2013 UEC Tokyo. Visual Event Mining
Yanai, Keiji
" #12; 2013 UEC Tokyo. · Detect events from Twitter stream -Weather, natural events -Festivals, sport://mecab.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/mecab/doc/index.html) -TweetNLP(http://www.ark.cs.cmu.edu/TweetNLP/) · Divide target area into sub-regions -Grids by 1 degree, Times Times Times Square Carnival, Electric, Daisy Electric Electric Daisy Carnival #12; 2013 UEC Tokyo
CNMS UEC Agenda, Thursday, January 9, 2014
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the Cloud Modeling Working Group AnnNaturalBradUEC
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXuRod Hunt (208)InventorHowParallelBridging1Thermal93UEC
UEC MSP OPSYE, Technologie des centrales nuclaires Projets d'Approfondissement Autonome
Ravelet, Florent
disponibles sur http://florent.ravelet.free.fr/uec.html Liens utiles : http://organic-rankine divisé en deux équipes mises en concurrence. Les cycles à réaliser sont du type cycle de Hirn-Rankine. Le
Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation
Hemati, Maziar Sam
2013-01-01
Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation . . . . . .2 Aero- andbenefit from vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation.
An approach to Bayesian based Effort Estimation
Bae, Doo-Hwan
project/activities and performing cost/benefits analysis Early estimate and accurate evaluation can of considering to estimate effort for software maintenance in view of system architecture Not enough to reflect as to requirement in architecture Lack of supporting to estimate effort for software maintenance in view
microclim: Global estimates of hourly microclimate based
Porter, Warren P.
temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, sky radiation and substrate temperatures from substrates (soil, rock and sand) per pixel. These data are suitable for deriving biophysical estimates of the heat, water and activity budgets of terrestrial organisms. Design Type(s) observation design · data
Multi-rate Estimation of Coloured Noise Models in Graph-Based Estimation Algorithms
Nelson, James
Multi-rate Estimation of Coloured Noise Models in Graph-Based Estimation Algorithms Simon J. Julier. In this paper, we consider how coloured noise models can be efficiently incorporated within graph position, three velocity, three orientation). The GPS noise model introduces an extra six states (second
Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics
Gerstoft, Peter
Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim in different regions of the world with varying duct strengths and statistics. The performance of evaporation duct estimation is investigated in littoral zones such as the North Sea, Wallops Island, Coast
A Heat Kernel based Cortical Thickness Estimation Algorithm
Wang, Yalin
thickness, Heat Kernel, Tetrahedral Mesh, Streamline, False Discovery Rate 1 Introduction AlzheimerA Heat Kernel based Cortical Thickness Estimation Algorithm Gang Wang1,2 , Xiaofeng Zhang1.R.China Abstract. Cortical thickness estimation in magnetic resonance imag- ing (MRI) is an important technique
TESTS FOR NORMALITY BASED ON DENSITY ESTIMATORS OF CONVOLUTIONS
Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang
TESTS FOR NORMALITY BASED ON DENSITY ESTIMATORS OF CONVOLUTIONS ANTON SCHICK, YISHI WANG-type kernel density estimator, goodness-of-fit test. Anton Schick was supported by NSF Grant DMS0906551. 1 #12;2 ANTON SCHICK, YISHI WANG AND WOLFGANG WEFELMEYER Instead of comparing distribution functions, we can
A Fast Moving Horizon Estimation Algorithm Based on Nonlinear ...
2008-02-19
Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 ... Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) is an efficient optimization-based strategy ...... concentrations of ethylene, butane, methane and impurities throughout the plant units.
Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H
2010-01-01
Calibration Using GRACE Data and Base Flow Estimates [ 17 ]ESTIMATION USING GRACE DATA base flow data. In this casemeasured GRACE data and estimated base flow simultaneously
Mesoscale ensemble-based data assimilation and parameter estimation
Aksoy, Altug
2005-11-01
-1 MESOSCALE ENSEMBLE-BASED DATA ASSIMILATION AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION A Dissertation by ALTUG AKSOY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY August 2005 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences MESOSCALE ENSEMBLE-BASED DATA ASSIMILATION AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION A Dissertation by ALTUG AKSOY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...
CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS
Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Denney, Kelly D., E-mail: pds2001@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jjshin@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)
2013-06-20
We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.
Cooperative Vision Based Estimation and Tracking Using Multiple UAVs
Cooperative Vision Based Estimation and Tracking Using Multiple UAVs Brett Bethke, Mario Valenti. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are excellent platforms for detecting and tracking objects of interest to give better results than could be achieved with a single UAV, while being robust to failures. In addi
Estimating functions based on eigenfunctions of the generator.
SÃ¸rensen, Michael
Estimating functions based on eigenfunctions of the generator. Kessler and SÃ¸rensen (1999). dX t = b(X t )dt + #(X t )dW t , X 0 = x 0 Generator: The di#erential operator L = 1 2 # 2 (x) d 2 dx 2 + b is by Ito's formula a di#usion process with generator (L Y (f # u -1 ))(y) = (L X f)(u -1 (y
Basin structure of optimization based state and parameter estimation
Jan Schumann-Bischoff; Ulrich Parlitz; Henry D. I. Abarbanel; Mark Kostuk; Daniel Rey; Michael Eldridge; Stefan Luther
2015-07-08
Most data based state and parameter estimation methods require suitable initial values or guesses to achieve convergence to the desired solution, which typically is a global minimum of some cost function. Unfortunately, however, other stable solutions (e.g., local minima) may exist and provide suboptimal or even wrong estimates. Here we demonstrate for a 9-dimensional Lorenz-96 model how to characterize the basin size of the global minimum when applying some particular optimization based estimation algorithm. We compare three different strategies for generating suitable initial guesses and we investigate the dependence of the solution on the given trajectory segment (underlying the measured time series). To address the question of how many state variables have to be measured for optimal performance, different types of multivariate time series are considered consisting of 1, 2, or 3 variables. Based on these time series the local observability of state variables and parameters of the Lorenz-96 model is investigated and confirmed using delay coordinates. This result is in good agreement with the observation that correct state and parameter estimation results are obtained if the optimization algorithm is initialized with initial guesses close to the true solution. In contrast, initialization with other exact solutions of the model equations (different from the true solution used to generate the time series) typically fails, i.e. the optimization procedure ends up in local minima different from the true solution. Initialization using random values in a box around the attractor exhibits success rates depending on the number of observables and the available time series (trajectory segment).
Similarity-based semi-local estimation of EMOS models
Lerch, Sebastian
2015-01-01
Weather forecasts are typically given in the form of forecast ensembles obtained from multiple runs of numerical weather prediction models with varying initial conditions and physics parameterizations. Such ensemble predictions tend to be biased and underdispersive and thus require statistical postprocessing. In the ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) approach, a probabilistic forecast is given by a single parametric distribution with parameters depending on the ensemble members. This article proposes two semi-local methods for estimating the EMOS coefficients where the training data for a specific observation station are augmented with corresponding forecast cases from stations with similar characteristics. Similarities between stations are determined using either distance functions or clustering based on various features of the climatology, forecast errors, ensemble predictions and locations of the observation stations. In a case study on wind speed over Europe with forecasts from the Grand Limited Area...
Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator
Hushchyn, Mikhail; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey
2015-01-01
This paper presents a system providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The recommendation system takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. In this article present how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the recommendation system minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how the recommendation system helps to save disk ...
Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator
Hushchyn, Mikhail; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey
2015-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The algorithm takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. This article presents how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the algorithm minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how our algorithm helps to save disk space and to reduce waiting times ...
Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H
2010-01-01
model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data,model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow datawith esti- mated base flow data in the model calibration.
Kutas, Marta
Regression-based estimation of ERP waveforms: II. Nonlinear effects, overlap correction regression-based approach to estimating ERP waveforms. Here, we build on this foundation, showing how rERP framework provides a flexible way to adapt well-known regression techniques to the problem of estimating
Team Description for Lucky Lubeck { Evidence-Based World State Estimation
Rolling Brains 1999 agent code. In Lucky L ubeck, a new method, Evidence- based World state EstimationTeam Description for Lucky Lubeck { Evidence-Based World State Estimation Daniel Polani and Thomas, has been introduced, by which player and ball position can be estimated about an order of magnitude
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission MissionModelingModified
A Proposed Method for Improving Residential Heating Energy Estimates Based on Billing Data
Lee, A. D.; Hadley, D. L.
1988-01-01
empirical energy consumption data, however, provide a basis for alternative ways to estimate program effects that utilize the empirical data. The PRISM methodology uses relatively inexpensive billing and weather data to estimate base and temperature...
2009-01-01
eddy covariance – based NEP has been tested against itscovariance – based estimates of NEP, GPP and Re but addsbased flux estimates of NEP, GPP, and Re require independent
Simulation-based comparison of TCP retransmission timeout estimators
Shankarkumar, Vinaychandra
2000-01-01
The implementation of the retransmission timeout estimator for TCP re-initializes the timer with the retransmit timeout (RTO) after receiving an acknowledgement (ACK), if any more segments are in flight. This allows an ...
A method to estimate the Leslie coefficients of liquid crystals based on MBBA data
Wu, Shin-Tson
A method to estimate the Leslie coefficients of liquid crystals based on MBBA data HAIYING WANG ) A new effective approach for estimating the Leslie coefficients of liquid crystals based on MBBA data of the Leslie coefficients based on the MBBA data. We used the published temperature-dependent MBBA data to fit
Kundu, Debasis
11]), in biomedical signal processing ([12,13]), modeling of biological systems ([14,15]), radio location of distant problem in digital signal processing. In this paper, we consider the problem of estimation of parameters are present in a variety of signal processing applications and time series data analysis. The review work
Synchrophasor Measurement-Based Wind Plant Inertia Estimation: Preprint
Zhang, Y.; Bank, J.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.; Corbus, D.
2013-05-01
The total inertia stored in all rotating masses that are connected to power systems, such as synchronous generations and induction motors, is an essential force that keeps the system stable after disturbances. To ensure bulk power system stability, there is a need to estimate the equivalent inertia available from a renewable generation plant. An equivalent inertia constant analogous to that of conventional rotating machines can be used to provide a readily understandable metric. This paper explores a method that utilizes synchrophasor measurements to estimate the equivalent inertia that a wind plant provides to the system.
Wavelet Based Density Estimators for Modeling Multidimensional Data Sets
Shahabi, Cyrus
the distribution of this random variable. We exhibit an estimator for the wavelet coeÃ?cients of this density and ionospheric data. After three levels of o#11;-line pre-processing, observations of temperature, water vapor agreement nr. F30602-99-1-0524, and unrestricted cash/equipment gifts from NCR, IBM, Intel and SUN. #12; 1
STABILIZATION OF GAS LIFTED WELLS BASED ON STATE ESTIMATION
Foss, Bjarne A.
oil and gas from wells with low reservoir pressure by reducing the hydrostatic pressure in the tubing.imsland bjarne.foss}@itk.ntnu.no Abstract: This paper treats stabilization of multiphase flow in a gas lifted oil well. Two different controllers are investigated, PI control using the estimated downhole pressure
Techniques and Technology Article Road-Based Surveys for Estimating Wild Turkey Density
Wallace, Mark C.
Techniques and Technology Article Road-Based Surveys for Estimating Wild Turkey Density-transectbased distance sampling has been used to estimate density of several wild bird species including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). We used inflatable turkey decoys during autumn (AugNov) and winter (DecMar) 2003
A Simple Biomass-Based Length-Cohort Analysis for Estimating Biomass and Fishing Mortality
A Simple Biomass-Based Length-Cohort Analysis for Estimating Biomass and Fishing Mortality CHANG IK, Washington 98115, USA Abstract.--A biomass-based length-cohort analysis (LCA) was examined for its performance in estimating total stock biomass and fishing mortality (F) for a population in equilibrium. We
A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Predicted aerosol species include sulfate, organic and black carbon, soil dust, and sea salt. The models use physically-based treatments of aerosol radiative properties (including...
2009-01-01
estimates of annual carbon sequestration in a Sitka spruce (carbon cycling in a temperate forest: Radiocarbon-based estimates of residence times, sequestration
High-Level Energy Estimation for ARM-Based SOCs
Cotofana, Sorin
-- In recent years, power consumption has become a critical concern for many VLSI systems. Whereas several case power consumption. Therefore, the energy-efficient design of portable, battery-powered systems demands and analysis tool for ARM based system-on-chip designs. The tool integrates the behavior and energy models
Ship-based liquid water path estimates in marine stratocumulus
Zuidema, Paquita
October 2005. [1] We examine liquid water paths (LWPs) derived from ship-based microwave radiometer to microwave absorption model differences are 1025 g mÀ2 , increasing with LWP. The most recent models produce cycle, through the longwave cloud top radiative cooling and liquid water's ability to absorb solar
Zell, Andreas
Particle Filter-based Trajectory Estimation with Passive UHF RFID Fingerprints in Unknown approach to esti- mating the trajectory of a robot by means of inexpensive passive RFID tags and odometry), where map building and estimating the trajectory of the robot are performed concur- rently. A crucial
ChurnDetect: A Gossip-based Churn Estimator for Large-Scale Dynamic Networks
Langendoen, Koen
ChurnDetect: A Gossip-based Churn Estimator for Large-Scale Dynamic Networks Andrei Pruteanu1 computations, such as online detection of network churn, via distributed, robust and scalable algorithms. In this paper we introduce the ChurnDetect algorithm, a novel solution to the distributed churn estimation
Satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage variations in large drainage basins with extensive, US ESPACE, Montpellier, France h LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Paris, France a b s t r a c ta r modeling This study presents monthly estimates of groundwater anomalies in a large river basin dominated
Cellulose triacetate based novel optical sensor for uranium estimation
Joshi, J.M.; Pathak, P.N.; Pandey, A.K.; Manchanda, V.K.
2008-07-01
A cellulose triacetate (CTA) based optode has been developed by immobilizing tricapryl-methyl ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as the extractant and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5- diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) as the chromophore. The optode changes color (from yellow to magenta) due to uranium uptake in bicarbonate medium ({approx}10{sup -4} M) at pH 7-8 in the presence of triethanolamine (TEA) buffer. The detection limit of the optode film (dimension: 3 cm x 1 cm) was determined to be {approx}0.3 {mu}g/mL for a 15 mL pure uranium sample at pH 7-8 (in TEA buffer). The effects of experimental parameters have been evaluated in terms of maximum uptake of U(VI), minimum response time, and reproducibility and stability of the Br-PADAP-U(VI ) complex formed in the optode matrix. The applicability of the optimized optode has been examined in the effluent samples obtained during magnesium diuranate precipitation step following the TBP purification cycle. (authors)
Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM Based Wireless Communication Systems
Arslan, HÃ¼seyin
Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM Based Wireless Communication Systems HÂ¨useyin Arslan for measuring the quality of the channel. Then, the system parameters are changed adaptively based of information transfer can be used to maximize system resource utilization with high quality of user experience
Volatility and Risk Estimation with Linear and Nonlinear Methods Based on High Frequency
Buehlmann, Peter
Volatility and Risk Estimation with Linear and Nonlinear Methods Based on High Frequency Data of risk management. The use of high frequency data approximately renders volatility from a latent: (i) to select an accurate forecasting procedure for predicting volatilities based on high frequency
Regression-based estimation of ERP waveforms: I. The rERP framework
Kutas, Marta
Regression-based estimation of ERP waveforms: I. The rERP framework NATHANIEL J. SMITHa AND MARTA Science and Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, USA Abstract ERP of experimental designs. We introduce the regression-based rERP framework, which extends ERP averaging to handle
A 3D Volumetric Laplace-Beltrami Operator based Cortical Thickness Estimation Method
Wang, Yalin
A 3D Volumetric Laplace-Beltrami Operator based Cortical Thickness Estimation Method Gang Wanga the cortical tetrahedral mesh, we adopt the heat kernel [1] based on volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator can construct the discrete volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator under the Dirichlet boundary condition
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.
Adaptive and Non-Adaptive ISI Sparse Channel Estimation Based on SL0 and Its Application in
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Adaptive and Non-Adaptive ISI Sparse Channel Estimation Based on SL0 and Its Application in ML presented in [1] for estimation of sparse In- ter Symbol Interface (ISI) channels which will appear method based on SL0 sparse signal representation is proposed. ISI channel estimation will have a direct
McNeil, Michael A.
2010-01-01
and Cost of Conserved Energy Given estimates of retail price, UEC, marginal electricity prices and discount rates, calculation
FOURIER-BASED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING SIGNAL PERTURBATIONS IN LINEARLY-CORRELATED NOISE
Gorodnitsky, Irina
1 FOURIER-BASED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING SIGNAL PERTURBATIONS IN LINEARLY-CORRELATED NOISE Irina the true signal )(tx from )(* tx . Let's denote the coefficients of the respective Fourier decomposition = = , where indicates the chosen frequency resolution of the Fourier decomposition. The DC-term exist, Eq. (2
Posterior Probability Estimation Techniques Embedded in a Bayes Filter for Vibration-based
Zell, Andreas
Posterior Probability Estimation Techniques Embedded in a Bayes Filter for Vibration-based Terrain Classification Philippe Komma and Andreas Zell Abstract Vibration signals acquired during robot traversal provide] or ladar sensors [15, 10] can be employed. Recently, several researchers considered vehicle vibrations
Robust Optical-Flow Based Self-Motion Estimation for a Quadrotor UAV
Robust Optical-Flow Based Self-Motion Estimation for a Quadrotor UAV Volker Grabe, Heinrich H. B the UAV ego-motion using a monoc- ular camera and on-board hardware. Our method exploits the continuous belonging to the dominant plane in the scene. Extensive experiments on a real quadrotor UAV demonstrate
Complete System Power Estimation: A Trickle-Down Approach Based on Performance Events
John, Lizy Kurian
knowledge, we are the first to create power models for the entire system based on processor performance of these models and existing on-chip performance event counters, it is possible to estimate system power subsystems, we identify six performance events for modeling the entire system power. The resultant models
Local Frequency Based Estimators for Anomaly Detection in Oil and Gas Applications
Slatton, Clint
Local Frequency Based Estimators for Anomaly Detection in Oil and Gas Applications Alexander Singh industrial applications such as the smart grid and oil and gas are continuously monitored. The massive to positively impact the bottom line. In the oil and gas industry, modern oil rigs are outfitted with thousands
A model for pricing data bundles based on minimax risks for estimation of a location parameter
Robertson, Edward L.
A model for pricing data bundles based on minimax risks for estimation of a location parameter of progress on the fundamental conceptual issues of the mathematical modeling of data, increasingly attention to this line of work; in particular, we propose and analyze a model for the pricing of data when the value
Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process
Yu, Qian
Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed
Equilibrium free energy estimates based on nonequilibrium work relations and extended dynamics
Sun, Sean
Equilibrium free energy estimates based on nonequilibrium work relations and extended dynamics the equilibrium free energy and the nonequilibrium work is useful for computer simulations. In this paper, we exploit the fact that the free energy is a state function, independent of the pathway taken to change
Estimation of Indoor Physical Activity Level Based on Footstep Vibration Signal Measured
Helal, Abdelsalam
. Dif- ferent from image sensor and sound sensor, MEMS accelerometer sensor can measure some biomedical, Localization of footstep source, MEMS accelerometer, Personal health care, Sensor net- work, Smart home. 1Estimation of Indoor Physical Activity Level Based on Footstep Vibration Signal Measured by MEMS
Lobe-based Estimating Ventilation and Perfusion from 3D CT scans of the Lungs
Warren, Joe
Lobe-based Estimating Ventilation and Perfusion from 3D CT scans of the Lungs Travis McPhail Joe Warren Rice University Thomas Guerrero, M.D. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Introduction Lung cancer for lung cancer includes surgical removal or radiation therapy. 3D imaging technologies such CT, MRI
Schrijver, Karel
or less. [3] Solar events have an increasing potential to impact man- kind's technological infrastructureEstimating the frequency of extremely energetic solar events, based on solar, stellar, lunar powerful explosions on the Sun in the form of bright flares, intense storms of solar energetic particles
The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) Data set
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Qi,Tang; Xie,Shaocheng
The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set merges together key surface measurements from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites. It is a twin data product of the ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set. Unlike the 2DGRID data set, the STNS data are reported at the original site locations and show the original information, except for the interpolation over time. Therefore, users have the flexibility to process the data with the approach more suitable for their applications.
Advanced digital PWR plant protection system based on optimal estimation theory
Tylee, J.L.
1981-04-01
An advanced plant protection system for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant is described and evaluated. The system, based on a Kalman filter estimator, is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio, and maximum linear heat generation rate. The Kalman filter equations are presented, as is a description of the LOFT plant dynamic model inherent in the filter. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the advanced system.
The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) Data set
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Qi,Tang; Xie,Shaocheng
2015-08-06
The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set merges together key surface measurements from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites. It is a twin data product of the ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set. Unlike the 2DGRID data set, the STNS data are reported at the original site locations and show the original information, except for the interpolation over time. Therefore, users have the flexibility to process the data with the approach more suitable for their applications.
On the estimation of the extremal index based on scaling and resampling
Hamidieh, Kamal; Michailidis, George
2010-01-01
The extremal index parameter theta characterizes the degree of local dependence in the extremes of a stationary time series and has important applications in a number of areas, such as hydrology, telecommunications, finance and environmental studies. In this study, a novel estimator for theta based on the asymptotic scaling of block-maxima and resampling is introduced. It is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal for a large class of m-dependent time series. Further, a procedure for the automatic selection of its tuning parameter is developed and different types of confidence intervals that prove useful in practice proposed. The performance of the estimator is examined through simulations, which show its highly competitive behavior. Finally, the estimator is applied to three real data sets of daily crude oil prices, daily returns of the S&P 500 stock index, and high-frequency, intra-day traded volumes of a stock. These applications demonstrate additional diagnostic features of statistical plots ...
Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach
Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor
2002-08-31
Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.
Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas
Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S
2013-01-01
-11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han..., U.S.A. Abstract Building thermal performance and potential solar applications depend on the quality of the solar resource data available. Unfortunately, most of the locations do not account for measured solar radiation data and, as a result, rely...
