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1

Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology Johnson Controls, Building Efficiency thomas....p.carter@jci.com ESL-IE-14-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Johnson Controls is a globally diversified company in the building and automotive industries Automotive Experience...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, kWh/Unit = 0.0039 85.1% February 5 12PM to 1PM Annual Values 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 841 865 889 913 937 961 985 G a l / U n i t P r o d u c e d D...1Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Marine macroalgae: an untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As world energy demand continues to rise and fossil fuel resources are depleted, marine macroalgae (i.e., seaweed) is receiving increasing attention as an attractive renewable source for producing fuels and chemicals. Marine plant biomass has many advantages over terrestrial plant biomass as a feedstock. Recent breakthroughs in converting diverse carbohydrates from seaweed biomass into liquid biofuels (e.g., bioethanol) through metabolic engineering have demonstrated potential for seaweed biomass as a promising, although relatively unexplored, source for biofuels. This review focuses on up-to-date progress in fermentation of sugars from seaweed biomass using either natural or engineered microbial cells, and also provides a comprehensive overview of seaweed properties, cultivation and harvesting methods, and major steps in the bioconversion of seaweed biomass to biofuels.

Na Wei; Josh Quarterman; Yong-Su Jin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield… (more)

Li, Liang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Genome Sequences of Two Thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis Strains, Efficient Producers of Platform Chemical 2,3-Butanediol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Efficient Producers of Platform Chemical 2,3-Butanediol...3-BD is a crucial platform compound, which could...antibiotics, and chemicals and have been identified...efficient producers of platform chemical 2,3-butanediol...

Lixiang Li; Fei Su; Yu Wang; Lijie Zhang; Cuicui Liu; Jingwen Li; Cuiqing Ma; Ping Xu

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Rotenone, a natural chemical produced by legumi-nous plants native to Southeast Asia and South  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forum Rotenone, a natural chemical produced by legumi- nous plants native to Southeast Asia and South America,has traditionally been used by indigenous subsistence fishers in the fresh and marine employ it in quantities of up to hundreds of metric tons to eliminate alien species to help conserve

Bermingham, Eldredge

8

A newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis strain thermophilically produces 2,3-butanediol, a platform and fuel bio-chemical  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical, can be efficiently produced by Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytoca, and Serratia marcescens. However, these strains are opportunistic pathogens and not f...

Lixiang Li; Lijie Zhang; Kun Li; Yu Wang; Chao Gao…

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens SDM, an Efficient Biomass-Utilizing Producer of Platform Chemical 2,3-Butanediol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Biomass-Utilizing Producer of Platform Chemical 2,3-Butanediol...3-BD) is a useful chemical that can be produced...It is an important platform compound, which could...biomass-utilizing producer of platform chemical 2,3-butanediol...

Youqiang Xu; Ailong Wang; Fei Tao; Fei Su; Hongzhi Tang; Cuiqing Ma; Ping Xu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Improving chemical aqueous based intervention methods for microorganism elimination from fresh produce surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as model systems on 6 different types of produce to determine the effect of produce surface characteristics on sanitizer effectiveness. Microbial attachment on produce surfaces was induced after 3 h of drying at 24°C and high relative humidity (RH...

Puerta-Gomez, Alex Frank

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

11

Quality Parameters and Chemical Analysis for Biodiesel Produced in the United States in 2011  

SciTech Connect

Samples of biodiesel (B100) from producers and terminals in 2011were tested for critical properties: free and total glycerin, flash point, cloud point, oxidation stability, cold soak filterability, and metals. Failure rates for cold soak filterability and oxidation stability were below 5%. One sample failed flash point due to excess methanol. One sample failed oxidation stability and metal content. Overall, 95% of the samples from this survey met biodiesel quality specification ASTM D6751. In 2007, a sampling of B100 from production facilities showed that nearly 90% met D6751. In samples meeting D6751, calcium was found above the method detection limit in nearly half the samples. Feedstock analysis revealed half the biodiesel was produced from soy and half was from mixed feedstocks. The saturated fatty acid methyl ester concentration of the B100 was compared to the saturated monoglyceride concentration as a percent of total monoglyceride. The real-world correlation of these properties was very good. The results of liquid chromatograph measurement of monoglycerides were compared to ASTM D6751. Agreement between the two methods was good, particularly for total monoglycerides and unsaturated monoglycerides. Because only very low levels of saturated monoglycerides measured, the two methods had more variability, but the correlation was still acceptable.

Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Chupka, G.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Modeling of a CO chemical laser produced by supersonically mixing CS/S with O/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

A computer model of a CO chemical laser produced by supersonic mixing of CS/S with O/sub 2/ is presented. The model has been shown to accurately predict measured gain coefficients of P/sub 7/(14) and P/sub 5/(18) lines, hence it was utilized for further parametric studies leading to a better understanding of the processes involved in laser operation. The model predicts high gain and high specific available energy in v = 1..-->..0 to v = 20..-->..19 transitions. A maximum gain was obtained for each of the parameters investigated. For certain operational conditions, complete population inversion was observed.

Tilleman, M.M.; Stricker, J.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Comparison of the structural and chemical composition of two unique micro/nanostructures produced by femtosecond laser interactions on nickel  

SciTech Connect

The structural and chemical composition of two unique microstructures formed on nickel, with nanoscale features, produced using femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) techniques is reported in this paper. These two surface morphologies, termed mounds and nanoparticle-covered pyramids, are part of a larger class of self-organized micro/nanostructured surfaces formed using FLSP. Cross-sections of the structures produced using focused ion beam milling techniques were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope. Both morphologies have a solid core with a layer of nanoparticles on the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy by scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the nanoparticles are a nickel oxide, while the core material is pure nickel.

Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by chemical vapor deposition: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a technologically important semiconductor, well-suited for solar photovoltaic energy conversion and thin film device applications. While the glow discharge technique is widely used for the deposition of a-Si:H films, this work is focused on the use of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, i.e., the thermal decomposition of disilane and higher silanes, for the deposition of a-Si:H films. A simple technique for the preparation of disilane and higher silanes by using an electric discharge in monosilane under atmospheric pressure has been developed, and the discharge product can be used directly for the deposition process. The important parameters of the CVD process including the substrate temperature, the composition and flow rate of the reaction mixture, and the nature of the diluent gas for disilane, have also been investigated. The deposition rate of a-Si:H films in a helium atmosphere is considerably higher than that in a hydrogen atmosphere, and the CVD process in a helium atmosphere is well-suited for the deposition of thick a-Si:H films. The a-Si:H films deposited under various conditions have been characterized by the photoconductivity, dissolution rate, optical absorption, mechanical stress, gap state density, minority carrier diffusion length, and stability measurements. On the basis of these measurements, a-Si:H films deposited by the thermal decomposition of disilane in a helium atmosphere exhibit better structural and electronic properties than those deposited in a hydrogen atmosphere.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shocks. Thus we predict that the abundance of H2O and other known outflow tracers can be used to trace the history of shock activity in molecular gas. For gas-grain models we find that the abundance of water-ice on grain surfaces can be quite large and is comparable to that observed in molecular clouds. This offers a possible alternative method to create water mantles without resorting to grain surface chemistry: gas heating and chemical modification due to a C-type shock and subsequent depletion of the gas-phase species onto grain mantles.

Edwin A. Bergin; Gary J. Melnick; David A. Neufeld

1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shoc...

Bergin, E A; Neufeld, D A; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Neufeld, David A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Urban centres produce most of the world's waste and between a third and a half goes uncollected. The answer to the problem of waste disposal lies partly in agriculture, as waste can be extremely nutrient-rich. In the last decade there has been a tremendous increase in the developing world in total city area under informal food production and there are many examples of waste recycling onto the urban or peri-urban plots. Farmers on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have developed a successful soil fertility management strategy based on the combination of inorganic fertilisers, manure and urban waste ash. This study sought to provide some preliminary data on urban waste ash produced by open burning and used in farming in a developing country. Ash samples were collected from different locations around Jos and tested for C, N, pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. It was found that ash is an effective liming material (because of the high pH, and high Ca, Mg and K contents), and has the potential to contribute significant quantities of micro-nutrients such as Mn, Zn and Cu. Ash, however, is far from being a homogenous material and its variability means that its fertilising potential will vary between batches and that, even if mean and median levels are low, there is the risk of the formation of localised areas of soil with excessive heavy metal contents (this is particularly the case with Pb). Further research is required to determine the plant-availability of these elements in the ash and to assess the wider environmental and health implications of uncontrolled, open burning of waste as a means of producing ash for agricultural purposes.

M.W. Pasquini; M.J. Alexander

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part II: analysing the chemical structure of the films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical structure of cobalt--polypyrrole -- produced by a dual plasma process -- is analysed by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) and extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS).It is shown that only nanoparticles of a size of 3\\,nm with the low temperature crystal structure of cobalt are present within the compound. Besides that, cobalt--nitrogen and carbon--oxygen structures are observed. Furthermore, more and more cobalt--nitrogen structures are produced when increasing the magnetron power. Linking the information on the chemical structure to the results about the catalytic activity of the films -- which are presented in part I of this contribution -- it is concluded that the cobalt--nitrogen structures are the probable catalytically active sites. The cobalt--nitrogen bond length is calculated as 2.09\\,\\AA\\ and the carbon--nitrogen bond length as 1.38\\,\\AA.

Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.043209jes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Optimization of chemical compositions in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel produced by ultra-fast continuous annealing  

SciTech Connect

The influence of Mn,S and B contents on microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties and hydrogen trapping ability of low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel was investigated. The materials were produced and processed in a laboratory and the ultra-fast continuous annealing processing was performed using a continuous annealing simulator. It was found that increasing Mn,S contents in steel can improve its hydrogen trapping ability which is attributed by refined ferrite grains, more dispersed cementite and added MnS inclusions. Nevertheless, it deteriorates mechanical properties of steel sheet. Addition of trace boron results in both good mechanical properties and significantly improved hydrogen trapping ability. The boron combined with nitrogen segregating at grain boundaries, cementite and MnS inclusions, provides higher amount of attractive hydrogen trapping sites and raises the activation energy for hydrogen desorption from them. - Highlights: • We study microstructures and properties in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel. • Hydrogen diffusion coefficients are measured to reflect fish-scale resistance. • Manganese improves hydrogen trapping ability but decrease deep-drawing ability. • Boron improves both hydrogen trapping ability and deep-drawing ability. • Both excellent mechanical properties and fish-scale resistance can be matched.

Dong, Futao, E-mail: dongft@sina.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Linxiu; Liu, Xianghua [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, Fei [College of Electrical Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Metabolic Engineering of a Glycerol-Oxidative Pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for Utilization of Bioethanol Thin Stillage: Potential To Produce Platform Chemicals from Glycerol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...glycerol from biodiesel production...genetic engineering strategies...Overall, introduction of an artificial...renewable fuels and chemicals...glycerol from biodiesel preparations...metabolic engineering for the production...biorenewable fuels and chemicals...metabolic engineering. Biotechnol...glycerol from biodiesel production...

Tae Sun Kang; Darren R. Korber; Takuji Tanaka

2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Metabolic Engineering of a Glycerol-Oxidative Pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for Utilization of Bioethanol Thin Stillage: Potential To Produce Platform Chemicals from Glycerol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals...artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic...condensed form for animal feed, is an energy- and cost-intensive process (1...

Tae Sun Kang; Darren R. Korber; Takuji Tanaka

2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

22

The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

Melendez, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Manipulating decision making of typical agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

Yukalov, V I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Manipulating decision making of typical agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and it can be either positive or negative depending on the relative attraction of the competing choices. The most efficient way of varying the decision makers choice is realized by influencing the attraction factor. This can be done in two ways. One method is to arrange in a special manner the payoff weights, which induces the required changes of the values of attraction factors. We show that a slight variation of the payoff weights can invert the sign of the attraction factors and reverse the decision preferences, even when the prospect utilities remain unchanged. The second method of influencing the decision makers choice is by providing information to decision makers. The methods of influencing decision making are illustrated by several experiments, whose outcomes are compared quantitatively with the predictions of our approach.

