of quantum theory and the role of statistics. We restate the difficulty and discuss a possible resolution proposed in 1976 by G.N. Hatsopoulos and E.P. Gyftopoulos, Found. Phys., Vol. 6, 15, 127, 439, 561 (1976).

  15. Ocean Heat Transport and Water Vapor Greenhouse in a Warm Equable Climate: A New Look at the Low Gradient Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Brian E. J.

    The authors study the role of ocean heat transport (OHT) in the maintenance of a warm, equable, ice-free climate. An ensemble of idealized aquaplanet GCM calculations is used to assess the equilibrium sensitivity of global ...

  16. Dancing the Carceral Creep: The Anti-Domestic Violence Movement and the Paradoxical Pursuit of Criminalization, 1973 - 1986

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    In Cause Lawyers and Social Movements, edited by A. Sarat,mobilization and social movements: A partial theory. ” TheFraming processes and social movements: An overview and

  17. The Paradoxes of Military Risk Assessment: Will the Enterprise Risk Assessment Model, Composite Risk Management and Associated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Chris

    Risk Management and Associated Techniques Provide the Predicted Benefits? Chris. W. Johnson, Glasgow: Johnson@dcs.gla.ac.uk; http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~johnson Keywords: Safety; Composite Risk Management, ERAM, Risk Assessment; Military Systems Engineering. Abstract Risk management provides the most important

  18. An important aspect of swimming is the ability to move efficiently. Paradoxically, early attempts at building fish-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Frank

    were calculated for the captive odontocete cetaceans Tursiops truncatus, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus propulsive efficiency data were available (Tursiops truncatus, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca), peak

  19. The Paradoxical Persistence of James Earle Fraser's End of the Trail: Nostalgia, Souvenirs, and the Politics of Pictorial Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrman, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Valley upon its purchase by Tulare County whose ForestryPress, 1973): 8. 14 Tulare County Historical Societywork's whereabouts, see Tulare County Historical Society

  20. The Paradox of the Primary-Secondary Quality Distinction and Husserl's Genealogy of the Mathematization of Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    feedback on earlier drafts David Carr, Andy Delunas, Lestershape. ” I thus follow David Carr’s translation of “Gestalt”picture of the world. David Carr suggests that ?usserl added

  1. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 1987;50:1160-1164 Paradoxical effects of temperature in multiple sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, David H.

    of temperature in multiple sclerosis W P H9NAN,*t J R HERON,*t D H FOSTER,t R S SNELGARt From the Department ofCommunication and Neurosciencet, University ofKeele, Keele, Staffordshire, UK . SUMMARY Six cases of multiple sclerosis function in multiple sclerosis. Uthoff1 described transient impairment of vision after exer- cise. Simons2

  2. Paradox of Peroxy Defects and Positive Holes in Rocks Part II: Outflow of Electric Currents from Stressed Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoville, John; Freund, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the electrical properties of rocks is of fundamental interest. We report on currents generated when stresses are applied. Loading the center of gabbro tiles, 30x30x0.9 cm$^3$, across a 5 cm diameter piston, leads to positive currents flowing from the center to the unstressed edges. Changing the constant rate of loading over 5 orders of magnitude from 0.2 kPa/s to 20 MPa/s produces positive currents, which start to flow already at low stress levels, <5 MPa. The currents increase as long as stresses increase. At constant load they flow for hours, days, even weeks and months, slowly decreasing with time. When stresses are removed, they rapidly disappear but can be made to reappear upon reloading. These currents are consistent with the stress-activation of peroxy defects, such as O$_3$Si-OO-SiO$_3$, in the matrix of rock-forming minerals. The peroxy break-up leads to positive holes h$^{\\bullet}$, i.e. electronic states associated with O$^-$ in a matrix of O$^{2-}$, plus electrons, e'. Propagating...

  3. Formulation and Analysis of Horizontal Mergers Among Oligopolistic Firms with Insights into the Merger Paradox: A Supply Chain Network Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    as the merger of Exxon and Mobil in the oil industry (see CNNMoney.com (1999)). The topic of mergers

  4. Few deaths before baptism: clerical policy, private baptism and the registration of births in Georgian Westminster: a paradox resolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boulton, Jeremy; Davenport, Romola

    2015-06-19

    , ‘Tokens of innocence: infant baptism, death and burial in early modern England’ in B. Gordon and P. Marshall, eds., The Place of the dead. Death and remembrance in late medieval and early modern Europe (Cambridge: 2000), 266-287 ; Y. T. Tjondrowardojo... becoming more common. The year 1777 marks a dramatic change, with the swift abolition of the 42d. baptism fee and its replacement (seemingly) with the 5s. (or so) fee. The 18d. fee became increasingly common at the same time. Another change is observable...

  5. Paradoxical expression of INK4c in proliferative multiple myeloma tumors: bi-allelic deletion vs increased expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dib, Amel

    Background: A high proliferative capacity of tumor cells usually is associated with shortened patient survival. Disruption of the RB pathway, which is critically involved in regulating the G1 to S cell cycle transition, ...

  6. Dispersed concentration of high-tech jobs in the new economy : the paradox of new information and communication technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Myoung-Gu, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    More high-tech firms are conducting their business over long distances due to the use of new information and communication technologies (ICT). However, regional scientists articulate that geographic proximity is still ...

  7. A solution to the subdiffusion-efficiency paradox: Inactive states enhance reaction efficiency at subdiffusion conditions in living cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leila Esmaeili Sereshki; Michael A. Lomholt; Ralf Metzler

    2012-03-08

    Macromolecular crowding in living biological cells effects subdiffusion of larger biomolecules such as proteins and enzymes. Mimicking this subdiffusion in terms of random walks on a critical percolation cluster, we here present a case study of EcoRV restriction enzymes involved in vital cellular defence. We show that due to its so far elusive propensity to an inactive state the enzyme avoids non-specific binding and remains well-distributed in the bulk cytoplasm of the cell. Despite the reduced volume exploration capability of subdiffusion processes, this mechanism guarantees a high efficiency of the enzyme. By variation of the non-specific binding constant and the bond occupation probability on the percolation network, we demonstrate that reduced non-specific binding are beneficial for efficient subdiffusive enzyme activity even in relatively small bacteria cells. Our results corroborate a more local picture of cellular regulation.

  8. The energy-water tug of war: Drought exacerbates the paradox of efficiently producing energy while conserving water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    ,? Webber said. ?If it?s drought from a heat wave, we might see rolling blackouts, and we might see power price spikes.? Webber?s and Stillwell?s research focuses on analyzing power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges... stream_source_info The energy-water tug of war.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 8445 Content-Encoding windows-1252 stream_name The energy-water tug of war.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=windows-1252...

  9. Unraveling the paradoxes of HIV-associated psoriasis: A review of T-cell subsets and cytokine profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fife, Douglas J; Waller, Jeanette M; Jeffes, Edward W; Koo, John YM

    2007-01-01

    P. Related Articles, Links Psoriasis regression in terminalC, Koo JY. HIV and psoriasis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol.Becker B, Berger TG. Psoriasis and human immunodeficiency

  10. The Paradoxical Persistence of James Earle Fraser's End of the Trail: Nostalgia, Souvenirs, and the Politics of Pictorial Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrman, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    appearance in rodeos and pop art, the work was neverthelessIndian and Lichtenstein's pop art revision of Fraser's workabstractions with traces of pop art, the later paintings are

  11. Flecainide exerts paradoxical effects on sodium currents and atrial arrhythmia in murine RyR2-P2328S hearts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvage, S. C.; King, J. H.; Chandrasekharan, K. H.; Jafferji, D. I. G.; Guzadhur, L.; Matthews, H. R.; Huang, C. L.-H.; Fraser, J. A.

    2015-04-23

    = 23) inbred 129/Sv mice (Harlan, UK) were kept in plastic cages at room temperature in 12-h light/dark cycles. Mice had free access to sterile rodent chow and water. All chemical agents were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Poole, UK) except where... +], thereby increasing forward-mode NCX activity, in turn reducing intracellular [Ca2+] (Sikkel et al. 2013). The alternative INa blockers, tetrodo- toxin, propafenone or lidocaine similarly reduced Ca2+ spark and wave frequency, and wave velocity in WT rat...

  12. Discontiguous States of America: The Paradox of Unincorporation in Craig Santos Perez’s Poetics of Chamorro Guam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Paul

    2011-01-01

    achiote stands in for transcontinental forces that enablewere central to the transcontinental, transregional movementoffering an Indigenous, transcontinental connection. The

  13. The Paradox of the Primary-Secondary Quality Distinction and Husserl's Genealogy of the Mathematization of Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Distinction and Husserl’s Genealogy of the MathematizationDistinction and Husserl’s Genealogy of the Mathematizationof meaning. Husserl’s genealogy of the mathematization

  14. The Paradoxical Persistence of James Earle Fraser's End of the Trail: Nostalgia, Souvenirs, and the Politics of Pictorial Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrman, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    intended to strengthen dedication to established leadership.Heritage Museum. 100 The dedication ceremony was attendedEnd of the Trail's dedication ceremony. 108 The placement of

  15. GEOMECHANICAL MODELING AS A RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOMECHANICAL MODELING AS A RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TOOL AT RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN _______________ ____________________ Dr. Terence K. Young Department Head Department of Geophysics ii #12;ABSTRACT Geomechanics is a powerful reservoir characterization tool. Geomechanical modeling is used here to understand how the in

  16. CX-004194: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cretaceous Mancos Shale Uinta Basin, Utah: Resource Potential and Best Practices For an Emerging ShaleCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1Date: 09/27/2010Location(s): Price, UtahOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  17. Slant hole completion test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.

  18. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes progress in the following tasks: high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the southern Piceance Basin of western Colorado; field performance site selection of Rulison Field for seismic acquisition which covers technical work to be performed; seismic acquisition processing and associated costs;theoretical background concerning P-wave multi-azimuth 3D seismic; field data examples of P-wave multi-azimuth data; and 3D basin modeling.

  19. The First Measurement of Spectral Lines in a Short-Period Star Bound to the Galaxy's Central Black Hole A Paradox of Youth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghez, A M; Matthews, K; Hornstein, S D; Tanner, A; Larkin, J; Morris, M; Becklin, E E; Salim, S; Kremenek, T; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Neugebauer, G; McLean, I

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained the first detection of spectral absorption lines in one of the high-velocity stars in the vicinity of the Galaxy's central supermassive black hole. Both Brgamma (2.1661 micron) and He I (2.1126 micron) are seen in absorption in S0-2 with equivalent widths (2.8+-0.3 Ang & 1.7+-0.4 Ang) and an inferred stellar rotational velocity (220+-40 km/s) that are consistent with that of an O8-B0 dwarf, which suggests that it is a massive (~15 Msun), young (<10 Myr) main sequence star. This presents a major challenge to star formation theories, given the strong tidal forces that prevail over all distances reached by S0-2 in its current orbit (130 - 1900 AU) and the difficulty in migrating this star inward during its lifetime from further out where tidal forces should no longer preclude star formation. The radial velocity measurements (-510+-40 km/s) and our reported proper motions for S0-2 strongly constrain its orbit, providing a direct measure of the black hole mass of 4.1(+-0.6)x10^6(Ro/8kpc)^3 ...

  20. The paradox of success: the roll of capital markets in determining British policy toward the European common currency, 1979-1996 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Caton Montgomery

    2013-02-22

    That Britain, one of Europe's largest economies, has opted not to adopt the European common currency (Euro) has puzzled students of the European Union for some time. As recent referenda demonstrate, Britons remain mysteriously cautious of monetary...

  1. Switzerland, a Country of Paradoxes: An Interview about Swiss Identity, Politics and Culture with Hugo Loetscher, Roger de Weck and Iso Camartin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dewulf, Jeroen; Feng, Kezhen; Hunsicker, Susan; Tweed, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    had a long history in Switzerland, with heavy nationalisticSwitzerland’s political system is considered slow andbetween French-speaking Switzerland and German-speaking

  2. Gravitational effectiveness of the zero-point energy of the radiation field: a possible solution of a paradox raised by Pauli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2010-06-08

    A modified vacuum energy density of the radiation field is evaluated, which leads to accepted prediction for the radius of the universe. The modification takes into account the existence of a new gauge boson which also can be used in order to determine the mass of the boson responsible for the weak decay of the muon.

  3. The power of the ideology of gender equality and the limitations of state bureaucracy : paradoxes in the institutionalization of gender equality policies in South Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Se-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    as a legitimate political actor, and former co- presidentsconservative social political actors. As an officer puts it:2007). However, other political actors’ understanding of the

  4. Liste der Originalpublikationen nach der Habilitation Schmitt R, Westhoff-Bleck M, Haller H, Wagner AD. Paradoxical renal embolism in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    . Single-nucleotide polymorphisms p53 G72C and Mdm2 T309G in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis

  5. Stability criteria and turbulence paradox problem for type II 3D shears This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Charles

    .202.225.230 The article was downloaded on 12/04/2012 at 02:22 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About­5]. There is a locally invariant slow manifold W. Local invariance means that orbits can enter or exit the manifold only

  6. Confounding variables and Simpson's paradox SCI 199Y A particularly intriguing type of confounding occurs when a confounding variable, once exposed,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Nancy

    -seventies, the tax rate in the United States was lowered for every category of income. However, people's income of the death penalty is about the same rate for white and black defendants, in fact, slightly higher for white applied to; it is hidden in a comparison of the overall admission rates. Here is another example, from

  7. Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc area of the Paradox Basin, UTE Mountain UTE Reservation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Hachey

    2007-09-30

    The goals of this project were: (1) To enhance recovery of oil contained within algal mounds on the Ute Mountain Ute tribal lands. (2) To promote the use of advanced technology and expand the technical capability of the Native American Oil production corporations by direct assistance in the current project and dissemination of technology to other Tribes. (3) To develop an understanding of multicomponent seismic data as it relates to the variations in permeability and porosity of algal mounds, as well as lateral facies variations, for use in both reservoir development and exploration. (4) To identify any undiscovered algal mounds for field-extension within the area of seismic coverage. (5) To evaluate the potential for applying CO{sub 2} floods, steam floods, water floods or other secondary or tertiary recovery processes to increase production. The technical work scope was carried out by: (1) Acquiring multicomponent seismic data over the project area; (2) Processing and reprocessing the multicomponent data to extract as much geological and engineering data as possible within the budget and time-frame of the project; (3) Preparing maps and data volumes of geological and engineering data based on the multicomponent seismic and well data; (4) Selecting drilling targets if warranted by the seismic interpretation; (5) Constructing a static reservoir model of the project area; and (6) Constructing a dynamic history-matched simulation model from the static model. The original project scope covered a 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) area encompassing two algal mound fields (Towaoc and Roadrunner). 3D3C seismic data was to acquired over this area to delineate mound complexes and image internal reservoir properties such as porosity and fluid saturations. After the project began, the Red Willow Production Company, a project partner and fully-owned company of the Southern Ute Tribe, contributed additional money to upgrade the survey to a nine-component (3D9C) survey. The purpose of this upgrade to nine components was to provide additional shear wave component data that might prove useful in delineating internal mound reservoir attributes. Also, Red Willow extended the P-wave portion of the survey to the northwest of the original 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) 3D9C area in order to extend coverage further to the northwest to the Marble Wash area. In order to accomplish this scope of work, 3D9C seismic data set covering two known reservoirs was acquired and processed. Three-dimensional, zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) data was acquired to determine the shear wave velocities for processing the sh3Dseismic data. Anisotropic velocity, and azimuthal AVO processing was carried out in addition to the conventional 3D P-wave data processing. All P-, PS- and S-wave volumes of the seismic data were interpreted to map the seismic response. The interpretation consisted of conventional cross-plots of seismic attributes vs. geological and reservoir engineering data, as well as multivariate and neural net analyses to assess whether additional resolution on exploration and engineering parameters could be achieved through the combined use of several seismic variables. Engineering data in the two reservoirs was used to develop a combined lithology, structure and permeability map. On the basis of the seismic data, a well was drilled into the northern mound trend in the project area. This well, Roadrunner No.9-2, was brought into production in late April 2006 and continues to produce modest amounts of oil and gas. As of the end of August 2007, the well has produced approximately 12,000 barrels of oil and 32,000 mcf of gas. A static reservoir model was created from the seismic data interpretations and well data. The seismic data was tied to various markers identified in the well logs, which in turn were related to lithostratigraphy. The tops and thicknesses of the various units were extrapolated from well control based upon the seismic data that was calibrated to the well picks. The reservoir engineering properties were available from a number of wel

  8. Comment on "Holographic Thermalization, stability of AdS, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou paradox" by V. Balasubramanian et al

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Bizo?; Andrzej Rostworowski

    2014-10-09

    We comment upon a numerical computation in a recent paper by Balasubramanian, Buchel, Green, Lehner, and Liebling.

  9. Paradoxes in laser heating of plasmonic nanoparticles This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanostructures in data storage technology, nanotechnology, chemistry, biophysics and bioengineering S Kivshar2 and Alexei R Khokhlov3,5 1 Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research are useful for a wide range of commercial devices. In recent years, the problem of laser heating of plasmonic

  10. UCDscholarcast (Spring 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    population is paradoxically represented as both criminal and compliant. Outside of a grisly murder scene

  11. 13.Phenolics p. 1 Phenylpropanoid metabolism II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constabel, Peter

    experiments) iii) resveratrol causes the "French Paradox" (?) (= low levels of cardiovascular disease despite

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  14. ELECTORAL BARRIERS TO TRADE:Measuring the Effects of Income and Political Participation on Trade Openness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boussalis, Constantine

    2007-01-01

    organizations such as WalMart which offer the highly-valuedThis phenomenon is herein named the "WalMart Paradox".The WalMart Paradox results, unintentionally, from two

  15. Operations Research and the Captivating Study of Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Paradox and Evolutionary Variational Inequalities · A New Network Performance/Efficiency Measure Networks Duke Energy Gas Pipeline Network Transportation, Communication, and Energy Networks #12;Components of Networks · The Transportation Network Equilibriumn Problem and Methodological Tools · The Braess Paradox

  16. Conjuring Blight in an Urban Landscape: Market Farms and Aerosol Murals in Oakland, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Jessica Weston

    2014-01-01

    architecture on social structures and bureaucratic processes, analyzing how the paradoxes of constructing an imagined future subvert its utopian

  17. Faster than Light Quantum Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Y. Shiekh

    2008-04-05

    Faster than light communication might be possible using the collapse of the quantum wave-function without any accompanying paradoxes.

  18. Analysis And Analyticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schick, Theodore W. Jr.

    229 ANALYSIS AND ANALYTICITY THEODORE W. SCHICK, JR. In this paper, I attempt to solve the paradox of analysis by eliminating certain ambiguities that have have plagued theories of property-identity and proposition-identity. The paradox...229 ANALYSIS AND ANALYTICITY THEODORE W. SCHICK, JR. In this paper, I attempt to solve the paradox of analysis by eliminating certain ambiguities that have have plagued theories of property-identity and proposition-identity. The paradox...

  19. Don't ever do that! Long-term duties in PDeL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Jesse

    of the nasty paradoxes that have plagued tra- ditional deontic logic (cf. Casta~neda (1981)), and secondly, we

  20. Incentive Thresholds, Risk-Taking, and Performance. Evidence from Hedge Funds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelef, Orie

    2012-01-01

    Reward Paradox for Strategic Management. ” Sloan Managementintervening model. ” Strategic Management Journal, 28:6, pp.on Firm Risk Taking. ” Strategic Management Journal, 28, pp.

  1. Author's personal copy Essay Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seevinck, Michiel

    pound sterling. Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective (henceforth: Representation), B. C together in four parts: I. Representation II. Windows, Engines and Measurements III. Structure

  2. Development of new-onset psoriasis in a patient receiving infliximab for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Chung-Yin Stanley; Browning, John C; Larsen, Fiona; Hsu, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    paradoxical worsening of psoriasis while on TNF-? inhibitorsbe determined. Because psoriasis is a heterogeneous disease,Knop J. Treatment of psoriasis with the chimeric monoclonal

  3. Principles of Software Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Bertrand

    , in theory, akin to sticking pins into a doll--very small pins, very large doll. The way out of the paradox

  4. The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a seemingly paradoxical scenario in the relationship between plant growth and climate change: warming may actually increase the risk of plant frost damage. The...

  5. Oogenesis in Unisexual Whiptail Lizards (genus Aspidoscelis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutes, Aracely

    2012-12-31

    Parthenogenesis is a reproductive mode that does not require males. Though theoretically advantageous, its rarity among metazoans suggests otherwise. Paradoxically, some unisexual species within the genus Aspidoscelis ...

  6. Feasibility/alternatives study for the planned replacement of Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, K.C.; Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-04

    This document is a study which describes the NMSS replacement alternatives and provides recommended solutions. It also describes a NMSS Paradox prototype.

  7. Screening Assessment of Potential Human-Health Risk from Future Natural-Gas Drilling Near Project Rulison in Western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels Jeffrey I.,Chapman Jenny B.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Rulison underground nuclear test was conducted in 1969 at a depth of 8,400 ft in the Williams Fork Formation of the Piceance Basin, west-central Colorado (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the steward of the site. Their management is guided by data collected from past site investigations and current monitoring, and by the results of calculations of expected behavior of contaminants remaining in the deep subsurface. The purpose of this screening risk assessment is to evaluate possible health risks from current and future exposure to Rulison contaminants so the information can be factored into LM's stewardship decisions. For example, these risk assessment results can inform decisions regarding institutional controls at the site and appropriate monitoring of nearby natural-gas extraction activities. Specifically, the screening risk analysis can provide guidance for setting appropriate action levels for contaminant monitoring to ensure protection of human health.

  8. A Requiem For Schrödinger's Cat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas L. Wilson

    2012-08-18

    It is pointed out that Schr\\"odinger's celebrated "cat" paradox contains a simple error in reasoning regarding the definition of life. It is then shown that there is no paradox in the context of life as we currently understand it.

  9. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  10. The role of mismatch repair in mediating cellular sensitivity to cisplatin : the Escherichia coli methyl-directed repair paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    The anticancer drug cisplatin is in widespread use but its mechanism of action is only poorly understood. Moreover, human cancers acquire resistance to the drug, which limits its clinical utility. A paradox in the field ...

  11. How Can Random Noise Help Us

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-03-18

    Basics of Random Walk – 2. 0. 5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. ?5. ?4. ?3. ?2. ?1. 0 ..... Back to Parrondo's Paradox. Playing Game A. . winning prob = 0.495.

  12. Markov-folyamatok s martinglok 3/1/0/v/5 Trgyfelel s: Balzs Mrton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ráth, Balázs

    case. Applications (e.g. Gambler's ruin, urn models, gambling, Wald identities, exponential martingales. Renewal processes: Laplace transform, convolution. Renewal processes, renewal equation. Renewal theorems, regenerative processes. Stationary renewal processes, renewal paradox. Examples: Poisson process, applications

  13. Hypodensity/Hyperdensity ; or, Apple skies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cira, Gabriel (Gabriel Blue)

    2008-01-01

    Hypodensity/Hyperdensity is a reaction to the paradoxical modern urban condition of emptiness: the 'ring of drek,' left like a smear around Boston by post-industrial deflation. This area is close to both the crowded city ...

  14. Demonstration and analysis of tangible heritage management strategy using geographical information systems for the city of Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Zaabi, Azza Hasan

    2006-10-30

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is focusing on towards two paradoxical directions especially after the oil-boom. The first is the contemporary architectural development, while the second is the conservation of traditional dwellings and historical...