Subramanian, Venkat
Parameter Estimation and Capacity Fade Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using First parameters of lithium-ion batteries are estimated using a first-principles electrochemical engineering model and understanding of lithium-ion batteries using physics-based first-principles models. These models are based
Estimates for Pu-239 loadings in burial ground culverts based on fast/slow neutron measurements
Winn, W.G.; Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.
1989-08-15
This report provides guideline estimates for Pu-239 mass loadings in selected burial ground culverts. The relatively high recorded Pu-239 contents of these culverts have been appraised as suspect relative to criticality concerns, because they were assayed only with the solid waste monitor (SWM) per gamma-ray counting. After 1985, subsequent waste was also assayed with the neutron coincidence counter (NCC), and a comparison of the assay methods showed that the NCC generally yielded higher assays than the SWM. These higher NCC readings signaled a need to conduct non-destructive/non-intrusive nuclear interrogations of these culverts, and a technical team conducted scoping measurements to illustrate potential assay methods based on neutron and/or gamma counting. A fast/slow neutron method has been developed to estimate the Pu-239 in the culverts. In addition, loading records include the SWM assays of all Pu-239 cuts of some of the culvert drums and these data are useful in estimating the corresponding NCC drum assays from NCC vs SWM data. Together, these methods yield predictions based on direct measurements and statistical inference.
Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates
Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.
2013-12-01
This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.
Myers, D. R.
2009-03-01
The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.
A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning
Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)
2013-06-15
Highlights: ? We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ? The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ? We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ? Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D and R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry and digital building information models will likely to be available for most buildings (including historical buildings) in the future, our system can be used in various demolition and renovation projects and be extended to facilitate project control.
Reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization
Shi, Xin Zhao, Xiangmo Hui, Fei Ma, Junyan Yang, Lan
2014-10-06
Clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied extensively in recent years and many protocols are put forward based on the point of statistical signal processing, which is an effective way to optimize accuracy. However, the accuracy derived from the statistical data can be improved mainly by sufficient packets exchange, which will consume the limited power resources greatly. In this paper, a reliable clock estimation using linear weighted fusion based on pairwise broadcast synchronization is proposed to optimize sync accuracy without expending additional sync packets. As a contribution, a linear weighted fusion scheme for multiple clock deviations is constructed with the collaborative sensing of clock timestamp. And the fusion weight is defined by the covariance of sync errors for different clock deviations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in terms of sync overhead and sync accuracy.
Using parallel computation to improve Independent Metropolis--Hastings based estimation
Jacob, Pierre; Smith, Murray H
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider the implications of the fact that parallel raw-power can be exploited by a generic Metropolis--Hastings algorithm if the proposed values are independent. In particular, we present improvements to the independent Metropolis--Hastings algorithm that significantly decrease the variance of any estimator derived from the MCMC output, for a null computing cost since those improvements are based on a fixed number of target density evaluations. Furthermore, the techniques developed in this paper do not jeopardize the Markovian convergence properties of the algorithm, since they are based on the Rao--Blackwell principles of Gelfand and Smith (1990), already exploited in Casella and Robert (1996), Atchade and Perron (2005) and Douc and Robert (2010). We illustrate those improvement both on a toy normal example and on a classical probit regression model but insist on the fact that they are universally applicable.
Chen, Jinsong
non-economic and economic gas saturation because electrical resistivity of reservoir materialsJoint inversion of seismic AVO and EM data for gas saturation estimation using a sampling- based is developed to estimate gas saturation and porosity using seismic AVO and EM data. Markov chain Monte Carlo
Vision-based head pose estimation and interactivity analysis : algorithms, systems and evaluation
Murphy-Chutorian, Erik Marshall
2009-01-01
1.3 Head Pose Estimation Methods . . . . . .Chapter 1 A Survey of Head Pose Estimation in Computer 1.11.4 Head Pose Estimation Comparisons . . . . . . . . 1.4.1
Pose and Motion Estimation Using Dual Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filtering
Goddard, J.S.; Abidi, M.A.
1998-06-01
A solution to the remote three-dimensional (3-D) measurement problem is presented for a dynamic system given a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) intensity images of a moving object. The 3-D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimate providing the six-degree-of-freedom motion and position values as well as structure. The stochastic model uses the iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) as a nonlinear estimator and a screw representation of the 3-D transformation based on dual quaternions. Dual quaternions, whose elements are dual numbers, provide a means to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. Linear object features, represented as dual vectors, are transformed using the dual quaternion transformation and are then projected to linear features in the image plane. The method has been implemented and tested with both simulated and actual experimental data. Simulation results are provided, along with comparisons to a point-based IEKF method using rotation and translation, to show the relative advantages of this method. Experimental results from testing using a camera mounted on the end effector of a robot arm are also given.
Martin, Timothy
-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balanceGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model H. Yan a, , S.Q. Wang b , D. Billesbach c , W. Oechel d , J.H. Zhang e , T. Meyers f , T
Vision-based head pose estimation and interactivity analysis : algorithms, systems and evaluation
Murphy-Chutorian, Erik Marshall
2009-01-01
estimate the low-level location and head movement of meetingup manner, following low-level facial Head Angle: Known HeadJ. Crowley, “Head pose estimation on low resolution images,”
Sun, Jian
[1] We use a conditional averaging approach to estimate the parameters of a land surface water and energy balance model and then use the estimated parameters to partition net radiation into latent, sensible, and ground ...
Design and rule base reduction of a fuzzy lter for the estimation of motor currents
Simon, Dan
®ltering to motor winding current estimation in permanent magnet synchronous motors. Motor winding current estimation of the current is needed. Motor winding currents are notoriously noisy because of electrical noise®cation for motor winding current estimation. With the assumption that the membership functions are triangular (but
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore »we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less
Moment-Based Probability Modeling and Extreme Response Estimation, The FITS Routine Version 1.2
MANUEL,LANCE; KASHEF,TINA; WINTERSTEIN,STEVEN R.
1999-11-01
This report documents the use of the FITS routine, which provides automated fits of various analytical, commonly used probability models from input data. It is intended to complement the previously distributed FITTING routine documented in RMS Report 14 (Winterstein et al., 1994), which implements relatively complex four-moment distribution models whose parameters are fit with numerical optimization routines. Although these four-moment fits can be quite useful and faithful to the observed data, their complexity can make them difficult to automate within standard fitting algorithms. In contrast, FITS provides more robust (lower moment) fits of simpler, more conventional distribution forms. For each database of interest, the routine estimates the distribution of annual maximum response based on the data values and the duration, T, over which they were recorded. To focus on the upper tails of interest, the user can also supply an arbitrary lower-bound threshold, {chi}{sub low}, above which a shifted distribution model--exponential or Weibull--is fit.
Estimating present climate in a warming world: a model-based approach
Raeisaenen, J.; Ruokolainen, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics
2008-09-30
Weather services base their operational definitions of 'present' climate on past observations, using a 30-year normal period such as 1961-1990 or 1971-2000. In a world with ongoing global warming, however, past data give a biased estimate of the actual present-day climate. Here we propose to correct this bias with a 'delta change' method, in which model-simulated climate changes and observed global mean temperature changes are used to extrapolate past observations forward in time, to make them representative of present or future climate conditions. In a hindcast test for the years 1991-2002, the method works well for temperature, with a clear improvement in verification statistics compared to the case in which the hindcast is formed directly from the observations for 1961-1990. However, no improvement is found for precipitation, for which the signal-to-noise ratio between expected anthropogenic changes and interannual variability is much lower than for temperature. An application of the method to the present (around the year 2007) climate suggests that, as a geographical average over land areas excluding Antarctica, 8-9 months per year and 8-9 years per decade can be expected to be warmer than the median for 1971-2000. Along with the overall warming, a substantial increase in the frequency of warm extremes at the expense of cold extremes of monthly-to-annual temperature is expected.
Garg, Saurabh; David Dornfeld
2008-01-01
FOR ESTIMATING CARBON FOOTPRINT OF ACADEMIA LIBRARY SYSTEMSacross the world. A carbon footprint is a measure of thethat can calculate the carbon footprint of a library system
Takiguchi, Tetsuya
Sudden Noise Reduction Based on GMM with Noise Power Estimation Nobuyuki Miyake, Tetsuya Takiguchi sudden noise using noise detection and classification methods, and noise power es- timation. Sudden noise detection and classification have been dealt with in our previous study. In this paper, noise classifi
Regression-based estimates of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean: A fresh February 2012 Available online 23 February 2012 Keywords: Carbon dioxide Regression MLR eMLR Regression and guidelines for improvement are presented. Following these guidelines leads to a local two- regression method
On-board Velocity Estimation and Closed-loop Control of a Quadrotor UAV based on Optical Flow
On-board Velocity Estimation and Closed-loop Control of a Quadrotor UAV based on Optical Flow an efficient fall back routine for any kind of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) since we rely solely. The results show that our approach is able to recover the ego-motion of a flying UAV in realistic conditions
Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model
Stefanopoulou, Anna
Lithium-Ion battery State of Charge estimation with a Kalman Filter based on a electrochemical model Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo and Anna Stefanopoulou Abstract-- Lithium-ion battery hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). In most cases the lithium-ion battery performance plays an important role
Ensemble Kalman filter based state estimation in 2D shallow water equations using Lagrangian method for two- dimensional shallow water equations in rivers using Lagrangian drifter positions of the state of the river. This information is incorporated into shallow water equations by using Ensemble
QoS prediction for web service compositions using kernel-based quantile estimation with online, such as WS-BPEL,2 focus on combining web services into aggregate services that satisfy the needs of clients planning web service can be created by composing services for hotel booking, airline booking, payment, etc
Rundquist, Donald C.
distributed carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes is essential for regional and global studies of carbon budgetsRemote estimation of gross primary production in maize and support for a new paradigm based and global studies of carbon budgets. Because of the observed close relationship between GPP and total canopy
Povinelli, Richard J.
Condition Monitoring of Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors Fed by PWM -based Drives Using a Parameter estimation approach. In this technique, the stator currents, voltages and motor speed are used as the input. This approach is verified by simulation of two different induction motor cases. These simulations are buttressed
Vadas, Sharon
with an OH airglow imager and the meteor radar at the MU Observatory in Japan. This was a wave breaking event to anticipate the scales of secondary waves generated through local body forcing and their potentialAn estimate of strong local body forcing and gravity wave radiation based on OH airglow and meteor
-Based Electrochemical Estimation and Constraint Management for Pulse Operation of Lithium Ion Batteries Kandler A. Smith Technologies, Graduate Automotive Technology Education Pro- gram. This work was performed at the Pennsylvania-mail: kandlers@hotmail.com; kandler_smith@nrel.gov). C. D. Rahn and C.-Y. Wang are with the Department
Mesoscale variability in time series data: Satellite-based estimates for the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda TOPEX/PoseidonERS-1/2) are used to characterize, statistically, the mesoscale variability about the U to better understand the contribution of mesoscale eddies to the time series record and the model- data
Estimation of the global impacts of aviation-related noise using an income-based approach
He, Qinxian
Current practices for assessing the monetary impacts of aviation noise typically use hedonic pricing methods that estimate noise-induced property value depreciation. However, this approach requires detailed knowledge of ...
Lin, Yi-Sz
2010-10-12
This study uses an empirical approach to develop algorithms to estimate population dislocation following a natural disaster. It starts with an empirical reexamination of the South Dade Population Impact Survey data, ...
New findings about the complementary relationship-based evaporation estimation methods
Szilagyi, Jozsef
KEYWORDS Complementary relationship; AdvectionAridity model; Areal evaporation; Potential evaporation; Apparent potential evaporation; Wet environment evaporation; Evapotranspiration Summary A novel approach of long- term mean evaporation (E) estimation of the AdvectionAridity (AA) model when vali- dated
Nonlinear Estimation for Model Based Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Chemical Systems
Qu, Chunyan
2011-02-22
Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), particle filtering (PF) and moving horizon estimation (MHE) etc. However, many issues related to the available techniques are to be solved. This dissertation discusses three important techniques...
Estimation of Voice Source and Vocal Tract Characteristics Based on Multi-Frame Analysis
Shiga, Yoshinori; King, Simon
2003-01-01
This paper presents a new approach for estimating voice source and vocal tract filter characteristics of voiced speech. When it is required to know the transfer function of a system in signal processing, the input and ...
A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES
Seager, Sara
Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry ...
Shielding and activity estimator for template-based nuclide identification methods
Nelson, Karl Einar
2013-04-09
According to one embodiment, a method for estimating an activity of one or more radio-nuclides includes receiving one or more templates, the one or more templates corresponding to one or more radio-nuclides which contribute to a probable solution, receiving one or more weighting factors, each weighting factor representing a contribution of one radio-nuclide to the probable solution, computing an effective areal density for each of the one more radio-nuclides, computing an effective atomic number (Z) for each of the one more radio-nuclides, computing an effective metric for each of the one or more radio-nuclides, and computing an estimated activity for each of the one or more radio-nuclides. In other embodiments, computer program products, systems, and other methods are presented for estimating an activity of one or more radio-nuclides.
Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.
2014-04-01
This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.
Deshmukh, Venkatesh
Dynamical Systems Venkatesh Deshmukh Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Control Department of Mechanical dynamic system models to be constructed from available data. The parameters to be estimated are assumed in the dynamic system models are assumed to have a known form, and the models are assumed to be parameter affine
Single-channel Head Orientation Estimation Based on Discrimination of Acoustic Transfer Function
Takiguchi, Tetsuya
of this method has been confirmed by talker localiza- tion and head orientation estimation experiments performed transfer function 1. Introduction For human-human or human-computer interaction, the talker's head on the talker's head orientation. Other approaches focus on the radiation pat- tern of the magnitude for each
Optimization-based queue estimation on an arterial traffic link with measurement uncertainties
Horowitz, Roberto
ABSTRACT Advanced monitoring and control of arterial road traffic network operations requires accurate constraints, image processing accuracy, and maintenance costs. Several proposed onramp queue estimation), or by introducing heuristic volume adjustment mechanisms (6, 7) or statistical analyses (10). In (5), vehicle re
GPS meteorology: An investigation of ocean-based precipitable water estimates
Businger, Steven
PW is that reflected solar radiation from the ocean surface is required, making the measurements% globally [Li et al., 2003], therefore, an alternative method of ocean PW estimation is needed. Microwave instruments, such as the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager, Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder
Model-based PSF and MTF estimation and validation from skeletal clinical CT images
Pakdel, Amirreza; Mainprize, James G.; Robert, Normand; Fialkov, Jeffery; Whyne, Cari M.
2014-01-15
Purpose: A method was developed to correct for systematic errors in estimating the thickness of thin bones due to image blurring in CT images using bone interfaces to estimate the point-spread-function (PSF). This study validates the accuracy of the PSFs estimated using said method from various clinical CT images featuring cortical bones. Methods: Gaussian PSFs, characterized by a different extent in the z (scan) direction than in the x and y directions were obtained using our method from 11 clinical CT scans of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton. These PSFs were estimated for multiple combinations of scanning parameters and reconstruction methods. The actual PSF for each scan setting was measured using the slanted-slit technique within the image slice plane and the longitudinal axis. The Gaussian PSF and the corresponding modulation transfer function (MTF) are compared against the actual PSF and MTF for validation. Results: The differences (errors) between the actual and estimated full-width half-max (FWHM) of the PSFs were 0.09 ± 0.05 and 0.14 ± 0.11 mm for the xy and z axes, respectively. The overall errors in the predicted frequencies measured at 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, and 5% MTF levels were 0.06 ± 0.07 and 0.06 ± 0.04 cycles/mm for the xy and z axes, respectively. The accuracy of the estimates was dependent on whether they were reconstructed with a standard kernel (Toshiba's FC68, mean error of 0.06 ± 0.05 mm, MTF mean error 0.02 ± 0.02 cycles/mm) or a high resolution bone kernel (Toshiba's FC81, PSF FWHM error 0.12 ± 0.03 mm, MTF mean error 0.09 ± 0.08 cycles/mm). Conclusions: The method is accurate in 3D for an image reconstructed using a standard reconstruction kernel, which conforms to the Gaussian PSF assumption but less accurate when using a high resolution bone kernel. The method is a practical and self-contained means of estimating the PSF in clinical CT images featuring cortical bones, without the need phantoms or any prior knowledge about the scanner-specific parameters.
SU-E-J-01: 3D Fluoroscopic Image Estimation From Patient-Specific 4DCBCT-Based Motion Models
Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Lewis, J; Mishra, P
2014-06-01
Purpose: 3D motion modeling derived from 4DCT images, taken days or weeks before treatment, cannot reliably represent patient anatomy on the day of treatment. We develop a method to generate motion models based on 4DCBCT acquired at the time of treatment, and apply the model to estimate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Methods: Motion models are derived through deformable registration between each 4DCBCT phase, and principal component analysis (PCA) on the resulting displacement vector fields. 3D fluoroscopic images are estimated based on cone-beam projections simulating kV treatment imaging. PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively through comparison of these cone-beam projections and projections estimated based on the motion model. Digital phantoms reproducing ten patient motion trajectories, and a physical phantom with regular and irregular motion derived from measured patient trajectories, are used to evaluate the method in terms of tumor localization, and the global voxel intensity difference compared to ground truth. Results: Experiments included: 1) assuming no anatomic or positioning changes between 4DCT and treatment time; and 2) simulating positioning and tumor baseline shifts at the time of treatment compared to 4DCT acquisition. 4DCBCT were reconstructed from the anatomy as seen at treatment time. In case 1) the tumor localization error and the intensity differences in ten patient were smaller using 4DCT-based motion model, possible due to superior image quality. In case 2) the tumor localization error and intensity differences were 2.85 and 0.15 respectively, using 4DCT-based motion models, and 1.17 and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based models. 4DCBCT performed better due to its ability to reproduce daily anatomical changes. Conclusion: The study showed an advantage of 4DCBCT-based motion models in the context of 3D fluoroscopic images estimation. Positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties were mitigated by the 4DCBCT-based motion models, while they caused errors when using 4DCT-based motion models. Partially funded by Varian research grant.
Yamana, Teresa K.
[1] This paper describes the use of satellite-based estimates of rainfall to force the Hydrology, Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a hydrology-based mechanistic model of malaria transmission. We ...
CostStudio: a web-based cost estimation tool for architectural design studios
Shah, Neelu
2001-01-01
, was developed for architecture students to fulfill these needs. The tool was developed in Java using Java Server Pages and component based Java Beans technology with a pure Java based database at the backend. The research effort focuses on educating...
Garg, Saurabh; David Dornfeld
2008-01-01
Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model”, http://SYSTEMS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Garg S. , Dornfeld D.based on a thorough Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of all the
Global oceanic rainfall estimation from AMSR-E data based on a radiative transfer model
Jin, Kyoung-Wook
2006-04-12
An improved physically-based rainfall algorithm was developed using AMSR-E data based on a radiative transfer model. In addition, error models were designed and embedded in the algorithm to assess retrieval errors ...
Estimating Base Resistance and N value in Rotary Press-in
Ishihara, Yukihiro; Haigh, Stuart; Bolton, Malcolm
2015-01-01
component (base resistance (Qb), base torque (Tb)) and a shaft component (shaft resistance (Qs), shaft torque (Ts)), as expressed in Fig. 3 and equations (1) and (2). sb QQQ ?? (1) sb TTT ?? (2) If we assume the base stress qb to be uniformly...
Estimation of Impedance Using Seismic Reflection Data Based on Transdimensional Inversion
Dadi, Sireesh
2014-04-23
changes the layer thicknesses and number of layers, thereby predicting the optimum number of model parameters during inversion. The method applies Bayesian inversion, with rjMCMC sampling, so that it also quantifies the uncertainty in model parameters....4 Log blocking using multi-offset seismograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 3.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4. ESTIMATION OF SHALLOW IMPEDANCE STRUCTURE AT SHATSKY RISE TO STUDY THE LATE-STAGE EVOLUTION...
Estimating stellar atmospheric parameters based on LASSO and support-vector regression
Lu, Yu
2015-01-01
A scheme for estimating atmospheric parameters T$_{eff}$, log$~g$, and [Fe/H] is proposed on the basis of Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) algorithm and Haar wavelet. The proposed scheme consists of three processes. A spectrum is decomposed using the Haar wavelet transform and low-frequency components at the fourth level are considered as candidate features. Then, spectral features from the candidate features are detected using the LASSO algorithm to estimate the atmospheric parameters. Finally, atmospheric parameters are estimated from the extracted spectral features using the support-vector regression (SVR) method. The proposed scheme was evaluated using three sets of stellar spectra respectively from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST), and Kurucz's model, respectively. The mean absolute errors are as follows: for 40~000 SDSS spectra, 0.0062 dex for log~T$_{eff}$ (85.83 K for T$_{eff}$), 0.2035 dex for log$~g$ and 0.1512...
Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H
2010-01-01
variations of river water storage from a multiple satellite2007), Estimating ground water storage changes in theAnalysis of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE and
A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases
Seager, S; Hu, R
2013-01-01
Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...
The Use of Traits-Based Assessment to Estimate Effects of Hydropower Projects on Fish Populations
for every hydroelectric project or turbine design. We are exploring the use of a Traits-Based Assessment that influence the risk of downstream passage losses at hydroelectric power plants www.ornl.gov #12;
crosswind flight [18], which essentially consists in extracting power from the airflow by flying an airfoil generation based on crosswind flight over conventional wind turbines is that higher altitude can be reached
Validation of error estimators and superconvergence by a computer-based approach
Upadhyay, Chandra Shekhar
1993-01-01
In this work a computer-based methodology for studying the asymptotic properties of the finite element solution in the interior of grids of triangles is presented. This methodology is applied to numerically analyze the ...