V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

25

Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ER? or ER? receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ?0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERR?. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

Justin Teeguarden; Sesha Hanson-Drury; Jeffrey W. Fisher; Daniel R. Doerge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method for producing a borohydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discharge produces hydrocarbons from coal ... Studies of the reactions of coal in electric discharges by two chemists at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Pittsburgh Coal Research Center may lead to improved ways of producing acetylene and other useful chemicals from coal. ... Other workers have produced high yields of acetylene from coal by extremely rapid pyrolysis using energy sources such as plasma jets, laser beams, arc-image reactors, and flash heaters. ...

1968-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

28

Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemical Logging Chemical Logging Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Chemical Logging Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Presence and geochemical composition of fluid producing zones Thermal: Calcium-alkalinity ratios versus depth assist in defining warm and hot water aquifers Dictionary.png Chemical Logging: Chemical logging produces a chemical profile of the formation fluid within a well based on the measurement of changes in the chemical composition of the drilling fluid during drilling operations.

29

Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus | Y-12 National...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical Oak Ridge cemesto ... Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus...

30

Signatures of Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption for Typical AHUs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis is performed to investigate the signatures of different parameters on the heating and cooling energy consumption of typical air handling units (AHUs). The results are presented in graphic format. HVAC simulation engineers can use...

Wei, G.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

Sheng, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

On the relation between rough set reducts and typical testors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper studies the relations between rough set reducts and typical testors from the so-called logical combinatorial approach to pattern recognition. Definitions, comments and observations are formally introduced and supported by illustrative examples. Furthermore, some theorems expressing theoretical relations between reducts and typical testors are enunciated and proved. We also discuss several practical applications of these relations that can mutually enrich the development of research and applications in both areas. Although we focus on the relation between the classical concepts of testor and reduct, our study can be expanded to include other types of testors and reducts.

Manuel S. Lazo-Cortés; José Fco. Martínez-Trinidad; Jesús A. Carrasco-Ochoa; Guillermo Sanchez-Diaz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT for INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS DE-FG05-85ER13439 1-AUG-1985 to 31-JUL-1994 Robert F. Curl and Graham P. Glass Principal Investigators Introduction This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then

34

Finding typical high redshift galaxies with the NOT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from an ongoing search for galaxy counterparts of a subgroup of Quasar Absorption Line Systems called Damped Ly-alpha Absorbers (DLAs). DLAs have several characteristics that make them prime candidates for being the progenitors of typical present day galaxies.

J. U. Fynbo; P. Moller; B. Thomsen

1999-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

Security Implications of Typical Grid Computing Usage Scenarios Marty Humphrey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Security Implications of Typical Grid Computing Usage Scenarios Marty Humphrey Computer Science. A broader goal of these scenarios are to increase the awareness of security issues in Grid Computing. 1 easy and secure ac- cess to the Grid's diverse resources. Infrastructure software such as Legion [6

Thompson, Mary R.

36

Robust Neuroimaging-Based Classification Techniques of Autistic vs. Typically  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

abnormalities in several brain regions. Increased head size was the first observed characteristic in children1 Robust Neuroimaging-Based Classification Techniques of Autistic vs. Typically Developing Brain with autism. According to the published studies, different anatomical structures of the brain have been

Farag, Aly A.

37

Spectroscopical Analysis of Mechano-chemically Activated Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechano-chemical activation is fundamentally different than chemical activation in that energy is added to alter the state of bond energy instead of exciting electrons to produce a chemical reaction. Mechano-chemical activation has demonstrated...

Cooper, Rodrigo

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

38

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Is the Sun Embedded in a Typical Interstellar Cloud?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical properties and kinematics of the partially ionized interstellar material near the Sun are typical of warm diffuse clouds in the solar vicinity. The interstellar magnetic field at the heliosphere and the kinematics of nearby clouds are naturally explained in terms of the S1 superbubble shell. The interstellar radiation field at the Sun appears to be harder than the field ionizing ambient diffuse gas, which may be a consequence of the low opacity of the tiny cloud surrounding the heliosphere. The spatial context of the Local Bubble is consistent with our location in the Orion spur.

P. C. Frisch

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

42

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

43

Meteorology: typical meteorological data for selected stations in Ghana  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

data for selected stations in Ghana data for selected stations in Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations> (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

44

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in Sri  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

45

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

46

Engineering Escherichia coli for the production of polyketide-based platform chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current chemical industry produces a diverse array of industrial chemicals from a handful of highly reduced byproducts (termed "platform chemicals") derived from oil refining.… (more)

Park, John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Chapter 15 - Catalytic Thermochemical Processes for Biomass Conversion to Biofuels and Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass is the most abundant and biorenewable resource with great potential for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. Thermochemical conversion technologies (pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal liquefaction) are a promising option for transforming biomass feedstocks into liquid oils and chemicals. In the article, for the thermal process of biomass for biofuels and chemicals, the effect of reaction conditions, reactors, solvents and catalysts on the yield and distribution of the products are reviewed. Fast pyrolysis of cellulose is primarily conducted over catalysts with proper acidity/basicity and has undergone many pilot tests. Gasification is typically conducted over supported noble metal catalysts and has been profiled as being CO2-neutral, having a high potential to provide power, chemicals and fuels. Catalytically hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass produces a very complex mixture of liquid products; therefore, novel technology for separation and extraction of downstream products from hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass need to be developed.

Lin Mei Wu; Chun Hui Zhou; Dong Shen Tong; Wei Hua Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Chapter 7 - Chemical-looping processes for fuel-flexible combustion and fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is a rapidly emerging technology for clean combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. In CLC, the combustion of a fuel is broken down into two, spatially separated steps: The oxidation of fuel in contact with an ‘oxygen carrier’ (typically a metal oxide), and the subsequent reoxidation of the carrier with air. CLC thus produces sequestration-ready CO2 streams with only minor efficiency penalties for CO2 capture. While recent interest in chemical looping was almost exclusively focused on combustion, the underlying reaction engineering principle forms a flexible platform for fuel conversion with a long history in chemical engineering. This chapter gives a brief review of the status of chemical-looping processes for fuel conversion, focused predominantly on reforming and partial oxidation of fossil and renewable fuels and on the impact of fuel composition on combustion.