  15. The ambivalence of gentrifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novak, Alison Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the paradox faced by 25-34 year-old, White, well-educated persons who choose to live in predominantly low-income neighborhoods. In particular, this thesis asks if gentrifiers are aware of gentrification ...

  16. Any correspondence concerning this service should be sent to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    discusses a classical paradox in thermoacoustics when jump conditions are derived for acoustic waves singularities in the entropy profile affect mass conservation. At non-zero Mach number, the entropy generated

  17. A Simulation-Based Approach to Understanding the Dynamics of Innovation Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repenning, Nelson

    The history of management practice is filled with innovations that failed to live up to the promise suggested by their early success. A paradox facing organization theory is that the failure of these innovations often ...

  18. Telomere Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana by the CST Capping Complex and DNA Damage Response Proteins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boltz, Kara A.

    2013-09-11

    The ends of chormosomes are capped by telomeres, which distinguish the termini from damaged DNA. Paradoxically, DNA repair proteins are also required for telomere maintenance. How DNA repair pathways are regulated to ...

  19. Climate sensitivity of marine energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth P; Wallace, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Marine energy has a significant role to play in lowering carbon emissions within the energy sector. Paradoxically, it may be susceptible to changes in climate that will result from rising carbon emissions. Wind patterns ...

  20. Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

    2012-01-01

    The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

  1. The competition between coal and natural gas : the importance of sunk costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the seeming paradox between the predominant choice of natural gas for capacity additions to generate electricity in the United States and the continuing large share of coal in meeting incremental ...

  2. Geophys. J. Int. (2009) 179, 763777 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04324.x GJIGeodynamicsandtectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    2009-01-01

    to crustal structure, geothermal gradient as well as surface erosion. At a timescale of several million years, eastern Tibet, in which the paradoxical combination of persistent high-topographic gradients close-topographic gradients. However, a few

  3. J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 2001 Vol. 26 pp. 7383

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    of a model power plant is analyzed to see how the constraints govern the possible solutions. 1. Introduction Gruyter Á Berlin Á New York #12;but the regularity with which apparent paradoxes and controversies occur

  4. A Bird’s Eye View of Human Language Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berwick, Robert C.

    Comparative studies of linguistic faculties in animals pose an evolutionary paradox: language involves certain perceptual and motor abilities, but it is not clear that this serves as more than an input–output channel for ...

  5. Patterns of Care, Status Differentiation, and the Reproduction of Inequality in Hospital Nursing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, John William

    2015-01-01

    the paradoxical theme in which RNs both valued and devaluedhighlight the value these RNs placed on the emotionals joking about one of the RNs who had asked her to transport

  6. Global Crossing International Conference, Barcelona TSA Global Crossing International Conference &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odlyzko, Andrew M.

    Technology Driving Costs Lower, Creating Opportunities & Enabling New Applications © 1998 by T Soja Outline · The Technology-Bandwidth Paradox · Dramatically Decreasing Circuit Costs · Submarine Cables Circuit Demand Drivers · Market Status & Opportunities · Innovations in Ownership Structure, Pricing

  7. One to one connections : building a community learning culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urrea, Claudia M

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of the school, society and policy, and dominant cultural beliefs about teaching, learning, and knowledge constrain people's mindsets, paradoxically preventing the fundamental changes that can take advantage ...

  8. Using Key Performance Indicators to Manage Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Gorp, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    ) and measurement and verification protocols (such as IPMVP 2001) often highlight the importance an information system has in maximizing results. The increasing adoption of energy information systems has led, however, to an interesting paradox: while it is now cost...

  9. Supply Chain Networks: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    , in their most fundamental realization, consist of manufacturers and suppliers, distributors, retailers numerous suppliers, retailers, and consumers, and be underpinned by multimodal transportation to nonlinearities; alternative behavior of users of the networks, which may lead to paradoxical phenomena; possibly

  10. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/330/6009/1408/DC1 Supporting Online Material for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/330/6009/1408/DC1 Supporting Online Material for Paradoxical-90% of their free feeding weight, except during recovery from surgery where food was available ad libitum. Water

  11. On the relational dynamics of caring: a psychotherapeutic approach to emotional and power dimensions of women’s care work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondi, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Care is double-edged and paradoxical, inspiring a vast range of strong feelings in both care-givers and care-recipients. This paper draws on ideas about psychotherapeutic relationships to offer a theorisation of the ...

  12. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Brian Russell; Stephens, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    as, paradoxically, an island-system as much as a continentalas islands, or as parts of island systems. This is what isworld-system but in an island-system of power relations and

  13. Enhanced silica ballasting from iron stress sustains carbon export in a frontal zone within the California Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    2000), Resolving the ‘‘opal paradox’’ in the Southern Ocean,Boyd et al. , 2007]. Because opal is denser than seawater,to the ballasting effect of diatom opal on particle export,

  14. R E V I E W : C L I M A T O L O G Y The Sun's Role in Climate Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or it is of no consequence whatsoever. The reality is that Earth's atmosphere, land surface, and oceans are not passive by observing the response to increased green- house gases. Eons and the Faint Sun Paradox The concept is well

  15. Operations Research and the Captivating Study of Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Variational Inequalities · A New Network Performance/Efficiency Measure with Applications to Critical Networks Duke Energy Gas Pipeline Network Transportation, Communication, and Energy Networks #12;Components · The Transportation Network Equilibriumn Problem and Methodological Tools · The Braess Paradox · Some Interesting

  16. Quantum Mechanics and Closed Timelike Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florin Moldoveanu

    2007-04-23

    General relativity allows solutions exhibiting closed timelike curves. Time travel generates paradoxes and quantum mechanics generalizations were proposed to solve those paradoxes. The implications of self-consistent interactions on acausal region of space-time are investigated. If the correspondence principle is true, then all generalizations of quantum mechanics on acausal manifolds are not renormalizable. Therefore quantum mechanics can only be defined on global hyperbolic manifolds and all general relativity solutions exhibiting time travel are unphysical.

  17. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and visualization techniques of the Piceance Basin structure spatial distribution of the oil shale resources. The sur- face water/groundwater models quantify the water shortage and better understanding the spatial distribution of the available water resources. The energy resource development systems model reveals the phase shift of water usage and the oil shale production, which will facilitate better planning for oil shale development. Detailed descriptions about the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research will be given in the sec- tion of “ACCOMPLISHMENTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION” of this report.

  18. The use of broadband microseisms for hydraulic fracture mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleefe, G.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Engler, B.P.

    1993-08-01

    When a hydrocarbon reservoir is subjected to a hydraulic fracture treatment, the cracking and slipping of the formation results in the emission of seismic energy. The objective of this study was to determine the advantages of using broadband (100 Hz to 1500 M) microseismic emissions to map a hydraulic fracture treatment. A hydraulic fracture experiment was performed in the Piceance Basin of Western Colorado to induce and record broadband microseismic events. The formation was subjected to four processes; break-down/ballout, step-rate test, KCL mini-fracture, and linear-gel mini-fracture. Broadband microseisms were successfully recorded by a novel three-component wall-locked seismic accelerometer package, placed in an observation well 211 ft (64 m) offset from the treatment well. During the two hours of formation treatment, more than 1200 significant microseismic events were observed. The occurrences of the events strongly correlated with the injection bore-bole pressures during the treatments. Using both hodogram analysis and time of arrival information, estimates of the origination point of the seismic events were computed. A map of the event locations yielded a fracture orientation estimate consistent with the known orientation of the field in the formation. This paper describes the technique for acquiring and analyzing broadband microseismic events and illustrate how the new broadband approach can enhance signal detectability and event location resolution.

  19. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-08-11

    This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  20. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  1. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Fourth quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-10-08

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  2. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  3. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  4. Billiard in the space with a time machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jindrich Dolansky; Pavel Krtous

    2010-11-12

    We study a system of an elastic ball moving in the non-relativistic spacetime with a nontrivial causal structure produced by a wormhole-based time machine. For such a system it is possible to formulate a simple model of the so-called `grandfather paradox': for certain `paradoxical' initial conditions the standard straight trajectory of the ball would self-collide inconsistently. We analyze globally consistent solutions of local equations of motion, namely, we find all trajectories with one self-collision. It is demonstrated that all standard initial conditions have a consistent evolution, including those `paradoxical' ones, for which the inconsistent collision-free trajectory is superseded by a special consistent self-colliding trajectory. Moreover, it is shown that for a wide class of initial conditions more than one globally consistent evolution exist. The nontrivial causal structure thus breaks the uniqueness of the classical theory even for locally deterministic physical laws.

  5. Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. W. Hawking

    2014-01-22

    It has been suggested [1] that the resolution of the information paradox for evaporating black holes is that the holes are surrounded by firewalls, bolts of outgoing radiation that would destroy any infalling observer. Such firewalls would break the CPT invariance of quantum gravity and seem to be ruled out on other grounds. A different resolution of the paradox is proposed, namely that gravitational collapse produces apparent horizons but no event horizons behind which information is lost. This proposal is supported by ADS-CFT and is the only resolution of the paradox compatible with CPT. The collapse to form a black hole will in general be chaotic and the dual CFT on the boundary of ADS will be turbulent. Thus, like weather forecasting on Earth, information will effectively be lost, although there would be no loss of unitarity.

  6. Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao

    2011-02-04

    Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.

  7. A review of "New Worlds Reflected. Travel and Utopia in the Early Modern Period" edited by Chloë Houston 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    and examines the stories and texts about a phenomenon known as Palmares?a city of refugees, ex-slaves and free people in Brazil. We face a shocking paradox: for both sides of the con ict (masters and ex-slaves) the ?others? are creating a potential threat...

  8. A review of "Monstrous Bodies: Political Monstrosities in Early Modern Europe" by Laura Lunger Knoppers and Joan B. Landes, eds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Feitzinger Brown

    2004-01-01

    epigraph to conclusion, this wee paradox serves as a major motive in a dazzlingly elaborate survey of the early modern ?hard-core? canon, ranging from Pietro Aretino and the Florentine courtesan Tullia d?Aragona to the English libertine poet John Wilmot...

  9. Characterization of Solution-Processed Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ounaies, Zoubeida

    it is conductive, was calculated to be 1.0 wt.-% for the MWNTs. Ounaies Full Paper Dispersion of CNTs in polymers) Nanocomposites Atheer Almasri, Zoubeida Ounaies,* Yeon Seok Kim, Jaime Grunlan Introduction Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer composites are of great interest due to the unusual combination of CNT properties with apparently paradoxical

  10. Gene galaxies in the maize genome Virginia Walbot* and Dmitri A. Petrov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Dmitri

    Commentary Gene galaxies in the maize genome Virginia Walbot* and Dmitri A. Petrov Department of higher eukary- otic genomes yielded the surprise that despite hundreds of millions of years in gene number, eukaryotic genome size varies over 5 orders of magnitude (4), a paradoxical feature

  11. The 1968 Political Campaign of Senator Eugene J. McCarthy: A Study of Rhetorical Choice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patton, Bonnie Ritter

    1969-01-01

    his political success to "the dews of the night coming on soft and gentle--but in the morning, I was there." Nicholas Thinunesch, "Clean Gene," Los Angeles Times West Magazine, May 12, 1968, p. 9. Two words--paradox and irony--have been applied...

  12. Caspase-8 Association with the Focal Adhesion Complex Promotes Tumor Cell Migration and Metastasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogyo, Matthew

    ­16) and to the migration in several primary and tumor cells (17­20). Such observations imply that clinical strategies to upCaspase-8 Association with the Focal Adhesion Complex Promotes Tumor Cell Migration and Metastasis. Paradoxically, caspase-8 can also promote cell migration among nonapoptotic cells; here, we show that caspase-8

  13. Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an impact origin for Upheaval Dome, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Two commonly cited origins are meteoritic impact [3­9] and salt diapirism from the subjacent of igneous intrusion [10,11], explosive volcanism [14] or tectonically driven fluid overpressure [15 of a flat-topped subjacent Paradox Formation [7] does not support salt diapirism and is instead consistent

  14. Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected by interferometric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Karl

    Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected by interferometric. Mueller, and J. Wahr (2007), Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected, overlying a mobile layer of evaporites (the Paradox Formation) that originated mostly as salt deposited

  15. SPRU Wednesday Seminar Date 19 June 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    , Australia) Title The Paradox of Measurable Counterfactuals: Performing the efficiency of emissions trading Abstract This paper places the more or less uncontested history of emissions trading, beginning with Ronald a century earlier. Of particular relevance is the claim that emissions trading schemes are not only more

  16. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Marine Biology Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, and by short- and long-term visitors to the Program the apparent paradox that the relative carbon price among Kyoto parties may not be an accurate measure distortions, in the form of fuel and other taxes, in determining the burden of a climate policy. Also, effects

  17. Multiple-valued complex functions and computer algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    function is properly defined as a multiple-valued function. And since the general power and exponential system. (For an attempt at that, see [4].) My goal is simply to make the readers aware of some I will start with the following paradox due to the Danish mathematician Thomas Clausen ([1, 2

  18. Departments of Chemistry and Pharmacology Center for Structural Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meiler, Jens

    ;6 December 2011 © Jens Meiler 2 Schedule for Lecture 7 De Novo Protein Fold Prediction with Rosetta) Protein Folding Problem Holy Grail of Comp. Struct. Biology Given a protein's AA sequence, what is its 3 than 1010 years old. Cyrus Levinthal's paradox of protein folding,1968. 6 December 2011 © Jens Meiler

  19. GIS and the Coastal Zone: An Annotated Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools and concepts to the coastal zone is one of the great challenges paradoxically, geographical information systems (GIS) have not yet enjoyed the success at the coast for Geographic Information and Analysis Report 93-9 #12;Preface and Acknowledgments To all who sent me references

  20. Attitudes toward offshore oil development: A summary of current evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gramling, R; Freudenburg, Wm R

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum paradox: natural resources and development in Indonesia,Indonesia that have come to western attention were also areas that happen to have rich offshore petroleumIndonesia’s natural resources to belong to its people, but not being fully completed until some 20 years later, when the Petroleum

  1. A Network Modeling Approach Optimization of Internet-Based Advertising Strategies and Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    A Network Modeling Approach for the Optimization of Internet-Based Advertising Strategies and evaluation of optimal Internet mar- keting strategies when a firm is advertising on multiple websites examples are constructed that demonstrate two paradoxes: (1). that advertising on more websites may reduce

  2. Abstract Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically, soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in a recently burned Californian bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) forest. Ash stimulated post-fire primary, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forests (Koslowski and Ahlgren 1974). As a result of fire, nutrients

  3. The Data and Application Security and Privacy (DASPY) Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandhu, Ravi

    for Cyber Security Executive Director and Endowed Chair 11/11/11 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com www) Challenge . Ravi Sandhu Institute for Cyber Security 1 and Endowed Chair 11/11/11 ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www by academically taught cyber security not studied as a success story The ATM "Paradox" not studied as a success

  4. LETTER Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in antplant symbioses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Todd M.

    LETTER Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in ant-mail: ctarnita@princeton.edu Abstract Sterilisation of parasites prevents host reproduction, thereby diverting virulence, yet hosts are often incompletely sterilised. Whereas prior attempts to resolve this paradox have

  5. Time machines and quantum theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark J Hadley

    2006-12-02

    There is a deep structural link between acausal spacetimes and quantum theory. As a consequence quantum theory may resolve some "paradoxes" of time travel. Conversely, non-time-orientable spacetimes naturally give rise to electric charges and spin half. If an explanation of quantum theory is possible, then general relativity with time travel could be it.

  6. SARAH R. OSTERHOUDT Department of Anthropology Office: Student Building 242

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheiber, Laura L.

    Environmental Management; Concentration: Social Ecology 1997 Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT B.S. Biology and Paradoxes of Modern Diversity. Sustainability 5(6): 2495-2518. 2012 Sense and Sensibilities: Negotiating, Degradation, Dystopia: A Political Ecology Approach to Disaster Research. In: A Handbook of Political Ecology

  7. Growing Young Trees in the Greening Era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    winter · If possible, consider electric pumps and computer controls to be able to irrigate in small doses · Irrigation · Fertilization · Weed Control · Pest Management · Disease Management #12;The Young Tree Paradox and economic return = FLUSH!!! #12;Irrigation · Critical ­ restriction of canopy development is the first

  8. Genetic and functional analysis of topoisomerase II in vertebrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruti-Mot, Anca

    2000-01-01

    line, which showed an increased resistance to topo II inhibitors. Paradoxically, 150 uM etoposide or 100 uM mitoxanthrone induced apoptosis within 5 hours in the topo ll? (-1+1+) cell line, more rapidly as compared to the normal DT 40 cells. A topo II?...

  9. P. Kotz et al. (Eds.): INTERACT 2013, Part II, LNCS 8118, pp. 380394, 2013. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Paul

    system or programming infusion pumps. However, human error is inevitable. Paradoxically, results from: Human error, cognition, data-entry, presentation quality, number- entry, infusion pump, perception amounts of sensitive data in electronic health records (EHRs) and to program drug infusion pumps

  10. The evolution of sex-determining mechanisms: lessons from temperature-sensitive mutations in sex determination genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janzen, Fredric

    The evolution of sex-determining mechanisms: lessons from temperature-sensitive mutations in sex taxonomically conserved traits, but, paradoxically, the mechanisms that determine sex are incredibly diverse (Haag & Doty, 2005). These sex-determining mechanisms (SDMs) can be broadly grouped into two main

  11. Response of complex networks to stimuli Yaneer Bar-Yam* and Irving R. Epstein*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    network model for switching of patterns of behavior, we show that the scale-free topologies often found, such as power grids or communications systems, also require this seemingly paradoxical combination of traits for optimal performance in support of human activities. Are there design principles that enable one to build

  12. Grand Challenges and Opportunities Supply Chain Networks: From Analysis to Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    of manufacturers and suppliers, distributors, retailers, and consumers at the demand markets. Today, supply chains may span thousands of miles across the globe, involve numerous suppliers, retailers, and consumers to nonlinearities; alternative behavior of users of the networks, which may lead to paradoxical phenomena; possibly

  13. Reinforcement learning models the dopamine system and their behavioral implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this document those of author should interpreted representing the o#cial policies, either expressed or implied dopamine neurons recorded from behaving monkeys identified with error signal from temporal di#erence (TD. This account resolves seemingly paradoxical finding that dopamine system excited aversive events such electric

  14. Forthcoming in: Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers (Briston, UK: Thoemmes Press) CASTA ~NEDA, Hector-Neri (19241991)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapaport, William J.

    ~NEDA, Hector-Neri (1924­1991) H´ector-Neri Casta~neda-Calder´on (December 13, 1924­September 7, 1991 (1990), and received the Presidential Medal of Honor from the Government of Guatemala (1991). Casta~neda in Thinking and Doing (1975), in which Casta~neda showed how it can provide solutions for the paradoxes

  15. Rosalie Wells / Woolf Essay Prize 2013 "It was certainly an odd monster that one made up by reading the historians first and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasenby, Joan

    in a kitchen chopping up suet" What is the benefit of reading history alongside literature and vice versa intense in the 16th and 17th centuries. Reading history alongside literature and vice versa is not merely? Virginia Woolf presented us with the perplexing paradox of women in history in `A room of one's own'; `She

  16. Astronomy 141 Life in the Universe Syllabus for Autumn Quarter 2008 Prof. Gaudi Page 1 of 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaudi, B. Scott

    of Mars and the search for life on Mars; life on the moons of Jupiter; life elsewhere in the Solar System, Mars and Venus. Unit 4: Life in the Universe Lectures 19-26: Stars: masses, luminosities, temperatures and colonization, the Fermi Paradox and the rare earth hypothesis. Unit 5: Death in the Universe Lecture 27

  17. Computer-Assisted Keyword and Document Set Discovery from Unstructured Text

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 2 Reframing the Statistical Problem Define a reference set, R, as a set of documents, each of which keywords in ad hoc ways, given the lack of formal statistical methods to help. Paradoxically, this often language to evade authorities, seek political advantage, or express creativity; generic web searching; e

  18. AUTISM AND THE PERPETUAL PUZZLE: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE EXPLANATIONS FOR AUTISM 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jodlowski, Denise M.

    2010-01-16

    ............................................................. 10 Introduction to the Discourse ......................................................... 23 Conclusion...................................................................................... 28 II AUTISM AS A BIOMEDICAL DISORDER... is paradoxical. In one sense, autism is, literally, a puzzling disorder. Another common description of autism, where each of the first letters combines to spell out the word autism, comes to mind here: ?Always Unique, Totally Interesting, Sometimes...

  19. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Report for the period October 1992--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennington, B.I.; Lomax, J.D.; Neilson, D.L.; Deo, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The current project targeted three fluvial deltaic reservoirs in the Uinta Basin, Utah. In primary recovery, the performance of the Monument Butte unit was typical of an undersaturated reservoir whose initial pressure was close to the bubble point pressure. The unit was producing at a rate of 40 stb/day when the water flood was initiated. The unit has been producing at more than 300 stb/day for the past four years. The reservoir characteristics of Monument Butte were established in the geologic characterization study. The reservoir fluid properties were measured in the engineering study. Results of a comprehensive reservoir simulation study using these characteristics provided excellent match with the field production data. Extended predictions using the model showed that it would be possible to recover a total of 20--25% of the oil in place. In the Travis unit, logs from the newly drilled 14a-28 showed extensively fractured zones. A new reservoir was discovered and developed on the basis of the information provided by the formation micro imaging logs. This reservoir also behaved in a manner similar to undersaturated reservoirs with initial reservoir pressures close to the reservoir fluid bubble point. The water flood activity was enhanced in the Travis unit. Even through the reservoir continued to be gradually pressurized, the water flood in the Travis unit appeared to be significantly affected by existing or created fractures. A dual-porosity, dual permeability reservoir model provided a good match with the primary production history. The well drilled in the Boundary unit did not intersect any producible zones, once again illustrating the unique challenges to developing fluvial deltaic reservoirs.

  20. The Universal Arrow of Time II: Quantum mechanics case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Kupervasser

    2013-05-23

    This paper is a natural continuation of our previous paper arXiv:1011.4173 . We illustrated earlier that in classical Hamilton mechanics, for overwhelming majority of real chaotic macroscopic systems, alignment of their thermodynamic time arrows occurs because of their low interaction. This fact and impossibility to observe entropy decrease at introspection explain the second law of thermodynamics. The situation in quantum mechanics is even a little bit easier: all closed systems of finite volume are periodic or nearly periodic. The proof in quantum mechanics is in many respects similar to the proof in classical Hamilton mechanics - it also uses small interaction between subsystems and impossibility to observe entropy decrease at introspection. However, there are special cases which were not found in the classical mechanics. In these cases one microstate corresponds to a set of possible macrostates (more precisely, their quantum superposition). Consideration of this property with use of decoherence theory and taking into account thermodynamic time arrows will introduce new outcomes in quantum mechanics. It allows to resolve basic paradoxes of quantum mechanics: (a) to explain the paradox of wave packet reduction at measurements when an observer is included in the system (introspection) (paradox of the Schrodinger cat); (b) to explain unobservability of superposition of macroscopic states by an external observer in real experiments (paradox of Wigner's friend); (c) to prove full equivalence of multi-world and Copenhagen interpretations of quantum mechanics; (d) to explain deviations from the exponential law at decay of particles and pass from one energy level to another (paradox of a kettle which will never begin to boil).