Signal to Noise Ratio estimation in passive correlation-based Josselin Garnier
Tsogka, Chrysoula
are not very long, as may be the case in non-destructive testing, the stability of the image (its SNR) can when the recorded signals are not of long duration, which is important in applications such as non-destructive testing. Key words:Correlation-based imaging, noise sources, resolution analysis, signal-to-noise ratio. 1
Estimate of the Ionization Degree of Ionic Micelles Based on Krafft Temperature Measurements
Bales, Barney
, 2002; In Final Form: April 22, 2003 The Krafft temperature, TK, of two classical ionic surfactants. The method is based on the fact that TK of SDS and CTAB are functions of the concentration of counterions results confirm that the Krafft temperature of ionic surfactants is one of the properties from which R can
Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
sub-Nyquist symbol-rate sampling but are not optimal for parameter estimation and do not utilize any to estimate the MPCs of a UWB transmitted pulse with Nyquist rate sampling. Symbol-long samples are used] the authors estimate the channel's Fourier co-efficients and use them to estimate the MPCs delays. Finite Rate
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Medeiros, Stephen; Hagen, Scott; Weishampel, John; Angelo, James
2015-03-25
Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne lidar are traditionally unreliable in coastal salt marshes due to the inability of the laser to penetrate the dense grasses and reach the underlying soil. To that end, we present a novel processing methodology that uses ASTER Band 2 (visible red), an interferometric SAR (IfSAR) digital surface model, and lidar-derived canopy height to classify biomass density using both a three-class scheme (high, medium and low) and a two-class scheme (high and low). Elevation adjustments associated with these classes using both median and quartile approaches were applied to adjust lidar-derived elevation values closer tomore »true bare earth elevation. The performance of the method was tested on 229 elevation points in the lower Apalachicola River Marsh. The two-class quartile-based adjusted DEM produced the best results, reducing the RMS error in elevation from 0.65 m to 0.40 m, a 38% improvement. The raw mean errors for the lidar DEM and the adjusted DEM were 0.61 ± 0.24 m and 0.32 ± 0.24 m, respectively, thereby reducing the high bias by approximately 49%.« less
CNMS UEC Agenda, Friday, November 6, 2015
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CNMS UEC Agenda, Tuesday, July 7, 2015
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CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, August 6, 2014
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CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, February 5, 2014
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CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, July 2, 2014
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CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, October 1, 2014
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CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, September 3, 2014
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Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL
2012-01-01
We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.
Letschert, Virginie
2010-01-01
SAS-PAS Electric Water Heating UEC (kWh) 13 Reference (Jannuzzi G. 2005) (SAS+PAS Other Average Efficiency Base Case Reference Voice Mag. (oct 2005) (
A GIS-based Estimate of Net Erosion Rate for Semi-arid Watersheds in New Mexico Richardson, C.P.1
Cal, Mark P.
A GIS-based Estimate of Net Erosion Rate for Semi-arid Watersheds in New Mexico Richardson, C.P.1 subsequent management for beneficial use. GIS-based modeling and evaluation is another tool to evaluate-basin of the Rio Puerco basin to the Rio Grande. Objective The objective of this work is to utilize a GIS platform
Torres-Verdín, Carlos
Estimation of dynamic petrophysical properties of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud, capillary pressure, and relative permeability of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud (OBM) from-saturated sands are used for calibration of equivalent properties in hydrocarbon-bearing sands within the same
Duffy, Michael D.
The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al- falfa, and pasture maintenance record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of Economics, Agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average
Cada, Glenn F; Schweizer, Peter E
2012-04-01
One of the most important environmental issues facing the hydropower industry is the adverse impact of hydroelectric projects on downstream fish passage. Fish that migrate long distances as part of their life cycle include not only important diadromous species (such as salmon, shads, and eels) but also strictly freshwater species. The hydropower reservoirs that downstream-moving fish encounter differ greatly from free-flowing rivers. Many of the environmental changes that occur in a reservoir (altered water temperature and transparency, decreased flow velocities, increased predation) can reduce survival. Upon reaching the dam, downstream-migrating fish may suffer increased mortality as they pass through the turbines, spillways and other bypasses, or turbulent tailraces. Downstream from the dam, insufficient environmental flow releases may slow downstream fish passage rates or decrease survival. There is a need to refine our understanding of the relative importance of causative factors that contribute to turbine passage mortality (e.g., strike, pressure changes, turbulence) so that turbine design efforts can focus on mitigating the most damaging components. Further, present knowledge of the effectiveness of turbine improvements is based on studies of only a few species (mainly salmon and American shad). These data may not be representative of turbine passage effects for the hundreds of other fish species that are susceptible to downstream passage at hydroelectric projects. For example, there are over 900 species of fish in the United States. In Brazil there are an estimated 3,000 freshwater fish species, of which 30% are believed to be migratory (Viana et al. 2011). Worldwide, there are some 14,000 freshwater fish species (Magurran 2009), of which significant numbers are susceptible to hydropower impacts. By comparison, in a compilation of fish entrainment and turbine survival studies from over 100 hydroelectric projects in the United States, Winchell et al. (2000) found useful turbine passage survival data for only 30 species. Tests of advanced hydropower turbines have been limited to seven species - Chinook and coho salmon, rainbow trout, alewife, eel, smallmouth bass, and white sturgeon. We are investigating possible approaches for extending experimental results from the few tested fish species to predict turbine passage survival of other, untested species (Cada and Richmond 2011). In this report, we define the causes of injury and mortality to fish tested in laboratory and field studies, based on fish body shape and size, internal and external morphology, and physiology. We have begun to group the large numbers of unstudied species into a small number of categories, e.g., based on phylogenetic relationships or ecological similarities (guilds), so that subsequent studies of a few representative species (potentially including species-specific Biological Index Testing) would yield useful information about the overall fish community. This initial effort focused on modifying approaches that are used in the environmental toxicology field to estimate the toxicity of substances to untested species. Such techniques as the development of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models rely on a considerable amount of data to establish the species-toxicity relationships that can be extended to other organisms. There are far fewer studies of turbine passage stresses from which to derive the turbine passage equivalent of LC{sub 50} values. Whereas the SSD and ICE approaches are useful analogues to predicting turbine passage injury and mortality, too few data are available to support their application without some form of modification or simplification. In this report we explore the potential application of a newer, related technique, the Traits-Based Assessment (TBA), to the prediction of downstream passage mortality at hydropower projects.
Distributed Estimation Distributed Estimation
Gupta, Vijay
with a Star Topology 2 2.1 Static Sensor Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 Combining Estimators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.2 Static Sensor Fusion for Star Topology;Distributed Estimation 3 Non-Ideal Networks with Star Topology 10 3.1 Sensor Fusion in Presence of Message
Bhupinder Singh Anand
2015-10-13
All the known approximations of the number of primes pi(n) not exceeding any given integer n are derived from real-valued functions that are asymptotic to pi(x), such as x/log x, Li(x) and Riemann's function R(x). The degree of approximation for finite values of n is determined only heuristically, by conjecturing upon an error term in the asymptotic relation that can be seen to yield a closer approximation than others to the actual values of pi(n) within a finite range of values of n. None of these can, however, claim to estimate pi(n) uniquely for all values of n. We show that the statistical probability of n being a prime is the product (1-1/p) over all primes not exceeding the square root of n; and that statistically the expected value of the number pi(n) of primes not exceeding n is given uniquely by the sum, over all j not exceeding n, of the product (1-1/p) over all primes not exceeding the square root of j. We then demonstrate how this yields elementary probability-based proofs of the Prime Number Theorem, Dirichlect's Theorem, and the Twin-Prime Conjecture.
McKone, Thomas E.; Maddalena, Randy L.
2008-01-01
of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans totetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) and related compoundsI: Estimating exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Volume 2:
Chamroukhi, Faicel
of fuel cell life time Raïssa Onanena(1) , Faicel Chamroukhi(1) , Latifa Oukhellou(1)(2) , Denis Candusso to estimate fuel cell duration time from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It consists for the estimation of fuel cell time duration. The performances of the proposed approach are evaluated
Chamroukhi, Faicel
of Fuel Cell lifetime Raïssa Onanena(1), Faicel Chamroukhi(1), Latifa Oukhellou(1), Denis Candusso(1 A probabilistic approach Parameter estimation 3 Fuel Cell lifetime estimation 4 Conclusion Faicel Chamroukhi maintenance of the Fuel Cells (FCs) Fuel Cells (FCs) are widely used in many domains including transport
Estimated costs for advertising in Saturdays Canberra Times Stand Alone prices are based on small Appt. Saturday $1,801.62 $300.27 Press Advertising Currently we advertise mainly in Saturdays Canberra composite ads reducing costs significantly. All other advertisements would appear as standalones. All
the development of coal fires (Figure 1) are: (1) the type of coal. Its vulnerability to spontaneous combustionRemote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of coal Freek van der Meer, Paul van
Song, Fuxian
2011-01-01
Downhole microseismics has gained increasing popularity in recent years as a way to characterize hydraulic fracturing and to estimate in-situ stress state. Conventional approaches only utilize part of the information ...
deYoung, Brad
modelling, catchability, fish eggs, sampling, survey design, uncertainty, vertical distribution. Received 28 an absolute measure of abundance, because gear avoidance is non-existent and the reten- tion efficiency of plankton nets can be estimated precisely (Lo, 1985). However, survey design and precision represent key
Bahk, Saewoong
with ultra low duty cycles Wooguil Pak, Saewoong Bahk Department of EECS & INMC, Seoul National University Keywords: Wireless sensor network Routing protocol Ultra low duty cycle Network lifetime Multi-hop wakeup time estimation to maximize the network lifetime of WSNs under ultra low duty cycles. It does not use
Takiguchi, Tetsuya
localization and head orientation estimation experiments performed in a real environ- ment. Index Terms coefficients 1. Introduction For human-human or human-computer interaction, the talker's location on the talker's head orientation. Other approaches focus on the radiation pattern of the magni- tude for each
Dokania, N; Mathimalar, S; Garai, A; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Bhushan, K G
2015-01-01
The neutron flux at low energy ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) resulting from the radioactivity of the rock in the underground cavern of the India-based Neutrino Observatory is estimated using Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron production rate due to the spontaneous fission of U, Th and ($\\alpha, n$) interactions in the rock is determined employing the actual rock composition. It has been demonstrated that the total flux is equivalent to a finite size cylindrical rock ($D=L=140$ cm) element. The energy integrated neutron flux thus obtained at the center of the underground tunnel is 2.76 (0.47) $\\times 10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$. The estimated neutron flux is of the same order ($\\sim10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$)~as measured in other underground laboratories.
N. Dokania; V. Singh; S. Mathimalar; A. Garai; V. Nanal; R. G. Pillay; K. G. Bhushan
2015-09-23
The neutron flux at low energy ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) resulting from the radioactivity of the rock in the underground cavern of the India-based Neutrino Observatory is estimated using Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron production rate due to the spontaneous fission of U, Th and ($\\alpha, n$) interactions in the rock is determined employing the actual rock composition. It has been demonstrated that the total flux is equivalent to a finite size cylindrical rock ($D=L=140$ cm) element. The energy integrated neutron flux thus obtained at the center of the underground tunnel is 2.76 (0.47) $\\times 10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$. The estimated neutron flux is of the same order ($\\sim10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$)~as measured in other underground laboratories.
Hartmann, Ralf
target quantities in [27, 28]. Usually being based on Corresponding author Email addresses: Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de (Ralf Hartmann), Joachim.Held@dlr.de (Joachim Held), Tobias.Leicht@dlr.de (Tobias Leicht) Preprint
Measurement enhancement for state estimation
Chen, Jian
2009-05-15
to accurately monitor the system operating state. State estimation is an essential tool in an energy management system (EMS). It is responsible for providing an accurate and correct estimate for the system operating state based on the available measurements...
S. Mavrodiev; A. Mishev; J. Stamenov
2003-10-23
A new method for energy and mass composition estimation of primary cosmic ray radiation based on atmospheric Cerenkov light flux in extensive air showers (EAS) analysis is proposed. The Cerenkov light flux in EAS initiated by primary protons and iron nuclei is simulated with CORSIKA 5.62 code for Chacaltaya observation level (536 g/cm2) in the energy range 10 TeV - 10 PeV. An adequate model, approximation of lateral distribution of Cerenkov light in showers is obtained. Using the proposed model and solution of overdetermined system of nonlinear equations based on Gauss Newton method with autoregularization, two different array detector arrangements are compared. The detector response for the detector sets is simulated. The accuracies in energy and shower axis determination are studied and the corresponding selection criteria are proposed. An approximation with nonlinear fit is obtained and the energy dependence of the proposed model function parameters is studied. The approximation of model parameters as function of the primary energy is carried out. This permits, taking into account the properties of the proposed method and model, to distinguish proton primaries from iron primaries. The detector response for the detector sets is simulated and the accuracies in energy determination are calculated. Moreover the accuracies in shower axis determination are studied and criteria in shower axis position estimation are proposed.
Rapid estimation of 4DCT motion-artifact severity based on 1D breathing-surrogate periodicity
Li, Guang Caraveo, Marshall; Wei, Jie; Rimner, Andreas; Wu, Abraham J.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Yorke, Ellen
2014-11-01
Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, leading to an ill-defined tumor volume with large variations for radiotherapy treatment and a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for studying respiratory motion. The authors developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of the corresponding 1D respiratory waveform (1DRW) used for phase binning in 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity. The breathing periodicity index (BPI) was defined as the sum of the largest five Fourier coefficients, ranging from 0 to 1. Distortional motion artifacts (excluding blurring) of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couch positions around the diaphragm were classified in three categories: incomplete, overlapping, and duplicate anatomies. To quantify these artifacts, discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along six directions in three orthogonal views. Artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase and phase-averaged APJ{sup ¯}, defined as motion-artifact severity (MAS), was obtained for each patient. To make MAS independent of patient-specific motion amplitude, two new MAS quantities were defined: MAS{sup D} is normalized to the maximum diaphragmatic displacement and MAS{sup V} is normalized to the mean diaphragmatic velocity (the breathing period was obtained from DFT analysis of 1DRW). Twenty-six patients’ free-breathing 4DCT images and corresponding 1DRW data were studied. Results: Higher APJ values were found around midventilation and full inhalation while the lowest APJ values were around full exhalation. The distribution of MAS is close to Poisson distribution with a mean of 2.2 mm. The BPI among the 26 patients was calculated with a value ranging from 0.25 to 0.93. The DFT calculation was within 3 s per 1DRW. Correlations were found between 1DRW periodicity and 4DCT artifact severity: ?0.71 for MAS{sup D} and ?0.73 for MAS{sup V}. A BPI greater than 0.85 in a 1DRW suggests minimal motion artifacts in the corresponding 4DCT images. Conclusions: The breathing periodicity index and motion-artifact severity index are introduced to assess the relationship between 1DRW and 4DCT. A correlation between 1DRW periodicity and 4DCT artifact severity has been established. The 1DRW periodicity provides a rapid means to estimate 4DCT image quality. The rapid 1DRW analysis and the correlative relationship can be applied prospectively to identify irregular breathers as candidates for breath coaching prior to 4DCT scan and retrospectively to select high-quality 4DCT images for clinical motion-management research.
John Veitch; Vivien Raymond; Benjamin Farr; Will M. Farr; Philip Graff; Salvatore Vitale; Ben Aylott; Kent Blackburn; Nelson Christensen; Michael Coughlin; Walter Del Pozzo; Farhan Feroz; Jonathan Gair; Carl-Johan Haster; Vicky Kalogera; Tyson Littenberg; Ilya Mandel; Richard O'Shaughnessy; Matthew Pitkin; Carl Rodriguez; Christian Röver; Trevor Sidery; Rory Smith; Marc Van Der Sluys; Alberto Vecchio; Will Vousden; Leslie Wade
2015-02-16
The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin operation in the coming years, with compact binary coalescence events a likely source for the first detections. The gravitational waveforms emitted directly encode information about the sources, including the masses and spins of the compact objects. Recovering the physical parameters of the sources from the GW observations is a key analysis task. This work describes the LALInference software library for Bayesian parameter estimation of compact binary signals, which builds on several previous methods to provide a well-tested toolkit which has already been used for several studies. We show that our implementation is able to correctly recover the parameters of compact binary signals from simulated data from the advanced GW detectors. We demonstrate this with a detailed comparison on three compact binary systems: a binary neutron star, a neutron star black hole binary and a binary black hole, where we show a cross-comparison of results obtained using three independent sampling algorithms. These systems were analysed with non-spinning, aligned spin and generic spin configurations respectively, showing that consistent results can be obtained even with the full 15-dimensional parameter space of the generic spin configurations. We also demonstrate statistically that the Bayesian credible intervals we recover correspond to frequentist confidence intervals under correct prior assumptions by analysing a set of 100 signals drawn from the prior. We discuss the computational cost of these algorithms, and describe the general and problem-specific sampling techniques we have used to improve the efficiency of sampling the compact binary coalescence parameter space.
Seco, J; Koybasi, O; Mishra, P; James, S St.; Lewis, J
2014-06-15
Purpose: Radiotherapy motion margins are generated using pre-treatment 4DCT data. The purpose of this study is to assess if pre-treatment 4DCT is sufficient in proton therapy to provide accurate estimate of motion margins. A dosimetric assessment is performed comparing pre-treatment margins with daily-customized margins. Methods: Gold fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors of patients were used to track the tumor. A spherical tumor of diameter 20 mm is inserted into a realistic digital respiratory phantom, where the tumor motion is based on real patient lung tumor trajectories recorded over multiple days. Using “Day 1” patient data, 100 ITVs were generated with 1 s interval between consecutive scan start times. Each ITV was made up by the union of 10 tumor positions obtained from 6 s scan time. Two ITV volumes were chosen for treatment planning: ITVmean-? and ITVmean+?. The delivered dose was computed on i) 10 phases forming the planning ITV (“10-phase” - simulating dose calculation based on 4DCT) and ii) 50 phantoms produced from 100 s of data from any other day with tumor positions sampled every 2 s (“dynamic” - simulating the dose that would actually be delivered). Results: For similar breathing patterns between “Day 1” and any other “Day N(>1)”, the 95% volume coverage (D95) for “dynamic” case was 8.13% lower than the “10-phase” case for ITVmean+?. For breathing patterns that were very different between “Day 1” and any other “Day N(>1)”, this difference was as high as 24.5% for ITVmean-?. Conclusion: Proton treatment planning based on pre-treatment 4DCT can lead to under-dosage of the tumor and over-dosage of the surrounding tissues, because of inadequate estimate of the range of motion of the tumor. This is due to the shift of the Bragg peak compared to photon therapy in which the tumor is surrounded by an electron bath.
Wu, Huan; Adler, Robert F.; Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Jianjian
2014-04-09
A community land surface model, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, is coupled with a newly developed hierarchical dominant river tracing-based runoff-routing model to form the Dominant river tracing-Routing Integrated with VIC Environment (DRIVE) model system, which serves as the new core of the real-time Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS). The GFMS uses real-time satellite-based precipitation to derive flood-monitoring parameters for the latitude-band 50{degree sign}N-50{degree sign}S at relatively high spatial (~12km) and temporal (3-hourly) resolution. Examples of model results for recent flood events are computed using the real-time GFMS (http://flood.umd.edu). To evaluate the accuracy of the new GFMS, the DRIVE model is run retrospectively for 15 years using both research-quality and real-time satellite precipitation products. Statistical results are slightly better for the research-quality input and significantly better for longer duration events (three-day events vs. one-day events). Basins with fewer dams tend to provide lower false alarm ratios. For events longer than three days in areas with few dams, the probability of detection is ~0.9 and the false alarm ratio is ~0.6. In general, these statistical results are better than those of the previous system. Streamflow was evaluated at 1,121 river gauges across the quasi-global domain. Validation using real-time precipitation across the tropics (30ºS-30ºN) gives positive daily Nash-Sutcliffe Coef?cients for 107 out of 375 (28%) stations with a mean of 0.19 and 51% of the same gauges at monthly scale with a mean of 0.33. There were poorer results in higher latitudes, probably due to larger errors in the satellite precipitation input.
Williams, C; Lewis, J
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantify the relationship between the amount of dose heterogeneity in a treatment plan that uses an internal target volume (ITV) to account for respiratory motion and the true amount of heterogeneity in the dose delivered to the tumor contained within that ITV. Methods: We develop a convolution-based framework for calculating dose delivered to a tumor moving inside an ITV according to a common sinusoid-based breathing model including asymmetry. We model the planned ITV dose distribution as a centrally peaked analytic function approximating the profile of clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments. Expressions for the minimum and maximum dose received by the tumor are derived and evaluated for a range of clinically relevant parameters. Results of the model are validated with phantom measurements using an ion chamber array. Results: An analytic expression is presented for the maximum and minimum doses received by the tumor relative to the planned ITV dose. The tumor dose heterogeneity depends solely on the ratio of tumor size to ITV size, the peak dose in the planned ITV dose distribution, and the respiratory asymmetry parameter. Under the assumptions of this model, using a typical breathing asymmetry parameter and a dose distribution with a fixed size ITV covered by the 100% line and with a 130% hotspot, the maximum dose to the tumor varies between 113%–130%, and the minimum dose varies between 100%–116% depending on the amount of tumor motion. Conclusion: This modeling exercise demonstrates the interplay between motion and dose heterogeneity. Tumors that exhibit large amounts of respiratory motion relative to their size will receive a more homogeneous dose and a larger minimum dose than would be inferred from the ITV dose distribution. This effect is not captured in current clinical treatment planning methods unless 4D dose calculation techniques are used. This work was partially supported by a Varian Medical Systems research grant.
Baiao, D.; Varandas, C. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Medina, F.; Ochando, M.; McCarthy, K.; Tabares, F.; Pastor, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2012-05-15
The core electron temperature (T{sub e0}) of neutral beam heated plasmas is determined in TJ-II stellarator by using soft x ray detectors with beryllium filters of different thickness, based on the method known as the foil absorption technique. T{sub e0} estimations are done with the impurity code IONEQ, making use of complementary information from the TJ-II soft x ray tomography and the VUV survey diagnostics. When considering the actual electron density and temperature profile shapes, an acceptable agreement is found with Thomson scattering measurements for 8 different magnetic configurations. The impact of the use of both neutral beam injectors on the T{sub e0} measurements is addressed. Also, the behaviour of T{sub e0} during spontaneous profile transitions is presented.