Saurabh Bhavsar; Michelle Najera; Amey More; Götz Veser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven. Note that other radiotracers that are described in the literature can Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven. Note that other radiotracers that are described in the literature can also be transferred to our laboratory. Molecular Target/use Radiotracer Name Structure Chemical Name Hexokinase/glucose metabolism, cancer, brain function 18 FDG 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose Dopamine D2/D3 receptors/addiction, psychiatric disorders [ 11 C]raclopride 3,5-dichloro-N-{[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin- 2-yl]methyl}-2-hydroxy-6- [ 11 C]methoxybenzamide Dopamine transporters / cocaine pharmacokinetics, addiction, neurological disorders [ 11 C]cocaine methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-s(benzoyloxy)- 8-[ 11 C]methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate Blood flow/nicotine pharmacokinetics [ 11 C]nicotine 3-[(2S)-1-[ 11 C]methylpyrrolidin-2-

51

Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I--Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions.

52

TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA  

SciTech Connect

There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

53

Can we explain non-typical solar flares?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We used multi-wavelength high-resolution data from ARIES, THEMIS, and SDO instruments, to analyze a non-standard, C3.3 class flare produced within the active region NOAA 11589 on 2012 October 16. Magnetic flux emergence and cancellation were continuously detected within the active region, the latter leading to the formation of two filaments. Our aim is to identify the origins of the flare taking into account the complex dynamics of its close surroundings. We analyzed the magnetic topology of the active region using a linear force-free field extrapolation to derive its 3D magnetic configuration and the location of quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) which are preferential sites for flaring activity. Because the active region's magnetic field was nonlinear force-free, we completed a parametric study using different linear force-free field extrapolations to demonstrate the robustness of the derived QSLs. The topological analysis shows that the active region presented a complex magnetic configuration comprising severa...

Dalmasse, K; Schmieder, B; Aulanier, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological DUPLICATION Graham S Pearson HSP Advisory Board The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was opened biological weapons and prohibit their development, produc- tion, stockpiling, acquisition and retention

Sussex, University of

55

Report on Produced Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices Page 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................. 11 1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Background ................................................................................................................... 11 1.3 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 11

56

Report on Produced Water  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

of the pond, as well as the quality of the produced water. In semiarid regions, hot, dry air moving from a land surface will result in high evaporation rates for smaller ponds. As...

57

Light with nonzero chemical potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic states and processes involving light are discussed in which the chemical potential of light is nonzero. Light with nonzero chemical potential is produced in photochemical reactions for example in a light emitting diode. The chemical potential of black-body radiation becomes negative upon a Joule expansion. The isothermal diffusion of light which is a common phenomenon is driven by the gradient in the chemical potential. These and other examples support the idea that light can be interpreted as a gas of photons with properties similar to a material gas.

F. Herrmann; P. Würfel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

CHEMICAL MARKETING  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKETING ... The reason, I believe, is that the chemical industry has been blind (until very recently) to the need for paying attention to marketing. ... Its marketing needs are now like those of a mature—no longer a growing—industry. ...

1960-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

Micromachined chemical jet dispenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dispenser for chemical fluid samples that need to be precisely ejected in size, location, and time. The dispenser is a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device fabricated in a bonded silicon wafer and a substrate, such as glass or silicon, using integrated circuit-like fabrication technology which is amenable to mass production. The dispensing is actuated by ultrasonic transducers that efficiently produce a pressure wave in capillaries that contain the chemicals. The 10-200 .mu.m diameter capillaries can be arranged to focus in one spot or may be arranged in a larger dense linear array (.about.200 capillaries). The dispenser is analogous to some ink jet print heads for computer printers but the fluid is not heated, thus not damaging certain samples. Major applications are in biological sample handling and in analytical chemical procedures such as environmental sample analysis, medical lab analysis, or molecular biology chemistry experiments.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA)

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

The SUN Action database : collecting and analyzing typical actions for visual scene types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent work in human and machine vision has increasingly focused on the problem of scene recognition. Scene types are largely defined by the actions one might typically do there: an office is a place someone would typically ...

Olsson, Catherine Anne White

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I--Results of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. 35523.pdf More Documents & Publications Myriant Succinic Acid Biorefinery Hydrogen...

62

Chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Deposition conditions and film properties for a variety of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and silicon-carbon films produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are discussed. Deposition gases include monosilane, disilane, trisilane, and acetylene. Two types of optically wide band-gap p layers are obtained. One of these window p layers (without carbon) has been extensively tested in photovoltaic devices. Remarkably, this p layer can be deposited between about 200 to 300 /sup 0/C. A typical open circuit voltage in an all CVD p-i-n device is 0.70--0.72 V, and in a hybrid device where the i and n layers are deposited by glow discharge, 0.8--0.83 V.

Ellis F.B. Jr.; Delahoy, A.E.

1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Method for producing superconductors  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing a V3Al superconductor is disclosed which comprises making a composite composed of a sheath portion of a copper alloy containing 1 to 15 atomic percent of germanium, 1 to 15 atomic percent of silicon or 2 to 25 atomic percent of gallium and surrounded by the sheath portion, at least one core portion of a vanadium-aluminum alloy containing 0.5 to 20 atomic percent of aluminum; elongating the composite; and then heat-treating the elongated composite thereby to form a V3(Al, Ge), V3(Al, Si) or V3(Al, Ga) layer between the sheath portion and the core portion.

Inoue, K.; Tachikawa, K.; Togano, K.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Chemical composition of melanin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical composition of melanin Chemical composition of melanin Name: Peggy M Siemers Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What is the chemical composition of Melanin by specific amino acids, or the DNA code for melanin? Replies: This is a good question! The answer is somewhat complex and I'm sure I don't have all the details but here goes... First, there is not a specific DNA code for melanin because like many biomolecules, it is not the result of a single gene product. People that are deficient in melanin are oculo/dermal albinos and I believe there have been seven different types of mutations. These different mutations reflect the multiple steps required to produce melanin. The original building block for melanin is tyrosine, one of the amino acids. This amino acid is modified by enzymes to produce the building block (monomer) for melanin synthesis by a process called polymerization that is also controlled by an enzyme. The polymers ,I believe, can attain diff3erent lengths and they can also form aggregates of different sizes alone and in combination with other molecules such as proteins. This is in part responsible for differences in coloration seen within and between individuals. NEWTON RULES

65

Chemical Occurrences  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Classification of Chemical Occurrence Reports into the following four classes: Occurrences characterized by serious energy release, injury or exposure requiring medical treatment, or severe environmental damage, Occurrences characterized by minor injury or exposure, or reportable environmental release, Occurrences that were near misses including notable safety violations and Minor occurrences.