  1. The Majority Illusion in Social Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerman, Kristina; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Social behaviors are often contagious, spreading through a population as individuals imitate the decisions and choices of others. A variety of global phenomena, from innovation adoption to the emergence of social norms and political movements, arise as a result of people following a simple local rule, such as copy what others are doing. However, individuals often lack global knowledge of the behaviors of others and must estimate them from the observations of their friends' behaviors. In some cases, the structure of the underlying social network can dramatically skew an individual's local observations, making a behavior appear far more common locally than it is globally. We trace the origins of this phenomenon, which we call "the majority illusion," to the friendship paradox in social networks. As a result of this paradox, a behavior that is globally rare may be systematically overrepresented in the local neighborhoods of many people, i.e., among their friends. Thus, the "majority illusion" may facilitate the ...

  2. Electron kinetics inferred from observations of microwave bursts during edge localised modes in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freethy, S J; Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Lai, W N; Pamela, S J P; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements of microwave and X-ray emission during edge localised mode (ELM) activity in tokamak plasmas provide a fresh perspective on ELM physics. It is evident that electron kinetics, which are not incorporated in standard (fluid) models for the instability that drives ELMs, play a key role in the new observations. These effects should be included in future models for ELMs and the ELM cycle. The observed radiative effects paradoxically imply acceleration of electrons parallel to the magnetic field combined with rapid acquisition of perpendicular momentum. It is shown that this paradox can be resolved by the action of the anomalous Doppler instability which enables fast collective radiative relaxation, in the perpendicular direction, of electrons accelerated in the parallel direction by inductive electric fields generated by the initial ELM instability.

  3. Information conservation is fundamental: recovering the lost information in Hawking radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baocheng Zhang; Qing-yu Cai; Ming-sheng Zhan; Li You

    2013-05-27

    In both classical and quantum world, information cannot appear or disappear. This fundamental principle, however, is questioned for a black hole, by the acclaimed "information loss paradox". Based on the conservation laws of energy, charge, and angular momentum, we recently show the total information encoded in the correlations among Hawking radiations equals exactly to the same amount previously considered lost, assuming the non-thermal spectrum of Parikh and Wilczek. Thus the information loss paradox can be falsified through experiments by detecting correlations, for instance, through measuring the covariances of Hawking radiations from black holes, such as the manmade ones speculated to appear in LHC experiments. The affirmation of information conservation in Hawking radiation will shine new light on the unification of gravity with quantum mechanics.

  4. Experimental Simulation of Closed Timelike Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Ringbauer; Matthew A. Broome; Casey R. Myers; Andrew G. White; Timothy C. Ralph

    2015-01-20

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into non-linearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics-essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the non-linear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction, and the influence of decoherence.

  5. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument and the Bell Inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabo, Laszlo E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) published an important paper in which they claimed that the whole formalism of quantum mechanics together with what they called "Reality Criterion" imply that quantum mechanics cannot be complete. That is, there must exist some elements of reality that are not described by quantum mechanics. There must be, they concluded, a more complete description of physical reality behind quantum mechanics. There must be a state, a hidden variable, characterizing the state of affairs in the world in more details than the quantum mechanical state, something that also reflects the missing elements of reality. Under some further but quite plausible assumptions, this conclusion implies that in some spin-correlation experiments the measured quantum mechanical probabilities should satisfy particular inequalities (Bell-type inequalities). The paradox consists in the fact that quantum probabilities do not satisfy these inequalities. And this paradoxical fact has been confirmed by severa...

  6. On the macroion virial contribution to the osmotic pressure in charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Trizac; L. Belloni; J. Dobnikar; H. H. von Grunberg; R. Castaneda-Priego

    2007-01-31

    Our interest goes to the different virial contributions to the equation of state of charged colloidal suspensions. Neglect of surface effects in the computation of the colloidal virial term leads to spurious and paradoxical results. This pitfall is one of the several facets of the danger of a naive implementation of the so called One Component Model, where the micro-ionic degrees of freedom are integrated out to only keep in the description the mesoscopic (colloidal) degrees of freedom. On the other hand, due incorporation of wall induced forces dissolves the paradox brought forth in the naive approach, provides a consistent description, and confirms that for salt-free systems, the colloidal contribution to the pressure is dominated by the micro-ionic one. Much emphasis is put on the no salt case but the situation with added electrolyte is also discussed.

  7. The Importance of Developing a Foundation for Naive Category Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

    2015-09-28

    Recently Feferman (Rev. Symb. Logic 6: 6-15, 2013) has outlined a program for the development of a foundation for naive category theory. While Ernst (ibid. 8: 306-327, 2015) has shown that the resulting axiomatic system is still inconsistent, the purpose of this note is to show that nevertheless some foundation has to be developed before naive category theory can replace axiomatic set theory as a foundational theory for mathematics. It is argued that in naive category theory currently a 'cookbook recipe' is used for constructing categories, and it is explicitly shown with a formalized argument that this 'foundationless' naive category theory therefore contains a paradox similar to the Russell paradox of naive set theory.

  8. Carnot Cycle at Finite Power: Attainability of Maximal Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armen E. Allahverdyan; Karen V. Hovhannisyan; Alexey V. Melkikh; Sasun G. Gevorkian

    2013-12-12

    We want to understand whether and to which extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e. not purposefully-designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is the Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.

  9. Effects of adsorption and capillarity on injection in vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sta. Maria, R.B.; Horne, R.N.

    1996-04-10

    One major motivation for the study of the effects of adsorption in geothermal reservoirs is the phenomenon known as {open_quotes}The Geysers Paradox{close_quotes}. Data from The Geysers field suggest that some water must be stored in the reservoir in a condensed phase even though the prevailing reservoir pressure and temperature dictate superheated conditions. Physical adsorption of steam onto rocks and the thermodynamics of curved interfaces prevailing in the pore spaces of the rock matrix can explain the apparent paradox. These mechanisms make it possible for water and steam to coexist in conditions we normally refer to as {open_quotes}superheated{close_quotes} based on our concept of flat interface thermodynamics (e.g., the Steam Table).

  10. Anomalous ring-down effects and breakdown of the decay rate concept in optical cavities with negative group delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Lauprêtre; S. Schwartz; R. Ghosh; I. Carusotto; F. Goldfarb; F. Bretenaker

    2012-01-06

    Propagation of light pulses through negative group velocity media is known to give rise to a number of paradoxical situations that seem to violate causality. The solution of these paradoxes has triggered the investigation of a number of interesting and unexpected features of light propagation. Here we report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the ring-down oscillations in optical cavities filled with a medium with such a strongly negative frequency dispersion to give a negative round-trip group delay time. We theoretically anticipate that causality imposes the existence of additional resonance peaks in the cavity transmission, resulting in a non-exponential decay of the cavity field and in a breakdown of the cavity decay rate concept. Our predictions are validated by simulations and by an experiment using a room-temperature gas of metastable helium atoms in the detuned electromagnetically induced transparency regime as the cavity medium.

  11. Charging Capacitors According to Maxwell's Equations: Impossible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Funaro

    2014-11-02

    The charge of an ideal parallel capacitor leads to the resolution of the wave equation for the electric field with prescribed initial conditions and boundary constraints. Independently of the capacitor's shape and the applied voltage, none of the corresponding solutions is compatible with the full set of Maxwell's equations. The paradoxical situation persists even by weakening boundary conditions, resulting in the impossibility to describe a trivial phenomenon such as the capacitor's charging process, by means of the standard Maxwellian theory.

  12. A review of "Schooling Sex: Libertine Literature and Erotic Education in Italy, France, and England 1534-1685" by James Grantham Turner. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Luxon

    2004-01-01

    , this wee paradox serves as a major motive in a dazzlingly elaborate survey of the early modern ?hard-core? canon, ranging from Pietro Aretino and the Florentine courtesan Tullia d?Aragona to the English libertine poet John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester... of the erotic education trope in hard-core libertarian literature. All the anxi- eties and fascinations (mostly male) surrounding the erotics (homo- normative and hetero-normative) of education, women?s education, the constructedness and maintenance...

  13. Signs of Absence in Pavlovsky's 'teatro de la memoria'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bixler, Jacqueline Eyring

    1994-10-01

    of the text. 18 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW In the prologues that Pavlovsky characteristically provides for his "propuestas," he repeatedly warns the reader that although the pages do indeed constitute a text, it is nonetheless "un texto de vacíos...," whose gaps lie among the disjointed images of past and present as well as between text and historical context. Paradoxically, these "vacíos" suggest absence and at the same time offer the audience, director, and actors a multiplicity of potential...

  14. The Legend of Cosmological Homogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Oldershaw

    2008-05-17

    For more than a half century cosmologists have been guided by the assumption that matter is distributed homogeneously on sufficiently large scales. On the other hand, observations have consistently yielded evidence for inhomogeneity in the distribution of matter right up to the limits of most surveys. The apparent paradox can be understood in terms of the role that paradigms play in the evolution of science.

  15. Quantum chaos inside Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensamble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call this new items {\\it frizzyballs}, which can be rigorously defined by euclidean path integral approach. This has interesting implications regarding information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  16. Quantum chaos inside Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Addazi

    2015-08-30

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensamble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call this new items {\\it frizzyballs}, which can be rigorously defined by euclidean path integral approach. This has interesting implications regarding information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  17. 2005 clean coal and power conference. Conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'The paradox: today's coal technologies versus tomorrow's promise'. The sessions covered: today's technologies, tomorrow's potential; economic stability; energy security; transition to sustainable energy future; new coal power technologies leading to zero emission coal; existing power plants - improved performance through use of new technology; and carbon capture and storage R & D - challenges and opportunities. Some of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads.

  18. The Riemann-Roch Theorem and Zero Energy Solutions of the Dirac Equation on the Riemann Sphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey Lee

    2009-09-06

    In this paper, we revisit the connection between the Riemann-Roch theorem and the zero energy solutions of the two-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of a delta-function like magnetic field. Our main result is the resolution of a paradox - the fact that the Riemann-Roch theorem correctly predicts the number of zero energy solutions of the Dirac equation despite counting what seems to be the wrong type of functions.

  19. Inverse Square Law of Gravitation in (2+1)-Dimensional Space-Time as a Consequence of Casimir Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. H. Soleng

    1993-10-04

    The gravitational effect of vacuum polarization in space exterior to a particle in (2+1)-dimensional Einstein theory is investigated. In the weak field limit this gravitational field corresponds to an inverse square law of gravitational attraction, even though the gravitational mass of the quantum vacuum is negative. The paradox is resolved by considering a particle of finite extension and taking into account the vacuum polarization in its interior.

  20. Funny Problems!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florentin Smarandache

    2000-10-13

    Thirty original and collected problems, puzzles, and paradoxes in mathematics and physics are explained in this paper, taught by the author to the elementary and high school teachers at the University of New Mexico - Gallup in 1997-8 and afterwards. They have more an educational interest, because make the students think different! For each "solution" a funny logic is invented in order to give the problem a sense.

  1. A review of "Early Modern English Lives: Autobiography and Self-Representation 1500 - 1660" by Ronald Bedford, Lloyd Davis, and Philippa Kelly 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    throughout the work. Thomas Wythorne?s 1576 account of his own life provides an example of an early modern tendency to consider how a ?self ? succeeds or fails at conforming to a general pattern of humankind. Whythorne?s writing ?points to the paradox... intersections between the human temporal and divine atemporal realms. Records of early modern bereavement, particularly for infants, attempt to locate symbolic patterns in the dates, times, or days of the week of birth and death. The authors assert...

  2. A review of "Bible Readers and Lay Writers in Early Modern England: Gender and Self-Definition in an Emergent Writing Culture" by Kate Narveson 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Lissa Beauchamp

    2013-01-01

    chapters, Narveson focuses on the ephemeral connection between the internalizing process of reading practices, in both active and passive senses, and the expres- sion of writing, both as a ?passive? reproduction of received generic convention... and in the active sense of selecting what conventions to use for the purpose at hand. Narveson resists the easy conclusive- ness of essentialist arguments and treads the paradoxical lines of her evidence, showing how passive and active modes co-operate in both...

  3. Final Rulison Path Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management developed this report as a guide for discussions with the Colorado State regulators and other interested stakeholders in response to increased drilling for natural gas reserves near the underground nuclear explosion site at Rulison, Colorado. The Rulison site is located in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, 40 miles northeast of Grand Junction. The Rulison test was the second natural gas reservoir stimulation experiment in the Plowshare Program, which was designed to develop peaceful uses for nuclear energy. On September 10, 1969, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of DOE, detonated a 40-kiloton nuclear device 8426 feet below the ground surface in an attempt to release commercially marketable quantities of natural gas. The blast vaporized surrounding rock and formed a cavity about 150 feet in diameter. Although the contaminated materials from drilling operations were subsequently removed from the surface of the blast site, no feasible technology exists to remove subsurface radioactive contamination in or around the test cavity. An increase in drilling for natural gas near the site has raised concern about the possibility of encountering residual radioactivity from the area of the detonation. DOE prohibits drilling in the 40-acre lot surrounding the blast site at a depth below 6000 feet. DOE has no evidence that indicates contamination from the Rulison site detonation has migrated or will ever migrate beyond the 40-acre institutional control boundary. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) established two wider boundaries around the site. When a company applies for a permit to drill within a 3-mile radius of surface ground zero, COGCC notifies DOE and provides an opportunity to comment on the application. COGCC also established a half-mile radius around surface ground zero. An application to drill within one-half mile requires a full hearing before the commission. This report outlines DOE's recommendation that gas developers adopt a conservative, staged drilling approach allowing gas reserves near the Rulison site to be recovered in a manner that minimizes the likelihood of encountering contamination. This staged approach calls for collecting data from wells outside the half-mile zone before drilling closer, and then drilling within the half-mile zone in a sequential manner, first at low contamination probability locations and then moving inward. DOE's recommended approach for drilling in this area will protect public safety while allowing collection of additional data to confirm that contamination is contained within the 40-acre institutional control boundary.

  4. Multi-Site Application of the Geomechanical Approach for Natural Fracture Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Billingsley; V. Kuuskraa

    2006-03-31

    In order to predict the nature and distribution of natural fracturing, Advanced Resources Inc. (ARI) incorporated concepts of rock mechanics, geologic history, and local geology into a geomechanical approach for natural fracture prediction within mildly deformed, tight (low-permeability) gas reservoirs. Under the auspices of this project, ARI utilized and refined this approach in tight gas reservoir characterization and exploratory activities in three basins: the Piceance, Wind River and the Anadarko. The primary focus of this report is the knowledge gained on natural fractural prediction along with practical applications for enhancing gas recovery and commerciality. Of importance to tight formation gas production are two broad categories of natural fractures: (1) shear related natural fractures and (2) extensional (opening mode) natural fractures. While arising from different origins this natural fracture type differentiation based on morphology is sometimes inter related. Predicting fracture distribution successfully is largely a function of collecting and understanding the available relevant data in conjunction with a methodology appropriate to the fracture origin. Initially ARI envisioned the geomechanical approach to natural fracture prediction as the use of elastic rock mechanics methods to project the nature and distribution of natural fracturing within mildly deformed, tight (low permeability) gas reservoirs. Technical issues and inconsistencies during the project prompted re-evaluation of these initial assumptions. ARI's philosophy for the geomechanical tools was one of heuristic development through field site testing and iterative enhancements to make it a better tool. The technology and underlying concepts were refined considerably during the course of the project. As with any new tool, there was a substantial learning curve. Through a heuristic approach, addressing these discoveries with additional software and concepts resulted in a stronger set of geomechanical tools. Thus, the outcome of this project is a set of predictive tools with broad applicability across low permeability gas basins where natural fractures play an important role in reservoir permeability. Potential uses for these learnings and tools range from rank exploration to field-development portfolio management. Early incorporation of the permeability development concepts presented here can improve basin assessment and direct focus to the high potential areas within basins. Insight into production variability inherent in tight naturally fractured reservoirs leads to improved wellbore evaluation and reduces the incidence of premature exits from high potential plays. A significant conclusion of this project is that natural fractures, while often an important, overlooked aspect of reservoir geology, represent only one aspect of the overall reservoir fabric. A balanced perspective encompassing all aspects of reservoir geology will have the greatest impact on exploration and development in the low permeability gas setting.

  5. On the Possibility of an Astronomical Perspective in the Study of Human Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonello, E

    2013-01-01

    The Sapient Paradox is the apparently unexplainable time delay of several ten thousand years following the arrival of Homo sapiens in Asia and Europe and before the introduction of impressive innovations with the agricultural revolution. Renfrew (2007) has suggested that the solution of the paradox has to do with changes in modes of thought that occurred with sedentism. According to Renfrew, this is a subject of study for cognitive archaeology where the final goal would be to understand the formation of the human mind. Several scholars, however, affirm that climatic change was crucial to such a revolution as it would have been very difficult to develop agriculture during the Palaeolithic. In other words, sedentism was not justified during the ice age, and that may be the solution to the paradox. It is widely accepted that climate variations were due to so-called orbital forcing, the slow periodic changes of orbital parameters of the Earth (known also as the Milankovitch theory). These and other astronomical e...

  6. Quantum Oblivion: A Master Key for Many Quantum Riddles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avshalom C. Elitzur; Eliahu Cohen

    2014-11-09

    A simple quantum interaction is analyzed, where the paths of two superposed particles asymmetrically cross, while a detector set to detect an interaction between them remains silent. Despite this negative result, the particles' states leave no doubt that a peculiar interaction has occurred: One particle's momentum changes while the other's remains unaffected, in apparent violation of momentum conservation. Revisiting the foundations of the quantum measurement process offers the resolution. Prior to the macroscopic recording of no interaction, a brief Critical Interval prevails, during which the particles and the detector's pointer form a subtle entanglement which immediately dissolves. It is this self-cancellation, henceforth "Quantum Oblivion (QO)," that lies at the basis of some well-known intriguing quantum effects. Such is Interaction-Free Measurement (IFM) [1] and its more paradoxical variants, like Hardy's Paradox [2] and the Quantum Liar Paradox [3]. Even the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect [4] and weak measurement [5] turn out to belong to this group. We next study interventions within the Critical Interval that produce some other peculiar effects. Finally we discuss some of the conceptual issues involved. Under the time-resolution of the Critical Interval, some nonlocal phenomena turn out to be local. Momentum is conserved due to the quantum uncertainties inflicted by the particle-pointer interaction, which sets the experiment's final boundary condition.

  7. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-12-15

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes. A second approach illustrates the application of multiple-point simulation to assess a hypothetical frontier area for which there is no production information but which is regarded as being similar to Greater Natural Buttes.

  8. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 5: The DOETRAN user`s manual; The DOE-2/DBEDT DSM forecasting model interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The DOETRAN model is a DSM database manager, developed to act as an intermediary between the whole building energy simulation model, DOE-2, and the DBEDT DSM Forecasting Model. DOETRAN accepts output data from DOE-2 and TRANslates that into the format required by the forecasting model. DOETRAN operates in the Windows environment and was developed using the relational database management software, Paradox 5.0 for Windows. It is not necessary to have any knowledge of Paradox to use DOETRAN. DOETRAN utilizes the powerful database manager capabilities of Paradox through a series of customized user-friendly windows displaying buttons and menus with simple and clear functions. The DOETRAN model performs three basic functions, with an optional fourth. The first function is to configure the user`s computer for DOETRAN. The second function is to import DOE-2 files with energy and loadshape data for each building type. The third main function is to then process the data into the forecasting model format. As DOETRAN processes the DOE-2 data, graphs of the total electric monthly impacts for each DSM measure appear, providing the user with a visual means of inspecting DOE-2 data, as well as following program execution. DOETRAN provides three tables for each building type for the forecasting model, one for electric measures, gas measures, and basecases. The optional fourth function provided by DOETRAN is to view graphs of total electric annual impacts by measure. This last option allows a comparative view of how one measure rates against another. A section in this manual is devoted to each of the four functions mentioned above, as well as computer requirements and exiting DOETRAN.

  9. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roskoski, Robert, E-mail: rrj@brimr.org [Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research, 3754 Brevard Road, Suite 116, Box 19, Horse Shoe, NC 28742 (United States)] [Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research, 3754 Brevard Road, Suite 116, Box 19, Horse Shoe, NC 28742 (United States)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  10. Set Theory as the Unified Scheme for Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey V. Novikov-Borodin

    2015-01-08

    The process of cognition is analysed to adjust the set theory to physical description. Postulates and basic definitions are revised. The specific sets of predicates, called presets, corresponding to the physical objects identified by an observer during cognition are introduced. Unlike sets, the presets are free of logical or set-theoretical paradoxes and may be consistently used in physical description. Schemes of cognition based on presets are considered. Being different logical systems, the relativistic and quantum theories, observations in modern cosmology cannot be consistently considered in one `unified physical theory', but they are in frames of introduced schemes of cognition.

  11. A Note on Fourier and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Postma, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Joseph Fourier's discovery of the greenhouse effect is discussed and is compared to the modern conception of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that what Fourier discovered is analogous to the modern concept of the greenhouse effect. However, the modern concept of the greenhouse effect is found to be based on a paradoxical analogy to Fourier's greenhouse work and so either Fourier's greenhouse work, the modern conception of the greenhouse effect, or the modern definition of heat is incorrect. The solution to this problem is not feigned to be given here.

  12. Capsicum annuum (Cultivated) 4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    about the complexity of ecclesiastical polity. Those who continue to urge a portrait of the period as the seedbed of secular liberty will, like his contemporaries, find Goodwin a formidable obstacle and paradox. D. F. McKenzie and Maureen Bell, eds... (CSPD), the Journals of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and the Court Books of the Stationers? Company during the span 1641-1700. As Maureen Bell notes in her brief introduction, McKenzie had relied on the indexes of many of these official...

  13. Deducing the Source of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar; Tsvi Piran

    2000-11-02

    The apparent lack of suitable astrophysical sources for cosmic rays with E > 10^{19.7} eV (UHECRs) is the "GZK Paradox". We argue that whatever mechanism produces them must also account for events down to ~10^{18.7} eV, including their isotropy and spectral smoothness. This rules out galactic sources, distributed sources such as topological defects, and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). We are lead to identify the powerful radio galaxy Cen A, at 3.4 Mpc, as the probable source of most UHECRs observed at Earth today, and to estimate the extragalactic magnetic field to be ~0.3 microG.

  14. GZK Violation - a Tempest in a (Magnetic) Teapot?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar; Tsvi Piran

    2000-01-31

    The apparent lack of suitable astrophysical sources for the observed highest energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within $\\approx 20$ Mpc is the "GZK Paradox". We constrain representative models of the extra-galactic magnetic field structure by Faraday Rotation measurements; limits are at the $\\mu$G level rather than the nG level usually assumed. In such fields, even the highest energy cosmic rays experience large deflections. This allows nearby AGNs (possibly quiet today) or GRBs to be the source of ultra-high energy cosmic rays without contradicting the GZK distance limit.

  15. The stress field and energy of screw dislocation in smectic-A liquid crystals and on the mistakes of the classical solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian You Fan; Xian Fang Li

    2015-09-28

    The mistakes of the classical solution of screw dislocations in smectic-A liquid crystals are pointed out. This reveals a serious problem of the well-known theory, which may be named de Gennes-Kleman-Pershan paradox, for many decades in the scientific community of liquid crystal study. The correct solution is given in this letter in terms of simplest, elementary and straightforward solution method. Furthermore, the stress filed and energy of dislocation are discussed in detail. The present article gives a corrected stress field and dislocation energy as well.