CONSULTANT REPORT 2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL
. Data collection was completed in early 2010. The study yielded energy consumption estimates for 27 statistical methods to combine survey data, household energy consumption data and weather information Commission, conditional demand analysis, CDA, unit energy consumption, UEC, residential, appliance
1995-04-01
This section contains the detailed measured impact results and market segment data for each DSM case examined for this building type. A complete index of all base and measure cases defined for this building type is shown first. This index represents an expansion of the base and measure matrix presented in Table 1 (residential) or Table 2 (commercial) for the applicable sector. Following this index, a summary report sheet is provided for each DSM measure case in the order shown in the index. The summary report sheet contains a host of information and selected graphs which define and depict the measure impacts and outline the market segment data assumptions utilized for each case in the DBEDT DSM Forecasting models. The variables and figures included in the summary report sheet are described. Numerous tables and figures are included.
Potanin, E. P. Ustinov, A. L.
2013-06-15
The parameters of a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge were calculated. The analysis was performed as applied to an ion cyclotron resonance system designed for separation of calcium isotopes. The plasma electrons in the source were heated by gyrotron microwave radiation in the zone of the inhomogeneous magnetic field. It was assumed that, in such a combined trap, the energy of the extraordinary microwave propagating from the high-field side was initially transferred to a small group of resonance electrons. As a result, two electron components with different transverse temperatures-the hot resonance component and the cold nonresonance component-were created in the plasma. The longitudinal temperatures of both components were assumed to be equal. The entire discharge space was divided into a narrow ECR zone, where resonance electrons acquired transverse energy, and the region of the discharge itself, where the gas was ionized. The transverse energy of resonance electrons was calculated by solving the equations for electron motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Using the law of energy conservation and the balance condition for the number of hot electrons entering the discharge zone and cooled due to ionization and elastic collisions, the density of hot electrons was estimated and the dependence of the longitudinal temperature T{sub e Parallel-To} of the main (cold) electron component on the energy fraction {beta} lost for radiation was obtained.
Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1984-11-02
To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992
Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials
Glasser, Leslie, E-mail: l.glasser@curtin.edu.au
2013-10-15
Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy, lattice energy, enthalpy, Gibbs energy values are available.
CNMS_UEC_19_Sep_2011_Smith.pptx
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Microsoft Word - UEC Town_Hall_Meeting_notes.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_010615_min.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_020315_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_030315_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_030514_min.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_040214_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_040715_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_050515_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_050714_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_060414_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_080415_min_TEH.docx
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Microsoft Word - UEC-Dinner-meeting-2014_Final.docx
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Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite
Urquhart, Bryan Glenn
2011-01-01
Heliosat procedure for irradiance Estimates from Satellitethe pro duction of solar irradiance and daylight illuminancesatellite based solar irradiance modelling - The SOLIS clear
Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices
Boisvert, Jeff
cost projections · Chemical Engineering (CE) Plant Construction Cost Index Base value = 100 in 1957.0 in 2Q 2001 · Engineering News Record (ENR) · Nelson Refinery (NR) Construction Cost Index Cost Indices available for estimation are based upon the past · These data must be updated using cost indexes . · Cost
Shantia Yarahmadian; Vineetha Menon; Majid Mahrooghy; Vahid A. Rezania
2015-10-25
Recent studies has revealed that Microtubules (MTs) exhibit three transition states of growth, shrinkage and pause. In this paper, we first introduce a three states random evolution model as a framework for studying MTs dynamics in three transition states of growth, pause and shrinkage. Then, we introduce a non-traditional stack run encoding scheme with 5 symbols for detecting transition states as well as to encode MT experimental data. The peak detection is carried out in the wavelet domain to effectively detect these three transition states. One of the added advantages of including peak information while encoding being that it enables to detect the peaks efficiently and encodes them simultaneously in the wavelet domain without having the need to do further processing after the decoding stage. Experimental results show that using this form of non-traditional stack run encoding has better compression and reconstruction performance as opposed to traditional stack run encoding and run length encoding schemes. Parameters for MTs modeled in the three states are estimated and is shown to closely approximate original MT data for lower compression rates. As the compression rate increases, we may end up throwing away details that are required to detect transition states of MTs. Thus, choosing the right compression rate is a trade-off between admissible level of error in signal reconstruction, its parameter estimation and considerable rate of compression of MT data.
Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance
Hailiang Du; Leonard A. Smith
2012-06-06
Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. New direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "Implied Ignorance" and the information deficit are introduced.
Liu, J; Bourland, J [Wake Forest University, Winston-salem, NC (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To analytically estimate first-order x-ray scatter for kV cone beam x-ray imaging with high computational efficiency. Methods: In calculating first-order scatter using the Klein-Nishina formula, we found that by integrating the point-to-point scatter along an interaction line, a “pencil-beam” scatter kernel (BSK) can be approximated to a quartic expression when the imaging field is small. This BSK model for monoenergetic, 100keV x-rays has been verified on homogeneous cube and cylinder water phantoms by comparing with the exact implementation of KN formula. For heterogeneous medium, the water-equivalent length of a BSK was acquired with an improved Siddon's ray-tracing algorithm, which was also used in calculating pre- and post- scattering attenuation. To include the electron binding effect for scattering of low-kV photons, the mean corresponding scattering angle is determined from the effective point of scattered photons of a BSK. The behavior of polyenergetic x-rays was also investigated for 120kV x-rays incident to a sandwiched infinite heterogeneous slab phantom, with the electron binding effect incorporated. Exact computation and Monte Carlo simulations were performed for comparisons, using the EGSnrc code package. Results: By reducing the 3D volumetric target (o(n{sup 3})) to 2D pencil-beams (o(n{sup 2})), the computation expense can be generally lowered by n times, which our experience verifies. The scatter distribution on a flat detector shows high agreement between the analytic BSK model and exact calculations. The pixel-to-pixel differences are within (-2%, 2%) for the homogeneous cube and cylinder phantoms and within (0, 6%) for the heterogeneous slab phantom. However, the Monte Carlo simulation shows increased deviation of the BSK model toward detector periphery. Conclusion: The proposed BSK model, accommodating polyenergetic x-rays and electron binding effect at low kV, shows great potential in efficiently estimating the first-order scatter from small imaging fields. We are investigating more thoroughly to improve performance and explore applications.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.
Check Estimates and Independent Costs
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.
Input estimation from measured structural response
Harvey, Dustin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cross, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Ramon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
This report will focus on the estimation of unmeasured dynamic inputs to a structure given a numerical model of the structure and measured response acquired at discrete locations. While the estimation of inputs has not received as much attention historically as state estimation, there are many applications where an improved understanding of the immeasurable input to a structure is vital (e.g. validating temporally varying and spatially-varying load models for large structures such as buildings and ships). In this paper, the introduction contains a brief summary of previous input estimation studies. Next, an adjoint-based optimization method is used to estimate dynamic inputs to two experimental structures. The technique is evaluated in simulation and with experimental data both on a cantilever beam and on a three-story frame structure. The performance and limitations of the adjoint-based input estimation technique are discussed.
Estimating the error distribution function in semiparametric regression
Mueller, Uschi
Schick, Wolfgang Wefelmeyer Abstract We prove a stochastic expansion for a residual-based estimator linear smoother, i.i.d. representation, Donsker class, effi- ciency. #12;2 M¨uller - Schick - Wefelmeyer estimators of ; see e.g. Schick (1996). Given such an estimator ^ of , we estimate by a local linear smoother
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.
Shi, Weisong
2014-01-01
on a model that estimates air emission rates of user-selected pollutants based on real-time spatially created that provides consumers with real-time information about local air emissions resulting from- ator is associated with a unique profile of air emissions, based on the type of fuel consumed
Weldon Spring historical dose estimate
Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.
1986-07-01
This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.
Perceptually inspired image estimation and enhancement
Li, Yuanzhen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2009-01-01
In this thesis, we present three image estimation and enhancement algorithms inspired by human vision. In the first part of the thesis, we propose an algorithm for mapping one image to another based on the statistics of a ...
How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2004-01-01
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.
Estimating Suppression of Eddy Mixing by Mean Flows
Klocker, Andreas
Particle- and tracer-based estimates of lateral diffusivities are used to estimate the suppression of eddy mixing across strong currents. Particles and tracers are advected using a velocity field derived from sea surface ...
Experimental Investigation of Helicopter Weight and Mass Center Estimation
Taylor, Bradley Whitten
2013-04-09
Real-time estimates of weight and mass center location for helicopters are desirable for flight control and condition-based maintenance purposes. While methods to estimate mass parameters of helicopters have been developed, they often assume near...
Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation
Hemati, Maziar Sam
2013-01-01
1. The strength of a vortex tube is uniform along the tube.3. The strength of a vortex tube is invariant in time. Theof Vortex Ring Formation at the Edge of a Circular Tube. ”
HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO
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of Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility - April 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19 B200HSRL Deployment During ARCTAS (Spring) Approximately 40-50% of aerosol optical thickness was in...
Compressive Sensing Based High Resolution Channel Estimation ...
2011-09-17
difficulty to information decoding, for example, in orthogonal frequency division ...... wireless security, wireless networks, and wireless communication systems.
HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚—34 Revision 0August 9, 2012 ISM AdviceHSI
HSRL mass estimate based on CALIPSO
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚—34 Revision 0August 9, 2012 ISM
Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.
2007-01-01
Estimating evaporation duct heights from radar sea echo,”Estimation of surface-based duct parameters from surfaceapplication of an evaporation duct model,” Radio Science,
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.
Distributed Road Grade Estimation
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER SAH LHOLM Doctoral Thesis in Automatic Control Stockholm, Sweden 2011 #12;Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety
SPACE TECHNOLOGY Actual Estimate
technology readiness of new missions, mitigate their technological risks, improve the quality of cost estimates, and thereby contribute to better overall mission cost management..." Space Technology investmentsSPACE TECHNOLOGY TECH-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY
Distributed Node Selection for Sequential Estimation over Noisy Communication Channels
Jayaweera, Sudharman K.
Wimalajeewa and Sudharman K. Jayaweera Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of New Mexico corrupted estimator from the previous node. Since all nodes in the network may not carry useful information estimation problem, the required parameter is to be estimated based on noise corrupted observations at local
On estimating avalanche danger from simulated snow profiles Sascha Bellaire
Jamieson, Bruce
On estimating avalanche danger from simulated snow profiles Sascha Bellaire 1,2 , Bruce Jamieson 1 and Geophysics, University of Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria ABSTRACT: Estimating avalanche danger is the primary goal of avalanche warning services. Typically avalanche danger is estimated based on a variety of information
NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of Mixed System Air Conditioners and Technology #12;NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of Mixed System Air Conditioners combination, an empirically based calculation procedure may be used for estimating a unit's Energy Efficiency
: Helmholtz machine estimation .
: Helmholtz machine density estimation . . : . . . (supervised learning) , (active learning) (query learning) [1, 3]. . (unsupervised learning), . , [5]. . Helmholtz machine , . Helmholtz machine : Helmholtz machine [2] . Helmholtz machine (generative network) (recognition network) . , , . Helmholtz machine (self
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2011-05-09
This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.
Estimation of food consumption
Callaway, J.M. Jr.
1992-04-01
The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.
Hybrid Estimation of CMB Polarization Power Spectra
G. Efstathiou
2006-01-05
This paper generalises the hybrid power spectrum estimator developed in Efstathiou (2004a) to the estimation of polarization power spectra of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The hybrid power spectrum estimator is unbiased and we show that it is close to optimal at all multipoles, provided the pixel noise satisfies certain reasonable constraints. Furthermore, the hybrid estimator is computationally fast and can easily be incorporated in a Monte-Carlo chain for Planck-sized data sets. Simple formulae are given for the covariance matrices, including instrumental noise, and these are tested extensively against numerical simulations. We compare the behaviour of simple pseudo-Cell estimates with maximum likelihood estimates at low multipoles. For realistic sky cuts, maximum likelihood estimates reduce very significantly the mixing of E and B modes. To achieve limits on the scalar-tensor ratio of r<<0.1 from sky maps with realistic sky cuts, maximum likelihood methods, or pseudo-Cell estimators based on unambiguous E and B modes, will be essential.
A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation
Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W.
1997-08-01
The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.
MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION S-ESTIMATORS FOR ROBUST ESTIMATION AND INFERENCE
Van Aelst, Stefan
1 MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION S-ESTIMATORS FOR ROBUST ESTIMATION AND INFERENCE Stefan Van Aelst-estimators for multivariate regression. We study the robustness of the estimators in terms of their breakdown point and in and multivariate location and scatter. Furthermore we develop a fast and robust bootstrap method
Unbiased Robust Template Estimation
Reuter, Martin
Unbiased Robust Template Estimation for Longitudinal Analysis in FreeSurfer Compared with cross-sectional may have a profound clinical impact. The current methods that utilize cross-sectional approaches, R. & Maguire, P. & Rosas, D. & Makris, N. & Dale, A. & Dickerson, B. & Fischl, B. (2006
Fatigue Data Base," Proceedings of the IEA Fourth Symposium of Wind Turbine Fatigue, IEA, Implementing
Use of Cost Estimating Relationships
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.
Position and velocity estimation through acceleration measurements
Boyer, Edmond
from inertial sensors inherently causes errors to grow with time, commonly known as integration drift/position estimation based on inertial sensors requires some addi- tional source of information providing navigation systems (INS) aiding sensors are applied. An INS consists of a triad of orthogonal ac
ROBUST ESTIMATION VIA GENERALIZED L-STATISTICS
Serfling, Robert
CHAPTER 1 ROBUST ESTIMATION VIA GENERALIZED L-STATISTICS: THEORY, APPLICATIONS, AND PERSPECTIVES ROBERT SERFLING University of Texas at Dallas Abstract: Generalized L-statistics, introduced in Ser ing (1984) and including classical U-statistics and L-statistics, are linear functions based on the ordered
Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation
Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.
2009-05-15
The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.
Supplemental report on cost estimates'
NONE
1992-04-29
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.
A Regularized Least Squares Approach for Ultra-Wideband Time-of-Arrival Estimation with
Lu, Wu-Sheng
A estimation was first considered in [2], where it utilizes generalized maxi- mum likelihood estimator the sampling rate requirement, [3] proposed the use of symbol rate samples after an energy detector to estimate and the relationship to channel sampling rate is not examined. In [5], ToA estimation based on high- resolution, peak
Nonparametric estimation of econometric models with categorical variables
Ouyang, Desheng
2006-10-30
shows that regression model with only discrete vari- ables differs significantly from the mixed discrete and continuous variables case. In the mixed variable case with at least one relevant continuous regressor, the irrele- vant variables can be smoothed... CV-based estimator has a high probability of smoothing out the irrele- vant variable, hence it leads to a more efficient (in finite samples) estimation result than the frequency estimator. It is interesting to observe that our nonparametric CV...
Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation
Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia
2012-10-01
The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.
Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using
van Vliet, Lucas J.
Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic #12;#12;Hydrocarbon Reservoir Parameter Estimation Using Production Data and Time-Lapse Seismic PROEFSCHRIFT ter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Recovery process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Field
STATISTICAL METHODS FOR1 ESTIMATING HISTORICAL FIRE2
Reed, W.J.
STATISTICAL METHODS FOR1 ESTIMATING HISTORICAL FIRE2 FREQUENCY FROM MULTIPLE FIRE3 SCAR DATA.4 of fire-interval charts8 based on fire-scar data. Estimation of the fire interval (expected time9 between scar-registering fires at any location) by maximum likelihood10 is presented. Because of the fact
Probability Density Function Estimation Using Orthogonal Forward Regression
Chen, Sheng
Probability Density Function Estimation Using Orthogonal Forward Regression S. Chen, X. Hong and C estimation is formulated as a regression problem and the orthogonal forward regression tech- nique is adopted procedure. Two examples are used to demonstrate the ability of this regression- based approach
Concurrent signal combining and channel estimation in digital communications
Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Mason, John J. (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-08-30
In the reception of digital information transmitted on a communication channel, a characteristic exhibited by the communication channel during transmission of the digital information is estimated based on a communication signal that represents the digital information and has been received via the communication channel. Concurrently with the estimating, the communication signal is used to decide what digital information was transmitted.
EPA 402-R-93-076 ESTIMATING RADIOGENIC CANCER RISKS
comparing health risk estimates due to low level exposures of low-LET radiation based on models recently This document presents a revised methodology for EPA's estimation of cancer risks due to low-LET radiation. With the exception of breast cancer, low-LET radiogenic cancer risks are assumed to be reduced by a dose and dose
Statistical estimation of multiple faults in aircraft gas turbine engines
Ray, Asok
415 Statistical estimation of multiple faults in aircraft gas turbine engines S Sarkar, C Rao of multiple faults in aircraft gas-turbine engines, based on a statistical pattern recognition tool called commercial aircraft engine. Keywords: aircraft propulsion, gas turbine engines, multiple fault estimation
The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang
2015-06-15
The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.
The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang
The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.
Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure
Whitfield, R.G.
1997-06-30
This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.
Assessing the Reliability of a Human Estimator Gary D. Boetticher, Nazim Lokhandwala
Boetticher, Gary D.
than humans make [2]. Algorithmic-based estimation approaches are based on human subjectivity. The post-architecture from estimating models to current projects and organization environments in order to achieveAssessing the Reliability of a Human Estimator Gary D. Boetticher, Nazim Lokhandwala University
Microsoft Word - UEC meeting with SHUG reps 09-17-09.doc
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection of Hydrates7In389:UFC 2300.00 9/27/124/2013from
Microsoft Word - CNMS UEC Meeting 09-26-08 minutes.doc
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OF PAGESpersonal March 3, 2015CM The CM device m areCNSM
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administration Bratislavat e d NPROP-220079
Estimating A Shear Modulus Of A Transversely Isotropic Formation
Ellefsen, K. J.
1990-01-01
A method to estimate c[subscript 66], which is a shear modulus of a transversely isotropic formation (with its symmetry axis parallel to the borehole), is developed and tested. The inversion for c[subscript 66] is based ...
Odometer Versus Self-Reported Estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2000-01-01
The findings described here compare odometer readings with self-reported estimates of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) to investigate to what extent self-reported VMT is a reliable surrogate for odometer-based VMT.
effort to estimate potential severe weather societal impacts based on a combination of probabilistic forecasts and high resolution population data. For equal severe weather threat, events that occur over1 ESTIMATING POTENTIAL SEVERE WEATHER SOCIETAL IMPACTS USING PROBABILISTIC FORECASTS ISSUED
Fact #663: February 21, 2011 Clean Cities Program Petroleum Displacement Estimates for 2009
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Each year, estimates are made of the amount of petroleum that is displaced by the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program. These estimates are based on data provided by...
Of fishes and birthdays: Efficient estimation of polymer configurational entropies
Nemenman, Ilya; Strauss, Charlie E
2015-01-01
We present an algorithm to estimate the configurational entropy $S$ of a polymer. The algorithm uses the statistics of coincidences among random samples of configurations and is related to the catch-tag-release method for estimation of population sizes, and to the classic "birthday paradox". Bias in the entropy estimation is decreased by grouping configurations in nearly equiprobable partitions based on their energies, and estimating entropies separately within each partition. Whereas most entropy estimation algorithms require $N\\sim 2^{S}$ samples to achieve small bias, our approach typically needs only $N\\sim \\sqrt{2^{S}}$. Thus the algorithm can be applied to estimate protein free energies with increased accuracy and decreased computational cost.
Evaluation of mutual information estimators on nonlinear dynamic systems
A. Papana; D. Kugiumtzis
2008-09-12
Mutual information is a nonlinear measure used in time series analysis in order to measure the linear and non-linear correlations at any lag $\\tau$. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used mutual information estimators, i.e. estimators based on histograms (with fixed or adaptive bin size), $k$-nearest neighbors and kernels. We assess the accuracy of the estimators by Monte-Carlo simulations on time series from nonlinear dynamical systems of varying complexity. As the true mutual information is generally unknown, we investigate the existence and rate of consistency of the estimators (convergence to a stable value with the increase of time series length), and the degree of deviation among the estimators. The results show that the $k$-nearest neighbor estimator is the most stable and less affected by the method-specific parameter.
Robust and intelligent bearing estimation
Claassen, John P. (Albuquerque, NM)
2000-01-01
A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.
Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use
McMordie Stoughton, Kate
2010-07-28
The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy “one-stop-shop” for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.
Examples of Cost Estimation Packages
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.
Bayesian parameter estimation for effective field theories
Wesolowski, S; Furnstahl, R J; Phillips, D R; Thapaliya, A
2015-01-01
We present procedures based on Bayesian statistics for effective field theory (EFT) parameter estimation from data. The extraction of low-energy constants (LECs) is guided by theoretical expectations that supplement such information in a quantifiable way through the specification of Bayesian priors. A prior for natural-sized LECs reduces the possibility of overfitting, and leads to a consistent accounting of different sources of uncertainty. A set of diagnostic tools are developed that analyze the fit and ensure that the priors do not bias the EFT parameter estimation. The procedures are illustrated using representative model problems and the extraction of LECs for the nucleon mass expansion in SU(2) chiral perturbation theory from synthetic lattice data.
Bilinear estimation of pollution source profiles in receptor models
Washington at Seattle, University of
the pollution sources based on air pollution data. This article is concerned with estimation of the source and assess the contribution of each source based on this data. There have been two traditional approaches. Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531 + Address for correspondence: NRCSE, University of Washington, Box 351720
Fast Noise Variance Estimation by Principal Component Stanislav Pyatykha, Lei Zhenga, Jurgen Hessera
Hesser, Jürgen
Fast Noise Variance Estimation by Principal Component Analysis Stanislav Pyatykha, Lei Zhenga, J Mannheim, Germany ABSTRACT Noise variance estimation is required in many image denoising, compression, and segmentation applications. In this work, we propose a fast noise variance estimation algorithm based
Mass Flow Estimation with Model Bias Correction for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine
Johansen, Tor Arne
Mass Flow Estimation with Model Bias Correction for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Tomás Polóni. Based on an augmented observable Mean Value En- gine Model (MVEM) of a turbocharged Diesel engine in the intake duct. Keywords: Diesel engine, Mass flow estimation, Bias estimation, Kalman filtering, Mean value
Location Prediction in Social Media Based on Tie Strength
McGee, Jeffrey A
2013-04-29
We propose a novel network-based approach for location estimation in social media that integrates evidence of the social tie strength between users for improved location estimation. Concretely, we propose a location estimator – Friendly...
Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller
Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham
2014-03-28
This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.
Motion Estimation from Disparity Images
Demirdjian, D.
2001-05-07
A new method for 3D rigid motion estimation from stereo is proposed in this paper. The appealing feature of this method is that it directly uses the disparity images obtained from stereo matching. We assume that the stereo ...
Estimation of resources and reserves
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.
1982-01-01
This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...
Uncertainty Quantification and Calibration in Well Construction Cost Estimates
Valdes Machado, Alejandro
2013-08-05
, it is possible to assess the probabilities of cost overruns, understand the accuracy of the estimates and provide identification of risk factors in the well construction operations. Capen (1976) claimed we have not learned to successfully deal with uncertainty... of the project. Both issues contribute to inefficient capital budgeting. Using a probabilistic methodology is not sufficient to assess the uncertainty reliably. Look-backs, which are based on the analysis of past estimations, are required to provide more...
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan (Oakdale, MN); Huizinga, John S. (Dellwood, MN)
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Estimate product quality with ANNs
Brambilla, A. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Trivella, F. [Adicon Advanced Distillation Control SrL, Pisa (Italy)
1996-09-01
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been applied to predict catalytic reformer octane number (ON) and gasoline splitter product qualities. Results show that ANNs are a valuable tool to derive fast and accurate product quality measurements, and offer a low-cost alternative to online analyzers or rigorous mathematical models. The paper describes product quality measurements, artificial neural networks, ANN structure, estimating gasoline octane numbers, and estimating naphtha splitter product qualities.
Kernel regression estimates of time delays between gravitationally lensed fluxes
Otaibi, Sultanah AL; Cuevas-Tello, Juan C; Mandel, Ilya; Raychaudhury, Somak
2015-01-01
Strongly lensed variable quasars can serve as precise cosmological probes, provided that time delays between the image fluxes can be accurately measured. A number of methods have been proposed to address this problem. In this paper, we explore in detail a new approach based on kernel regression estimates, which is able to estimate a single time delay given several datasets for the same quasar. We develop realistic artificial data sets in order to carry out controlled experiments to test of performance of this new approach. We also test our method on real data from strongly lensed quasar Q0957+561 and compare our estimates against existing results.
Ungar, Lyle H.
prediction lim- its for ANN's: a frequentist approach, based on stan- dard non-linear regression theory for estimating the prediction uncertainties of non- linear regressionseee.g Seberand Wild, 1989, based on localEstimating Prediction Intervals for Arti cial Neural Networks Lyle H. Ungar Richard D. De Veaux
PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARKRECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY
PELLET COUNT INDICES COMPARED TO MARKRECAPTURE ESTIMATES FOR EVALUATING SNOWSHOE HARE DENSITY L in the contiguous United States. Efforts to evalu- ate hare densities using pellets have traditionally been based there was concordance between pellet-based predictions and markrecapture density estimates of hares. We developed local
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...
Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes
Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie
2008-08-15
In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.
Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources
Hall, Douglas G.; Hunt, Richard T.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Carroll, Greg R.
2003-06-01
Tools for estimating the cost of developing and operating and maintaining hydropower resources in the form of regression curves were developed based on historical plant data. Development costs that were addressed included: licensing, construction, and five types of environmental mitigation. It was found that the data for each type of cost correlated well with plant capacity. A tool for estimating the annual and monthly electric generation of hydropower resources was also developed. Additional tools were developed to estimate the cost of upgrading a turbine or a generator. The development and operation and maintenance cost estimating tools, and the generation estimating tool were applied to 2,155 U.S. hydropower sites representing a total potential capacity of 43,036 MW. The sites included totally undeveloped sites, dams without a hydroelectric plant, and hydroelectric plants that could be expanded to achieve greater capacity. Site characteristics and estimated costs and generation for each site were assembled in a database in Excel format that is also included within the EERE Library under the title, “Estimation of Economic Parameters of U.S. Hydropower Resources - INL Hydropower Resource Economics Database.”
Temperature estimates from zircaloy oxidation kinetics and microstructures. [PWR
Olsen, C.S.
1982-10-01
This report reviews state-of-the-art capability to determine peak zircaloy fuel rod cladding temperatures following an abnormal temperature excursion in a nuclear reactor, based on postirradiation metallographic analysis of zircaloy microstructural and oxidation characteristics. Results of a comprehensive literature search are presented to evaluate the suitability of available zircaloy microstructural and oxidation data for estimating anticipated reactor fuel rod cladding temperatures. Additional oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate low-temperature zircaloy oxidation characteristics for postirradiation estimation of cladding temperature by metallographic examination. Results of these experiments were used to calculate peak cladding temperatures of electrical heater rods and nuclear fuel rods that had been subjected to reactor temperature transients. Comparison of the calculated and measured peak cladding temperatures for these rods indicates that oxidation kinetics is a viable technique for estimating peak cladding temperatures over a broad temperature range. However, further improvement in zircaloy microstructure technology is necessary for precise estimation of peak cladding temperatures by microstructural examination.
Strichartz Estimates Counterexample to Strichartz
Smith, Hart F.
for the Wave Equation on Compact Manifolds with Boundary Hart F. Smith Department of Mathematics University of Washington, Seattle Carolina Meeting on Harmonic Analysis and PDE Hart F. Smith Strichartz Estimates g L2(M) For manifolds without boundary: 1 p + n q = n 2 - 2 p + n - 1 q n - 1 2 Hart F. Smith
TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE
Bateman, Ian J.
TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello Cervigni Dominic Moran Centre for Social and SEDESOL for their assistance whilst in Mexico, and David Pearce and Kerry Turner for comments on earlier
Drought: Monitoring, Estimation and Prediction
Washington at Seattle, University of
.S. disaster before hurricane Katrina) Significant social consequences (e.g. Dust Bowl) Challenges U.S. dataset (1915-present) Need method for objective identification and estimation of drought Capacity model Solves energy and water balance over gridded domain Sub-grid variability in topography
Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang
2014-11-11
Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010more »both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.« less
Satellite Based Estimation of Global Biogenic Methane Emissions
Bloom, A. Anthony
2011-01-01
Atmospheric CH4 is derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and the rapid increase in atmospheric CH4 levels over the past two centuries has predominantly been a result of increased anthropogenic emissions. ...
Position Estimation Scheme for Lunar Rover Based on Integration of
Kuroda, Yoji
coordinate system at center of the Earth z-axis: north celestial pole x-axis: vernal equinox direction y-axis: vernal equinox direction y-axis: right-hand system of x-z origin: the Moon We can calculate the position
On Text-Based Estimation of Document Relevance
Myllymäki, Petri
Technology HIIT Tammasaarenkatu 3, Helsinki, Finland PO BOX 9800 FI-02015 TKK, Finland http-02015 HUT, Finland 2 Department of Computer Science P.O.Box 26, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki,Finland of Technology P.O.Box 9800, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland E-mail: {Ville.Tuulos, Petri
OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue
Khalil, Ahmad S.
and Anatomically-Realistic Models," Journal of Engineering Mathematics 47(3-4), 299-314 (2003). 4. R.T. Lee, F
Estimating farm machinery complements based on cropmix and farm size
Barrera, Anna Marie
1993-01-01
Machinery complement information is used in farm simulation models such as the FLIPSIM model when studying of the impacts of agricultural policies on representative farms. Since acquiring machinery complement data for FLIPSIM simulations is a...
DEVELOPMENT OF A MYOELECTRIC CONTROLLER BASED ON KNEE ANGLE ESTIMATION
Carvalho, João Luiz
_delis@yahoo.com, joaoluiz@gmail.com, adson@unb.br, assis@unb.br, gaborges@ene.unb.br Keywords: Electromyographic signal and pre-processing of surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals, as well as the proposal of a myoelectric robustness. Surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals provide a non-invasive tool for investigating
Bayesian Color Estimation for Adaptive Vision-based Robot Localization
Schulz, Dirk
to variations in the lighting condition, a robot needs to adapt its color model to such changes. We propose that the robot can localize under different lighting conditions and adapt to changes in the lighting condition Gaussian color model which enables a robot to quickly adapt to different lighting conditions. The lower
An Eigenvalue Based Carrier Frequency Offset Estimator for OFDM Systems
Zhuang, Weihua
director of TeleTech, Cairo, Egypt, e-mail: abassiouni@teletech.com.eg. M. Ismail and W. Zhuang are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, e- mail:{m6
Model-based Estimation and Inference Procedures for Clock Synchronization
Pettyjohn, Jeffrey Stuart
2010-01-01
strenuous to perform in a WSN. The primary interest is inwithin the limitations of a WSN. A simpler solution iswithin the limitations of a WSN. However, this constrained
Latent Variables Based Data Estimation for Sensing Applications
Simunic, Tajana
for high performance wireless embedded systems that generate and process high volume of data (like the SHi Rosing Computer Science and Engineering, University of California San Diego 9500 Gilman Dr., CA 92093 due to limited energy. Fortunately, sensor readings are often correlated across different nodes
Gossip-based density estimation in dynamic heterogeneous sensor networks
Langendoen, Koen
, introduce new challenges. Moreover, churn makes the problem even more complicated. In this paper we networks. The devised method supports node mobility and churn, as well as redeployment of new nodes/exit a cluster and they do not have fixed neighbors. One of the other challenges is churn caused by either nodes
Motion based seismic design and loss estimation of diagrid structures
Liptack, Robert J. (Robert Jeffrey)
2013-01-01
Diagrids are becoming an increasingly popular structural system in high rise design and construction. Little research has been performed on the seismic performance of Diagrids and how it integrates with seismic loss ...
Estimating Seismic Demands for Performance-Based Engineering of Buildings
Reyes, Juan Carlos
2009-01-01
C. B. [2006], “Assessing Seismic Collapse Safety of ModernP. [1998], “Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis,” Ph.D.of Non-linear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures”, FEMA-440,
Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentatabout Who WorksName StartingUpdated: January 2013
Wu, Jiun-Yu
2011-10-21
researcher can either use the ad-hoc robust sandwich standard error estimators to correct the standard error estimates (Design-based approach) or perform multilevel analysis to model the multilevel data structure (Model-based approach) to analyze dependent...
Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE
Fowler, Mark
1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub
Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use
None
2010-07-30
Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514
Technical report: Multivariate generalized S-estimators
Van Aelst, Stefan
Technical report: Multivariate generalized S-estimators Roelant E. a, Van Aelst S. a Croux C. b a-estimators for the multivariate regression model. This class of estimators combines high robustness and high efficiency of residuals. In the special case of a multivariate location model, the generalized S-estimator has
Modified LMS Algorithm for Unbiased Impulse Response Estimation
So, Hing-Cheung
Modified LMS Algorithm for Unbiased Impulse Response Estimation in Nonstationary Noise H. C. So and a modified least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is then developed for accurate system identification in noise, the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm [2], which is based on the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) crite
Parsons Brinckerhoff New Zealand Ltd COST ESTIMATES FOR
Laughlin, Robert B.
in this Report. Limitations This Report covers technical data relating to thermal generating plants and is basedParsons Brinckerhoff New Zealand Ltd COST ESTIMATES FOR THERMAL PEAKING PLANT "FINAL REPORT information for all plant. PB has made a number of assumptive statements throughout the Report, and the Report
Maximum likelihood estimation of the equity Efstathios Avdis
Kahana, Michael J.
premium is usually estimated by taking the sample mean of stock returns and subtracting a measure the expected return on the aggregate stock market less the government bill rate, is of central importance an alternative esti- mator, based on maximum likelihood, that takes into account informa- tion contained
Evaluation of a New Method of Heading Estimation for Pedestrian
Calgary, University of
Evaluation of a New Method of Heading Estimation for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using Shoe Mounted) (Email: Lachapelle@geomatics.ucalgary.ca) In this paper, a novel method of sensor based pedestrian dead with respect to a high accuracy reference trajectory. KEY WORDS 1. Pedestrian Navigation. 2. Dead Reckoning. 1
An adaptive sparse-grid-based iterative ensemble Kalman filter...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
An adaptive sparse-grid-based iterative ensemble Kalman filter approach for parameter field estimation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An adaptive sparse-grid-based...
Parameter estimation, nonlinearity and Occam's razor
Leandro M. Alonso
2014-10-30
Nonlinear systems are capable of displaying complex behavior even if this is the result of a small number of interacting time scales. A widely studied case is when complex dynamics emerges out of a nonlinear system being forced by a simple harmonic function. In order to identify if a recorded time series is the result of a nonlinear system responding to a simpler forcing, we develop a discrete nonlinear transformation for time series based on synchronization techniques. This allows a parameter estimation procedure which simultaneously searches for a good fit of the recorded data, and small complexity of a fluctuating driving parameter. We illustrate this procedure using data from respiratory patterns during birdsong production.
An Improved Virial Estimate of Solar Active Region Energy
M. S. Wheatland; T. R. Metcalf
2005-09-21
The MHD virial theorem may be used to estimate the magnetic energy of active regions based on vector magnetic fields measured at the photosphere or chromosphere. However, the virial estimate depends on the measured vector magnetic field being force-free. Departure from force-freeness leads to an unknown systematic error in the virial energy estimate, and an origin dependence of the result. We present a method for estimating the systematic error by assuming that magnetic forces are confined to a thin layer near the photosphere. If vector magnetic field measurements are available at two levels in the low atmosphere (e.g. the photosphere and the chromosphere), the systematic error may be directly calculated using the observed horizontal and vertical field gradients, resulting in an energy estimate which is independent of the choice of origin. If (as is generally the case) measurements are available at only one level, the systematic error may be approximated using the observed horizontal field gradients together with a simple linear force-free model for the vertical field gradients. The resulting `improved' virial energy estimate is independent of the choice of origin, but depends on the choice of the model for the vertical field gradients, i.e. the value of the linear force-free parameter $\\alpha$. This procedure is demonstrated for five vector magnetograms, including a chromospheric magnetogram.
Estimating uncertainty of inference for validation
Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [UNM
2010-09-30
We present a validation process based upon the concept that validation is an inference-making activity. This has always been true, but the association has not been as important before as it is now. Previously, theory had been confirmed by more data, and predictions were possible based on data. The process today is to infer from theory to code and from code to prediction, making the role of prediction somewhat automatic, and a machine function. Validation is defined as determining the degree to which a model and code is an accurate representation of experimental test data. Imbedded in validation is the intention to use the computer code to predict. To predict is to accept the conclusion that an observable final state will manifest; therefore, prediction is an inference whose goodness relies on the validity of the code. Quantifying the uncertainty of a prediction amounts to quantifying the uncertainty of validation, and this involves the characterization of uncertainties inherent in theory/models/codes and the corresponding data. An introduction to inference making and its associated uncertainty is provided as a foundation for the validation problem. A mathematical construction for estimating the uncertainty in the validation inference is then presented, including a possibility distribution constructed to represent the inference uncertainty for validation under uncertainty. The estimation of inference uncertainty for validation is illustrated using data and calculations from Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The ICF measurements of neutron yield and ion temperature were obtained for direct-drive inertial fusion capsules at the Omega laser facility. The glass capsules, containing the fusion gas, were systematically selected with the intent of establishing a reproducible baseline of high-yield 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} neutron output. The deuterium-tritium ratio in these experiments was varied to study its influence upon yield. This paper on validation inference is the first in a series of inference uncertainty estimations. While the methods demonstrated are primarily statistical, these do not preclude the use of nonprobabilistic methods for uncertainty characterization. The methods presented permit accurate determinations for validation and eventual prediction. It is a goal that these methods establish a standard against which best practice may evolve for determining degree of validation.
Tyre curve estimation in slip-controlled braking
Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David
2015-06-09
identifying a Kalman filter observer for vehicle handling dynamics. IMECHE Part D – J. of Auto. Eng. 2006; 220: 1063–1072. 27. Yi J et al. Emergency braking control with an observer-based dynamic tire/road friction model and wheel angular velocity... also used by Shim et al.15, and Hong et al.16 Unsal and Kachroo17 compared an EKF with a sliding mode observer to estimate vehicle velocity, using this estimated velocity with a nominal slip-friction curve to determine the braking force. The authors...
Estimation vido haute frquence de la topographie inter-tidale d'une plage sableuse : application la
Estimation vidéo haute fréquence de la topographie inter- tidale d'une plage sableuse : application outil vidéo d'estimation haute fréquence de la topographie inter-tidale. Cet outil est basé sur le suivi : We present a tool to estimate inter-tidal topography using video images. This tool is based
Bowles, David S.
Estimating Overall Risk of Dam Failure: Practical Considerations in Combining Failure Probabilities ANCOLD 2003 Risk Workshop Page 1 ESTIMATING OVERALL RISK OF DAM FAILURE: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS With the move to a risk based approach to dam safety there has been a concomitant focus on estimating
Nonlinear and distributed sensory estimation
Sugathevan, Suranthiran
2005-08-29
!tdt (2.3) where ! is frequency in rad/sec. Fff(t)g is also known as the spectrum of f(t). De nition 4 Inverse Fourier Transform: The Inverse Fourier Transform (F 1f:g) recovers the function f(t) from its Fourier Transform Fff(t)g. F 1fFff(t)gg = f(t) = 12...=ISO-8859-1 NONLINEAR AND DISTRIBUTED SENSORY ESTIMATION A Dissertation by SURANTHIRAN SUGATHEVAN Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May...
Principal Components Instrumental Variable Estimation
Winkelried, Diego; Smith, Richard J.
2011-01-31
badly if the IV do not admit a factor representation 3 (cf., Kapetanios and Marcellino, 2006). We rely instead on a vague notion of correlation among instruments (assumption A5 or A6 below), as the merits of the PCIVE depend on the instruments displaying... Assumption A4. Hence, Assumption A4 simply places a bound for ??? such that the implied restriction on the 6 explanatory power of the instruments in (3) also holds in matrix norms. 2.1 The Case for a Lower-Dimensional IVE We study the properties of estimators...
Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton
2013-12-31
This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based transient stability monitoring opens up new ways to protect the power grid, better manage disturbances, confine their impact and in general improve the reliability and security of the system. Finally, as a by-product of the proposed research project, the developed system is able to “play back” disturbances by a click of a mouse. The importance of this by-product is evident by considering the tremendous effort exerted after the August 2003 blackout to piece together all the disturbance recordings, align them and recreate the sequence of events. This project has moved the state of art from fault recording by individual devices to system wide disturbance recording with “play back” capability.
Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant
Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa
2013-09-17
System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.
Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)
2009-11-17
An impedance estimation method includes measuring three or more impedances of an object having a periphery using three or more probes coupled to the periphery. The three or more impedance measurements are made at a first frequency. Three or more additional impedance measurements of the object are made using the three or more probes. The three or more additional impedance measurements are made at a second frequency different from the first frequency. An impedance of the object at a point within the periphery is estimated based on the impedance measurements and the additional impedance measurements.
Harmonizing Systems and Software Cost Estimation
Wang, Gan
2009-07-19
The objective of this paper is to examine the gaps and overlaps between software and systems engineering cost models with intent to harmonize the estimates in engineering engineering estimation. In particular, we evaluate ...
Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.
A Fast Algorithm for Nonstationary Delay Estimation
So, Hing-Cheung
to the explicit time delay estimator (ETDE) algorithm 4] but it is more computationally e cient and provides more
PROBABILISTIC METHODS FOR LOCATION ESTIMATION IN
Myllymäki, Petri
PROBABILISTIC METHODS FOR LOCATION ESTIMATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS Petri Kontkanen, Petri Myllym;PROBABILISTIC METHODS FOR LOCATION ESTIMATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS Petri Kontkanen, Petri Myllym¨aki, Teemu Roos METHODS FOR LOCATION ESTIMATION IN WIRELESS NETWORKS Petri Kontkanen, Petri Myllymäki, Teemu Roos, Henry
New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2010-01-01
A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.
Noise Estimation from a Single Image Ce Liu William T. Freeman
Freeman, William T.
Noise Estimation from a Single Image Ce Liu William T. Freeman CS and AI Lab, MIT {celiu to the image noise level, making it an important quantity to es- timate. We show how to estimate an upper bound on the noise level from a single image based on a piecewise smooth image prior model and measured CCD camera
Gupta, Rajesh
Power Emulation: A New Paradigm for Power Estimation Joel Coburn, Srivaths Ravi, and Anand-labs.com ABSTRACT In this work, we propose a new paradigm called power emulation, which ex- ploits hardware acceleration to drastically speedup power estimation. Power emulation is based on the observation that most
ESTIMATING DAMPING PARAMETERS IN MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM VIBRATION SYSTEMS BY BALANCING ENERGY0
Feeny, Brian
ESTIMATING DAMPING PARAMETERS IN MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM VIBRATION SYSTEMS BY BALANCING ENERGY0 B is outlined, involving a balance of dissipated and supplied energies over a cycle of pe- riodic vibration a damping estimation method based on the balance of energy. The idea is to compute the energy input per
Fan, Jianqing
2008-01-01
Statistics and Its Interface Volume 1 (2008) 279288 Spot volatility estimation for high-frequency data Jianqing Fan and Yazhen Wang The availability of high-frequency intraday data allows us and volatility of an asset and investigates kernel type estimators of spot volatility based on high-frequency
Training Signal Design for Estimation of Correlated MIMO Channels with Colored
Hager, William
Training Signal Design for Estimation of Correlated MIMO Channels with Colored Interference Yong error (MMSE) channel estimator is derived and the optimal training sequences are designed based in the construction of the optimal training sequences. We also design an efficient scheme to feed back the required
Effects of Radar Beam Shielding on Rainfall Estimation for the Polarimetric C-Band Radar
Effects of Radar Beam Shielding on Rainfall Estimation for the Polarimetric C-Band Radar KATJA, polarimetric weather radar located in Trappes, France, were used to examine the effects of radar beam shielding-based rainfall estimates to beam shielding for C-band radar data during four typical rain events encountered
Draft 1e ESTIMATING THE VOLATILITY OF SPOT PRICES IN RESTRUCTURED ELECTRICITY MARKETS depends critically on the specification and estimation of the stochastic process that describes the price path. Accurate valuation of claims based on competitive electricity prices has proved problematic
A NEW APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING ENTRAINMENT RATE IN CUMULUS AND PARAMETERIZATION IN MODELS
A NEW APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING ENTRAINMENT RATE IN CUMULUS AND PARAMETERIZATION IN MODELS Chunsong Entrainment of dry air into clouds is essential to many cloud processes, affecting cloud microphysical for estimating fractional entrainment rate in cumulus clouds from aircraft observations. This approach is based
2007 Estimated International Energy Flows
Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J
2011-03-10
An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.