66

hspthe harvard sussex program on chemical and biological weapons (CBW)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hspthe harvard sussex program on chemical and biological weapons (CBW) Resource Guide of the use of chemical weapons Never to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons Never to assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engag To destroy chemical weapons

Sussex, University of

67

Chemical comminution of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present research is to study the chemical reactivity of a mixture of methyl alcohol and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution in the temperature range 298 to 363 K, and a caustic concentration of 0 to 10 wt. %, on an Iowa bituminous coal. The sample studied was collected from coal zone 4, equivalent to most historical references to Laddsdale coal. The coals in this zone are typical high-sulfur, high-ash middle Pennsylvania Cherokee group coals. The apparent rank is high-volatile C bituminous coal. The relatively high content of sulfur and 23 other elements in these coals is related to near neutral (6-8) pH conditions in the depositional and early diagenetic environments, and to postdepositional sphalerite/calcite/pyrite/kaolinite/barite mineralization.

Mamaghani, A.H.; Beddow, J.K.; Vetter, A.F.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Drought remedial measures through resistivity investigations in a typical crystalline region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Systematic geoelectrical investigations were carried out in a typical drought ... of Andhra Pradesh, India, for evolving drought remedial strategies. Depth to basement maps, geoelectrical...

B. H. Briz-Kishore

69

Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Online chemical modeling environment (OCHEM): web platform for data storage, model development and publishing of chemical information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Online Chemical Modeling Environment is a unique platform on the Web that aims to automate ... typical steps required for QSAR modeling. The platform consists of two major subsystems: the database ... Our int...

I Sushko; AK Pandey; S Novotarskyi; R Körner; M Rupp; W Teetz…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Online chemical modeling environment (OCHEM): web platform for data storage, model development and publishing of chemical information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Online Chemical Modeling Environment is a web-based platform that aims to automate and simplify the typical steps required for QSAR modeling. The platform consists of two major subsystems: the database ... in...

Iurii Sushko; Sergii Novotarskyi…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

FAQS Qualification Card - Chemical Processing | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Processing Chemical Processing FAQS Qualification Card - Chemical Processing A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). For each functional area, the FAQS identify the minimum technical competencies and supporting knowledge and skills for a typical qualified individual working in the area. FAQC-ChemicalProcessing.docx Description Chemical Processing Qualification Card More Documents & Publications FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing

74

Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested-volt region. Thus chemical accelerators can provide the same type of information for elemen- tary chemical

Zare, Richard N.

76

Major Energy Producers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

206(92) 206(92) Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 January 1994 Elk. I nergy Information dministration This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents McPherson Square Bookstore U.S. Government Printing Office 1510 H Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20402 Washington, DC 20005 (202)783-3238 (202)653-2050 FAX (202)512-2233 FAX (202)376-5055 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., eastern time, M-F 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., eastern time, M-F All mail orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Complimentary subscriptions and single issues are available to certain groups of subscribers, such as

77

Method for producing superconductors  

SciTech Connect

In a method for producing v/sub 3/Ga superconductors which comprises forming a composite of a core portion and a sheath portion surrounding said core portion, said sheath portion being composed of a gallium-containing alloy selected from the group consisting of copper-gallium and copper-silver-gallium alloys, and said core portion being composed of a vanadium metal, elongating said composite, and heat-treating the resulting elongated composite to form a v/sub 3/Ga layer between said sheath and core portions; the improvement wherein the gallium-containing alloy has a gallium content of 0.1 to 30 atomic percent and additionally contains at least one metal selected from the group consisting of 0.05 to 5 atomic percent of magnesium, 0.5 to 10 atomic percent of aluminum , 0.1 to 10 atomic percent of cerium and 0.05 to 10 atomic percent of sodium, and the vanadium metal is a vanadium alloy containing 0.1 to 15 atomic percent of gallium.

Asano, T.; Tachikawa, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

78

Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

79

ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER  

SciTech Connect

During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

John R. Gallagher

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Analysis of magnetic fields produced far from electric power lines  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors develop a simple and general method for analyzing the magnetic fields produced by power lines at far distances, that is, at distances large in comparison to the spacing between the line's phase conductors. Magnetic fields produced far from conventional power lines have remarkably simple properties. The authors present formulae for the fields produced by various conventional and unconventional power line configurations; included are line designs characterized by reduced magnetic-field levels. Errors in the formulae are less than [plus minus]10% at the edge of a typical transmission right-of-way.

Kaune, W.T. (Enertech Consultants Campbell, CA (United States)); Zaffanella, L.E. (High Voltage Transmission Research Center, Lenox, MA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Coal-Based Chemical Complexes [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

20 March 1981 research-article Coal-Based Chemical Complexes [and Discussion...In addition to heat or kinetic energy, coal can be used to produce carbon (in various...and chemicals containing these elements. Coal conversion developments have recently tended...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Method of producing synthetic pitch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments of a method are described for modifying pitches, oils, tars, and binders by using these materials as solvents to extract organic chemicals from coal.

Kennel, Elliot B. (Morgantown, WV); Stansberry, Peter G. (North Olmsted, OH); Stiller, Alfred H. (Morgantown, WV); Zondlo, John W. (Albright, WV)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

83

Chemical Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Science Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krässig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H. Schmidt-Böcking, W. Schmitt, S.H. Southworth, Th. Weber, and L. Young Crystal structure analysis of microporous Na16Nb12.8Ti3.2O44.8(OH)3.2l8H2O and Na/Nb/Zr/O/H2O phases A. Tripathi, J. Parise, M. Nyman, T.M. Nenoff, and W. Harrison Double K-photoionization of heavy atoms R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, E.P. Kanter, B. Krässig, and S.H. Southworth Forward-backward asymmetries of atomic photoelectrons S.H. Southworth, B. Krässig, E.P. Kanter, J.C. Bilheux, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, and L. Young In situreduction of various iron oxides to form high-surface-area Fe-metal catalysts as studied by high-resolution powder diffraction

84

Biodegradation of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons in Soil Contaminated by Oily Wastes Produced During Onshore Drilling Operations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The petroleum industry generates high amount of oily wastes during drilling, storage and refining operations. Onshore drilling operations produce oil based wastes, typically 100–150m-3 well. The drilling cuttings...