  16. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Zakharov

    2010-11-22

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the ?-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  17. Naked Firewalls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Pisin; Page, Don N; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  18. Time machines and traversable wormholes in modified theories of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco S. N. Lobo

    2012-12-05

    We review recent work on wormhole geometries in the context of modified theories of gravity, in particular, in f(R) gravity and with a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling, and in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini theory. In principle, the normal matter threading the throat can be shown to satisfy the energy conditions and it is the higher order curvatures terms that sustain these wormhole geometries. We also briefly review the conversion of wormholes into time-machines, explore several of the time travel paradoxes and possible remedies to these intriguing side-effects in wormhole physics.

  19. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  20. Why we don`t need quantum planetary dynamics, or on decoherence and the correspondence principle for chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pas, J.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Ciudad Universitaria (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica

    1995-08-01

    Violation of correspondence principle may occur for very macroscopic byt isolated quantum systems on rather short timescales as illustrated by the case of Hyperion, the chaotically tumbling moon of Saturn, for which quantum and classical predictions are expected to diverge on a timescale of approximately 20 years. Motivated by Hyperion, we review salient features of ``quantum chaos`` and show that decoherence is the essential ingredient of the classical limit, as it enables one to solve the apparent paradox caused by the breakdown of the correspondence principle for classically chaotic systems.

  1. Operationalization of Relativistic Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Hartmann

    2015-01-08

    We apply the Helmholtz program of basic measurements to relativistic motion. We define a spatiotemporal order by practical comparison: "longer than" if one object or process covers the other. To express its value also numerically (how many times more) we cover them by a locally regular grid of light clocks. We define basic measures from physical operations. Interrelation of measurement operations by different observers reveals a genetic derivation of formal Lorentz transformation. Operationally impracticable configurations for accelerating observers clarify the way out of apparent Twin paradox. From simple measurement-methodical principles - without mathematical presuppositions - we derive all equations of relativistic Kinematics (and next same for classical and relativistic Dynamics).

  2. Inside and out; the activities of senescence in cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Young, Andrew R. J.; Narita, Masashi

    2014-07-17

    stream_source_info OA1601_NRC_Narita_HEFCE.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 89965 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name OA1601_NRC_Narita_HEFCE.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Inside and out... , or its downstream effectors paradoxically led to premature senescence19-21. However in 2005 a series of studies22-26 identified senescence in several premalignant tumours, both in humans 6 and mice. The loss of tumour suppressors, such as PTEN23 (BOX...

  3. Moving system with speeded-up evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Shirokov

    2008-02-29

    In the classical (non-quantum) relativity theory the course of the moving clock is dilated as compared to the course of the clock at rest (the Einstein dilation). Any unstable system may be regarded as a clock. The time evolution (e.g., the decay) of a uniformly moving physical system is considered using the relativistic quantum theory. The example of a moving system is given whose evolution turns out to be speeded-up instead of being dilated. A discussion of this paradoxical result is presented.

  4. On the explanation for quantum statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Saunders

    2005-11-15

    The concept of classical indistinguishability is analyzed and defended against a number of well-known criticisms, with particular attention to the Gibbs' paradox. Granted that it is as much at home in classical as in quantum statistical mechanics, the question arises as to why indistinguishability, in quantum mechanics but not in classical mechanics, forces a change in statistics. The answer, illustrated with simple examples, is that the equilibrium measure on classical phase space is continuous, whilst on Hilbert space it is discrete. The relevance of names, or equivalently, properties stable in time that can be used as names, is also discussed.

  5. Earth's extensive entropy bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Lisewski

    2012-12-20

    The possibility of planetary mass black hole production by crossing entropy limits is addressed. Such a possibility is given by pointing out that two geophysical quantities have comparable values: first, Earth's total negative entropy flux integrated over geological time and, second, its extensive entropy bound, which follows as a tighter bound to the Bekenstein limit when entropy is an extensive function. The similarity between both numbers suggests that the formation of black holes from planets may be possible through a strong fluctuation toward thermodynamic equilibrium which results in gravothermal instability and final collapse. Briefly discussed are implications for the astronomical observation of low mass black holes and for Fermi's paradox.

  6. Force As A Momentum Current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-07-28

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  7. Directed transport as a mechanism for protein folding in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernesto Gonzalez-Candela; Victor Romero-Rochin

    2009-09-23

    We propose a model for protein folding in vivo based on a Brownian-ratchet mechanism in the multidimensional energy landscape space. The device is able to produce directed transport taking advantage of the assumed intrinsic asymmetric properties of the proteins and employing the consumption of energy provided by an external source. Through such a directed transport phenomenon, the polypeptide finds the native state starting from any initial state in the energy landscape with great efficacy and robustness, even in the presence of different type of obstacles. This model solves Levinthal's paradox without requiring biased transition probabilities but at the expense of opening the system to an external field.

  8. Bohmian Trajectories as the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon Goldstein; Roderich Tumulka; Nino Zanghi

    2009-12-14

    Bohmian trajectories have been used for various purposes, including the numerical simulation of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and the visualization of time-dependent wave functions. We review the purpose they were invented for: to serve as the foundation of quantum mechanics, i.e., to explain quantum mechanics in terms of a theory that is free of paradoxes and allows an understanding that is as clear as that of classical mechanics. Indeed, they succeed in serving that purpose in the context of a theory known as Bohmian mechanics, to which this article is an introduction.

  9. Scattering theory with localized non-Hermiticities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Znojil, Miloslav [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-15

    In the context of the recent interest in solvable models of scattering mediated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians (cf. H. F. Jones, Phys. Rev. D 76, 125003 (2007)) we show that the well-known variability of the ad hoc choice of the metric {theta} which defines the physical Hilbert space of states can help us to clarify several apparent paradoxes. We argue that with a suitable {theta}, a fully plausible physical picture of the scattering can be recovered. Quantitatively, our new recipe is illustrated on an exactly solvable toy model.

  10. Directed transport as a mechanism for protein folding in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez-Candela, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    We propose a model for protein folding in vivo based on a Brownian-ratchet mechanism in the multidimensional energy landscape space. The device is able to produce directed transport taking advantage of the assumed intrinsic asymmetric properties of the proteins and employing the consumption of energy provided by an external source. Through such a directed transport phenomenon, the polypeptide finds the native state starting from any initial state in the energy landscape with great efficacy and robustness, even in the presence of different type of obstacles. This model solves Levinthal's paradox without requiring biased transition probabilities but at the expense of opening the system to an external field.

  11. Light is Heavy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Mark, M B

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's relativity theory appears to be very accurate, but at times equally puzzling. On the one hand, electromagnetic radiation must have zero rest mass in order to propagate at the speed of light, but on the other hand, since it definitely carries momentum and energy, it has non-zero inertial mass. Hence, by the principle of equivalence, it must have non-zero gravitational mass, and so, light must be heavy. In this paper, no new results will be derived, but a possibly surprising perspective on the above paradox is given.

  12. YUNMO WANG | The Dragon's Curse?: Examining the Relationship between China's Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and its Economic Ties in Africa, 2000-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    and Human Migration at the U.S. ­ Mexico Border THOMAS J. TREE | Nuclear Proliferation Realities: IranVeReigNty iN the age of gloBalizatioN: the paRadox BetWeeN the moVemeNt of capital aNd humaN migRatioN at the u.S. ­ mexico BoRdeR thomaS J. tRee | NucleaR pRolifeRatioN RealitieS: iRaN, egypt, aNd Saudi aRaBia michael S

  13. Translation by adaptor-helicase cycle in oligomer world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayato Tsuda; Osamu Narikiyo

    2013-07-15

    A mechanism of the translation in oligomer world is proposed. The translation is carried out by a minimum cycle, which is sustained by adaptors and helicases, and the first information processing in oligomer world. We expect that such a cycle actually worked in a primitive cell and can be constructed in vitro. By computer simulation we have shown that a proofreading is achieved by the fluctuation in the cell. It is rather paradoxical that the proofreading is effective for the system consisting of molecular machines with low efficiency.

  14. Snap buckling of a confined thin elastic sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaetano Napoli; Stefano S. Turzi

    2015-04-20

    A growing or compressed thin elastic sheet adhered to a rigid substrate can exhibit a buckling instability, forming an inward hump. Our study shows that the strip morphology depends on the delicate balance between the compression energy and the bending energy. We find that this instability is a first order phase transition between the adhered solution and the buckled solution whose main control parameter is related to the sheet stretchability. In the nearly- unstretchable regime we provide an analytic expression for the critical threshold. Compressibility is the key assumption which allows us to resolve the apparent paradox of an unbounded pressure exerted on the external wall by a confined flexible loop.

  15. Nelson 2 Rodrigues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, David S.

    1988-04-01

    's family Ufe represents a time of creation, the play's action paradoxically takes place at the end of the mythic cycle, in the phase of chaos and destruction, before the phase of regeneration, which Mircea Eliade describes in the context of primitive... the death of Jonas, the author writes, "Dona Senhorinha leaves to find Nono and start a new Ufe" (119). To reinforce the idea of death leading to rebirth, "a new life," the playwright closes Family Album with a funeral prayer in Latin, an ancient ritual...

  16. French Studies: Seventeenth Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    distance with M.'s 'romanesque', creating, somewhat paradoxically, a version relying more on verisimultude. D. Dalla Valle, 'Des Don Juans pastoraux...', Brunei, Don Juans, 19-27, sees some similar echoes of the legendary figure in other fickle... . MonicaPavesio, 'Un Don Juan dans Vlnconstance punie, tragi-comedie franchise de 1630', Brunei, Don Juans, 29-42, proposes that the commedia delVarte was a major source of inspiration for the play. L A M E S N A R D I E R E . M. Vuillermoz, 'Un temoin...

  17. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  18. Gauge/Gravity Duality

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics

    2010-09-01

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  19. Radio-wave propagation in the non-Gaussian interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav Boldyrev; Carl R. Gwinn

    2005-08-02

    Radio waves propagating from distant pulsars in the interstellar medium (ISM), are refracted by electron density inhomogeneities, so that the intensity of observed pulses fluctuates with time. The theory relating the observed pulse time-shapes to the electron-density correlation function has developed for 30 years, however, two puzzles have remained. First, observational scaling of pulse broadening with the pulsar distance is anomalously strong; it is consistent with the standard model only when non-uniform statistics of electron fluctuations along the line of sight are assumed. Second, the observed pulse shapes are consistent with the standard model only when the scattering material is concentrated in a narrow slab between the pulsar and the Earth. We propose that both paradoxes are resolved at once if one assumes stationary and uniform, but non-Gaussian statistics of the electron-density distribution. Such statistics must be of Levy type, and the propagating ray should exhibit a Levy flight. We propose that a natural realization of such statistics may be provided by the interstellar medium with random electron-density discontinuities. We develop a theory of wave propagation in such a non-Gaussian random medium, and demonstrate its good agreement with observations. The qualitative introduction of the approach and the resolution of the anomalous-scaling paradox was presented earlier in [PRL 91, 131101 (2003); ApJ 584, 791 (2003)].

  20. A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Sulis

    2014-09-07

    The process approach to NRQM offers a fourth framework for the quantization of physical systems. Unlike the standard approaches (Schrodinger-Heisenberg, Feynman, Wigner-Gronewald-Moyal), the process approach is not merely equivalent to NRQM and is not merely a re-interpretation. The process approach provides a dynamical completion of NRQM. Standard NRQM arises as a asymptotic quotient by means of a set-valued process covering map, which links the process algebra to the usual space of wave functions and operators on Hilbert space. The process approach offers an emergentist, discrete, finite, quasi-non-local and quasi-non-contextual realist interpretation which appears to resolve many of the paradoxes and is free of divergences. Nevertheless, it retains the computational power of NRQM and possesses an emergent probability structure which agrees with NRQM in the asymptotic quotient. The paper describes the process algebra, the process covering map for single systems and the configuration process covering map for multiple systems. It demonstrates the link to NRQM through a toy model. Applications of the process algebra to various quantum mechanical situations - superpositions, two-slit experiments, entanglement, Schrodinger's cat - are presented along with an approach to the paradoxes and the issue of classicality.

  1. Conformal Blocks Beyond the Semi-Classical Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

    2015-12-15

    Black hole microstates and their approximate thermodynamic properties can be studied using heavy-light correlation functions in AdS/CFT. Universal features of these correlators can be extracted from the Virasoro conformal blocks in CFT2, which encapsulate quantum gravitational effects in AdS3. At infinite central charge c, the Virasoro vacuum block provides an avatar of the black hole information paradox in the form of periodic Euclidean-time singularities that must be resolved at finite c. We compute Virasoro blocks in the heavy-light, large c limit, extending our previous results by determining perturbative 1/c corrections. We obtain explicit closed-form expressions for both the `semi-classical' $h_L^2 / c^2$ and `quantum' $h_L / c^2$ corrections to the vacuum block, and we provide integral formulas for general Virasoro blocks. We comment on the interpretation of our results for thermodynamics, discussing how monodromies in Euclidean time can arise from AdS calculations using `geodesic Witten diagrams'. We expect that only non-perturbative corrections in 1/c can resolve the singularities associated with the information paradox.

  2. Quantum Jump from Singularity to Outside of Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dündar, Furkan Semih

    2015-01-01

    Considering the role of black hole singularity in quantum evolution, a resolution to the firewall paradox is presented. It is emphasized that if an observer has the singularity as a part of his spacetime, then the semi-classical evolution would be non-unitary as viewed by him. Specifically, a free-falling observer inside the black hole would have a Hilbert space with non-unitary evolution; a quantum jump for particles encountering the singularity to outside of the horizon as part of late radiations in black hole evaporation. Accordingly, we elaborate the first postulate of black hole complementarity: freely falling observers who pass through the event horizon would have non-unitarity evolutions. The non-unitary evolution is such that it does not have physically measurable effects for them. Besides, no information would be lost in singularity. Taking the modified picture into account, the firewall paradox {can be} resolved, respecting No Drama. A by-product of our modification is that roughly half of the mass ...

  3. A New Look at the Position Operator in Quantum Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix M. Lev

    2015-01-07

    The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory by analogy with classical electrodynamics. As a consequence, an inevitable effect in standard theory is the wave packet spreading (WPS) of the photon coordinate wave function in directions perpendicular to the photon momentum. This leads to the following paradoxes: if the major part of photons emitted by stars are in wave packet states (what is the most probable scenario) then we should see not separate stars but only an almost continuous background from all stars; no anisotropy of the CMB radiation should be observable; data on gamma-ray bursts, signals from directional radio antennas (in particular, in experiments on Shapiro delay) and signals from pulsars show no signs of WPS. In addition, a problem arises why there are no signs of WPS for protons in the LHC ring. We argue that the above postulate is based neither on strong theoretical arguments nor on experimental data and propose a new consistent definition of the position operator. Then WPS in directions perpendicular to the particle momentum is absent and the paradoxes are resolved. Different components of the new position operator do not commute with each other and, as a consequence, there is no wave function in coordinate representation. Implications of the results for entanglement, quantum locality and the problem of time in quantum theory are discussed.

  4. Scalar potential model of redshift and discrete redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John C. Hodge

    2006-02-15

    On the galactic scale the universe is inhomogeneous and redshift $z$ is occasionally less than zero. A scalar potential model (SPM) that links the galaxy scale $z$ to the cosmological scale $z$ of the Hubble Law is postulated. Several differences among galaxy types suggest that spiral galaxies are Sources and that early type, lenticular, and irregular galaxies are Sinks of a scalar potential field. The morphology-radius and the intragalactic medium cluster observations support the movement of matter from Source galaxies to Sink galaxies. A cell structure of galaxy groups and clusters is proposed to resolve a paradox concerning the scalar potential like the Olber's paradox concerning light. For the sample galaxies, the ratio of the luminosity of Source galaxies to the luminosity of Sink galaxies approaches $2.7 \\pm 0.1$. An equation is derived from sample data, which is anisotropic and inhomogeneous, relating $z$ of and the distance $D$ to galaxies. The calculated $z$ has a correlation coefficient of 0.88 with the measured $z$ for a sample of 32 spiral galaxies with $D$ calculated using Cepheid variable stars. The equation is consistent with $zSPM of $z$ provides a physical basis for the $z$ of particle photons. Further, the SPM qualitatively suggests the discrete variations in $z$, which was reported by W. G. Tifft, 1997, Astrophy. J. 485, 465 and confirmed by others, are consistent with the SPM.

  5. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon- Migration Pathways in Heated Organic-Rich Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamed Panahi; Paul Meakin; Francois Renard; Maya Kobchenko; Julien Scheibert; Adriano Mazzini; Bjorn Jamtveit; Anders Malthe-Sorenssen; Dag Kristian Dysthe

    2013-04-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interest in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing, and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms have been proposed for the transport of hydrocarbons from the rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes, it is imperative to use the latest technological advances. In this study, it is shown how insights into hydrocarbon migration in source rocks can be obtained by using sequential high-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of several immature "shale" samples were constructed at resolutions close to 5 um. This is sufficient to resolve the source-rock structure down to the grain level, but very-fine-grained silt particles, clay particles, and colloids cannot be resolved. Samples used in this investigation came from the R-8 unit in the upper part of the Green River shale, which is organic rich, varved, lacustrine marl formed in Eocene Lake Uinta, USA. One Green River shale sample was heated in situ up to 400 degrees C as X-ray-tomography images were recorded. The other samples were scanned before and after heating at 400 degrees C. During the heating phase, the organic matter was decomposed, and gas was released. Gas expulsion from the low-permeability shales was coupled with formation of microcracks. The main technical difficulty was numerical extraction of microcracks that have apertures in the 5- to 30-um range (with 5 um being the resolution limit) from a large 3D volume of X-ray attenuation data. The main goal of the work presented here is to develop a methodology to process these 3D data and image the cracks. This methodology is based on several levels of spatial filtering and automatic recognition of connected domains. Supportive petrographic and thermogravimetric data were an important complement to this study. An investigation of the strain field using 2D image correlation analyses was also performed. As one application of the 4D (space + time) microtomography and the developed workflow, we show that fluid generation was accompanied by crack formation. Under different conditions, in the subsurface, this might provide paths for primary migration.

  6. Assessment of CO2 Sequestration and ECBM Potential of U.S. Coalbeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott R. Reeves

    2003-03-31

    In October, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, through contractor Advanced Resources International, launched a multi-year government-industry R&D collaboration called the Coal-Seq project. The Coal-Seq project is investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coalseams, by performing detailed reservoir studies of two enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) field projects in the San Juan basin. The two sites are the Allison Unit, operated by Burlington Resources, and into which CO{sub 2} is being injected, and the Tiffany Unit, operating by BP America, into which N{sub 2} is being injected (the interest in understanding the N{sub 2}-ECBM process has important implications for CO{sub 2} sequestration via flue-gas injection). The purposes of the field studies are to understand the reservoir mechanisms of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} injection into coalseams, demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the ECBM and sequestration processes, an engineering capability to simulate them, and to evaluate sequestration economics. In support of these efforts, laboratory and theoretical studies are also being performed to understand and model multi-component isotherm behavior, and coal permeability changes due to swelling with CO{sub 2} injection. This report describes the results of an important component of the overall project, applying the findings from the San Juan Basin to a national scale to develop a preliminary assessment of the CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery potential of U.S. coalbeds. Importantly, this assessment improves upon previous investigations by (1) including a more comprehensive list of U.S. coal basins, (2) adopting technical rationale for setting upper-bound limits on the results, and (3) incorporating new information on CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} replacement ratios as a function of coal rank. Based on the results of the assessment, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of U.S. coalbeds is estimated to be about 90 Gt. Of this, about 38 Gt is in Alaska (even after accounting for high costs associated with this province), 14 Gt is in the Powder River basin, 10 Gt is in the San Juan basin, and 8 Gt is in the Greater Green River basin. By comparison, total CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation plants is currently about 2.2 Gt/year. (2) The ECBM recovery potential associated with this sequestration is estimated to be over 150 Tcf. Of this, 47 Tcf is in Alaska (even after accounting for high costs associated with this province), 20 Tcf is in the Powder River basin, 19 Tcf is in the Greater Green River basin, and 16 Tcf is in the San Juan basin. By comparison, total CBM recoverable resources are currently estimated to be about 170 Tcf. (3) Between 25 and 30 Gt of CO{sub 2} can be sequestered at a profit, and 80-85 Gt can be sequestered at costs of less than $5/ton. These estimates do not include any costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, and only represent geologic sequestration. (4) Several Rocky Mountain basins, including the San Juan, Raton, Powder River and Uinta appear to hold the most favorable conditions for sequestration economics. The Gulf Coast and the Central Appalachian basin also appear to hold promise as economic sequestration targets, depending upon gas prices. (5) In general, the 'non-commercial' areas (those areas outside the main play area that are not expected to produce primary CBM commercially) appear more favorable for sequestration economics than the 'commercial' areas. This is because there is more in-place methane to recover in these settings (the 'commercial' areas having already been largely depleted of methane).

  7. Holographic dual of a time machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Arefeva; Andrey Bagrov; Petter Saterskog; Koenraad Schalm

    2015-08-18

    We apply the $AdS/CFT$ holography to the simplest possible eternal time machine solution in $AdS_3$ based on two conical defects moving around their center of mass along a circular orbit. Closed timelike curves in this space-time extend all the way to the boundary of $AdS_3$, violating causality of the boundary field theory. By use of the geodesic approximation we address the "grandfather paradox" in the dual $1+1$ dimensional field theory and calculate the two-point retarded Green function. It has a non-trivial analytical structure both at negative and positive times, providing us with an intuition on how an interacting quantum field could behave once causality is broken. In contrast with the previous considerations our calculations reveal the possibility of a consistent and controllable evolution of a quantum system without any need to impose additional consistency constraints.

  8. Energetic Electrons and Nuclear Transmutations in Exploding Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2007-09-08

    Nuclear transmutations and fast neutrons have been observed to emerge from large electrical current pulses passing through wire filaments which are induced to explode. The nuclear reactions may be explained as inverse beta transitions of energetic electrons absorbed either directly by single protons in Hydrogen or by protons embedded in other more massive nuclei. The critical energy transformations to the electrons from the electromagnetic field and from the electrons to the nuclei are best understood in terms of coherent collective motions of the many flowing electrons within a wire filament. Energy transformation mechanisms have thus been found which settle a theoretical paradox in low energy nuclear reactions which has remained unresolved for over eight decades. It is presently clear that nuclear transmutations can occur under a much wider range of physical conditions than was heretofore thought possible.

  9. A biotic cosmos demystified?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Spivey

    2011-03-23

    Oceanic planets formed by type Ia supernovae become spectacularly abundant as stars cease to shine. However, the timing may not be altogether inappropriate. Neutrino annihilation might thermally regulate iron-cored water-worlds, sustaining habitable subglacial oceans. If dark matter and dark energy decay to neutrinos, the universe could support life for ~ 10^23 years. Civilisations surmounting the arduous process of hereditary genetics soon discern the biotic nature of the cosmos and accept their role within it. An infrastructure guards against the spread of rogue colonists. Recruited colonists could harness the available energy for the benefit of life with stupendous efficiency, providing unmistakeable evidence of cosmological optimisation. The anthropic coincidences, inhospitable aspects of the current universe and Fermi's paradox would all be illuminated. Semiconductors sensitive to a neutrinoelectric effect offer a laboratory test of the planetary heating mechanism.

  10. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  11. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Sanchez-Monroy; C. J. Quimbay

    2014-09-30

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to a two Klein-Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein's paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials.