Robustness analysis of linear estimators
Tayade, Rajeshwary
2004-09-30
. Conditional Maximum Likelihood, i.e. given that the conditional probability function p(yjx) is known, find x such that p(y0jx) is maximum for a particular observation y0. Thus we can have estimators that minimize the average cost, or minimizes the max- imum... as the particle moves from t0 to t is given by s = Z t t0 jx0(t)jdt (2.2) Here we have an expression for s as a function of t : s = f(t). To show that s is a regular parameter, we note that this function is also analytic. Differentiating equation 2.2 we have, ds...
Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California
Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.
2008-11-21
Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.
Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks
Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang
2014-11-11
Net all-wave surface radiation (R_{n}) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional R_{n} measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical R_{n} estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate R_{n} globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. R_{n} estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010 both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R^{2}) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m^{–2} , and a bias of –0.61 W·m^{–2} in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global R_{n} estimation.
Lautenberger, Chris; Rein, Guillermo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos
A methodology based on an automated optimization technique that uses a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to estimate the material properties needed for CFD-based fire growth modeling from bench-scale fire test data. ...
Six degrees of freedom estimation using monocular vision and moiré patterns
Tournier, Glenn P. (Glenn Paul)
2006-01-01
We present the vision-based estimation of the position and orientation of an object using a single camera relative to a novel target that incorporates the use of moire patterns. The objective is to acquire the six degree ...
Determination of uncertainty in reserves estimate from analysis of production decline data
Wang, Yuhong
2007-09-17
Analysts increasingly have used probabilistic approaches to evaluate the uncertainty in reserves estimates based on a decline curve analysis. This is because the results represent statistical analysis of historical data ...
Direct estimation of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate in Drosophila melanogaster
Keightley P.D.; Charlesworth B.; Haag-Liautard C.; Coffey N.; Houle D.; Lynch M.
2008-08-01
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants are widely used in evolutionary genetics as markers for population history and to estimate divergence times among taxa. Inferences of species history are generally based on phylogenetic ...
Control-oriented modeling and adaptive parameter estimation of a lithium ion intercalation cell
Bi, Pierre (Pierre Yanhe)
2015-01-01
Battery management systems using parameter and state estimators based on electrochemical models for Lithium ion cells, are promising efficient use and safety of the battery. In this thesis, two findings related to ...
Estimating Marginal Returns to Medical Care: Evidence from At-Risk Newborns
Almond, Douglas
A key policy question is whether the benefits of additional medical expenditures exceed their costs. We propose a new approach for estimating marginal returns to medical spending based on variation in medical inputs generated ...
High level power estimation of cache and TLB using complete machine simulation
Bhosekar, Sunil
2002-01-01
reduction and memory cell redesign. Our methodology is based on the memory cell redesign, specifically the redesign of the content addressable memory (CAM). In this work, we estimate the power dissipation in the cache and the Translation Lookaside Buffer...
Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations
CLAASSEN,JOHN P.
2000-02-01
A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E CChinaC L S C OLocalTissue
Ozkale, Aslihan
2007-04-25
Predicting correct pore-pressure is important for drilling applications. Wellbore stability problems, kicks, or even blow-outs can be avoided with a good estimate of porepressure. Conventional pore-pressure estimation methods are based on one...
Overconstrained estimates of neutrinoless double beta decay within the QRPA
Amand Faessler; Gianluigi Fogli; Eligio Lisi; Vadim Rodin; Anna Maria Rotunno; Fedor Simkovic
2008-05-29
Estimates of nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay (0nu2beta) based on the quasiparticle random phase approximations (QRPA) are affected by theoretical uncertainties, which can be substantially reduced by fixing the unknown strength parameter g_pp of the residual particle-particle interaction through one experimental constraint - most notably through the two-neutrino double beta decay (2nu2beta) lifetime. However, it has been noted that the g_pp adjustment via 2\
Numerical estimation of the relative entropy of entanglement
Zinchenko, Yuriy; Friedland, Shmuel; Gour, Gilad
2010-11-15
We propose a practical algorithm for the calculation of the relative entropy of entanglement (REE), defined as the minimum relative entropy between a state and the set of states with positive partial transpose. Our algorithm is based on a practical semidefinite cutting plane approach. In low dimensions the implementation of the algorithm in matlab provides an estimation for the REE with an absolute error smaller than 10{sup -3}.
General model selection estimation of a periodic regression with a Gaussian noise
Konev, Victor; 10.1007/s10463-008-0193-1
2010-01-01
This paper considers the problem of estimating a periodic function in a continuous time regression model with an additive stationary gaussian noise having unknown correlation function. A general model selection procedure on the basis of arbitrary projective estimates, which does not need the knowledge of the noise correlation function, is proposed. A non-asymptotic upper bound for quadratic risk (oracle inequality) has been derived under mild conditions on the noise. For the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise the risk upper bound is shown to be uniform in the nuisance parameter. In the case of gaussian white noise the constructed procedure has some advantages as compared with the procedure based on the least squares estimates (LSE). The asymptotic minimaxity of the estimates has been proved. The proposed model selection scheme is extended also to the estimation problem based on the discrete data applicably to the situation when high frequency sampling can not be provided.
Asymptotic Efficiency and Finite Sample Performance of Frequentist Quantum State Estimation
Raj Chakrabarti; Anisha Ghosh
2011-11-15
We undertake a detailed study of the performance of maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the density matrix of finite-dimensional quantum systems, in order to interrogate generic properties of frequentist quantum state estimation. Existing literature on frequentist quantum estimation has not rigorously examined the finite sample performance of the estimators and associated methods of hypothesis testing. While ML is usually preferred on the basis of its asymptotic properties - it achieves the Cramer-Rao (CR) lower bound - the finite sample properties are often less than optimal. We compare the asymptotic and finite-sample properties of the ML estimators and test statistics for two different choices of measurement bases: the average case optimal or mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and a representative set of suboptimal bases, for spin-1/2 and spin-1 systems. We show that, in both cases, the standard errors of the ML estimators sometimes do not contain the true value of the parameter, which can render inference based on the asymptotic properties of the ML unreliable for experimentally realistic sample sizes. The results indicate that in order to fully exploit the information geometry of quantum states and achieve smaller reconstruction errors, the use of Bayesian state reconstruction methods - which, unlike frequentist methods, do not rely on asymptotic properties - is desirable, since the estimation error is typically lower due to the incorporation of prior knowledge.
Fast cosmological parameter estimation using neural networks
T. Auld; M. Bridges; M. P. Hobson; S. F. Gull
2007-09-17
We present a method for accelerating the calculation of CMB power spectra, matter power spectra and likelihood functions for use in cosmological parameter estimation. The algorithm, called CosmoNet, is based on training a multilayer perceptron neural network and shares all the advantages of the recently released Pico algorithm of Fendt & Wandelt, but has several additional benefits in terms of simplicity, computational speed, memory requirements and ease of training. We demonstrate the capabilities of CosmoNet by computing CMB power spectra over a box in the parameter space of flat \\Lambda CDM models containing the 3\\sigma WMAP1 confidence region. We also use CosmoNet to compute the WMAP3 likelihood for flat \\Lambda CDM models and show that marginalised posteriors on parameters derived are very similar to those obtained using CAMB and the WMAP3 code. We find that the average error in the power spectra is typically 2-3% of cosmic variance, and that CosmoNet is \\sim 7 \\times 10^4 faster than CAMB (for flat models) and \\sim 6 \\times 10^6 times faster than the official WMAP3 likelihood code. CosmoNet and an interface to CosmoMC are publically available at www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/software/cosmonet.
How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements
Sullivan, Michael J.
2010-01-01
most current estimates of outage costs, it is hopeful thatand D. M. Keane. “Outage Cost Estimation Guidebook,” EPRIanalysts on how to apply outage cost estimates to a smart
GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide | Department of Energy
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO 12-Step Estimating Process.pdf More Documents & Publications EIR SOP Septmebr 2010 Microsoft Word...
Population estimates for Phase 1: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project
Beck, D.M.; Erickson, A.R.; Harkreader, S.A.
1992-03-01
This report summarizes the population estimates of Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. These estimates were used to develop preliminary dose estimates.
State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates
1996-10-01
This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.
Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998
NONE
1997-02-01
The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.
Adjoint Error Estimation for Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Jimack, Peter
Adjoint Error Estimation for Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication by Daniel Edward Hart Submitted elastohydro- dynamic lubrication (EHL) problems. A functional is introduced, namely the friction
An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure
Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E
2006-01-01
The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.
Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production
Reports and Publications (EIA)
2005-01-01
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.
Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an...
Tool (EX-ACT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Brazil-Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an Application of the...
Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration
1990-09-01
Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.
REPORT NO. 4 ESTIMATES AND EVALUATION OF
REPORT NO. 4 ESTIMATES AND EVALUATION OF FALLOUT IN THE UNITED STATES FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS ESTIMATES AND EVALUATION OF FALLOUT IN THE UNITED STATES FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING CONDUCTED THROUGH 1962 Section II History of Nuclear Weapons Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Section III Atmospheric
Quality Estimation and Segmentation of Pig Backs
Quality Estimation and Segmentation of Pig Backs Mads Fogtmann Hansen Kongens Lyngby 2005 Master the quality of the pig product "18cm back". It presents the necessary tools for deriving the measures, which are needed to perform a quality estimation. This includes finding the ribs, extracting the 18cm back from
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification
Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE dollars. Costs for a pioneer plant [a 1st plant with a capacity of 500 dry ton per day (dtpd) biomass
The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries
Kammen, Daniel M.
The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries H . S C O T T M A T T H E W S , C H R I and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints
Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report
Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Engineering Research Center Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report Report Authors Jun Zhu, Ph-373-3051 Fax: 617-373-4431 Email: abur@ece.neu.edu Power Systems Engineering Research Center This is a project
Martin, Ralph R.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Estimating the Fundamental Matrix via Constrained Least-Squares: A Convex Approach Graziano Chesi, AndreaÐIn this paper, a new method for the estimation of the fundamental matrix from point correspondences is presented on the fundamental matrix. It is shown how this nonconvex optimization problem can be solved avoiding local minima
Reservation Price Estimation by Adaptive Conjoint Analysis
Schmidt-Thieme, Lars
Reservation Price Estimation by Adaptive Conjoint Analysis Christoph Breidert1 , Michael Hahsler1 applied the eco- nomic definition of reservation price in combination with a conjoint study on product pricing. In this paper we present a novel approach to estimate the economic reser- vation price using
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfagrass hay
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfa-grass hay
CONFIDENTIALITY AND VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN COMPLEX SURVEYS
Brennand, Tracy
is the conflict of interest between in- formation sharing and disclosure control. Statistical agencies routinelyCONFIDENTIALITY AND VARIANCE ESTIMATION IN COMPLEX SURVEYS by Wen Wilson Lu M.Sc., Simon Fraser of Philosophy Title of thesis: Confidentiality and Variance Estimation in Complex Surveys Examining Committee
LET Estimation of Heavy Ion Particles based on a Timepix-Based Si Detector
Vilalta, Ricardo
Dosimeter using the Timepix chip from the Medipix2 Collaboration is how Dose-equivalent can be extracted
Back-and-forth Operation of State Observers and Norm Estimation of Estimation Error
Back-and-forth Operation of State Observers and Norm Estimation of Estimation Error Hyungbo Shim with the plant, this paper proposes a state estimation algorithm that executes Luenberger observers in a back in the past have employed time-varying gains to over- come this problem [1], where the basic idea is to obtain
Estimating Nonpoint Source Pollution Loadings in the Great Lakes Watersheds Chansheng He
contaminated sediments, urban runoff, storm sewers, and agriculture impairs Great Lakes shoreline waters a physically based, spatially-distributed hydrology model to simulate spatial and temporal NPS distributions in the study watershed. Soil erosion and sediment yield by both wind and water are estimated based
Estimating the bias of a noisy coin
Christopher Ferrie; Robin Blume-Kohout
2012-01-06
Optimal estimation of a coin's bias using noisy data is surprisingly different from the same problem with noiseless data. We study this problem using entropy risk to quantify estimators' accuracy. We generalize the "add Beta" estimators that work well for noiseless coins, and we find that these hedged maximum-likelihood (HML) estimators achieve a worst-case risk of O(N^{-1/2}) on noisy coins, in contrast to O(1/N) in the noiseless case. We demonstrate that this increased risk is unavoidable and intrinsic to noisy coins, by constructing minimax estimators (numerically). However, minimax estimators introduce extreme bias in return for slight improvements in the worst-case risk. So we introduce a pointwise lower bound on the minimum achievable risk as an alternative to the minimax criterion, and use this bound to show that HML estimators are pretty good. We conclude with a survey of scientific applications of the noisy coin model in social science, physical science, and quantum information science.
Bae, Doo-Hwan
Is This Cost Estimate Reliable?Is This Cost Estimate Reliable? - The Relationship between/4)( / ) Software cost estimation Definition · Task of predicting the cost required to complete a software projectproject Techniques for software cost estimation · Algorithmic estimationAlgorithmic estimation Calculate
Parameter estimation with Sandage-Loeb test
Jia-Jia Geng; Jing-Fei Zhang; Xin Zhang
2014-11-28
The Sandage-Loeb (SL) test directly measures the expansion rate of the universe in the redshift range of $2\\lesssim z\\lesssim 5$ by detecting redshift drift in the spectra of Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest of distant quasars. We discuss the impact of the future SL test data on parameter estimation for the $\\Lambda$CDM, the $w$CDM, and the $w_0w_a$CDM models. To avoid the potential inconsistency with other observational data, we take the best-fitting dark energy model constrained by the current observations as the fiducial model to produce 30 mock SL test data. The SL test data provide an important supplement to the other dark energy probes, since they are extremely helpful in breaking the existing parameter degeneracies. We show that the strong degeneracy between $\\Omega_m$ and $H_0$ in all the three dark energy models is well broken by the SL test. Compared to the current combined data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble constant, the 30-yr observation of SL test could improve the constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $H_0$ by more than 60\\% for all the three models. But the SL test can only moderately improve the constraint on the equation of state of dark energy. We show that a 30-yr observation of SL test could help improve the constraint on constant $w$ by about 25\\%, and improve the constraints on $w_0$ and $w_a$ by about 20\\% and 15\\%, respectively. We also quantify the constraining power of the SL test in the future high-precision joint geometric constraints on dark energy. The mock future supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data are simulated based on the space-based project JDEM. We find that the 30-yr observation of SL test would help improve the measurement precision of $\\Omega_m$, $H_0$, and $w_a$ by more than 70\\%, 20\\%, and 60\\%, respectively, for the $w_0w_a$CDM model.
Parameter estimation with Sandage-Loeb test
Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn
2014-12-01
The Sandage-Loeb (SL) test directly measures the expansion rate of the universe in the redshift range of 2 ?< z ?< 5 by detecting redshift drift in the spectra of Lyman-? forest of distant quasars. We discuss the impact of the future SL test data on parameter estimation for the ?CDM, the wCDM, and the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM models. To avoid the potential inconsistency with other observational data, we take the best-fitting dark energy model constrained by the current observations as the fiducial model to produce 30 mock SL test data. The SL test data provide an important supplement to the other dark energy probes, since they are extremely helpful in breaking the existing parameter degeneracies. We show that the strong degeneracy between ?{sub m} and H{sub 0} in all the three dark energy models is well broken by the SL test. Compared to the current combined data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble constant, the 30-yr observation of SL test could improve the constraints on ?{sub m} and H{sub 0} by more than 60% for all the three models. But the SL test can only moderately improve the constraint on the equation of state of dark energy. We show that a 30-yr observation of SL test could help improve the constraint on constant w by about 25%, and improve the constraints on w{sub 0} and w{sub a} by about 20% and 15%, respectively. We also quantify the constraining power of the SL test in the future high-precision joint geometric constraints on dark energy. The mock future supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data are simulated based on the space-based project JDEM. We find that the 30-yr observation of SL test would help improve the measurement precision of ?{sub m}, H{sub 0}, and w{sub a} by more than 70%, 20%, and 60%, respectively, for the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM model.
A priori estimates for relativistic liquid bodies
Todd A. Oliynyk
2014-12-30
We demonstrate that a sufficiently smooth solution of the relativistic Euler equations that represents a dynamical compact liquid body, when expressed in Lagrangian coordinates, determines a solution to a system of non-linear wave equations with acoustic boundary conditions. Using this wave formulation, we prove that these solutions satisfy energy estimates without loss of derivatives. Importantly, our wave formulation does not require the liquid to be irrotational, and the energy estimates do not rely on divergence and curl type estimates employed in previous works.
A priori estimates for relativistic liquid bodies
Oliynyk, Todd A
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that a sufficiently smooth solution of the relativistic Euler equations that represents a dynamical compact liquid body, when expressed in Lagrangian coordinates, determines a solution to a system of non-linear wave equations with acoustic boundary conditions. Using this wave formulation, we prove that these solutions satisfy energy estimates without loss of derivatives. Importantly, our wave formulation does not require the liquid to be irrotational, and the energy estimates do not rely on divergence and curl type estimates employed in previous works.
State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates
Not Available
1993-05-01
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.
Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data
Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-10-31
This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.
State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates
1995-07-01
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.
State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates
1997-12-01
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.
Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.
1984-10-01
This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.
Nonlinear parameter estimation in parallel computing environments
Li, Jie
1996-01-01
Paragon supercomputer. We use a two-dimensional permeability estimation problem as the example to test and demonstrate the usage of the parallel PEST. An existing simulator program called US3D, which solves the three-dimensional groudwater flow...
March 12, 2015 Parametric estimation in
Di Girolami, Cristina
Tahar Department of Mathematics University of Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Algeria #12;Consider Estimator of is known We observe a trajectory (Xt, t [0, T]) of (1) Consider the statistic : for t > 0
Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding
Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade
2008-01-01
This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...
Preliminary CBECS End-Use Estimates
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
For the past three CBECS (1989, 1992, and 1995), we used a statistically-adjusted engineering (SAE) methodology to estimate end-use consumption. The core of the SAE methodology...
BPA Metering Services Editing and Estimating Procedures
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
be used to scale the estimated interval data with a shape projection applied. If SCADA data is available and has been mapped to the point of metering, it may be used for...
Minimizing Biases in Radar Precipitation Estimates
McRoberts, Douglas B
2014-12-08
The demand for real-time drought information in recent years led to the development of a suite of objective drought indicators that relies on the high-resolution Stage IV precipitation estimates that are produced each day ...
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Implementing Diagnostic Criteria and Estimating
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Implementing Diagnostic Criteria and Estimating Frequency of Mild Cognitive criteria. Objectives: To operationalize diagnostic criteria for MCI and examine the frequency of MCI in ethnically and lin- guistically diverse elders (individuals older than 65 years). Design: Prospective
Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs
Ye, Zhirui
2009-05-15
that speed estimation is a nonlinear system under various traffic conditions. Thus, a methodology of using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is first proposed for such a system. The UKF is a parametric filtering technique that is suitable for nonlinear problems...
Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.
Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves
Bakku, Sudhish Kumar
We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...
U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Methodology The U.S. uranium ore reserves reported by EIA for specific MFC categories represent the sums of quantities estimated to occur in known deposits on properties where data...
Lensed CMB simulation and parameter estimation
Antony Lewis
2010-11-16
Modelling of the weak lensing of the CMB will be crucial to obtain correct cosmological parameter constraints from forthcoming precision CMB anisotropy observations. The lensing affects the power spectrum as well as inducing non-Gaussianities. We discuss the simulation of full sky CMB maps in the weak lensing approximation and describe a fast numerical code. The series expansion in the deflection angle cannot be used to simulate accurate CMB maps, so a pixel remapping must be used. For parameter estimation accounting for the change in the power spectrum but assuming Gaussianity is sufficient to obtain accurate results up to Planck sensitivity using current tools. A fuller analysis may be required to obtain accurate error estimates and for more sensitive observations. We demonstrate a simple full sky simulation and subsequent parameter estimation at Planck-like sensitivity. The lensed CMB simulation and parameter estimation codes are publicly available.
Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere
O'Donnell, Tom
Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http oil will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil
Compressing measurements in quantum dynamic parameter estimation
Magesan, Easwar
We present methods that can provide an exponential savings in the resources required to perform dynamic parameter estimation using quantum systems. The key idea is to merge classical compressive sensing techniques with ...
Information Fusion for Improved Motion Estimation
Peacock, Andrew M
Motion Estimation is an important research field with many commercial applications including surveillance, navigation, robotics, and image compression. As a result, the field has received a great deal of attention and ...
Budget estimates, fiscal year 1997. Volume 12
NONE
1996-03-01
This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1997.
EDDY CURRENT INVERSION AND ESTIMATION METRICS FOR EVALUATING THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H. [Victor Technologies LLC, Bloomington, IN 47401 (United States); Knopp, Jeremy S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Aldrin, John C. [Computational Tools, Gurnee, IL 60031 (United States); Nyenhuis, John [Dept. of Electric Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)
2010-02-22
In this paper, sophisticated eddy-current techniques incorporating model-based inverse methods were successfully demonstrated to measure the thickness and remaining-life of high-temperature coatings. To further assure the performance of these inverse methods, several estimation metrics including Fisher Information, Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), covariance, and singular value decomposition (SVD) are introduced. The connections and utility of these metrics are illustrated in the design of eddy current methods for estimating layer thickness, conductivity and probe liftoff.