Qaude-Henri Chaîneau; Jean-Louis Morel; Jean Oudot

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Miniature Chemical Sensor  

SciTech Connect

A new chemical detection technology has been realized that addresses DOE environmental management needs. The new technology is based on a variant of the sensitive optical absorption technique, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Termed evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS), the technology employs a miniature solid-state optical resonator having an extremely high Q-factor as the sensing element, where the high-Q is achieved by using ultra-low-attenuation optical materials, ultra-smooth surfaces, and ultra-high reflectivity coatings, as well as low-diffraction-loss designs. At least one total-internal reflection (TIR) mirror is integral to the resonator permitting the concomitant evanescent wave to probe the ambient environment. Several prototypes have been designed, fabricated, characterized, and applied to chemical detection. Moreover, extensions of the sensing concept have been explored to enhance selectivity, sensitivity, and range of application. Operating primarily in the visible and near IR regions, the technology inherently enables remote detection by optical fiber. Producing 11 archival publications, 5 patents, 19 invited talks, 4 conference proceedings, a CRADA, and a patent-license agreement, the project has realized a new chemical detection technology providing >100 times more sensitivity than comparable technologies, while also providing practical advantages.

Andrew C. R. Pipino

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

86

Sorption-desorption characteristics of uranium, cesium and strontium in typical podzol soils from Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......cesium and strontium in typical podzol soils from Ukraine S. Mishra 1 H. Arae 1 P. V. Zamostyan 2 T. Ishikawa...Radiation Medicine of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine Sorption-desorption behaviour of uranium (U......

S. Mishra; H. Arae; P. V. Zamostyan; T. Ishikawa; H. Yonehara; S. K. Sahoo

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits ...

Christodoulou, Joanna

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - andisol typic hapludand Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

considerable pressure difference (typically overcontent... :427-436. Sperry, J.S., V. Stiller, and U.G. Hacke. 2002b. Soil water uptake andisolated vascular bundles and whole...

89

Determination of a peak benzene exposure to consumers at typical self-service gasoline stations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Approved as to style and content by: (. (iL, &? Chairman...

Carapezza, Ted

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

90

The impact of sheared vs. sawn timber in the typical southern pine plywood mill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE IMPACT OF SHEARED VS' SAWN TIMBER IN THE TYPICAL SOUTHERN PINE PLYWOOD MILL A Thesis by RUSSELL GARRETT SWINNEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Forestry THE IMPACT OP SHEARED VS. SAWN T1MBER IN THE TYPICAL SOUTHERN PINE PLYWOOD MILI A Thesis by RUSSELL GARRETT SWINNEY Approved as to style and content by: Jease ( hair of mmi Jy...

Swinney, Russell Garrett

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

FAQ 7-How is depleted uranium produced?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? Depleted uranium is produced during the uranium enrichment process. In the United States, uranium is enriched through the gaseous diffusion process in which the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other. The stream having the greater uranium-235 concentration is referred to as enriched UF6, while the stream that is reduced in its concentration of uranium-235 is referred to as depleted UF6. The depleted UF6 can be converted to other chemical forms, such as depleted uranium oxide or depleted uranium metal.

92

Chemical Looping for Combustion and Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChemiCal looping for Combustion and ChemiCal looping for Combustion and hydrogen produCtion Objective The objective of this project is to determine the benefits of chemical looping technology used with coal to reduce CO 2 emissions. Background Chemical looping is a new method to convert coal or gasified coal to energy. In chemical looping, there is no direct contact between air and fuel. The chemical looping process utilizes oxygen from metal oxide oxygen carrier for fuel combustion, or for making hydrogen by "reducing" water. In combustion applications, the products of chemical looping are CO 2 and H 2 O. Thus, once the steam is condensed, a relatively pure stream of CO 2 is produced ready for sequestration. The production of a sequestration ready CO 2 stream does not require any additional separation units

93

Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits.

Ahmadun Fakhru’l-Razi; Alireza Pendashteh; Luqman Chuah Abdullah; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Sayed Siavash Madaeni; Zurina Zainal Abidin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Testa Produce | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Testa Produce Testa Produce Jump to: navigation, search Name Testa Produce Facility Testa Produce Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Testa Produce Developer Testa Produce Energy Purchaser Testa Produce Location Chicago IL Coordinates 41.81065982°, -87.65433311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.81065982,"lon":-87.65433311,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

95

Generating NMR chemical shift assignments of intrinsically disordered proteins using carbon-detected NMR methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract There is an extraordinary need to describe the structures of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) due to their role in various biological processes involved in signaling and transcription. However, general study of \\{IDPs\\} by NMR spectroscopy is limited by the poor 1H amide chemical shift dispersion typically observed in their spectra. Recently, 13C direct-detected NMR spectroscopy has been recognized as enabling broad structural study of IDPs. Most notably, multidimensional experiments based on the 15N,13C CON spectrum make complete chemical shift assignment feasible. Here we document a collection of NMR-based tools that efficiently lead to chemical shift assignment of IDPs, motivated by a case study of the C-terminal disordered region from the human pancreatic transcription factor Pdx1. Our strategy builds on the combination of two three-dimensional (3D) experiments, (HN-flip)N(CA)CON and 3D (HN-flip)N(CA)NCO, that enable daisy chain connections to be built along the IDP backbone, facilitated by acquisition of amino acid-specific 15N,13C CON-detected experiments. Assignments are completed through carbon-detected, total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY)-based side chain chemical shift measurement. Conducting our study required producing valuable modifications to many previously published pulse sequences, motivating us to announce the creation of a database of our pulse programs, which we make freely available through our website.