  12. Of fishes and birthdays: Efficient estimation of polymer configurational entropies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemenman, Ilya; Strauss, Charlie E

    2015-01-01

    We present an algorithm to estimate the configurational entropy $S$ of a polymer. The algorithm uses the statistics of coincidences among random samples of configurations and is related to the catch-tag-release method for estimation of population sizes, and to the classic "birthday paradox". Bias in the entropy estimation is decreased by grouping configurations in nearly equiprobable partitions based on their energies, and estimating entropies separately within each partition. Whereas most entropy estimation algorithms require $N\\sim 2^{S}$ samples to achieve small bias, our approach typically needs only $N\\sim \\sqrt{2^{S}}$. Thus the algorithm can be applied to estimate protein free energies with increased accuracy and decreased computational cost.

  13. The naked singularity in the global structure of critical collapse spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei V. Frolov; Ue-Li Pen

    2003-07-17

    We examine the global structure of scalar field critical collapse spacetimes using a characteristic double-null code. It can integrate past the horizon without any coordinate problems, due to the careful choice of constraint equations used in the evolution. The limiting sequence of sub- and supercritical spacetimes presents an apparent paradox in the expected Penrose diagrams, which we address in this paper. We argue that the limiting spacetime converges pointwise to a unique limit for all r>0, but not uniformly. The r=0 line is different in the two limits. We interpret that the two different Penrose diagrams differ by a discontinuous gauge transformation. We conclude that the limiting spacetime possesses a singular event, with a future removable naked singularity.

  14. A Zero Knowledge Protocol For Nuclear Warhead Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Alexander; Goldston, Robert J.

    2014-03-14

    The verification of nuclear warheads for arms control faces a paradox: International inspectors must gain high confidence in the authenticity of submitted items while learning nothing about them. Conventional inspection systems featuring ''information barriers'', designed to hide measurments stored in electronic systems, are at risk of tampering and snooping. Here we show the viability of fundamentally new approach to nuclear warhead verification that incorporates a zero-knowledge protocol, designed such that sensitive information is never measured so does not need to be hidden. We interrogate submitted items with energetic neutrons, making in effect, differential measurements of neutron transmission and emission. Calculations of diversion scenarios show that a high degree of discrimination can be achieved while revealing zero information. Timely demonstration of the viability of such an approach could be critical for the nexxt round of arms-control negotiations, which will likely require verification of individual warheads, rather than whole delivery systems.

  15. Anti-telephones in transformation optics: metamaterials with closed null geodesics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Reece Boston

    2015-03-06

    We apply the methods of transformation optics to theoretical descriptions of spacetimes that support closed null geodesic curves. The metric used is based on frame dragging spacetimes, such as the van Stockum dust or the Kerr black hole. Through transformation optics, this metric is analogous to a material that in theory should allow for communication between past and future. Presented herein is a derivation and description of the spacetime and the resulting permeability, permittivity, and magneto-electric couplings that a material would need in order for light in the material to follow closed null geodesics. We also address the paradoxical implications of such a material, and demonstrate why such a material would not actually result in a violation of causality. A full derivation of the Plebanski equations is also included.

  16. Time travel, Clock Puzzles and Their Experimental Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignazio Ciufolini

    2013-06-07

    Is time travel possible? What is Einstein's theory of relativity mathematically predicting in that regard? Is time travel related to the so-called clock 'paradoxes' of relativity and if so how? Is there any accurate experimental evidence of the phenomena regarding the different flow of time predicted by General Relativity and is there any possible application of the temporal phenomena predicted by relativity to our everyday life? Which temporal phenomena are predicted in the vicinities of a rotating body and of a mass-energy current, and do we have any experimental test of the occurrence of these phenomena near a rotating body? In this paper, we address and answer some of these questions.

  17. Pauli matrices and 2D electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Geurdes

    2013-02-07

    In the present paper it will be argued that transport in a 2D electron gas can be implemented as 'local hidden instrument based' variables. With this concept of instrumentalism it is possible to explain the quantum correlation, the particle-wave duality and Wheeler's 'backward causation of a particle'. In the case of quantum correlation the spin measuring variant of the Einstein Podolsky and Rosen paradox is studied. In the case of particle-wave duality the system studied is single photon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometry with a phase shift size $\\delta$. The idea that the instruments more or less neutrally may show us the way to the particle will be replaced by the concept of laboratory equipment contributing in an unexpected way to the measurement.

  18. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  19. Quantum Structure in Cognition: Fundamentals and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Experiments in cognitive science and decision theory show that the ways in which people combine concepts and make decisions cannot be described by classical logic and probability theory. This has serious implications for applied disciplines such as information retrieval, artificial intelligence and robotics. Inspired by a mathematical formalism that generalizes quantum mechanics the authors have constructed a contextual framework for both concept representation and decision making, together with quantum models that are in strong alignment with experimental data. The results can be interpreted by assuming the existence in human thought of a double-layered structure, a 'classical logical thought' and a 'quantum conceptual thought', the latter being responsible of the above paradoxes and nonclassical effects. The presence of a quantum structure in cognition is relevant, for it shows that quantum mechanics provides not only a useful modeling tool for experimental data but also supplies a structural model for huma...

  20. The Zero Age Main Sequence of WIMP burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Edsjo, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence WIMP burners look much like protostars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically young OB stars found at the galactic centre with WIMP burners.

  1. Molecular motors robustly drive active gels to a critically connected state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Alvarado; Michael Sheinman; Abhinav Sharma; Fred C. MacKintosh; Gijsje H. Koenderink

    2013-02-12

    Living systems often exhibit internal driving: active, molecular processes drive nonequilibrium phenomena such as metabolism or migration. Active gels constitute a fascinating class of internally driven matter, where molecular motors exert localized stresses inside polymer networks. There is evidence that network crosslinking is required to allow motors to induce macroscopic contraction. Yet a quantitative understanding of how network connectivity enables contraction is lacking. Here we show experimentally that myosin motors contract crosslinked actin polymer networks to clusters with a scale-free size distribution. This critical behavior occurs over an unexpectedly broad range of crosslink concentrations. To understand this robustness, we develop a quantitative model of contractile networks that takes into account network restructuring: motors reduce connectivity by forcing crosslinks to unbind. Paradoxically, to coordinate global contractions, motor activity should be low. Otherwise, motors drive initially well-connected networks to a critical state where ruptures form across the entire network.

  2. Thermal Duality and Gravitational Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewitt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Thermal duality is a relationship between the behaviour of heterotic string models of the $E(8)x E(8)$ or $SO(32)$ types at inversely related temperatures, a variant of T duality in the Euclidean regime. This duality would have consequences for the nature of the Hagedon transition in these string models. We propose that the vacuum admits a family of deformations in situations where there are closed surfaces of constant area but high radial acceleration (a string regularized version of a Penrose trapped surface), such as would be formed in situations of extreme gravitational collapse. This would allow a radical resolution of the firewall paradox by allowing quantum effects to significantly modify the spacetime geometry around a collapsed object. A string bremsstrahlung process would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter in extreme gravitational collapse to form a region of the deformed vacuum, which would be equivalent to forming a high temperature string phase. This process might have observable cons...

  3. Laplace-Fourier analysis and instabilities of a gainy slab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hågenvik, Hans Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The idealization of monochromatic plane waves leads to considerable simplifications in the analysis of electromagnetic systems. However, for active systems this idealization may be dangerous due to the presence of growing waves. Here we consider a gainy slab, and use a realistic incident beam, which is both causal and has finite width. This clarifies some apparent paradoxes arising from earlier analyses of this setup. In general it turns out to be necessary to involve complex frequencies $\\omega$ and/or complex transversal wavenumbers $k_x$. Simultaneously real $\\omega$ and $k_x$ cannot describe amplified waves in a slab which is infinite in the transversal direction. We also show that the only possibility to have an absolute instability for a finite width beam, is if a normally incident plane wave would experience an instability.

  4. Magnetic field advection in two interpenetrating plasma streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Kugland, N. L.; Levy, M. C.; Plechaty, C.; Ross, J. S.; Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Laser-generated colliding plasma streams can serve as a test-bed for the study of various astrophysical phenomena and the general physics of self-organization. For streams of a sufficiently high kinetic energy, collisions between the ions of one stream with the ions of the other stream are negligible, and the streams can penetrate through each other. On the other hand, the intra-stream collisions for high-Mach-number flows can still be very frequent, so that each stream can be described hydrodynamically. This paper presents an analytical study of the effects that these interpenetrating streams have on large-scale magnetic fields either introduced by external coils or generated in the plasma near the laser targets. Specifically, a problem of the frozen-in constraint is assessed and paradoxical features of the field advection in this system are revealed. A possibility of using this system for studies of magnetic reconnection is mentioned.

  5. An Investigation of Natural Gas as a Substitute for Diesel in Heavy Duty Trucks and Associated Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, applicability of natural gas fuel for transportation as compared to diesel is investigated. This study investigates a promising technology for the heavy duty truck sector of transportation as a target for conversion from diesel to natural gas. The supply of natural gas is limited so we also verify the available domestic supply quantities both before and after a fleet conversion. This paper concludes with an economic discussion regarding Javon's paradox and the fungibility of natural gas as compared to that of oil. In order to determine if natural gas can replace diesel for the country's heavy duty truck transportation needs, the energy equivalent and efficiency of natural gas alternatives should be compared to diesel. There are two alternatives for using natural gas as a replacement for diesel; compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas.

  6. A Novel Visualization of the Geometry of Special Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marr, John H

    2015-01-01

    The mathematical treatment and graphical representation of Special Relativity (SR) are well established, yet carry deep implications that remain hard to visualize. This paper presents a new graphical interpretation of the geometry of SR that may, by complementing the standard works, aid the understanding of SR and its fundamental principles in a more intuitive way. From the axiom that the velocity of light remains constant to any inertial observer, the geodesic is presented as a line of constant angle on the complex plane across a set of diverging reference frames. The resultant curve is a logarithmic spiral, and this view of the geodesic is extended to illustrate the relativistic Doppler effect, time dilation, length contraction, the twin paradox, and relativistic radar distance in an original way, whilst retaining the essential mathematical relationships of SR. Using a computer-generated graphical representation of photon trajectories allows a visual comparison between the relativistic relationships and the...

  7. Space does not exist, so time can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fotini Markopoulou

    2009-09-10

    It is often said that in general relativity time does not exist. This is because the Einstein equations generate motion in time that is a symmetry of the theory, not true time evolution. In quantum gravity, the timelessness of general relativity clashes with time in quantum theory and leads to the ``problem of time'' which, in its various forms, is the main obstacle to a successful quantum theory of gravity. I argue that the problem of time is a paradox, stemming from an unstated faulty premise. Our faulty assumption is that space is real. I propose that what does not fundamentally exist is not time but space, geometry and gravity. The quantum theory of gravity will be spaceless, not timeless. If we are willing to throw out space, we can keep time and the trade is worth it.

  8. Improved quantum correlations in second harmonic generation with a squeezed pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. MArcellina; J. F. Corney; M. K. Olsen

    2013-02-11

    We investigate the effects of a squeezed pump on the quantum properties and conversion efficiency of the light produced in single-pass second harmonic generation. Using stochastic integration of the two-mode equations of motion in the positive-P representation, we find that larger violations of continuous-variable harmonic entanglement criteria are available for lesser effective interaction strengths than with a coherent pump. This enhancement of the quantum properties also applies to violations of the Reid-Drummond inequalities used to demonstrate a harmonic version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. We find that the conversion efficiency is largely unchanged except for very low pump intensities and high levels of squeezing.

  9. On the relation of Thomas rotation and angular velocity of reference frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Matolcsi; M. Matolcsi; T. Tasnádi

    2006-11-19

    In the extensive literature dealing with the relativistic phenomenon of Thomas rotation several methods have been developed for calculating the Thomas rotation angle of a gyroscope along a circular world line. One of the most appealing concepts, introduced in \\cite{rindler}, is to consider a rotating reference frame co-moving with the gyroscope, and relate the precession of the gyroscope to the angular velocity of the reference frame. A recent paper \\cite{herrera}, however, applies this principle to three different co-moving rotating reference frames and arrives at three different Thomas rotation angles. The reason for this apparent paradox is that the principle of \\cite{rindler} is used for a situation to which it does not apply. In this paper we rigorously examine the theoretical background and limitations of applicability of the principle of \\cite{rindler}. Along the way we also establish some general properties of {\\it rotating reference frames}, which may be of independent interest.

  10. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supe...

  11. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  12. Material requirements for the adoption of unconventional silicon crystal and wafer growth techniques for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Wagner, Hannes; Castellanos, Sergio; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-10-15

    Silicon wafers comprise approximately 40% of crystalline silicon module cost and represent an area of great technological innovation potential. Paradoxically, unconventional wafer-growth techniques have thus far failed to displace multicrystalline and Czochralski silicon, despite four decades of innovation. One of the shortcomings of most unconventional materials has been a persistent carrier lifetime deficit in comparison to established wafer technologies, which limits the device efficiency potential. In this perspective article, we review a defect-management framework that has proven successful in enabling millisecond lifetimes in kerfless and cast materials. Control of dislocations and slowly diffusing metal point defects during growth, coupled tomore »effective control of fast-diffusing species during cell processing, is critical to enable high cell efficiencies. As a result, to accelerate the pace of novel wafer development, we discuss approaches to rapidly evaluate the device efficiency potential of unconventional wafers from injection-dependent lifetime measurements.« less

  13. Interference in Exclusive Vector Meson Production in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer R. Klein; Joakim Nystrand

    1999-09-03

    Photons emitted from the electromagnetic fields of relativistic heavy ions can fluctuate into quark anti-quark pairs and scatter from a target nucleus, emerging as vector mesons. These coherent interactions are identifiable by final states consisting of the two nuclei and a vector meson with a small transverse momentum. The emitters and targets can switch roles, and the two possibilities are indistinguishable, so interference may occur. Vector mesons are negative parity so the amplitudes have opposite signs. When the meson transverse wavelength is larger than the impact parameter, the interference is large and destructive. The short-lived vector mesons decay before amplitudes from the two sources can overlap, and so cannot interfere directly. However, the decay products are emitted in an entangled state, and the interference depends on observing the complete final state. The non-local wave function is an example of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.

  14. The zero age main sequence of WIMP burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Scott, Pat; Edsjoe, Joakim

    2008-02-15

    We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly-interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMP) burners look much like proto-stars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically hot, young stars found at the galactic center with WIMP burners.

  15. The Zero Age Main Sequence of WIMP burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malcolm Fairbairn; Pat Scott; Joakim Edsjo

    2008-03-03

    We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence WIMP burners look much like protostars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically young OB stars found at the galactic centre with WIMP burners.

  16. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  17. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  18. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salisbury, Donald; Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic spacetime curvature based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semi-classical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler's geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which three-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light...

  19. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zillmer, Ruediger [INFN Sezione Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Livi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sezione INFN, Unita' INFM e Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Dinamiche Complesse, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, CNR, CNR, via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Dinamiche Complesse, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary.

  20. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  1. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Remote-Sensing Quantum Hyperspace by Entangled Photon Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gergely A. Nagy

    2011-01-21

    Even though ideas of extracting future-related, or Faster-Than-Light (FTL) information from hyperspace using quantum entanglement have generally been refuted in the last ten years, in this paper we show that the original 'Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser Experiment', 1st performed by Yoon-Ho Kim, R. Yu, S.P. Kulik, Y.H. Shih, designed by Marlan O. Scully & Druhl in 1982-1999, still features hidden topological properties that may have been overlooked by previous analysis, and which prohibit, by principle, the extraction of future-related or real-time information from the detection of the signal particle on the delayed choice of its entangled idler twin(s). We show that such properties can be removed, and quantum-level information from certain hypersurfaces of past, present or future spacetime may be collected real-time, without resulting in any paradox or violation of causality.

  3. The Membrane Paradigm and Firewalls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Banks; Willy Fischler; Sandipan Kundu; Juan F. Pedraza

    2013-10-02

    Following the Membrane Paradigm, we show that the stretched horizon of a black hole retains information about particles thrown into the hole for a time of order the scrambling time m ln(m/M_P), after the particles cross the horizon. One can, for example, read off the proper time at which a particle anti-particle pair thrown into the hole, annihilates behind the horizon, if this time is less than the scrambling time. If we believe that the Schwarzschild geometry exterior to the horizon is a robust thermodynamic feature of the quantum black hole, independent of whether it is newly formed, or has undergone a long period of Hawking decay, then this classical computation shows that the "firewall" resolution of the AMPS paradox is not valid.

  4. Tracking tropical cloud systems - Observations for the diagnosis of simulations by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelmann, A.M.; Lin, W.; Cialella, A.; Luke, E.; Jensen, M.; Zhang, M.

    2010-03-15

    To aid in improving model parameterizations of clouds and convection, we examine the capability of models, using explicit convection, to simulate the life cycle of tropical cloud systems in the vicinity of the ARM Tropical Western Pacific sites. The cloud life cycle is determined using a satellite cloud tracking algorithm (Boer and Ramanathan, 1997), and the statistics are compared to those of simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Using New York Blue, a Blue Gene/L supercomputer that is co-operated by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, simulations are run at a resolution comparable to the observations. Initial results suggest a computational paradox where, even though the size of the simulated systems are about half of that observed, their longevities are still similar. The explanation for this seeming incongruity will be explored.

  5. Optimal thermalization in a shell model of homogeneous turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalabard, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the turbulence-induced dissipation of the large scales in a statistically homogeneous flow using an "optimal closure," which one of us (BT) has recently exposed in the context of Hamiltonian dynamics. This statistical closure employs a Gaussian model for the turbulent scales, with corresponding vanishing third cumulant, and yet it captures an intrinsic damping. The key to this apparent paradox lies in a clear distinction between true ensemble averages and their proxies, most easily grasped when one works directly with the Liouville equation rather than the cumulant hierarchy. We focus on a simple problem for which the optimal closure can be fully and exactly worked out: the relaxation arbitrarily far-from-equilibrium of a single energy shell towards Gibbs equilibrium in an inviscid shell model of 3D turbulence. The predictions of the optimal closure are validated against DNS and contrasted with those derived from EDQNM closure.

  6. Investigating puzzling aspects of the quantum theory by means of its hydrodynamic formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanz, A S

    2015-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics, a hydrodynamic formulation of the quantum theory, constitutes a useful resource to analyze the role of the phase as the mechanism responsible for the dynamical evolution of quantum systems. Here this role is discussed in the context of quantum interference. Specifically, it is shown that when dealing with two wave-packet coherent superpositions this phenomenon is analogous to an effective collision of a single wave packet with a barrier. This effect is illustrated by means of a numerical simulation of Young's two-slit experiment. Furthermore, outcomes from this analysis are also applied to a realistic simulation of Wheeler's delayed choice experiment. As it is shown, in both cases the Bohmian formulation helps to understand in a natural way (and, therefore, to demystify) what are typically regarded as paradoxical aspects of the quantum theory, simply stressing the important dynamical role played by the quantum phase. Accordingly, our conception of quantum systems should not rely on artifici...

  7. Surely You Must All be Joking: An Outsider's Critique of Quantum Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall C. O'Reilly

    2011-08-29

    A critique of the state of current quantum theory in physics is presented, based on a perspective outside the normal physics training. From this perspective, the acceptance of quantum nonlocality seems unwarranted, and the fundamental assumptions that give rise to it in the first place seem questionable, based on the current status of the quantum theory of light. The relevant data can instead be accounted for using physically motivated local models, based on detailed properties of the experimental setups. The semiclassical approach, particularly in the form of the fully coupled Maxwell-Dirac equations with a pure wave ontology, seems to provide a satisfying, local, paradox-free physical model of the quantum world, that appears consistent with known phenomena. It is unclear why this approach is not pursued more vigorously in the field, given its clear potential to resolve all the conundrums that have perplexed generations of physicists.

  8. A network approach for power grid robustness against cascading failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiangrong; Kooij, Robert E; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for blackouts in electrical power grids. Stable power supply requires a robust design of the power grid topology. Currently, the impact of the grid structure on the grid robustness is mainly assessed by purely topological metrics, that fail to capture the fundamental properties of the electrical power grids such as power flow allocation according to Kirchhoff's laws. This paper deploys the effective graph resistance as a metric to relate the topology of a grid to its robustness against cascading failures. Specifically, the effective graph resistance is deployed as a metric for network expansions (by means of transmission line additions) of an existing power grid. Four strategies based on network properties are investigated to optimize the effective graph resistance, accordingly to improve the robustness, of a given power grid at a low computational complexity. Experimental results suggest the existence of Braess's paradox in power grids: bringing an additional li...

  9. Treating Time Travel Quantum Mechanically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John-Mark A. Allen

    2014-10-10

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilising the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their non-linearity and time travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"---which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory---is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of new theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features---such as time travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish non-orthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states---that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with non-linear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  10. New Horizons in Gravity: Dark Energy and Condensate Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emil Mottola

    2011-07-25

    Black holes are an apparently unavoidable prediction of classical General Relativity, at least if matter obeys the strong energy condition rho + 3p > 0. However quantum vacuum fluctuations generally violate this condition, as does the eq. of state of cosmological dark energy. When quantum effects are considered, black holes lead to a number of thermodynamic paradoxes associated with the Hawking temperature and assumption of black hole entropy, which are briefly reviewed. It is argued that the largest quantum effects arise from the conformal scalar degrees of freedom generated by the trace anomaly of the stress-energy tensor in curved space. At event horizons these can have macroscopically large backreaction effects on the geometry, potentially removing the classical event horizon of black hole and cosmological spacetimes, replacing them with a quantum phase boundary layer, where the effective value of the gravitational vacuum energy density can change. In the effective theory including the quantum effects of the anomaly, the cosmological term becomes a dynamical condensate, whose value depends upon boundary conditions at the horizon. By taking a positive value in the interior of a fully collapsed star, the effective cosmological term removes any singularity, replacing it with a smooth dark energy de Sitter interior. The resulting gravitational vacuum condensate star (or gravastar) configuration resolves all black hole paradoxes, and provides a testable alternative to black holes as the final quantum mechanical end state of complete gravitational collapse. The observed dark energy of our universe likewise may be a macroscopic finite size effect whose value depends not on Planck scale or other microphysics but on the cosmological Hubble horizon scale itself.

  11. PERSPECTIVES ON INTRACLUSTER ENRICHMENT AND THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Loewenstein.1@nasa.gov [Also at CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Stars formed in galaxy cluster potential wells must be responsible for the high level of enrichment measured in the intracluster medium (ICM); however, there is increasing tension between this truism and the parsimonious assumption that the stars in the generally old population studied optically in cluster galaxies emerged from the same formation sites at the same epochs. We construct a phenomenological cluster enrichment model to demonstrate that ICM elemental abundances are underestimated by a factor >2 for standard assumptions about the stellar population-a discrepancy we call the ''cluster elemental abundance paradox''. Recent evidence of an elliptical galaxy initial mass function (IMF) skewed to low masses deepens the paradox. We quantify the adjustments to the star formation efficiency and IMF, and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) production efficiency, required to resolve this while being consistent with the observed ICM abundance pattern. The necessary enhancement in metal enrichment may, in principle, originate in the observed stellar population if a larger fraction of stars in the supernova-progenitor mass range form from an IMF that is either bottom-light or top-heavy, with the latter in some conflict with observed ICM abundance ratios. Other alternatives that imply more modest revisions to the IMF, mass return and remnant fractions, and primordial fraction, posit an increase in the fraction of 3-8 M{sub Sun} stars that explode as SNIa or assume that there are more stars than conventionally thought-although the latter implies a high star formation efficiency. We discuss the feasibility of these various solutions and the implications for the diversity of star formation in the universe, the process of elliptical galaxy formation, and the origin of this ''hidden'' source of ICM metal enrichment.