Sub-Second Parallel State Estimation
Chen, Yousu; Rice, Mark J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-10-31
This report describes the performance of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sub-second parallel state estimation (PSE) tool using the utility data from the Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) and discusses the benefits of the fast computational speed for power system applications. The test data were provided by BPA. They are two-days’ worth of hourly snapshots that include power system data and measurement sets in a commercial tool format. These data are extracted out from the commercial tool box and fed into the PSE tool. With the help of advanced solvers, the PSE tool is able to solve each BPA hourly state estimation problem within one second, which is more than 10 times faster than today’s commercial tool. This improved computational performance can help increase the reliability value of state estimation in many aspects: (1) the shorter the time required for execution of state estimation, the more time remains for operators to take appropriate actions, and/or to apply automatic or manual corrective control actions. This increases the chances of arresting or mitigating the impact of cascading failures; (2) the SE can be executed multiple times within time allowance. Therefore, the robustness of SE can be enhanced by repeating the execution of the SE with adaptive adjustments, including removing bad data and/or adjusting different initial conditions to compute a better estimate within the same time as a traditional state estimator’s single estimate. There are other benefits with the sub-second SE, such as that the PSE results can potentially be used in local and/or wide-area automatic corrective control actions that are currently dependent on raw measurements to minimize the impact of bad measurements, and provides opportunities to enhance the power grid reliability and efficiency. PSE also can enable other advanced tools that rely on SE outputs and could be used to further improve operators’ actions and automated controls to mitigate effects of severe events on the grid. The power grid continues to grow and the number of measurements is increasing at an accelerated rate due to the variety of smart grid devices being introduced. A parallel state estimation implementation will have better performance than traditional, sequential state estimation by utilizing the power of high performance computing (HPC). This increased performance positions parallel state estimators as valuable tools for operating the increasingly more complex power grid.
Chapter 3: FY 2005 benefits estimates
None, None
2009-01-18
The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2005 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employed—NEMS-GPRA05 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA05 for the long term.
Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992
Not Available
1994-05-06
This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.
Chapter 3: FY 2006 benefits estimates
None, None
2009-01-18
The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2006 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employed–NEMS-GPRA06 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA06 for the long term.
Estimating diesel engine performance by indirect methods
McKiernan, Michael
1987-01-01
ESTIMATING DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE BY INDIRECT METHODS A Thesis by MICHAEL MCKIERNAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major... Subject: Agricultural Engineering ESTIMATING DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE BY INDIRECT NETHODS A Thesis by NICHAEL MCKIERNAN Approved as to style and content by: i A. Stout (Chairman of Comittee) ephen W. Searcy (Member) Thomas R. La (Nember...
Estimated and observed performance of a neutron SNM portal monitor for vehicles
Fehlau, P.E.; Close, D.A.; Coop, K.L.; York, R.
1996-11-01
In July 1987, we completed our development of a neutron-detection- based vehicle SNM portal monitor with a conference paper presented at the annual meeting. The paper described the neutron vehicle portal (NVP), described source-response measurements made with it at Los Alamos, and gave our estimate of the monitor`s potential performance. Later, in December 1988, we had a chance to do a performance test with the monitor in a plant environment. This paper discusses how our original performance estimate should vary in different circumstances, and it uses the information to make a comparison between the monitor`s estimated and actual performance during the 1988 performance testing.
Coverage and large scale anisotropies estimation methods for the Pierre Auger Observatory
Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; /Paris, IN2P3
2005-07-01
When searching for anisotropies in the arrival directions of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays, one must estimate the number of events expected in each direction of the sky in the case of a perfect isotropy. We present in this article a new method, developed for the Auger Observatory, based on a smooth estimate of the zenith angle distribution obtained from the data itself (which is essentially unchanged in the case of the presence of a large scale anisotropy pattern). We also study the sensitivity of several methods to detect large-scale anisotropies in the cosmic ray arrival direction distribution : Rayleigh analysis, dipole fitting and angular power spectrum estimation.
Griffin, P.J.
1998-05-01
This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes} of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards.
Experimental Validation of Stochastic Wireless Urban Channel Model: Estimation and Prediction
Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Xiao [ORNL] [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL] [ORNL
2012-01-01
Stochastic differential equations (SDE) can be used to describe the time-varying nature of wireless channels. This paper validates a long-term fading channel model for estimation and prediction from solely using measured received signal strength measurements. Such channel models can be used for optimizing wireless networks deployed for industrial automation, public access, and communication. This paper uses two different sets of received signal measurement data to estimate an predict the signal strength based on past measurements. The realworld performance of the estimation and prediction algorithm is demonstrated.
Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data: Preprint
Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Konings, J.
2014-11-01
Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays that form large solar deployments relies on accurate measurements of the available solar resource. Therefore, determining the accuracy of these solar radiation measurements provides a better understanding of investment risks. This paper provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements by radiometers using methods that follow the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM). Standardized analysis based on these procedures ensures that the uncertainty quoted is well documented.
Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.
2014-11-01
Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.
Mi, Chunting "Chris"
A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive 48128, USA h i g h l i g h t s Proposed a dynamic universal battery model based on second-order RC a SOC estimator for suitable for multiple lithium ion battery chemistries. Proved the system robustness
Pedram, Massoud
Online Estimation of the Remaining Energy Capacity in Mobile Systems Considering System-Wide Power on estimating the remaining battery energy in Android OS-based mobile systems. This paper proposes to instrument for the whole system. Next, while ac- counting for the rate-capacity effect in batteries, the total power
Noise modeling concepts in nonlinear state estimation S. Kols a,b,*, B.A. Foss a
Foss, Bjarne A.
Noise modeling concepts in nonlinear state estimation S. Kolås a,b,*, B.A. Foss a , T.S. Schei c Keywords: Nonlinear state estimation Constrained nonlinear systems Noise modeling Joint UKF a b s t r a c study noise modeling based on a hypothesis that it is important to model noise correctly. In practice
Collins, Gary S.
· Using the fracture energies for the two films a first estimate of fracture toughness, K, can be found. · Assumptions are made to estimate the crack area based on the fracture mode seen in the SEM. · The total crack length is assumed to be 3 times the contact radius, , at the fracture depth. · To find
Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price a call op-
Privault, Nicolas
sweet crude oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), based on contract specificaChapter 7 Estimation of Volatility The values of the parameters r, t, St, T, and K used to price in the stock price model dSt St = µdt + dBt. A natural estimator for the trend parameter µ can be written as ^µ
Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site
Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.
1995-02-01
The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.
Uncertainty Estimation Improves Energy Measurement and Verification Procedures
Walter, Travis; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.
2014-05-14
Implementing energy conservation measures in buildings can reduce energy costs and environmental impacts, but such measures cost money to implement so intelligent investment strategies require the ability to quantify the energy savings by comparing actual energy used to how much energy would have been used in absence of the conservation measures (known as the baseline energy use). Methods exist for predicting baseline energy use, but a limitation of most statistical methods reported in the literature is inadequate quantification of the uncertainty in baseline energy use predictions. However, estimation of uncertainty is essential for weighing the risks of investing in retrofits. Most commercial buildings have, or soon will have, electricity meters capable of providing data at short time intervals. These data provide new opportunities to quantify uncertainty in baseline predictions, and to do so after shorter measurement durations than are traditionally used. In this paper, we show that uncertainty estimation provides greater measurement and verification (M&V) information and helps to overcome some of the difficulties with deciding how much data is needed to develop baseline models and to confirm energy savings. We also show that cross-validation is an effective method for computing uncertainty. In so doing, we extend a simple regression-based method of predicting energy use using short-interval meter data. We demonstrate the methods by predicting energy use in 17 real commercial buildings. We discuss the benefits of uncertainty estimates which can provide actionable decision making information for investing in energy conservation measures.
Decommissioning Cost Estimating Factors And Earned Value Integration
Sanford, P.C.; Cimmarron, E.
2008-07-01
The Rocky Flats 771 Project progressed from the planning stage of decommissioning a plutonium facility, through the strip-out of highly-contaminated equipment, removal of utilities and structural decontamination, and building demolition. Actual cost data was collected from the strip-out activities and compared to original estimates, allowing the development of cost by equipment groupings and types and over time. Separate data was developed from the project control earned value reporting and compared with the equipment data. The paper discusses the analysis to develop the detailed factors for the different equipment types, and the items that need to be considered during characterization of a similar facility when preparing an estimate. The factors are presented based on direct labor requirements by equipment type. The paper also includes actual support costs, and examples of fixed or one-time start-up costs. The integration of the estimate and the earned value system used for the 771 Project is also discussed. The paper covers the development of the earned value system as well as its application to a facility to be decommissioned and an existing work breakdown structure. Lessons learned are provided, including integration with scheduling and craft supervision, measurement approaches, and verification of scope completion. In summary: The work of decommissioning the Rocky Flats 771 Project process equipment was completed in 2003. Early in the planning process, we had difficulty in identifying credible data and implementing processes for estimating and controlling this work. As the project progressed, we were able to collect actual data on the costs of removing plutonium contaminated equipment from various areas over the life of this work and associate those costs with individual pieces of equipment. We also were able to develop and test out a system for measuring the earned value of a decommissioning project based on an evolving estimate. These were elements that would have been useful to us in our early planning process, and we would expect that they would find application elsewhere as the DOE weapons complex and some commercial nuclear facilities move towards closure. (authors)
Building unbiased estimators from non-Gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation
Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Sehgal, Neelima; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Anže E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov E-mail: anze@bnl.gov
2015-01-01
We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong's estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g|=0.2.
Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation
Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Slosar, Anze; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima
2015-01-01
We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong’s estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.
Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anze
2015-01-15
We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the workmore »of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong’s estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.« less
Carvalho, João Luiz
classification methods based solely on electromyographic data. The use of surface electromyographic signals and reduces estimation artifacts. Keywords - Electromyographic signals, proprioceptive sensors, entropy and a special software package. Processing of surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals may be used in actively
Cosmological parameter estimation using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
Prasad, Jayanti
2011-01-01
Obtaining the set of cosmological parameters consistent with observational data is an important exercise in current cosmological research. It involves finding the global maximum of the likelihood function in the multi-dimensional parameter space. Currently sampling based methods, which are in general stochastic in nature, like Markov-Chain Monte Carlo(MCMC), are being commonly used for parameter estimation. The beauty of stochastic methods is that the computational cost grows, at the most, linearly in place of exponentially (as in grid based approaches) with the dimensionality of the search space. MCMC methods sample the full joint probability distribution (posterior) from which one and two dimensional probability distributions, best fit (average) values of parameters and then error bars can be computed. In the present work we demonstrate the application of another stochastic method, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), that is widely used in the field of engineering and artificial intelligence, for cosmo...
Evaluating the complementary relationship for estimating evapotranspiration from arid shrublands
Szilagyi, Jozsef
Evaluating the complementary relationship for estimating evapotranspiration from arid shrublands J supplies, accurate estimates of evapotranspiration (LE) from arid shrublands of the Southwestern United for estimating regional LE in arid shrubland environments. Our observational evidence supports the idea
Cosmological parameter estimation using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
Jayanti Prasad; Tarun Souradeep
2012-07-02
Obtaining the set of cosmological parameters consistent with observational data is an important exercise in current cosmological research. It involves finding the global maximum of the likelihood function in the multi-dimensional parameter space. Currently sampling based methods, which are in general stochastic in nature, like Markov-Chain Monte Carlo(MCMC), are being commonly used for parameter estimation. The beauty of stochastic methods is that the computational cost grows, at the most, linearly in place of exponentially (as in grid based approaches) with the dimensionality of the search space. MCMC methods sample the full joint probability distribution (posterior) from which one and two dimensional probability distributions, best fit (average) values of parameters and then error bars can be computed. In the present work we demonstrate the application of another stochastic method, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), that is widely used in the field of engineering and artificial intelligence, for cosmological parameter estimation from WMAP seven years data. We find that there is a good agreement between the values of the best fit parameters obtained from PSO and publicly available code COSMOMC. However, there is a slight disagreement between error bars mainly due to the fact that errors are computed differently in PSO. Apart from presenting the results of our exercise, we also discuss the merits of PSO and explain its usefulness in more extensive search in higher dimensional parameter space.
Fourier Analytic Approach to Phase Estimation
Hiroshi Imai; Masahito Hayashi
2008-10-31
For a unified analysis on the phase estimation, we focus on the limiting distribution. It is shown that the limiting distribution can be given by the absolute square of the Fourier transform of $L^2$ function whose support belongs to $[-1,1]$. Using this relation, we study the relation between the variance of the limiting distribution and its tail probability. As our result, we prove that the protocol minimizing the asymptotic variance does not minimize the tail probability. Depending on the width of interval, we derive the estimation protocol minimizing the tail probability out of a given interval. Such an optimal protocol is given by a prolate spheroidal wave function which often appears in wavelet or time-limited Fourier analysis. Also, the minimum confidence interval is derived with the framework of interval estimation that assures a given confidence coefficient.
Optimal error estimates for corrected trapezoidal rules
Talvila, Erik
2012-01-01
Corrected trapezoidal rules are proved for $\\int_a^b f(x)\\,dx$ under the assumption that $f"\\in L^p([a,b])$ for some $1\\leq p\\leq\\infty$. Such quadrature rules involve the trapezoidal rule modified by the addition of a term $k[f'(a)-f'(b)]$. The coefficient $k$ in the quadrature formula is found that minimizes the error estimates. It is shown that when $f'$ is merely assumed to be continuous then the optimal rule is the trapezoidal rule itself. In this case error estimates are in terms of the Alexiewicz norm. This includes the case when $f"$ is integrable in the Henstock--Kurzweil sense or as a distribution. All error estimates are shown to be sharp for the given assumptions on $f"$. It is shown how to make these formulas exact for all cubic polynomials $f$. Composite formulas are computed for uniform partitions.
Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants
Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II
1994-09-01
This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.
State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates
1999-02-01
The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.
Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections
Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter
2013-07-16
Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.
Scalable Ensemble Learning and Computationally Efficient Variance Estimation
LeDell, Erin
2015-01-01
Metalearning 5 Computationally Efficient Variance Estimation12] Peter J. Bickel et al. Efficient and adaptive estimationJ. Wainwright. “Communication-Efficient Algorithms for
Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings estimates and cost...
How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements
Sullivan, Michael J.
2010-01-01
to apply outage cost estimates to a smart grid investmentapply these outage cost estimates to a smart grid investmentoutage costs with and without a smart grid investment –
An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled Engine and Aftertreatment System An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled...
Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...
Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...
Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of Technical...
Parameter and state estimation in nonlinear dynamical systems
Creveling, Daniel R.
2008-01-01
and J. Kurths. Nonlinear dynamical system identi?ca- tionEstimation In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems A dissertationState Estimation In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems by Daniel R.
Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014 WIPP Release Event Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014 WIPP Release Event This document was...
Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence Climate Change. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating...
Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
- Carl Imhoff, PNNL More Documents & Publications Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations Estimating the...
Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies" Workshop Now Available Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits...
Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop -...
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...
Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
how much electricity your appliances and home electronics use: The Energy Guide Label, which shows the estimated yearly operating cost and estimated yearly electricity use...
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters March 10, 2015 -...
Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...
Model-based tomographic reconstruction
Chambers, David H.; Lehman, Sean K.; Goodman, Dennis M.
2012-06-26
A model-based approach to estimating wall positions for a building is developed and tested using simulated data. It borrows two techniques from geophysical inversion problems, layer stripping and stacking, and combines them with a model-based estimation algorithm that minimizes the mean-square error between the predicted signal and the data. The technique is designed to process multiple looks from an ultra wideband radar array. The processed signal is time-gated and each section processed to detect the presence of a wall and estimate its position, thickness, and material parameters. The floor plan of a building is determined by moving the array around the outside of the building. In this paper we describe how the stacking and layer stripping algorithms are combined and show the results from a simple numerical example of three parallel walls.
Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2
Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.
1994-07-01
The activities that produce electric power typically range from extracting and transporting a fuel, to its conversion into electric power, and finally to the disposition of residual by-products. This chain of activities is called a fuel cycle. A fuel cycle has emissions and other effects that result in unintended consequences. When these consequences affect third parties (i.e., those other than the producers and consumers of the fuel-cycle activity) in a way that is not reflected in the price of electricity, they are termed ''hidden'' social costs or externalities. They are the economic value of environmental, health and any other impacts, that the price of electricity does not reflect. How do you estimate the externalities of fuel cycles? Our previous report describes a methodological framework for doing so--called the damage function approach. This approach consists of five steps: (1) characterize the most important fuel cycle activities and their discharges, where importance is based on the expected magnitude of their externalities, (2) estimate the changes in pollutant concentrations or other effects of those activities, by modeling the dispersion and transformation of each pollutant, (3) calculate the impacts on ecosystems, human health, and any other resources of value (such as man-made structures), (4) translate the estimates of impacts into economic terms to estimate damages and benefits, and (5) assess the extent to which these damages and benefits are externalities, not reflected in the price of electricity. Each step requires a different set of equations, models and analysis. Analysts generally believe this to be the best approach for estimating externalities, but it has hardly been used! The reason is that it requires considerable analysis and calculation, and to this point in time, the necessary equations and models have not been assembled. Equally important, the process of identifying and estimating externalities leads to a number of complex issues that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.
Terwilliger, T. C.; Adams, P. D.; Read, R. J.; McCoy, A. J.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Grosse-Kunstleve, R. W.; Afonine, P. V.; Zwart, P. H.; Hung, L.-W.
2009-03-01
Estimates of the quality of experimental maps are important in many stages of structure determination of macromolecules. Map quality is defined here as the correlation between a map and the map calculated based on a final refined model. Here we examine 10 different measures of experimental map quality using a set of 1359 maps calculated by reanalysis of 246 solved MAD, SAD, and MIR datasets. A simple Bayesian approach to estimation of map quality from one or more measures is presented. We find that a Bayesian estimator based on the skew of histograms of electron density is the most accurate of the 10 individual Bayesian estimators of map quality examined, with a correlation between estimated and actual map quality of 0.90. A combination of the skew of electron density with the local correlation of rms density gives a further improvement in estimating map quality, with an overall correlation coefficient of 0.92. The PHENIX AutoSol Wizard carries out automated structure solution based on any combination of SAD, MAD, SIR, or MIR datasets. The Wizard is based on tools from the PHENIX package and uses the Bayesian estimates of map quality described here to choose the highest-quality solutions after experimental phasing.
Model-based Enhancement of Lighting Conditions in Image Sequences
Girod, Bernd
Model-based Enhancement of Lighting Conditions in Image Sequences Peter Eisert and Bernd Girod model-based technique for estimating and manipulating the lighting in an image sequence. The current scene lighting is estimated for each frame exploiting 3-D model information and by synthetic re-lighting
Empowering Developers to Estimate App Energy Consumption
Shihada, Basem
are not even aware of the amount of energy their app consumes un- der a typical usage pattern. While they couldEmpowering Developers to Estimate App Energy Consumption Radhika Mittal , Aman Kansal , Ranveer on mobile devices. However, it is difficult for app developers to mea- sure the energy used by their apps
BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL
Berger, Jim
BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF FUEL ECONOMY POTENTIAL DUE TO TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS by Richard W. Andrews comments. 4 #12; 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Overview In 1975 the Energy Policy and Conservation Act average fuel economy (CAFE) standard. This legislation separates each manufacturer's production
Distributed Sensing and Estimation Under Communication Constraints
Mostofi, Yasamin
. Murray University of New Mexico California Institute of Technology Abstract-- In this paper we consider the impact of imperfect communication links on distributed sensing and estimation in mobile networks. First a wide range of applications such as environmental monitoring, surveillance and security, smart homes
ESTIMATES OF ADDITIONAL ACHIEVABLE ENERGY SAVINGS
by assumptions related to economic growth, changes in electricity and natural gas rates, and a host of inputs Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION's demand forecast. #12;2 utility level.4 AAEE electricity savings were estimated for the Pacific Gas
PRELIMINARY TIME ESTIMATES FOR CORING OPERATIONS
PRELIMINARY TIME ESTIMATES FOR CORING OPERATIONS Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University portion requires the written consent of the Director, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3469, as well as appropriate acknowledgment of this source. Technical Note 1
PMU Deployment for Optimal State Estimation Performance
Roy, Sumit
PMU Deployment for Optimal State Estimation Performance Yue Yang, Student Member IEEE, and Sumit are anticipated; however, due to the high cost of PMU installation, their deployment will continue to be selective minimal-PMU sets that achieve full observability, affording an additional degree of freedom to select
Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features
Lunds Universitet
Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features HÃ¥kan ArdÃ¶, Rikard Berthilsson to rapid changes in lighting conditions. Furthermore, the features can be computed very efficiently using reliable way, also in outdoor scenes where the lighting conditions is changing rapidly due to passing
Estimating the uncertainty in underresolved nonlinear dynamics
Chorin, Alelxandre; Hald, Ole
2013-06-12
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism of statistical mechanics is used to estimate the uncertainty caused by underresolution in the solution of a nonlinear dynamical system. A general approach is outlined and applied to a simple example. The noise term that describes the uncertainty turns out to be neither Markovian nor Gaussian. It is argued that this is the general situation.