Debashish Sahu; Monique Bastidas; Scott A. Showalter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

97

Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and unstable chemicals only be stored in a lab-safe refrigeration unit that meets National Fire Protection Association 45 ­ Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals. #12;Hearing conservation protection which will be furnished by the Institute. Samples of various types of ear muffs, ear caps, and ear

Cohen, Robert E.

98

Method and apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong; Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID), Herring; J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID), Grandy; Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

100

Photo of the Week: Not Your Typical Jet Engine | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Not Your Typical Jet Engine Not Your Typical Jet Engine Photo of the Week: Not Your Typical Jet Engine November 23, 2012 - 11:57am Addthis As part of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, the U.S. conducted extensive research showing that nuclear fission could power an aircraft. The research involved a series of Heat Transfer Reactor Experiments (HTREs), which tested if different types of jet engines could be run by nuclear power. In 1955, however, the project was cancelled, and a safe, operational prototype aircraft was never developed. In this 1988 photo, the two HTRE reactors are shown in transport to Idaho National Laboratory's EBR-1 visitor center, where they remain today. | Photo courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory. As part of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, the U.S. conducted

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A new method for producing molybdenum-99 without the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new method for producing molybdenum-99 without the need for enriched uranium can bring an end-security nuclear facilities. Also, it is a very inefficient method: only 6% of the uranium-235 is transformed be separated from the chemically identical molybdenum isotopes in a process based on the Szilard

Langendoen, Koen

103

Superconducting articles of manufacture and method of producing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk coatings of Nb.sub.3 Ge with high superconducting transition temperatures bonded to metallic substrates and a chemical vapor deposition method for producing such coatings on metallic substrates are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a Nb.sub.3 Ge coating having a transition temperature in excess of 21.5 K may be tightly bonded to a copper substrate.

Newkirk, Lawrence R. (Los Alamos, NM); Valencia, Flavio A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Optimizing Large Scale Chemical Transport Models for Multicore Platforms John C. Linford and Adrian Sandu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimizing Large Scale Chemical Transport Models for Multicore Platforms John C. Linford and Adrian: Chemical Transport Model, Domain Decom- position, Time Splitting, Multicore, Scalability, IBM Cell Broadband Engine, Intel Quad-Core Xeon. Abstract The performance of a typical chemical transport model

Sandu, Adrian

105

Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Looping Looping Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Introduction 2 Process Description 3 Benefits 4 Oxygen Carriers 5 Multimedia 6 Patents 7 References 8 External Links Introduction Chemical looping or chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that could provide the means to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel combustion where there is no direct contact between air and fuel.[1] Oxygen is extracted from air, then the oxygen is reacted with the hydrocarbon fuel producing an exhaust gas composed of carbon dioxide and water vapor.[2] The water vapor is condensed out of the gas resulting in near 100% carbon dioxide stream that could be sequestered in the ground.

106

Temperature effects on chemical reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we had to study some characteristics of the chemical reactors from which we can understand the reactor operation in different circumstances; from these and the most important factor that has a great effect on the reactor operation is the temperature it is a mathematical processing of a chemical problem that was already studied but it may be developed by introducing new strategies of control; in our case we deal with the analysis of a liquid?gas reactor which can make the flotation of the benzene to produce the ethylene; this type of reactors can be used in vast domains of the chemical industry especially in refinery plants where we find the oil separation and its extractions whether they are gases or liquids which become necessary for industrial technology especially in our century.

M. Azzouzi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

110

Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

111

Typical Radiation Doses to Patients from Some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Typical Radiation Doses to Patients from Some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania W.E. Muhogora A.M. Nyanda U.S. Lema J.E. Ngaile The results of entrance surface dose measurements on adult patients......

W.E. Muhogora; A.M. Nyanda; U.S. Lema; J.E. Ngaile

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: Models, typical results, uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper will briefly discuss the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Sprung, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CAMD Cleanroom Chemical List Chemicals on this list are routine use chemicals in the CAMD Cleanroom and are available to users for general use. All others (*) are approved for use...

114

Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Financial News for Major Energy Producers, Third Quarter 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producers, Third Quarter 2010 Producers, Third Quarter 2010 Release Date: January 5, 2011 Next Release Date: To Be Determined Report Sections: Corporate and Petroleum Net Income Worldwide Oil and Gas Production Operations Worldwide Refining/Marketing Operations Worldwide Petroleum Capital Expenditures Worldwide Downstream Natural Gas and Power, and Chemicals Operations Supplemental Figures Supplemental Tables Download this Report: Full Report in PDF-Format Past Issues in PDF-Format Additional Information FRS Home Financial Terms Glossary Contacts Notes: The "Financial News for Major Energy Producers" is issued quarterly to report recent trends in the financial performance of the major energy producers. "Major energy producers" are respondents to Form EIA-28 (Financial Reporting System). All U.S.-based respondent companies that

116

chemical analysis | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical analysis chemical analysis Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

117

TRENDS in Chemical Marketing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TRENDS in Chemical Marketing ... BEFORE any chemical sales organization, can meet or establish new trends in marketing, it must be completely aware of the problem it faces. ...

W. M. RUSSELL

1955-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

118

Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

Dees, H.C.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Green method to produce propylene oxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy Search CNM ... Search Argonne Home > Center for Nanoscale Materials > CNM Home About CNM Research Facilities People For Users Publications News & Highlights News Research Highlights Newsletters CNM Images on Flickr Events Jobs CNM Users Organization Contact Us Other DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers Green method to produce propylene oxide conversion of propylene to polyene oxide via silver nanoclusters Simulation of propylene to propylene oxide conversion via silver nanoclusters supported on an alumina surface. Propylene oxide is an important chemical whose current industrial production is energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Attempts to solve this problem by using catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with

122

Chemicals for Plant Disease Control at Home  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. biological living agent: bacteria/fungus 2. botanical products derived from plants, typically oils 3. captan N-trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohexene-1,2 dicarboximide 4. chlorothalonil tetrachloroisophthalonitrile 5. copper various chemical forms of copper... bicarbonate 15. propaconizole 1-[[2(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]1-H-1,2,4-triazole 16. quarternary ammonium compound various forms of N-alkyl ammonium chloride 17. streptomycin sulfate streptomycin sulfate (antibiotic) 18. sulfur...