  12. Adhesive rough contacts near complete contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ciavarella

    2015-05-01

    Recently, there has been some debate over the effect of adhesion on the contact of rough surfaces. Classical asperity theories predict, in agreement with experimental observations, that adhesion is always destroyed by roughness except if the amplitude of the same is extremely small, and the materials are particularly soft. This happens for all fractal dimensions. However, these theories are limited due to the geometrical simplification, which may be particularly strong in conditions near full contact. We introduce therefore a simple model for adhesion, which aims at being rigorous near full contact, where we postulate there are only small isolated gaps between the two bodies. The gaps can be considered as "pressurized cracks" by using Ken Johnson's idea of searching a corrective solution to the full contact solution. The solution is an extension of the adhesive-less solution proposed recently by Xu, Jackson, and Marghitu (XJM model) (2014). This process seems to confirm recent theories using the JKR theory, namely that the effect of adhesion depends critically on the fractal dimension. For D2.5, seems for large enough magnifications that a full fractal roughness completely destroys adhesion. These results are partly paradoxical since strong adhesion is not observed in nature except in special cases. A possible way out of the paradox may be that the conclusion is relevant for the near full contact regime, where the strong role of flaws at the interfaces, and of gaps full of contaminant, trapped air or liquid in pressure, needs to be further explored. If conditions near full contact are not achieved on loading, probably the conclusions of classical asperity theories may be confirmed.

  13. High-Dose Estrogen and Clinical Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Induce Growth Arrest, p21, and p53 in Primate Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2005-06-09

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer affecting women. Hormone-based therapies are variably successful in treating ovarian cancer, but the reasoning behind these therapies is paradoxical. Clinical reagents such as tamoxifen are considered to inhibit or reverse tumor growth by competitive inhibition of the estrogen receptor (ER); however high dose estrogen is as clinically effective as tamoxifen, and it is unlikely that estrogen is acting by blocking ER activity; however, it may be activating a unique function of the ER that is nonmitogenic. For poorly defined reasons, 90% of varian cancers derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In vivo the ER-positive OSE is exposed to high estrogen levels, reaching micromolar concentrations in dominant ovarian follicles. Using cultured OSE cells in vitro, we show that these levels of estradiol (1 ug/ml; {approx}3um) block the actions of serum growth factors, activate the G1 phase retinoblastoma AQ:A checkpoint, and induce p21, an inhibitor of kinases that normally inactivate the retinoblastoma checkpoint. We also show that estradiol increases p53 levels, which may contribute to p21 induction. Supporting the hypothesis that clinical selective ER modulators activate this novel ER function, we find that micromolar doses of tamoxifen and the ''pure antiestrogen'' ICI 182,780 elicit the same effects as estradiol. We propose that, in the context of proliferation, these data clarify some paradoxical aspects of hormone-based therapy and suggest that fuller understanding of normal ER function is necessary to improve therapeutic strategies that target the ER. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 0000-0000, 2005)

  14. Cluster phases of penetrable rods on a line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Prestipino

    2014-10-28

    Phase transitions are uncommon among homogenous one-dimensional fluids of classical particles owing to a general non-existence result due to van Hove. A way to circumvent van Hove's theorem is to consider an interparticle potential that is finite everywhere. Of this type is the generalized exponential model of index 4 (GEM4 potential), a model interaction which in three dimensions provides an accurate description of the effective pair repulsion between dissolved soft macromolecules (e.g., flexible dendrimers). Using specialized free-energy methods, I reconstruct the equilibrium phase diagram of the one-dimensional GEM4 system, showing that, apart from the usual fluid phase at low densities, it consists of an endless sequence of {\\em cluster fluid phases} of increasing pressure, having a sharp crystal appearance for low temperatures. The coexistence line between successive phases in the sequence invariably terminates at a critical point. Focussing on the first of such transitions, I show that the growth of the 2-cluster phase from the metastable ordinary fluid is extremely slow, even for large supersaturations. Finally, I clarify the apparent paradox of the observation of an activation barrier to nucleation in a system where, due to the dimensionality of the hosting space, the critical radius is expected to vanish.

  15. The Ghost in the Quantum Turing Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Aaronson

    2013-06-07

    In honor of Alan Turing's hundredth birthday, I unwisely set out some thoughts about one of Turing's obsessions throughout his life, the question of physics and free will. I focus relatively narrowly on a notion that I call "Knightian freedom": a certain kind of in-principle physical unpredictability that goes beyond probabilistic unpredictability. Other, more metaphysical aspects of free will I regard as possibly outside the scope of science. I examine a viewpoint, suggested independently by Carl Hoefer, Cristi Stoica, and even Turing himself, that tries to find scope for "freedom" in the universe's boundary conditions rather than in the dynamical laws. Taking this viewpoint seriously leads to many interesting conceptual problems. I investigate how far one can go toward solving those problems, and along the way, encounter (among other things) the No-Cloning Theorem, the measurement problem, decoherence, chaos, the arrow of time, the holographic principle, Newcomb's paradox, Boltzmann brains, algorithmic information theory, and the Common Prior Assumption. I also compare the viewpoint explored here to the more radical speculations of Roger Penrose. The result of all this is an unusual perspective on time, quantum mechanics, and causation, of which I myself remain skeptical, but which has several appealing features. Among other things, it suggests interesting empirical questions in neuroscience, physics, and cosmology; and takes a millennia-old philosophical debate into some underexplored territory.

  16. Macroscopic quantum resonators (MAQRO): 2015 Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer Kaltenbaek; Markus Arndt; Markus Aspelmeyer; Peter F. Barker; Angelo Bassi; James Bateman; Kai Bongs; Sougato Bose; Claus Braxmaier; ?aslav Brukner; Bruno Christophe; Michael Chwalla; Pierre-François Cohadon; Adrian M. Cruise; Catalina Curceanu; Kishan Dholakia; Klaus Döringshoff; Wolfgang Ertmer; Jan Gieseler; Norman Gürlebeck; Gerald Hechenblaikner; Antoine Heidmann; Sven Herrmann; Sabine Hossenfelder; Ulrich Johann; Nikolai Kiesel; Myungshik Kim; Claus Lämmerzahl; Astrid Lambrecht; Michael Mazilu; Gerard J. Milburn; Holger Müller; Lukas Novotny; Mauro Paternostro; Achim Peters; Igor Pikovski; André Pilan-Zanoni; Ernst M. Rasel; Serge Reynaud; C. Jess Riedel; Manuel Rodrigues; Loïc Rondin; Albert Roura; Wolfgang P. Schleich; Jörg Schmiedmayer; Thilo Schuldt; Keith C. Schwab; Martin Tajmar; Guglielmo M. Tino; Hendrik Ulbricht; Rupert Ursin; Vlatko Vedral

    2015-03-09

    Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schr\\"odinger's cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles? What is the fundamental relation between quantum physics and gravity? Ground-based experiments addressing these questions may soon face limitations due to limited free-fall times and the quality of vacuum and microgravity. The proposed mission MAQRO may overcome these limitations and allow addressing those fundamental questions. MAQRO harnesses recent developments in quantum optomechanics, high-mass matter-wave interferometry as well as state-of-the-art space technology to push macroscopic quantum experiments towards their ultimate performance limits and to open new horizons for applying quantum technology in space. The main scientific goal of MAQRO is to probe the vastly unexplored "quantum-classical" transition for increasingly massive objects, testing the predictions of quantum theory for truly macroscopic objects in a size and mass regime unachievable in ground-based experiments. The hardware for the mission will largely be based on available space technology. Here, we present the MAQRO proposal submitted in response to the (M4) Cosmic Vision call of the European Space Agency for a medium-size mission opportunity with a possible launch in 2025.

  17. International perceptions of US nuclear policy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley, Elizabeth A.

    2006-02-01

    The report presents a summary of international perceptions and beliefs about US nuclear policy, focusing on four countries--China, Iran, Pakistan and Germany--chosen because they span the spectrum of states with which the United States has relationships. A paradox is pointed out: that although the goal of US nuclear policy is to make the United States and its allies safer through a policy of deterrence, international perceptions of US nuclear policy may actually be making the US less safe by eroding its soft power and global leadership position. Broadly held perceptions include a pattern of US hypocrisy and double standards--one set for the US and its allies, and another set for all others. Importantly, the US nuclear posture is not seen in a vacuum, but as one piece of the United States behavior on the world stage. Because of this, the potential direct side effects of any negative international perceptions of US nuclear policy can be somewhat mitigated, dependent on other US policies and actions. The more indirect and long term relation of US nuclear policy to US international reputation and soft power, however, matters immensely to successful multilateral and proactive engagement on other pressing global issues.

  18. Alternative Mathematics without Actual Infinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toru Tsujishita

    2012-06-13

    An alternative mathematics based on qualitative plurality of finiteness is developed to make non-standard mathematics independent of infinite set theory. The vague concept "accessibility" is used coherently within finite set theory whose separation axiom is restricted to definite objective conditions. The weak equivalence relations are defined as binary relations with sorites phenomena. Continua are collection with weak equivalence relations called indistinguishability. The points of continua are the proper classes of mutually indistinguishable elements and have identities with sorites paradox. Four continua formed by huge binary words are examined as a new type of continua. Ascoli-Arzela type theorem is given as an example indicating the feasibility of treating function spaces. The real numbers are defined to be the points on the linear continuum and have indefiniteness. Exponentiation is introduced by the Eulerian style and basic properties are established. Basic calculus is developed and the differentiability is captured by the behavior on a point. Main tools of Lebesgue measure theory is obtained in a similar way as Loeb measure. Differences from the current mathematics are examined, such as the indefiniteness of natural numbers, qualitative plurality of finiteness, mathematical usage of vague concepts, the continuum as a primary inexhaustible entity and the hitherto disregarded aspect of "internal measurement" in mathematics.

  19. The Lorentz transformations of the vectors E, B, P, M and the external electric fields from a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and from a stationary permanent magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomislav Ivezic

    2012-11-02

    In the first part of this paper we review the fundamental difference between the usual transformations of the three-dimensional (3D) vectors of the electric field $\\mathbf{E}$, the magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}$, the polarization $\\mathbf{P}$, the magnetization $\\mathbf{M}$ and the Lorentz transformations of the 4D geometric quantities, vectors E, B, P, M, with many additional explanations and several new results. In the second part, we have discussed the existence of the electric field vector E outside a stationary superconducting wire with a steady current and also different experiments for the detection of such electric fields. Furthermore, a fundamental prediction of the existence of the external electric field vector E from a stationary permanent magnet is considered. These electric fields are used for the resolution of the "charge-magnet paradox" with 4D geometric quantities for a qualitative explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of fields and not, as usual, in terms of the vector potential and for a qualitative explanation that the particle interference is not a test of a Lorentz-violating model of electrodynamics according to which a magnetic solenoid generates not only a static magnetic field but also a static electric field.

  20. Water uptake, ionic conductivity and swelling properties of anion-exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, QJ; Ge, SH; Wang, CY

    2013-12-01

    Water uptake, ionic conductivity and dimensional change of the anion-exchange membrane made by Tokuyama Corporation (A201 membrane) are investigated at different temperatures and water activities. Specifically, the amount of water taken up by membranes exposed to water vapor and membranes soaked in liquid water is determined. The water uptake of the A201 membrane increases with water content as well as temperature. In addition, water sorption data shows Schroeder's paradox for the AEMs investigated. The swelling properties of the A201 membrane exhibit improved dimensional stability compared with Nafion membrane. Water sorption of the A201 membrane occurs with a substantial negative excess volume of mixing. The threshold value of hydrophilic fraction in the A201 membrane for ionic conductivity is around 0.34, above which, the conductivity begins to rise quickly. This indicates that a change in the connectivity of the hydrophilic domains occurs when hydrophilic fraction approaches 0.34. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SETI at Planck Energy: When Particle Physicists Become Cosmic Engineers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacki, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    What is the meaning of the Fermi Paradox -- are we alone or is starfaring rare? Can general relativity be united with quantum mechanics? The searches for answers to these questions could intersect. It is known that an accelerator capable of energizing particles to the Planck scale requires cosmic proportions. The energy required to run a Planck accelerator is also cosmic, of order 100 M_sun c^2 for a hadron collider, because the natural cross section for Planck physics is so tiny. If aliens are interested in fundamental physics, they could resort to cosmic engineering for their experiments. These colliders are detectable through the vast amount of "pollution" they produce, motivating a YeV SETI program. I investigate what kinds of radiation they would emit in a fireball scenario, and the feasibility of detecting YeV radiation at Earth, particularly YeV neutrinos. Although current limits on YeV neutrinos are weak, Kardashev 3 YeV neutrino sources appear to be at least 30--100 Mpc apart on average, if they are ...

  2. The local sub-mm luminosity functions and predictions from ASTRO-F/SIRTF to Herschel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Serjeant; Diana Harrison

    2003-09-23

    We present new determinations of the local sub-mm luminosity functions. We find the local sub-mm luminosity density converging to 7.3+/-0.2 x 10^19 W/Hz/Mpc^3 /h_65 at 850um solving the ``sub-mm Olbers' Paradox.'' Using the sub-mm colour temperature relations from the SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey, and the discovery of excess 450um excess emission in these galaxies, we interpolate and extrapolate the IRAS detections to make predictions of the SEDs of all 15411 PSC-z galaxies from 50-3000um. Despite the long extrapolations we find excellent agreement with (a) the 90um luminosity function of Serjeant et al. (2001), (b) the 850um luminosity function of Dunne et al. (2000), (c) the mm-wave photometry of Andreani & Franceschini (1996); (d) the asymptotic differential and integral source count predictions at 50-3000um by Rowan-Robinson (2001). Remarkably, the local luminosity density and the extragalactic background light together strongly constrain the cosmic star formation history for a wide class of evolutionary assumptions. We find that the extragalactic background light, the 850um 8mJy source counts, and the Omega_* constraints all independently point to a decline in the comoving star formation rate at z>1.

  3. Quantum Structure in Cognition: Fundamentals and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diederik Aerts; Liane Gabora; Sandro Sozzo; Tomas Veloz

    2011-04-17

    Experiments in cognitive science and decision theory show that the ways in which people combine concepts and make decisions cannot be described by classical logic and probability theory. This has serious implications for applied disciplines such as information retrieval, artificial intelligence and robotics. Inspired by a mathematical formalism that generalizes quantum mechanics the authors have constructed a contextual framework for both concept representation and decision making, together with quantum models that are in strong alignment with experimental data. The results can be interpreted by assuming the existence in human thought of a double-layered structure, a 'classical logical thought' and a 'quantum conceptual thought', the latter being responsible of the above paradoxes and nonclassical effects. The presence of a quantum structure in cognition is relevant, for it shows that quantum mechanics provides not only a useful modeling tool for experimental data but also supplies a structural model for human and artificial thought processes. This approach has strong connections with theories formalizing meaning, such as semantic analysis, and has also a deep impact on computer science, information retrieval and artificial intelligence. More specifically, the links with information retrieval are discussed in this paper.

  4. Level statistics for continuous energy spectra with application to the hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Henneberg, R. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University of Goettingen, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany))

    1994-05-01

    The statistical analysis of energy levels, a powerful tool in the study of quantum systems, is applicable to discrete spectra. Here we propose an approach to carry level statistics over to continuous energy spectra, paradoxical as this may sound at first. The approach proceeds in three steps, first a discretization of the spectrum by cutoffs, then a statistical analysis of the resulting discrete spectra, and finally a determination of the limit distributions as the cutoffs are removed. In this way the notions of Wigner and Poisson distributions for nearest-neighbor spacing (NNS), usually associated with quantum chaos and regularity, can be carried over to systems with a purely continuous energy spectrum. The approach is demonstrated for the hydrogen atom in perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. This system has a purely continuous energy spectrum from [minus][infinity] to [infinity]. Depending on the field parameters, we find for the NNS a Poisson or a Wigner distribution, or a transitional behavior. We also outline how to determine physically relevant resonances in our approach by a stabilization method.

  5. Extracting information about the initial state from the black hole radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinjalk Lochan; T. Padmanabhan

    2015-07-23

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state, contained in the distortions of the black hole radiation from the thermal spectrum, which can be detected by the asymptotic observers. We identify the class of in-states which can be fully reconstructed from the information contained in the distortions at the semiclassical level. Even for the general in-state, we can uncover a specific amount of information about the initial state. For a large class of initial states, some specific observables defined in the initial Hilbert space are completely determined from the resulting final spectrum. These results suggest that a \\textit{classical} collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve all the information from the spectrum of the final radiation.

  6. Thermal Duality and Gravitational Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hewitt

    2015-04-19

    Thermal duality is a relationship between the behaviour of heterotic string models of the $E(8)x E(8)$ or $SO(32)$ types at inversely related temperatures, a variant of T duality in the Euclidean regime. This duality would have consequences for the nature of the Hagedon transition in these string models. We propose that the vacuum admits a family of deformations in situations where there are closed surfaces of constant area but high radial acceleration (a string regularized version of a Penrose trapped surface), such as would be formed in situations of extreme gravitational collapse. This would allow a radical resolution of the firewall paradox by allowing quantum effects to significantly modify the spacetime geometry around a collapsed object. A string bremsstrahlung process would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter in extreme gravitational collapse to form a region of the deformed vacuum, which would be equivalent to forming a high temperature string phase. This process might have observable consequences for charged particles falling into a rotating collapsed object by producing high energy particles via a variant of the Penrose process.

  7. Thermal duality and gravitational collapse in heterotic string theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hewitt

    2015-07-04

    The thermal duality of E(8) x E(8) and SO(32) heterotic string theories may underpin a mechanism that would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter during gravitational collapse to form a region of a hot string phase that would expel gravitational gradients. This phase would be the continuation of a Ginzburg-Landau like superconductor in the Euclidean regime. In this scenario, there would be no event horizon or singularity produced in gravitational collapse. Solutions are presented for excitations of the string vacuum that may form during gravitational collapse and drive the transition to the hot phase. The proposed mechanism is developed here for the case of approximately spherical gravitational collapse in 4 uncompactified spacetime dimensions. A way to reconcile the large entropy apparently produced in this process with quantum mechanics is briefly discussed. In this scenario, astrophysical objects such as stellar or galactic cores which have undergone extreme gravitational collapse would currently be sites of an on-going conversion process to shells of this high temperature phase. The relationship of this proposal to the `firewall paradox' is noted.

  8. Oblique waves on a vertically sheared current are rotational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2015-01-01

    In the study of surface waves in the presence of a shear current, a useful and much studied model is that in which the shear flow has constant vorticity. Recently it was shown by Constantin [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 30 (2011) 12-16] that a flow of constant vorticity can only permit waves travelling exactly upstream or downstream, but not at oblique angles to the current, and several proofs to the same effect have appeared thereafter. Physical waves cannot possibly adhere to such a restriction, however. We resolve the paradox by showing that an oblique plane wave propagating atop a current of constant vorticity according to the linearized Euler equation carries with it an undulating perturbation of the vorticity field, hence is not prohibited by the Constantin theorem since vorticity is not constant. The perturbation of the vorticity field is readily interpreted in a Lagrangian perspective as the wave motion gently shifting and twisting the vortex lines as the wave passes. In the special case of upstream or down...

  9. A Review on Fish Swimming and Bird/Insect Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore Yaotsu Wu

    2010-07-29

    This expository review is devoted to fish swimming and bird/insect flight. (i) The simple waving motion of an elongated flexible ribbon plate of constant width, immersed in a fluid at rest, propagating a wave distally down the plate to swim forward is first considered to provide a fundamental concept on energy conservation. It is generalized to include variations in body width and thickness, vortex shedding from appended dorsal, ventral and caudal fins to closely simulate fish swimming for which a nonlinear theory is presented for large-amplitude propulsion. (ii) For bird flight, the pioneering studies on oscillating rigid wings are briefed, followed by presenting a nonlinear unsteady theory for flexible wing with arbitrary variations in shape and trajectory with a comparative study with experiments. (iii) For insect flight, more recent advances are reviewed under aerodynamic theory and modeling, computational methods, and experiments, on forward and hovering flights with producing leading-edge vortex to give unsteady high lift. (iv) Prospects are explored on extracting intrinsic flow energy by fish and bird to gain thrust for propulsion. (v) The mechanical and biological principles are drawn together for unified studies on the energetics in deriving metabolic power for animal locomotion, leading to a surprising discovery that the hydrodynamic viscous drag on swimming fish is largely associated with laminar boundary layers, thus drawing valid and sound evidences for a resolution to the fish-swim paradox proclaimed by Gray (1936, 1968).

  10. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY DECENTRALIZATION: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark D.; Craig, Paul P.

    1980-01-01

    We have presented views of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system. appears not to be functioning in very important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in our judgment. far greater than is recognized either by the public or by 'experts.' It has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing. albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

  11. Energy conservation and energy decentralization: issues and prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Craig, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    Views are presented of the seemingly paradoxical nature and irrationality of the energy system and the decisions that determine its evolution. An economic approach to energy decisions, while widely espoused and generally believed to be the underpinning of our system, appears not to be functioning in very-important areas. The result is enormous waste of economic and intangible resources to produce energy that could be effectively replaced by energy conservation at low costs. This inefficiency in the economic system is, in the author's judgment, far greater than is recognized either by the public or by experts. They feel it has led to an over-investment in centralized energy systems and has discouraged the use of decentralized systems that could contribute significantly in the near term to a lessening of our energy problems. There are some signs that the situation is changing, albeit rather slowly. High prices and the widespread recognition of the seriousness of our energy problems have contributed to an increasing involvement of individuals in energy decisions profoundly affecting their future. To achieve an evolution of the energy system in which decentralized technologies (and, in the near term, particularly technologies that improve the efficiency of energy use) play an important role, the government must act forcefully. This action needs to recognize and be responsive to the powerful discriminatory effect of the economic system, as it is presently constituted, against investments in energy conservation.

  12. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  13. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez-Monroy, J.A.; Quimbay, C.J.

    2014-11-15

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.

  14. Cold black holes in the Harlow–Hayden approach to firewalls

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ong, Yen Chin; McInnes, Brett; Chen, Pisin

    2014-12-31

    Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the Harlow–Hayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. The approach is based on ideas borrowed from applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to the quark–gluon plasma. Firewalls aside, our workmore »presents a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics and evolution of evaporating charged AdS black holes with flat event horizons. We show that, in one way or another, these black holes are always eventually destroyed in a time which, while long by normal standards, is short relative to the decoding time of Hawking radiation.« less

  15. Preference reversal in quantum decision theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette

    2015-10-08

    We consider the psychological effect of preference reversal and show that it finds a natural explanation in the frame of quantum decision theory. When people choose between lotteries with non-negative payoffs, they prefer a more certain lottery because of uncertainty aversion. But when people evaluate lottery prices, e.g. for selling to others the right to play them, they do this more rationally, being less subject to behavioral biases. This difference can be explained by the presence of the attraction factors entering the expression of quantum probabilities. Only the existence of attraction factors can explain why, considering two lotteries with close utility factors, a decision maker prefers one of them when choosing, but evaluates higher the other one when pricing. We derive a general quantitative criterion for the preference reversal to occur that relates the utilities of the two lotteries to the attraction factors under choosing versus pricing and test successfully its application on experiments by Tversky et al. We also show that the planning paradox can be treated as a kind of preference reversal.