ESTIMATING COMPLEMENTARITY BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ESTIMATING COMPLEMENTARITY BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING Christian BELZIL Jørgen HANSEN Nicolai BETWEEN EDUCATION AND TRAINING* Christian BELZIL1 Jørgen HANSEN2 Nicolai KRISTENSEN3 November 2008 Cahier-schooling training that explicitly allows for possible complementarity between initial schooling levels and returns
PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN PETROLEUM AND GROUNDWATER MODELING
Ewing, Richard E.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN PETROLEUM AND GROUNDWATER MODELING R.E. Ewing, M.S. Pilant, J.G. Wade on grand challenge problems. In today's petroleum industry, reservoir simulators are routinely used parameters in petroleum and groundwater models. It is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to give
IMPROVED DENSITY ESTIMATORS FOR INVERTIBLE LINEAR PROCESSES
Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang
IMPROVED DENSITY ESTIMATORS FOR INVERTIBLE LINEAR PROCESSES Anton Schick Department of Mathematical-statistic with kernel of the form K(x) = k(x - ay)k(y) dy. Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004b, 2007a) prove functional central and Schick (2007) obtain similar results for derivatives of convolutions. Schick and Wefelmeyer (2008b
Frequency Offset Estimator with Low Computational Complexity
Minn, Hlaing
decomposition for the derivative of the cost function. The CFO estimate's variance and Cramer-Rao bound (CRB systems [3][9], but a relatively new one for MIMO or MIMO OFDM systems [10][16]. Numerical calculations operators, respectively. [X]m,n denotes the (m, n)-th entry of a matrix X. [x]m denotes the m-th entry
Filtering and parameter estimation for electricity
Fournier, John J.F.
Filtering and parameter estimation for electricity markets by Alberto Molina-Escobar B to be particularly difficult for electricity, where markets are complex, and ex- hibit a number of unique features, mainly due to the problems involved in storing electricity. In this thesis we propose three models
Research Summary Estimating Woodfuel Resource Cost Curves
and extraction methods. Background Just under half of the final energy consumed in the UK (49%) is in the formResearch Summary Estimating Woodfuel Resource Cost Curves As a renewable energy source, woodfuel. The woodfuel strategy adopted by Forestry Commission England supports delivery of these. It aims to sustainably
Integrated Pedestrian Classification and Orientation Estimation
Gavrila, Dariu M.
Integrated Pedestrian Classification and Orientation Estimation Markus Enzweiler1 Dariu M. Gavrila2, The Netherlands Abstract This paper presents a novel approach to single-frame pedestrian classification) in a Bayesian fashion. This mixture-of-experts formulation approximates the probability density of pedestrian
SPONTANEOUS AND EXPLICIT ESTIMATION OF TIME DELAYS
So, Hing-Cheung
, called the explicit time delay estimator (ETDE), is rst developed to nd the di erential delay of a signal through only one propagation path. Basically, the ETDE is an adaptive FIR lter whose coe cients it can provide direct delay measurements on a sample-by-sample basis. The ETDE performance surface
Schedule Estimation for Web Application Development
Fernando, Lake
2008-05-16
The purpose of the project is to come up with a robust methodology for estimating hours for web application systems development. For the scope of the project, a web application system is an application which is accessed via a web browser...
County Level Wind Erosion Estimation Using National
, Fuller (1987), Rao (2003). 11 #12;Model searching for Wind Erosion In NRI, wind erosion WEQCounty Level Wind Erosion Estimation Using National Resources Inventory Survey Taps Maiti. · Approx. 3 points/PSU; 800,000 points in 1997 NRI 4 #12;· Data on Urban land, small water etc
Essays on Estimation of Inflation Equation
Kim, Woong
2009-05-15
. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1. Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. Numerical Analysis for the Theoretical Relationship . 13 3. Numerical Analysis for the Empirical Issues . . . . . . 25 C. Alternative Kurtosis... 3. Detection of Outliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 C. Empirical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 D. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 IV ESTIMATION OF HYBRID PHILLIPS CURVE...
Janjai, Serm
2010-09-15
In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)
A Dynamic Programming Approach to Estimate the Capacity Value of Energy Storage
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
We present a method to estimate the capacity value of storage. Our method uses a dynamic program to model the effect of power system outages on the operation and state of charge of storage in subsequent periods. We combine the optimized dispatch from the dynamic program with estimated system loss of load probabilities to compute a probability distribution for the state of charge of storage in each period. This probability distribution can be used as a forced outage rate for storage in standard reliability-based capacity value estimation methods. Our proposed method has the advantage over existing approximations that it explicitly captures the effect of system shortage events on the state of charge of storage in subsequent periods. We also use a numerical case study, based on five utility systems in the U.S., to demonstrate our technique and compare it to existing approximation methods.
Seismic Fragility Analysis and Loss Estimation for Concrete Structures
Bai, Jong Wha
2012-02-14
seismic vulnerability of concrete structures and effective in quantifying the uncertainties in the loss estimation process....
Probability Grid: A Location Estimation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Stankovic, John A.
estimation, grid topology, probability. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems
Individualized Estimates of Second Cancer Risks After Contemporary Radiation Therapy for
Brenner, David Jonathan
are largely based on radiation therapy (RT) fields and doses no longer in use, and these estimates do and low-dose (20 Gy) RT for mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS. Three RT plans were constructed for 37 tissue doses with the omission of axillary RT. Low-dose (20 Gy) IFRT was associated with a 77% and 57
Ungar, Lyle H.
to obtaining prediction lim its for ANN's: a frequentist approach, based on stan dard nonlinear regression of the prediction intervals, their computational costs and practical implementa tion issues of the two approaches of as doing nonlinear regression. Standard methods ex ist for estimating the prediction uncertainties of non
IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, VOL. 4, NO. 7, JULY 1997 195 Parameter Estimation in the Presence
Sayed, Ali
of bounded data uncertainties. The new method is suitable when a priori bounds on the uncertain data in estimation is to recover, to good accuracy, a set of unobservable parameters from corrupted data. Several of having had the most applications, are criteria that are based on quadratic cost functions. The most
AMUEM 2005 -International Workshop on Advanced Methods for Uncertainty Estimation in Measurement
Payeur, Pierre
, the estimation of the uncertainty level becomes a critical issue as it must become an active part of the model smooth progressive refinement in the construction of occupancy grids based on cumulative uncertain range measurements. The context of the application considered is that of collision-free path planning for mobile
Estimation of Radiation Protection Shielding for a EURISOL Linear Proton Accelerator
Thomas Otto, CERN
A linear accelerator for protons, based on superconducting radiofrequency technology, is envisaged as a driver accelerator for the isotope production targets in a future EURISOL facility. This note reports basic estimates of the required radiation protection shielding of such an accelerator.
PHOTO-CONSISTENCY AND MULTIRESOLUTION METHODS FOR LIGHT FIELD DISPARITY ESTIMATION
Rajpoot, Nasir
PHOTO-CONSISTENCY AND MULTIRESOLUTION METHODS FOR LIGHT FIELD DISPARITY ESTIMATION Adam Bowen for light fields: a global method based on the idea of photo-consistency and a local method which employs. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the two methods as compared to other photo
Understanding and Estimating the Value Travelers Place on Their Trips on Managed Lanes
Patil, Sunil N.
2011-02-22
by the travelers in an attempt to improve on VTTS estimation on MLs. This study used three different survey design strategies (including a D-efficient design) in an internet based survey of Katy Freeway travelers. It was found that a random attribute level...
Short communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic
Ray, Asok
squares) have been applied to lead-acid [1] and lithium-ion [2] batteries. This paper proposes a dynamicShort communication Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data of State of charge (SOC) and State of health (SOH) in lead-acid batteries. Algorithm development based
The estimation of fuel cell operating time for predictive maintenance R. Onanena a,b,c
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 The estimation of fuel cell operating time for predictive maintenance strategies R. Onanena a of the limiting factors for the spreading of the fuel cell technology is the durability and researches to extend fuel cell operating time based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. It consists
Using convolutional decoding to improve time delay and phase estimation in digital communications
Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Mason, John J. (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-01-26
The time delay and/or phase of a communication signal received by a digital communication receiver can be estimated based on a convolutional decoding operation that the communication receiver performs on the received communication signal. If the original transmitted communication signal has been spread according to a spreading operation, a corresponding despreading operation can be integrated into the convolutional decoding operation.
A noninvasive estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure using critical closing pressure
Varsos, Georgios V.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Smielewski, Peter; Brady, Ken M.; Varsos, Vassilis G.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Pickard, John D.; Czosnyka, Marek
2015-01-09
-based noninvasive estimation of intracranial pressure from cerebral blood flow velocity and arterial pressure. Sci Transl Med 11:129ra44, 2012 19. Kasprowicz M, Czosnyka M, Soehle M, Smielewski P, Kirk- patrick PJ, Pickard JD, et al: Vasospasm shortens cerebral...
Stochastic inversion of seismic PP and PS data for reservoir parameter estimation
Chen, Jinsong
Stochastic inversion of seismic PP and PS data for reservoir parameter estimation Jinsong Chen1-based Bayesian method developed previously for inverting seismic PP data only, by including PS responses and time et al., 2013) and res- ervoir characterization (Brettwood et al., 2013). In this study, we use
Methods for Rapid Estimation of Motor Input Power in HVAC Assessments
Christman, Kevin D.
2011-08-08
-based input power estimation approach.....................................................................................................45 Table 5: Coefficients for Equation 97 determined by regression of the Baldor... and Reliance motor performance data................................................................................70 Table 6: Comparison of Current Method, V?I?PF??3, and Slip Method at predicting input power for the Baldor/Reliance motors...
A new approach for estimating entrainment rate in cumulus clouds Chunsong Lu,1,2
A new approach for estimating entrainment rate in cumulus clouds Chunsong Lu,1,2 Yangang Liu,2 entrainment rate in cumulus clouds. The new approach is directly derived from the definition of fractional entrainment rate and relates it to mixing fraction and the height above cloud base. The results derived from
PILOT OPTIMIZATION FOR TIME-DELAY AND CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN OFDM SYSTEMS
Swindlehurst, A. Lee
, Gonzalo Seco-Granados , A. Lee Swindlehurst Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85756, USA, mdlarsen. Previous work has investigated this problem for channel estimation only, and found that equi-spaced, equi bits/s). On the other hand, WLAN systems based on the IEEE802.11x family of standards al- low
Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980
Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.
1996-06-01
This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; Lefantzi, S.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.
2015-04-29
Atmospheric inversions are frequently used to estimate fluxes of atmospheric greenhouse gases (e.g., biospheric CO2 flux fields) at Earth's surface. These inversions typically assume that flux departures from a prior model are spatially smoothly varying, which are then modeled using a multi-variate Gaussian. When the field being estimated is spatially rough, multi-variate Gaussian models are difficult to construct and a wavelet-based field model may be more suitable. Unfortunately, such models are very high dimensional and are most conveniently used when the estimation method can simultaneously perform data-driven model simplification (removal of model parameters that cannot be reliably estimated) and fitting.more »Such sparse reconstruction methods are typically not used in atmospheric inversions. In this work, we devise a sparse reconstruction method, and illustrate it in an idealized atmospheric inversion problem for the estimation of fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the USA. Our new method is based on stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), a method used to reconstruct compressively sensed images. Our adaptations bestow three properties to the sparse reconstruction procedure which are useful in atmospheric inversions. We have modified StOMP to incorporate prior information on the emission field being estimated and to enforce non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, though based on wavelets, our method allows for the estimation of fields in non-rectangular geometries, e.g., emission fields inside geographical and political boundaries. Our idealized inversions use a recently developed multi-resolution (i.e., wavelet-based) random field model developed for ffCO2 emissions and synthetic observations of ffCO2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It also reduces the overall computational cost by a factor of 2. Further, the sparse reconstruction scheme imposes non-negativity without introducing strong nonlinearities, such as those introduced by employing log-transformed fields, and thus reaps the benefits of simplicity and computational speed that are characteristic of linear inverse problems.« less
A multivariate phase distribution and its estimation
Charles F. Cadieu; Kilian Koepsell
2009-06-21
Circular variables such as phase or orientation have received considerable attention throughout the scientific and engineering communities and have recently been quite prominent in the field of neuroscience. While many analytic techniques have used phase as an effective representation, there has been little work on techniques that capture the joint statistics of multiple phase variables. In this paper we introduce a distribution that captures empirically observed pair-wise phase relationships. Importantly, we have developed a computationally efficient and accurate technique for estimating the parameters of this distribution from data. We show that the algorithm performs well in high-dimensions (d=100), and in cases with limited data (as few as 100 samples per dimension). We also demonstrate how this technique can be applied to electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings to investigate the coupling of brain areas during different behavioral states. This distribution and estimation technique can be broadly applied to any setting that produces multiple circular variables.
On the empirical statistics of parameter estimates in parametric modeling
Zhu, Yao
1988-01-01
Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Shiping Li This thesis is a document of studying empirical statistics of the parameter estimates in parametric modeling. After reviewing some common estimation methods, some simulation results on the empirical..., a new estimation method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the estimates for ARMA models. In chapter four, a new estimation method is proposed for exponential models. This method first utilizes singular value decomposition of the signal...
State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates
Not Available
1994-05-01
This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.
Ball, J.R.
1986-04-01
This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.
Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program
Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael
2014-02-01
At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.
Thresholded Lasso for high dimensional variable selection and statistical estimation
Zhou, Shuheng
2010-01-01
Given $n$ noisy samples with $p$ dimensions, where $n \\ll p$, we show that the multi-step thresholding procedure based on the Lasso -- we call it the {\\it Thresholded Lasso}, can accurately estimate a sparse vector $\\beta \\in \\R^p$ in a linear model $Y = X \\beta + \\epsilon$, where $X$ is an $n \\times p$ design matrix, and $\\epsilon \\sim N(0, \\sigma^2 I_n)$. We show that under the restricted eigenvalue (RE) condition (Bickel-Ritov-Tsybakov 09), it is possible to achieve the $\\ell_2$ loss within a logarithmic factor of the ideal mean square error one would achieve with an {\\em oracle} while selecting a sufficiently sparse model -- hence achieving {\\it sparse oracle inequalities}; the oracle would supply perfect information about which coordinates are non-zero and which are above the noise level. In some sense, the Thresholded Lasso recovers the choices that would have been made by the $\\ell_0$ penalized least squares estimators, in that it selects a sufficiently sparse model without sacrificing the accuracy in ...
Experimental uncertainty estimation and statistics for data having interval uncertainty.
Kreinovich, Vladik; Oberkampf, William Louis; Ginzburg, Lev; Ferson, Scott; Hajagos, Janos
2007-05-01
This report addresses the characterization of measurements that include epistemic uncertainties in the form of intervals. It reviews the application of basic descriptive statistics to data sets which contain intervals rather than exclusively point estimates. It describes algorithms to compute various means, the median and other percentiles, variance, interquartile range, moments, confidence limits, and other important statistics and summarizes the computability of these statistics as a function of sample size and characteristics of the intervals in the data (degree of overlap, size and regularity of widths, etc.). It also reviews the prospects for analyzing such data sets with the methods of inferential statistics such as outlier detection and regressions. The report explores the tradeoff between measurement precision and sample size in statistical results that are sensitive to both. It also argues that an approach based on interval statistics could be a reasonable alternative to current standard methods for evaluating, expressing and propagating measurement uncertainties.
Heasler, Patrick G.; Posse, Christian; Hylden, Jeff L.; Anderson, Kevin K.
2007-06-13
This paper presents a nonlinear Bayesian regression algorithm for the purpose of detecting and estimating gas plume content from hyper-spectral data. Remote sensing data, by its very nature, is collected under less controlled conditions than laboratory data. As a result, the physics-based model that is used to describe the relationship between the observed remotesensing spectra, and the terrestrial (or atmospheric) parameters that we desire to estimate, is typically littered with many unknown "nuisance" parameters (parameters that we are not interested in estimating, but also appear in the model). Bayesian methods are well-suited for this context as they automatically incorporate the uncertainties associated with all nuisance parameters into the error estimates of the parameters of interest. The nonlinear Bayesian regression methodology is illustrated on realistic simulated data from a three-layer model for longwave infrared (LWIR) measurements from a passive instrument. This shows that this approach should permit more accurate estimation as well as a more reasonable description of estimate uncertainty.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Ray, J.; Lee, J.; Yadav, V.; Lefantzi, S.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.
2014-08-20
We present a sparse reconstruction scheme that can also be used to ensure non-negativity when fitting wavelet-based random field models to limited observations in non-rectangular geometries. The method is relevant when multiresolution fields are estimated using linear inverse problems. Examples include the estimation of emission fields for many anthropogenic pollutants using atmospheric inversion or hydraulic conductivity in aquifers from flow measurements. The scheme is based on three new developments. Firstly, we extend an existing sparse reconstruction method, Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), to incorporate prior information on the target field. Secondly, we develop an iterative method that uses StOMP tomore »impose non-negativity on the estimated field. Finally, we devise a method, based on compressive sensing, to limit the estimated field within an irregularly shaped domain. We demonstrate the method on the estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions in the lower 48 states of the US. The application uses a recently developed multiresolution random field model and synthetic observations of ffCO2 concentrations from a limited set of measurement sites. We find that our method for limiting the estimated field within an irregularly shaped region is about a factor of 10 faster than conventional approaches. It also reduces the overall computational cost by a factor of two. Further, the sparse reconstruction scheme imposes non-negativity without introducing strong nonlinearities, such as those introduced by employing log-transformed fields, and thus reaps the benefits of simplicity and computational speed that are characteristic of linear inverse problems.« less
Environmental impact estimation of mold making process
Kong, Daeyoung
2013-01-01
energy monitoring system was suggested to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing system based on the MTConnet TM which enables interoperability
Effectiveness of external respiratory surrogates for in vivo liver motion estimation
Chang, Kai-Hsiang; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lian, Feng-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Yen, Jia-Yush; Chen, Yung-Yaw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2012-08-15
Purpose: Due to low frame rate of MRI and high radiation damage from fluoroscopy and CT, liver motion estimation using external respiratory surrogate signals seems to be a better approach to track liver motion in real-time for liver tumor treatments in radiotherapy and thermotherapy. This work proposes a liver motion estimation method based on external respiratory surrogate signals. Animal experiments are also conducted to investigate related issues, such as the sensor arrangement, multisensor fusion, and the effective time period. Methods: Liver motion and abdominal motion are both induced by respiration and are proved to be highly correlated. Contrary to the difficult direct measurement of the liver motion, the abdominal motion can be easily accessed. Based on this idea, our study is split into the model-fitting stage and the motion estimation stage. In the first stage, the correlation between the surrogates and the liver motion is studied and established via linear regression method. In the second stage, the liver motion is estimated by the surrogate signals with the correlation model. Animal experiments on cases of single surrogate signal, multisurrogate signals, and long-term surrogate signals are conducted and discussed to verify the practical use of this approach. Results: The results show that the best single sensor location is at the middle of the upper abdomen, while multisurrogate models are generally better than the single ones. The estimation error is reduced from 0.6 mm for the single surrogate models to 0.4 mm for the multisurrogate models. The long-term validity of the estimation models is quite satisfactory within the period of 10 min with the estimation error less than 1.4 mm. Conclusions: External respiratory surrogate signals from the abdomen motion produces good performance for liver motion estimation in real-time. Multisurrogate signals enhance estimation accuracy, and the estimation model can maintain its accuracy for at least 10 min. This approach can be used in practical applications such as the liver tumor treatment in radiotherapy and thermotherapy.
Teixeira, André; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl H
2010-01-01
The electrical power network is a critical infrastructure in today's society, so its safe and reliable operation is of major concern. State estimators are commonly used in power networks, for example, to detect faulty equipment and to optimally route power flows. The estimators are often located in control centers, to which large numbers of measurements are sent over unencrypted communication channels. Therefore cyber security for state estimators becomes an important issue. In this paper we analyze the cyber security of state estimators in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) for energy management systems (EMS) operating the power network. Current EMS state estimation algorithms have bad data detection (BDD) schemes to detect outliers in the measurement data. Such schemes are based on high measurement redundancy. Although these methods may detect a set of basic cyber attacks, they may fail in the presence of an intelligent attacker. We explore the latter by considering scenarios where stealthy de...
Methodology for Estimating Solar Potential on Multiple Building Rooftops for Photovoltaic Systems
Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Neish, Bradley S [ORNL
2013-01-01
In this paper, a methodology for estimating solar potential on multiple building rooftops is presented. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the daily or monthly solar radiation potential on individual buildings in a city/region using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and a geographic information system (GIS) approach. Conceptually, the methodology is based on the upward-looking hemispherical viewshed algorithm, but applied using an area-based modeling approach. The methodology considers input parameters, such as surface orientation, shadowing effect, elevation, and atmospheric conditions, that influence solar intensity on the earth s surface. The methodology has been implemented for some 212,000 buildings in Knox County, Tennessee, USA. Based on the results obtained, the methodology seems to be adequate for estimating solar radiation on multiple building rooftops. The use of LiDAR data improves the radiation potential estimates in terms of the model predictive error and the spatial pattern of the model outputs. This methodology could help cities/regions interested in sustainable projects to quickly identify buildings with higher potentials for roof-mounted photovoltaic systems.
Direct estimations of linear and non-linear functionals of a quantum state
Artur K. Ekert; Carolina Moura Alves; Daniel K. L. Oi; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; L. C. Kwek
2002-03-04
We present a simple quantum network, based on the controlled-SWAP gate, that can extract certain properties of quantum states without recourse to quantum tomography. It can be used used as a basic building block for direct quantum estimations of both linear and non-linear functionals of any density operator. The network has many potential applications ranging from purity tests and eigenvalue estimations to direct characterization of some properties of quantum channels. Experimental realizations of the proposed network are within the reach of quantum technology that is currently being developed.
How to estimate solid-electrolyte interphase features when screening electrolyte materials
Husch, Tamara
2015-01-01
Computational screening of battery electrolyte components is an extremely challenging task because very complex features like solidelectrolyte-interphase (SEI) formation and graphite exfoliation need to be taken into account at least at the final screening stage. We present estimators for both SEI formation and graphite exfoliation based on a combinatorial approach with quantum chemistry calculations on model system reactions, which can be applied automatically for a large number of compounds and thus allows for a systematic first assessment of the relevant properties within screening approaches. Thermodynamic effects are assessed with quantum mechanical calculations, a more heuristic approach is used to estimate kinetic effects.
Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks
Kent, Claudia A. (Pleasanton, CA); Dowla, Farid (Castro Valley, CA)
2008-06-03
This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.
Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005
Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D
2011-11-09
A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.
ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia
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