  16. Testing quantum-like models of judgment for question order effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Boyer-Kassem; Sébastien Duchêne; Éric Guerci

    2015-08-25

    Lately, so-called "quantum" models, based on parts of the mathematics of quantum mechanics, have been developed in decision theory and cognitive sciences to account for seemingly irrational or paradoxical human judgments. We consider here some such quantum-like models that address question order effects, i.e. cases in which given answers depend on the order of presentation of the questions. Models of various dimensionalities could be used, can the simplest ones be empirically adequate? From the quantum law of reciprocity, we derive new empirical predictions that we call the Grand Reciprocity equations, that must be satisfied by several existing quantum-like models, in their non-degenerate versions. Using substantial existing data sets, we show that these non-degenerate versions fail the GR test in most cases, which means that, if quantum-like models of the kind considered here are to work, it can only be in their degenerate versions. However, we suggest that the route of degenerate models is not necessarily an easy one, and we argue for more research on the empirical adequacy of degenerate quantum-like models in general.

  17. A Unitary Model of The Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Lei Feng; Yi-Xin Chen

    2014-12-16

    A unitary effective field model of the black hole evaporation is proposed to satisfy almost the four postulates of the black hole complementarity (BHC). In this model, we enlarge a black hole-scalar field system by adding an extra radiation detector that couples with the scalar field. After performing a partial trace over the scalar field space, we obtain an effective entanglement between the black hole and the detector (or radiation in it). As the whole system evolves, the S-matrix formula can be constructed formally step by step. Without local quantum measurements, the paradoxes of the information loss and AMPS's firewall can be resolved. However, the information can be lost due to quantum decoherence, as long as some local measurement has been performed on the detector to acquire the information of the radiation in it. But unlike Hawking's completely thermal spectrum, some residual correlations can be found in the radiations. All these considerations can be simplified in a qubit model that provides a \\emph{modified quantum teleportation} to transfer the information via an EPR pairs.

  18. Cold black holes in the Harlow–Hayden approach to firewalls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Yen Chin [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); McInnes, Brett [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Firewalls are controversial principally because they seem to imply departures from general relativistic expectations in regions of spacetime where the curvature need not be particularly large. One of the virtues of the Harlow–Hayden approach to the firewall paradox, concerning the time available for decoding of Hawking radiation emanating from charged AdS black holes, is precisely that it operates in the context of cold black holes, which are not strongly curved outside the event horizon. Here we clarify this point. The approach is based on ideas borrowed from applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to the quark–gluon plasma. Firewalls aside, our work presents a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics and evolution of evaporating charged AdS black holes with flat event horizons. We show that, in one way or another, these black holes are always eventually destroyed in a time which, while long by normal standards, is short relative to the decoding time of Hawking radiation.

  19. Manifestations of topological effects in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiannis K. Pachos

    2008-12-05

    Graphene is a monoatomic layer of graphite with Carbon atoms arranged in a two dimensional honeycomb lattice configuration. It has been known for more than sixty years that the electronic structure of graphene can be modelled by two-dimensional massless relativistic fermions. This property gives rise to numerous applications, both in applied sciences and in theoretical physics. Electronic circuits made out of graphene could take advantage of its high electron mobility that is witnessed even at room temperature. In the theoretical domain the Dirac-like behavior of graphene can simulate high energy effects, such as the relativistic Klein paradox. Even more surprisingly, topological effects can be encoded in graphene such as the generation of vortices, charge fractionalization and the emergence of anyons. The impact of the topological effects on graphene's electronic properties can be elegantly described by the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. Here we present a pedagogical encounter of this theorem and review its various applications to graphene. A direct consequence of the index theorem is charge fractionalization that is usually known from the fractional quantum Hall effect. The charge fractionalization gives rise to the exciting possibility of realizing graphene based anyons that unlike bosons or fermions exhibit fractional statistics. Besides being of theoretical interest, anyons are a strong candidate for performing error free quantum information processing.

  20. The nature of electromagnetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerrold Franklin

    2012-05-29

    The nature of the electromagnetic (EM) energy for general charge and current distributions is analyzed. There are two well known forms for calculating EM energy as the integral over all space of either the electromagnetic fields: $u_{\\bf EB}=({\\bf E\\bcdot D+B\\bcdot H})/8\\pi$, or the electromagnetic potentials and charge-current densities: $u_{\\rho{\\bf A}}=1/2(\\rho\\phi+{\\bf j\\bcdot A})$. We discuss the appropriate use of each of these forms in calculating the total EM energy and the EM energy within a limited volume. We conclude that only the form $u_{\\bf EB}$ can be considered as a suitable EM energy density, while either form can be integrated to find the total EM energy. However, bounding surface integrals (if they don't vanish) must be included when using the $u_{\\bf EB}$ form. Including these surface integrals resolves some seeming paradoxes in the energy of electric or magnetic dipoles in uniform fields

  1. On reduced models for gravity waves generated by moving bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trinh, Philippe H

    2015-01-01

    In 1982, Marshall P. Tulin published a report proposing a framework for reducing the equations for gravity waves generated by moving bodies into a single nonlinear differential equation solvable in closed form [Proc. 14th Symp. on Naval Hydrodynamics, 1982, pp.19-51]. Several new and puzzling issues were highlighted by Tulin, notably the existence of weak and strong wave-making regimes, and the paradoxical fact that the theory seemed to be applicable to flows at low speeds, "but not too low speeds". These important issues were left unanswered, and despite the novelty of the ideas, Tulin's report fell into relative obscurity. Now thirty years later, we will revive Tulin's observations, and explain how an asymptotically consistent framework allows us to address these concerns. Most notably, we will explain, using the asymptotic method of steepest descents, how the production of free-surface waves can be related to the arrangement of integration contours connected to the shape of the moving body. This approach p...

  2. The thermodynamics of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dries Sels; Michiel Wouters

    2015-01-22

    The problem of time is a deep paradox in our physical description of the world. According to Aristotle's relational theory, time is a measure of change and does not exist on its own. In contrast, quantum mechanics, just like Newtonian mechanics, is equipped with a master clock that dictates the evolution of a system. This clock is infinitely precise and tacitly supplied free of charge from outside physics. Not only does this absolute time make it notoriously difficult to make a consistent theory of quantum gravity, it is also the underlying problem in establishing the second law. Indeed, contrary to our experience, the Wheeler-deWitt equation --a canonical quantization of general relativity-- predicts a static universe. Similarly, when simply concerned with the dynamics of a closed quantum system, there is no second law because the Von Neumann entropy is invariant under unitary transformations. Here we are mainly concerned with the latter problem and we show that it can be resolved by attributing a minimal amount of resources to the measurement of time. Although there is an absolute time in quantum mechanics, an observer can only establish a time by measuring a clock. For a local measurement, the minimal entropy production is equal to the number of ticks. This lower bound is attained by a black hole.

  3. Activation of Nrf2 by arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid is independent of Keap1-C151: enhanced Keap1-Cul3 interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xiaojun; Sun Zheng; Chen Weimin; Li Yanjie; Villeneuve, Nicole F.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2008-08-01

    Drinking water contaminated with arsenic, a human carcinogen, is a worldwide health issue. An understanding of cellular signaling events in response to arsenic exposure and rational designing of strategies to reduce arsenic damages by modulating signaling events are important to fight against arsenic-induced diseases. Previously, we reported that activation of the Nrf2-mediated cellular defense pathway confers protection against toxic effects induced by sodium arsenite [As(III)] or monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]. Paradoxically, arsenic has been reported to induce the Nrf2-dependent signaling pathway. Here, we report the unique mechanism of Nrf2 induction by arsenic. Similar to tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) or sulforaphane (SF), arsenic induced the Nrf2-dependent response through enhancing Nrf2 protein levels by inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation. However, the detailed action of arsenic in Nrf2 induction is different from that of tBHQ or SF. Arsenic markedly enhanced the interaction between Keap1 and Cul3, subunits of the E3 ubiquitin ligase for Nrf2, which led to impaired dynamic assembly/disassembly of the E3 ubiquitin ligase and thus decreased its ligase activity. Furthermore, induction of Nrf2 by arsenic is independent of the previously identified C151 residue in Keap1 that is required for Nrf2 activation by tBHQ or SF. Distinct mechanisms of Nrf2 activation by seemingly harmful and beneficial reagents provide a molecular basis to design Nrf2-activating agents for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Unfurling of the band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain of the merlin tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogesha, S.D.; Sharff, Andrew J.; Giovannini, Marco; Bricogne, Gerard; Izard, Tina (House Ear); (Globel Phasing); (Scripps)

    2014-10-02

    The merlin-1 tumor suppressor is encoded by the Neurofibromatosis-2 (Nf2) gene and loss-of-function Nf2 mutations lead to nervous system tumors in man and to several tumor types in mice. Merlin is an ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family cytoskeletal protein that interacts with other ERM proteins and with components of cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs). Merlin stabilizes the links of AJs to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, its loss destabilizes AJs, promoting cell migration and invasion, which in Nf2{sup +/-} mice leads to highly metastatic tumors. Paradoxically, the 'closed' conformation of merlin-1, where its N-terminal four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) domain binds to its C-terminal tail domain, directs its tumor suppressor functions. Here we report the crystal structure of the human merlin-1 head domain when crystallized in the presence of its tail domain. Remarkably, unlike other ERM head-tail interactions, this structure suggests that binding of the tail provokes dimerization and dynamic movement and unfurling of the F2 motif of the FERM domain. We conclude the 'closed' tumor suppressor conformer of merlin-1 is in fact an 'open' dimer whose functions are disabled by Nf2 mutations that disrupt this architecture.

  5. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Horvat

    2015-09-14

    In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a parameter $c$, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural $c = 1$ line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the later case, the bound on $c$ is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on $c$ obtained from various observational tests.

  6. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvat, R

    2015-01-01

    In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a parameter $c$, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural $c = 1$ line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the later case, the bound on $c$ is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on $c$ obtained from various observational tests.

  7. Edgar Allan Poe: the first man to conceive a Newtonian evolving Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molaro, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The notion that we live in an evolving universe was established only in the twentieth century with the discovery of the recession of galaxies by Hubble and with the Lemaitre and Friedmann's interpretation in the 1920s. However, the concept of an evolving universe is intrinsically tied to the law of universal gravitation, and it is surprising that it remained unrecognized for more than two centuries. A remarkable exception to this lack of awareness is represented by Poe. In Eureka (1848), the writer developed a conception of an evolving universe following the reasoning that a physical universe cannot be static and nothing can stop stars or galaxies from collapsing on each other. Unfortunately this literary work was, and still is, very little understood both by the literary critics and scientists of the time. We will discuss Poe's cosmological views in their historical scientific context, highlighting the remarkable insights of the writer, such as those dealing with the Olbers paradox, the existence of other ga...

  8. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidisha Chakrabarty; David Turton; Amitabh Virmani

    2015-08-05

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supersymmetric black hole microstate geometries with identified CFT duals presently known.

  9. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penn, I.

    1982-02-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility.

  10. Thermodynamics of Maximum Transition Entropy for Quantum Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Rogers

    2015-03-27

    This work presents a general unifying theoretical framework for quantum non-equilibrium systems. It is based on a re-statement of the dynamical problem as one of inferring the distribution of collision events that move a system toward thermal equilibrium from an arbitrary starting distribution. Using a form based on maximum entropy for this transition distribution leads to a statistical description of open quantum systems with strong parallels to the conventional, maximum-entropy, equilibrium thermostatics. A precise form of the second law of thermodynamics can be stated for this dynamics at every time-point in a trajectory. Numerical results are presented for low-dimensional systems interacting with cavity fields. The dynamics and stationary state are compared to a reference model of a weakly coupled oscillator plus cavity supersystem thermostatted by periodic partial measurements. Despite the absence of an explicit cavity in the present model of open quantum dynamics, both the relaxation rates and stationary state properties closely match the reference. Additionally, the time-course of energy exchange and entropy increase is given throughout an entire measurement process for a single spin system. The results show the process to be capable of initially absorbing heat when starting from a superposition state, but not from an isotropic distribution. Based on these results, it is argued that logical inference in the presence of environmental noise is sufficient to resolve the paradox of wavefunction collapse.

  11. Hagedorn String Thermodynamics in Curved Spacetimes and near Black Hole Horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Mertens

    2015-06-25

    This thesis concerns the study of high-temperature string theory on curved backgrounds, generalizing the notions of Hagedorn temperature and thermal scalar to general backgrounds. Chapter 2 contains a review on string thermodynamics in flat space, setting the stage. Chapters 3 and 4 contain the detailed study of the random walk picture in a general curved background. Chapters 5 and 6 then apply this to Rindler space, the near-horizon approximation of a generic (uncharged) black hole. Chapters 7 and 8 contain a study of the AdS3 and BTZ WZW models where we study the thermal spectrum and the resulting random walk picture that emerges. Chapters 9 and 10 attempt to draw general conclusions from the study of the two specific examples earlier: we draw lessons on string thermodynamics in general and on (perturbative) string thermodynamics around black hole horizons. For the latter, we point out a possible link to the firewall paradox. Finally, chapter 11 contains a detailed discussion on the near-Hagedorn (and high-energy) stress tensor in a generic spacetime, the results of which are applied to provide a description of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in terms of long string equilibration.

  12. Violation of Invariance of Measurement for GDP Growth Rate and its Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseiny, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim here is to address the origins of sustainability for the real growth rate in the United States. For over a century of observations on the real GDP per capita of the United States a sustainable two percent growth rate has been observed. To find an explanation for this observation I consider the impact of utility preferences and the effect of mobility of labor \\& capital on every provided measurement. Mobility of labor results in heterogenous rates of increase in prices which is called Baumol's cost disease phenomenon. Heterogeneous rates of inflation then make it impossible to define an invariant measure for the real growth rate. Paradoxical and ambiguous results already have been observed when different measurements provided by the World Bank have been compared with the ones from the central banks. Such ambiguity is currently being discussed in economy. I define a toy model for caring out measurements in order to state that this ambiguity can be very significant. I provide examples in which GDP ex...

  13. (ANTI)PETER Principle - Discrete (INVERSE) Logistic Equation with Imprecisely Estimated and Stimulated Carrying Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Pankovic; M. Krmar; R. Glavatovic

    2009-07-30

    In this work we consider the Peter principle and anti-Peter principle as the discrete logistic and discrete inverse logistic equation. Especially we discuss imprecisely estimated (by hierarchical control mechanism) carrying capacity, i.e. boundary (in)competence level of a hierarchy member. It implies that Peter principle holds two sub-principles. In the first one objective boundary competence level is increased for estimation error. In the second one objective boundary competence level is decreased for estimation error. Similarly, anti-Peter principle holds two sub-principles too. All this implies that paradoxical situations that follow from Peter and anti-Peter principle can be simply removed by decrease of the error of hierarchical (social) control. Also we discuss cases by Peter principle when error of the boundary competence level by estimation grows up. (Then, in fact, there is no estimation error but stimulation of the boundary level by control mechanism.) By first Peter sub-principle it implies anarchy in the social structure or, correspondingly, cancer in the biology and medicine, schizophrenia in the psychology and inflation in the economy. By second Peter sub-principle it implies a totalitary social structure (dictature or caste regime) or multiplex sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in biology and medicine, servile mentality or low value complex in psychology and depression by hyperactive political influences in economy. Finally, monotonus changes of the stimulated part of boundary level cause corresponding phase transitions discussed on the example of the introspection in the psychology.

  14. Jacobi fields, conjugate points and cut points on timelike geodesics in special spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leszek M. Soko?owski; Zdzis?aw A. Golda

    2015-07-09

    Several physical problems such as the `twin paradox' in curved spacetimes have purely geometrical nature and may be reduced to studying properties of bundles of timelike geodesics. The paper is a general introduction to systematic investigations of the geodesic structure of physically relevant spacetimes. The investigations are focussed on the search of locally and globally maximal timelike geodesics. The method of dealing with the local problem is in a sense algorithmic and is based on the geodesic deviation equation. Yet the search for globally maximal geodesics is non-algorithmic and cannot be treated analytically by solving a differential equation. Here one must apply a mixture of methods: spacetime symmetries (we have effectively employed the spherical symmetry), the use of the comoving coordinates adapted to the given congruence of timelike geodesics and the conjugate points on these geodesics. All these methods have been effectively applied in both the local and global problems in a number of simple and important spacetimes and their outcomes have already been published in three papers. Our approach shows that even in Schwarzschild spacetime (as well as in other static spherically symetric ones) one can find a new unexpected geometrical feature: instead of one there are three different infinite sets of conjugate points on each stable circular timelike geodesic curve. Due to problems with solving differential equations we are dealing solely with radial and circular geodesics.

  15. Quantum gravitational dust collapse does not result in a black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenalo Vaz

    2014-12-22

    Quantum gravity suggests that the paradox recently put forward by Almheiri et. al. (AMPS) can be resolved if matter does not undergo continuous collapse to a singularity but condenses on the apparent horizon. One can then expect a quasi-static object to form even after the gravitational field has overcome any degeneracy pressure of the matter fields. We consider dust collapse. If the collapse terminates on the apparent horizon, the Misner-Sharp mass function of the dust ball is predicted and we construct static solutions with no tangential pressure that would represent such a compact object. The collapse wave functions indicate that there will be processes by which energy extraction from the center occurs. These leave behind a negative point mass at the center which contributes to the total energy of the system but has no effect on the the energy density of the dust ball. The solutions describe a compact object whose boundary lies outside its Schwarzschild radius and which is hardly distinguishable from a neutron star.

  16. Mechanism of Cd[superscript 2+] Coordination during Slow Inactivation in Potassium Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghuraman, H.; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; Jogini, Vishwanath; Pan, Albert C.; Kollewe, Astrid; Roux, Benoît; Perozo, Eduardo (Freiburg); (UC)

    2012-10-09

    In K{sup +} channels, rearrangements of the pore outer vestibule have been associated with C-type inactivation gating. Paradoxically, the crystal structure of Open/C-type inactivated KcsA suggests these movements to be modest in magnitude. In this study, we show that under physiological conditions, the KcsA outer vestibule undergoes relatively large dynamic rearrangements upon inactivation. External Cd{sup 2+} enhances the rate of C-type inactivation in an cysteine mutant (Y82C) via metal-bridge formation. This effect is not present in a non-inactivating mutant (E71A/Y82C). Tandem dimer and tandem tetramer constructs of equivalent cysteine mutants in KcsA and Shaker K{sup +} channels demonstrate that these Cd{sup 2+} metal bridges are formed only between adjacent subunits. This is well supported by molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the crystal structure of Cd{sup 2+}-bound Y82C-KcsA in the closed state, together with electron paramagnetic resonance distance measurements in the KcsA outer vestibule, we suggest that subunits must dynamically come in close proximity as the channels undergo inactivation.

  17. Restoration of four-dimensional diffeomorphism covariance in canonical general relativity: An intrinsic Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald Salisbury; Jürgen Renn; Kurt Sundermeyer

    2015-08-06

    Classical background independence is reflected in Lagrangian general relativity through covariance under the full diffeomorphism group. We show how this independence can be maintained in a Hamilton-Jacobi approach that does not accord special privilege to any geometric structure. Intrinsic spacetime curvature based coordinates grant equal status to all geometric backgrounds. They play an essential role as a starting point for inequivalent semi-classical quantizations. The scheme calls into question Wheeler's geometrodynamical approach and the associated Wheeler-DeWitt equation in which three-metrics are featured geometrical objects. The formalism deals with variables that are manifestly invariant under the full diffeomorphism group. Yet, perhaps paradoxically, the liberty in selecting intrinsic coordinates is precisely as broad as is the original diffeomorphism freedom. We show how various ideas from the past five decades concerning the true degrees of freedom of general relativity can be interpreted in light of this new constrained Hamiltonian description. In particular, we show how the Kucha\\v{r} multi-fingered time approach can be understood as a means of introducing full four-dimensional diffeomorphism invariants. Every choice of new phase space variables yields new Einstein-Hamilton-Jacobi constraining relations, and corresponding intrinsic Schr\\"odinger equations. We show how to implement this freedom by canonical transformation of the intrinsic Hamiltonian.

  18. Avoiding Boltzmann Brain domination in holographic dark energy models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Horvat

    2015-02-23

    In a spatially infinite and eternal universe approaching ultimately a de Sitter (or quasi-de Sitter) regime, structure can form by thermal fluctuations as such a space is thermal. The models of Dark Energy invoking holographic principle fit naturally into such a category, and spontaneous formation of isolated brains in otherwise empty space seems the most perplexing, creating the paradox of Boltzmann Brains (BB). It is thus appropriate to ask if such models can be made free from domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here we consider only the simplest model, but adopt both the local and the global viewpoint in the description of the Universe. In the former case, we find that if a parameter $c$, which modulates the Dark Energy density, lies outside the exponentially narrow strip around the most natural $c = 1$ line, the theory is rendered BB-safe. In the later case, the bound on $c$ is exponentially stronger, and seemingly at odds with those bounds on $c$ obtained from various observational tests.

  19. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Modanese

    2015-01-18

    We re-examine the "Regge-Tolman paradox" with reference to some recent experimental results. It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity v of the moving system required to produce causality violation. This formula typically yields a velocity very close to the speed of light (for instance, v/c > 0.97 for X-shaped microwaves), which raises some doubts about the real physical observability of the violations. We then compute the velocity requirement introducing a delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that in principle for any delay it is possible to find moving observers able to produce active causal violation. This is mathematically due to the singularity of the Lorentz transformations for beta to 1. For a realistic delay due to the propagation of a luminal precursor, we find that causality violations in the reported experiments are still more unlikely (v/c > 0.989), and even in the hypothesis that the superluminal propagation velocity goes to infinity, the velocity requirement is bounded by v/c > 0.62. We also prove that if two macroscopic bodies exchange energy and momentum through superluminal signals, then the swap of signal source and target is incompatible with the Lorentz transformations; therefore it is not possible to distinguish between source and target, even with reference to a definite reference frame.

  20. A Signal Processing Model of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Thron; Johnny Watts

    2012-05-08

    This paper develops a deterministic model of quantum mechanics as an accumulation-and-threshold process. The model arises from an analogy with signal processing in wireless communications. Complex wavefunctions are interpreted as expressing the amplitude and phase information of a modulated carrier wave. Particle transmission events are modeled as the outcome of a process of signal accumulation that occurs in an extra (non-spacetime) dimension. Besides giving a natural interpretation of the wavefunction and the Born rule, the model accommodates the collapse of the wave packet and other quantum paradoxes such as EPR and the Ahanorov-Bohm effect. The model also gives a new perspective on the 'relational' nature of quantum mechanics: that is, whether the wave function of a physical system is "real" or simply reflects the observer's partial knowledge of the system. We simulate the model for a 2-slit experiment, and indicate possible deviations of the model's predictions from conventional quantum mechanics. We also indicate how the theory may be extended to a field theory.

  1. Direct Vlasov simulations of electron-attracting cylindrical Langmuir probes in flowing plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Pastor-Moreno, D.

    2014-07-15

    Current collection by positively polarized cylindrical Langmuir probes immersed in flowing plasmas is analyzed using a non-stationary direct Vlasov-Poisson code. A detailed description of plasma density spatial structure as a function of the probe-to-plasma relative velocity U is presented. Within the considered parametric domain, the well-known electron density maximum close to the probe is weakly affected by U. However, in the probe wake side, the electron density minimum becomes deeper as U increases and a rarified plasma region appears. Sheath radius is larger at the wake than at the front side. Electron and ion distribution functions show specific features that are the signature of probe motion. In particular, the ion distribution function at the probe front side exhibits a filament with positive radial velocity. It corresponds to a population of rammed ions that were reflected by the electric field close to the positively biased probe. Numerical simulations reveal that two populations of trapped electrons exist: one orbiting around the probe and the other with trajectories confined at the probe front side. The latter helps to neutralize the reflected ions, thus explaining a paradox in past probe theory.

  2. Evolution of a wave packet scattered by a one-dimensional potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatrian, A Zh; Alexanyan, Al G; Khoetsyan, V A; Alexanyan, N A

    2013-06-30

    We consider the evolution of a wave packet that is made up of a group of the wave functions describing the stationary scattering process and tunnels through a one-dimensional potential of arbitrary form. As the main characteristics of the time difference of the tunnelling process, use is made of the propagation speed of the wave-packet maximum. We show that the known Hartman formula for the tunnelling time corresponds to the wave packet with a wavenumber-uniform spectral composition in the case, when the phase and transmission coefficient modulus dispersions are taken into account only in the linear approximation. The amplitude of the main peak of the transmitted wave intensity is proven to be independent of the tunnelling time and is determined by the transmission coefficient of the spectral component at the carrier frequency and the spectral width of the wave packet. In the limit of an infinitely wide potential barrier the amplitude of the wave-packet maximum is shown to tend to zero slower than the tunnelling time tends to its asymptotic value, i.e., indeed we deal with the paradox of an infinitely large propagation speed of a wave disturbance through the barrier. (propagation of wave fronts)

  3. Monitoring Fish Contaminant Responses to Abatement Actions: Factors that Affect Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant accumulation in fish has been conducted in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee since 1985. Bioaccumulation trends are examined over a twenty year period coinciding with major pollution abatement actions by a Department of Energy facility at the stream s headwaters. Although EFPC is enriched in many contaminants relative to other local streams, only polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury (Hg) were found to accumulate in the edible portions of fish to levels of human health concern. Mercury concentrations in redbreast sunfish were found to vary with season of collection, sex and size of individual fish. Over the course of the monitoring, waterborne Hg concentrations were reduced[80%; however, this did not translate into a comparable decrease in Hg bioaccumulation at most sites. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish did respond to decreased inputs in the industrialized headwater reach, but paradoxically increased in the lowermost reach of EFPC. As a result, the downstream pattern of Hg concentration in fish changed from one resembling dilution of a headwater point source in the 1980s to a uniform distribution in the 2000s. The reason for this remains unknown, but is hypothesized to involve changes in the chemical form and reactivity of waterborne Hg associated with the removal of residual chlorine and the addition of suspended particulates to the streamflow. PCB concentrations in fish varied greatly from year-to-year, but always exhibited a pronounced downstream decrease, and appeared to respond to management practices that limited episodic inputs from legacy sources within the facility.

  4. Superstring Compactification and Target Space Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John H. Schwarz

    1991-08-26

    This review talk focusses on some of the interesting developments in the area of superstring compactification that have occurred in the last couple of years. These include the discovery that ``mirror symmetric" pairs of Calabi--Yau spaces, with completely distinct geometries and topologies, correspond to a single (2,2) conformal field theory. Also, the concept of target-space duality, originally discovered for toroidal compactification, is being extended to Calabi--Yau spaces. It also associates sets of geometrically distinct manifolds to a single conformal field theory. A couple of other topics are presented very briefly. One concerns conceptual challenges in reconciling gravity and quantum mechanics. It is suggested that certain ``distasteful allegations" associated with quantum gravity such as loss of quantum coherence, unpredictability of fundamental parameters of particle physics, and paradoxical features of black holes are likely to be circumvented by string theory. Finally there is a brief discussion of the importance of supersymmetry at the TeV scale, both from a practical point of view and as a potentially significant prediction of string theory.

  5. Cosmic Ray Confinement and Transport Models for Probing their Putative Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malkov, M A

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts in cosmic ray (CR) confinement and transport theory are discussed. Three problems are addressed as being crucial for understanding the present day observations and their possible telltale signs of the CR origin. The first problem concerns CR behavior right after their release from a source, such as a supernova remnant (SNR). At this phase the CRs are confined near the source by self-emitted Alfven waves. The second is the problem of diffusive propagation of CRs through the turbulent ISM. This is a seemingly straightforward and long-resolved problem, but it remains controversial and reveals paradoxes. A resolution based on the Chapman-Enskog asymptotic CR transport analysis, that also includes magnetic focusing, is suggested. The third problem is about a puzzling sharp ($\\sim10^{\\circ}$) anisotropies in the CR arrival directions that might bear on important clues of their transport between the source and observer. The overarching goal is to improve our understanding of all aspects of the CR's so...

  6. Quantum dynamics and state-dependent affine gauge fields on CP(N-1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Leifer

    2008-04-11

    Gauge fields frequently used as an independent construction additional to so-called wave fields of matter. This artificial separation is of course useful in some applications (like Berry's interactions between the "heavy" and "light" sub-systems) but it is restrictive on the fundamental level of "elementary" particles and entangled states. It is shown that the linear superposition of action states and non-linear dynamics of the local dynamical variables form an oscillons of energy representing non-local particles - "lumps" arising together with their "affine gauge potential" agrees with Fubini-Study metric. I use the conservation laws of local dynamical variables (LDV's) during affine parallel transport in complex projective Hilbert space $CP(N-1)$ for twofold aim. Firstly, I formulate the variation problem for the ``affine gauge potential" as system of partial differential equations \\cite{Le1}. Their solutions provide embedding quantum dynamics into dynamical space-time whose state-dependent coordinates related to the qubit spinor subjected to Lorentz transformations of "quantum boosts" and "quantum rotations". Thereby, the problem of quantum measurement being reformulated as the comparison of LDV's during their affine parallel transport in $CP(N-1)$, is inherently connected with space-time emergences. Secondly, the important application of these fields is the completeness of quantum theory. The EPR and Schr\\"odinger's Cat paradoxes are discussed from the point of view of the restored Lorentz invariance due to the affine parallel transport of local Hamiltonian of the soliton-like field.

  7. Thermodynamics of the N=2* flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchel, A S; Buchel, Alex; Liu, James T.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of the N=2*, SU(N) gauge theory at large 't Hooft coupling. The tool we use is the non-extremal deformation of the supergravity solution of Pilch and Warner (PW) [hep-th/0004063], dual to N=4, SU(N) gauge theory softly broken to N=2. We construct the exact non-extremal solution in five-dimensional gauged supergravity and further uplift it to ten dimensions. Turning to the thermodynamics, we analytically compute the leading correction in m/T to the free energy of the non-extremal D3 branes due to the PW mass deformation, and find that it is positive. We also demonstrate that the mass deformation of the non-extremal D3 brane geometry induces a temperature dependent gaugino condensate. We find that the standard procedure of extracting the N=2* gauge theory thermodynamic quantities from the dual supergravity leads to a violation of the first law of thermodynamics. We speculate on a possible resolution of this paradox.

  8. Quantum superposition principle and gravitational collapse: Scattering times for spherical shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrus, M.; Hajicek, P.

    2005-09-15

    A quantum theory of spherically symmetric thin shells of null dust and their gravitational field is studied. In Nucl. Phys. B603, 555 (2001), it has been shown how superpositions of quantum states with different geometries can lead to a solution of the singularity problem and black hole information paradox: the shells bounce and re-expand and the evolution is unitary. The corresponding scattering times will be defined in the present paper. To this aim, a spherical mirror of radius R{sub m} is introduced. The classical formula for scattering times of the shell reflected from the mirror is extended to quantum theory. The scattering times and their spreads are calculated. They have a regular limit for R{sub m}{yields}0 and they reveal a resonance at E{sub m}=c{sup 4}R{sub m}/2G. Except for the resonance, they are roughly of the order of the time the light needs to cross the flat space distance between the observer and the mirror. Some ideas are discussed of how the construction of the quantum theory could be changed so that the scattering times become considerably longer.

  9. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  10. Polymorphism of the MHC class II Eb gene determines the protection against collagen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Zanelli, E.; Krco, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an animal model of auto immune polyarthritis, sharing similarities with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Paradoxally, susceptibility to mouse CIA is controlled by the H2A loci (DQ homologous) while RA is linked to HLA.DR genes (H2E homologous). We recently showed that the E{beta}{sup d} molecule prevents CIA development in susceptible H2{sup q} mice. We addressed the question of whether H2Eb polymorphism will influence CIA incidence as HLA.DRB1 polymorphism does in RA. In F{sub 1} mice, only H2Eb{sup d} and H2Eb{sup s} molecules showed protection. Using recombinant B10.RDD (Eb{sup d/b}) mice, we found that CIA protection was mediated by the first domain of the E{beta}{sup d} molecule. Using peptides covering the third hypervariable region of the E{beta} chain, we found a perfect correlation between presentation of E{beta} peptides by the H2A{sup q} molecule and protection on CIA. Therefore, the mechanism by which H2Eb protects against CIA seems to rely on the affinity of E{beta} peptides for the H2A{sup q} molecule. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Revisiting Directed Polymers with heavy-tailed disorder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Gueudré; Pierre Le Doussal; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Alberto Rosso

    2014-11-05

    In this mostly numerical study, we revisit the statistical properties of the ground state of a directed polymer in a $d=1+1$ "hilly" disorder landscape, i.e. when the quenched disorder has power-law tails. When disorder is Gaussian, the polymer minimizes its total energy through a collective optimization, where the energy of each visited site only weakly contributes to the total. Conversely, a hilly landscape forces the polymer to distort and explore a larger portion of space to reach some particularly deep energy sites. As soon as the fifth moment of the disorder diverges, this mechanism radically changes the standard "KPZ" scaling behaviour of the directed polymer, and new exponents prevail. After confirming again that the Flory argument accurately predicts these exponent in the tail-dominated phase, we investigate several other statistical features of the ground state that shed light on this unusual transition and on the accuracy of the Flory argument. We underline the theoretical challenge posed by this situation, which paradoxically becomes even more acute above the upper critical dimension.

  12. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-09-30

    The Mississippian (late Kinderhookian to early Meramecian) Leadville Limestone is a shallow, open-marine, carbonate-shelf deposit. The Leadville has produced over 53 million barrels (8.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil/condensate from seven fields in the Paradox fold and fault belt of the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. The environmentally sensitive, 7500-square-mile (19,400 km{sup 2}) area that makes up the fold and fault belt is relatively unexplored. Only independent producers operate and continue to hunt for Leadville oil targets in the region. The overall goal of this study is to assist these independents by (1) developing and demonstrating techniques and exploration methods never tried on the Leadville Limestone, (2) targeting areas for exploration, (3) increasing deliverability from new and old Leadville fields through detailed reservoir characterization, (4) reducing exploration costs and risk especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and (5) adding new oil discoveries and reserves. The final results will hopefully reduce exploration costs and risks, especially in environmentally sensitive areas, and add new oil discoveries and reserves. The study consists of three sections: (1) description of lithofacies and diagenetic history of the Leadville at Lisbon field, San Juan County, Utah, (2) methodology and results of a surface geochemical survey conducted over the Lisbon and Lightning Draw Southeast fields (and areas in between) and identification of oil-prone areas using epifluorescence in well cuttings from regional wells, and (3) determination of regional lithofacies, description of modern and outcrop depositional analogs, and estimation of potential oil migration directions (evaluating the middle Paleozoic hydrodynamic pressure regime and water chemistry). Leadville lithofacies at Libon field include open marine (crinoidal banks or shoals and Waulsortian-type buildups), oolitic and peloid shoals, and middle shelf. Rock units with open-marine and restricted-marine facies constitute a significant reservoir potential, having both effective porosity and permeability when dissolution of skeletal grains, followed by dolomitization, has occurred. Two major types of diagenetic dolomite are observed in the Leadville Limestone at Lisbon field: (1) tight 'early' dolomite consisting of very fine grained (<5 {micro}m), interlocking crystals that faithfully preserve depositional fabrics; and (2) porous, coarser (>100-250 {micro}m), rhombic and saddle crystals that discordantly replace limestone and earlier very fine grained dolomite. Predating or concomitant with late dolomite formation are pervasive leaching episodes that produced vugs and extensive microporosity. Most reservoir rocks within Lisbon field appear to be associated with the second, late type of dolomitization and associated leaching events. Other diagenetic products include pyrobitumen, syntaxial cement, sulfide minerals, anhydrite cement and replacement, and late macrocalcite. Fracturing (solution enlarged) and brecciation (autobrecciation) caused by hydrofracturing are widespread within Lisbon field. Sediment-filled cavities, related to karstification of the exposed Leadville, are present in the upper third of the formation. Pyrobitumen and sulfide minerals appear to coat most crystal faces of the rhombic and saddle dolomites. The fluid inclusion and mineral relationships suggest the following sequence of events: (1) dolomite precipitation, (2) anhydrite deposition, (3) anhydrite dissolution and quartz precipitation, (4) dolomite dissolution and late calcite precipitation, (5) trapping of a mobile oil phase, and (6) formation of bitumen. Fluid inclusions in calcite and dolomite display variable liquid to vapor ratios suggesting reequilibration at elevated temperatures (50 C). Fluid salinities exceed 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Low ice melting temperatures of quartz- and calcite-hosted inclusions suggest chemically complex Ca-Mg-bearing brines associated with evaporite deposits were responsible for mineral deposition. The overall conclusion from th

  13. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the Desert Creek zone reservoir, Gothic seal, and overlying aquifers, (4) characterizing the depositional environments and diagenetic events that produced significant reservoir heterogeneity, (5) describing the geochemical, petrographic, and geomechanical properties of the seal to determine the CO2 or hydrocarbon column it could support, and (6) evaluating the production history to compare primary production from vertical and horizontal wells, and the effects of waterflood and wateralternating- gas flood programs. The field monitoring demonstrations were conducted by various Partners including New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, University of Utah, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cambridge Geosciences. The monitoring tests are summarized in Chapters 8 through 12, and includes (1) interwell tracer studies during water- and CO2-flood operations to characterize tracer behavoirs in anticipation of CO2-sequestration applications, (2) CO2 soil flux monitoring to measure background levels and variance and assess the sensitivity levels for CO2 surface monitoring, (3) testing the continuous monitoring of self potential as a means to detect pressure anomalies and electrochemical reaction due to CO2 injection, (4) conducting time-lapse vertical seismic profiling to image change near a CO2 injection well, and (5) monitoring microseismicity using a downhole string of seismic receivers to detect fracture slip and deformation associated with stress changes. Finally, the geologic modeling and numerical simulation study was conducted by researcher at the University of Utah. Chapter 13 summarizes their efforts which focused on developing a site-specific geologic model for Aneth to better understand and design CO2 storage specifically tailored to oil reservoirs.

  14. Lepton-flavored dark matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kile, Jennifer; Kobach, Andrew; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we address two paradoxes. The first is that the measured dark-matter relic density can be satisfied with new physics at O(100 GeV–1 TeV), while the null results from direct-detection experiments place lower bounds of O(10 TeV) on a new-physics scale. The second puzzle is that the severe suppression of lepton-flavor-violating processes involving electrons, e.g. ? ? 3e, ? ? e??, etc., implies that generic new-physics contributions to lepton interactions cannot exist below O(10–100 TeV), whereas the 3.6? deviation of the muon g – 2 from the standard model can be explained by a new physics scale more »TeV). Here, we suggest that it may not be a coincidence that both the muon g – 2 and the relic density can be satisfied by a new-physics scale ?1 TeV. We consider the possibility of a gauged lepton-flavor interaction that couples at tree level only to ?- and ?-flavored leptons and the dark sector. Dark matter thus interacts appreciably only with particles of ? and ? flavor at tree level and has loop-suppressed couplings to quarks and electrons. Remarkably, if such a gauged flavor interaction exists at a scale O(100 GeV–1 TeV), it allows for a consistent phenomenological framework, compatible with the muon g – 2, the relic density, direct detection, indirect detection, charged-lepton decays, neutrino trident production, and results from hadron and e?e? colliders. We suggest experimental tests for these ideas at colliders and for low-energy observables. (author)« less

  15. Quasi-normal modes: the "electrons" of black holes as "gravitational atoms"? Implications for the black hole information puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Corda

    2015-03-31

    Some recent important results on black hole (BH) quantum physics concerning the BH effective state and the natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are reviewed, clarified and refined. Such a correspondence permits to naturally interpret QNMs as quantum levels in a semi-classical model. This is a model of BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. In a certain sense, QNMs represent the "electron" which jumps from a level to another one and the absolute values of the QNMs frequencies "triggered" by emissions (Hawking radiation) and absorption of particles represent the energy "shells" of the "gravitational hydrogen atom". Important consequences on the BH information puzzle are discussed. In fact, it is shown that the time evolution of this "Bohr-like BH model" obeys to a time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which permits the final BH state to be a pure quantum state instead of a mixed one. Thus, information comes out in BH evaporation, in agreement with the assumption by 't Hooft that Schr\\"oedinger equations can be used universally for all dynamics in the universe. We also show that, in addition, our approach solves the entanglement problem connected with the information paradox. We emphasize that Bohr model is an approximated model of the hydrogen atom with respect to the valence shell atom model of full quantum mechanics. In the same way, we expect the Bohr-like BH model to be an approximated model with respect to the definitive, but at the present time unknown, BH model arising from a full quantum gravity theory.

  16. The potential use of biogeochemistry in the detection of petroleum microseepage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klusman, R.W.; Saeed, M.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States)); Abu-Ali, M.A. (Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1992-06-01

    Biogeochemistry was applied to the indirect detection of petroleum microseepage in the vicinity of Eagle Springs oil field, Railroad Valley, Nevada, and Cave Canyon field, Paradox basin, Utah. Trace elements were measured in native vegetation over and surrounding areas of production at the test sites. The oxidation of microseepage in the upper part of the soil column is postulated to cause an increase in plant uptake of transition trace elements such as iron, manganese, and vanadium, and a decrease in plant uptake of alkaline earth elements such as calcium, strontium, and barium. Compared to nonproductive areas, an increase in uptake of transition trace elements and a decrease in alkaline earth elements was observed in Fourwing salt-bush over Eagle Springs field. The postulated increase in uptake of transition trace elements and decrease in alkaline earth elements was not as apparent in Big sage-brush nor in Utah juniper over the Cave Canyon field. The observation of the postulated effects on vegetation at Eagle Springs may be due to the relatively large rates of microseepage independently observed using other methods, and the extensive faulting in Railroad Valley. The weaker response observed at Cave Canyon may reflect the lack of faulting and the retention of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Another possible reason for weal response is that the available plant species at Cave Canyon do not exhibit the effect at the lower soil pH measured in the area. At low pH and low Eh, the solubility of transition elements in soil pore waters and plant uptake is increased. Due to the high soil pH of the Railroad Valley area, the uptake of alkaline earth elements should be decreased where microseepage is occurring because of crystallization of carbonate minerals.

  17. Potential for the use of biogeochemistry in the detection of petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klusman, R.W.; Saeed, M.A. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States)); Abu-Ali, M.A. (ARAMCO, Golden, CO (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Biogeochemistry was applied to the indirect detection of petroleum microseepage in the vicinity of the Eagle Springs oil field, Railroad Valley, Nevada and Cave Canyon field, Paradox basin, Utah. Trace elements were measured in native vegetation over and surrounding areas of production at the test sites. The oxidation of microseepage in the upper part of the soil column is postulated to cause an increase in plant uptake of transition trace elements such as iron, manganese, vanadium, and a decrease in plant uptake of alkaline earth elements such as calcium, strontium, and barium. An increase in uptake of transition trace elements and a decrease in alkaline earth elements was observed in Fourwing saltbush over the Eagle Springs field. The postulated increase in uptake of transition trace elements and decrease in alkaline earth elements was not observed in Big Sagebrush nor in Utah juniper over the Cave Canyon field. The observation of the postulated effects at Eagle Springs may be due to the relatively large rates of microseepage independently observed using other methods, or the loss of the light hydrocarbons and extensive faulting in Railroad Valley. The apparent failure to observed the same effect at Cave Canyon may reflect the lack of faulting and the retention of light hydrocarbons in the reservoir. Another possibility is that the available plant species at Cave Canyon do not exhibit the effect at the lower soil pH measured in the area. The theory predicts that the increased uptake of transition elements and decreased uptake of alkaline earth elements will be enhanced at high soil pH.

  18. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the results of the different MVA techniques.

  19. Microbial dissolved organic phosphorus utilization in the Hudson River Estuary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Angel, D.L. (City College of New York, NY (United States))

    1990-01-09

    The Hudson River Estuary has large inputs of phosphorus and other nutrients from sewage discharge. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) reach at least 4 uM during the summer low-flow period. Biological utilization of phosphorus and other nutrients is usually minimal because of the high turbidity and short residence time of the water. Therefore SRP is normally a conservative tracer of salinity, with maximum concentrations found off Manhattan and decreasing to the north. Despite this abundance of SRP, some components of the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appear to be rapidly cycled by microbes. The objective of this study was to measure this DIP cycling during both the high- and low-flow periods. We measured the concentrations of SRP and DOP, the SRP turnover rate, algal and bacterial biomass, and the substrate turnover rates of two microbial cell-surface phosphatases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 5[prime] - nucleotidase (5PN). SRP concentrations ranged from about 0.5-4 uM, DOP was usually less than 1 uM. SRP and AP turnover were slow (generally < 5%/h), but 5PN substrate turnover was high with a median rate of 100%/h. Furthermore, over 30% of the phosphate hydrolyzed by 5PN was immediately taken up. If the nucleotide-P concentration is conservatively assumed to be 5 nM, than the rate of phosphate utilization from DOP is nearly equal to that from SRP. That is paradoxical considering the large SRP concentration, but suggests that much of this SRP may be biologically unavailable due to complexation with iron or other processes.

  20. Random vector and matrix and vector theories: a renormalization group approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean Zinn-Justin

    2014-10-07

    Random matrices in the large N expansion and the so-called double scaling limit can be used as toy models for quantum gravity: 2D quantum gravity coupled to conformal matter. This has generated a tremendous expansion of random matrix theory, tackled with increasingly sophisticated mathematical methods and number of matrix models have been solved exactly. However, the somewhat paradoxical situation is that either models can be solved exactly or little can be said. Since the solved models display critical points and universal properties, it is tempting to use renormalization group ideas to determine universal properties, without solving models explicitly. Initiated by Br\\'ezin and Zinn-Justin, the approach has led to encouraging results, first for matrix integrals and then quantum mechanics with matrices, but has not yet become a universal tool as initially hoped. In particular, general quantum field theories with matrix fields require more detailed investigations. To better understand some of the encountered difficulties, we first apply analogous ideas to the simpler O(N) symmetric vector models, models that can be solved quite generally in the large N limit. Unlike other attempts, our method is a close extension of Br\\'ezin and Zinn-Justin. Discussing vector and matrix models with similar approximation scheme, we notice that in all cases (vector and matrix integrals, vector and matrix path integrals in the local approximation), at leading order, non-trivial fixed points satisfy the same universal algebraic equation, and this is the main result of this work. However, its precise meaning and role have still to be better understood.