Ong, Kevin

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Chemical Safety Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Home Chemical Safety Topical Committee Library Program Contacts Related Links Site Map Tools 2013 Chemical Safety Workshop Archived Workshops Contact Us Health and Safety HSS Logo Chemical Safety Program logo The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Chemical Safety web pages provide a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of chemical management. This page is supported by the Chemical Safety Topical Committee which was formed to identify chemical safety-related issues of concern to the DOE and pursue solutions to issues identified. Noteworthy products are the Chemical Management Handbooks and the Chemical Lifecycle Cost Analysis Tool, found under the TOOLS menu. Chemical Management Handbook Vol (1) Chemical Management Handbook Vol (2)

124

Producing hydrogen using nuclear energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The earliest means of separating hydrogen from water was by electrolysis using electrical energy that usually had been produced by low-efficiency thermodynamic processes. Substitution of thermal energy for electrical energy in high-temperature electrolysis gives a somewhat higher overall efficiency, but significantly complicates the process. Today, the vast majority of hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming (SMR) followed by a water-shift reaction. A well-designed SMR plant will yield hydrogen having 75â??80% of the energy of the methane used. Recent work in Japan has demonstrated the feasibility of substituting high-temperature heat from a gas-cooled nuclear reactor to replace the heat supplied in SMR by the combustion of methane. Using high-temperature heat from nuclear plants to drive thermochemical processes for producing hydrogen has been studied extensively. Bench-scale tests have been carried out in Japan demonstrating the sulphur-iodine (SI) process to produce hydrogen.

Robert E. Uhrig

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

126

Carbonization of Coal Effects of Variation of Rate of Heating during the Carbonization of a Typical Coking Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbonization of Coal Effects of Variation of Rate of Heating during the Carbonization of a Typical Coking Coal ...

William B. Warren

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Particle Adventure | How do we interpret our data? | Typical detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical detector components Typical detector components The reason that detectors are divided into many components is that each component tests for a special set of particle properties. These components are stacked so that all particles will go through the different layers sequentially. A particle will not be evident until it either interacts with the detector in a measurable fashion, or decays into detectable particles. The interaction of various particles with the different components of a detector: *Neutrinos are not shown on this chart because they rarely interact with matter, and can only be detected by missing matter and energy. Just so you know, the pion ( ) is a charged meson.* A few important things to note: Charged particles, like electrons and protons, are detected both in the tracking chamber and the electromagnetic calorimeter.

128

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

129

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

130

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

131

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

132

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

133

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

134

Chemical Management Contacts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Contacts for additional information on Chemical Management and brief description on Energy Facility Contractors Group

135

Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

invention will have utility in micro-reactor design for heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing, and combustors....

136

About Chemical Hazards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Hazards Chemical Hazards What Is a Chemical Hazard? chemical hazards.jpg A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result in serious injuries if not properly handled. Household items such as bleach can result in harmful chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid if carelessly used. Gasoline fumes from containers for lawnmowers or boats can result in major health hazards if inhaled. DOE Oak Ridge uses thousands of chemicals in its varied research and other operations. New chemicals are or can be created as a result of the research or other activities. DOE follows national safety requirements in storing and handling these chemicals to minimize the risk of injuries from its chemical usage. However, accidents can occur despite careful attention to proper handling and storage procedures.

137

Conceptual design of a Ni-based chemical looping combustion process using fixed-beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work presents a comprehensive conceptual design of a Ni-based chemical looping combustion process (CLC) carried out in fixed bed reactors. The process is intended to exploit the well-known advantages of the Ni/NiO redox system for CLC applications in terms of high reactivity, O2 carrying capacity and chemical and thermal stability. Solutions to the problem of heat management in fixed bed reactors at high temperature and high pressure are described, while a continuous flow of nitrogen for driving a gas turbine is produced. Each reactor involved in the process goes through a cyclic sequence of five reaction and heat transfer stages. Cool product gas recirculations are incorporated into the Ni oxidation and NiO reduction stages in order to moderate the maximum temperatures in the beds and control the displacement of the reaction and heat transfer fronts. A preliminary conceptual design of the process has been carried out to determine the minimum number of reactors needed for continuous operation in typical large-scale CO2 capture systems. Basic reactor models and assumptions based on an ideal plug flow pattern have been used in all the reactors during the chemical reactions and the heat transfer operations. This has made it possible to identify reasonable operating windows for the eight fixed-bed reactors that make up the CO2 capture system, and has demonstrated not only its technical viability but also its great potential for further development.

J.R. Fernández; J.C. Abanades

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect

Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Storage and Proper Segregation of Chemical Classes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proper Segregation of Chemical Classes Proper Segregation of Chemical Classes Partial List of Incompatible chemicals (Toxic Hazards) Substances in the left hand column should be stored and handled so that they cannot possibly accidentally contact corresponding substances in the center column, because toxic materials (right hand column) would be produced. Arsenical Materials Any Reducing Agent Arsine Azides Acids Hydrogen Azide Cyanides Acids Hydrogen Cyanide Hypochlorites Acids Chlorine or Hypochlorous Acid Nitrates Sulfuric Acid Nitrogen Dioxide Nitric acid Copper, Brass, Heavy Metals Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrites Acids Nitrous Fumes Phosphorus Caustic Alkalies/ Reducers Phosphine Selenides Reducers Hydrogen Selenide Sulfides Acids Hydrogen Sulfide Tellurides Reducers Hydrogen Telluride

140

Definition: Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Logging Logging Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Chemical Logging Chemical logging produces a chemical profile of the formation fluid within a well based on the measurement of changes in the chemical composition of the drilling fluid during drilling operations.[1] References ↑ http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/6076582-xtVTIk/6076582.pdf Ret Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Chemical_Logging&oldid=600357" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Linked Data Developer services OpenEI partners with a broad range of international organizations to grow

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Diesel exhaust treatment produces cyanide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diesel exhaust treatment produces cyanide ... Studies at the Swiss Federal Technical Institute (ETH), Zurich, have produced results that, if confirmed by further research, could pose problems for the developers of catalytic converters that reduce emissions from diesel and leanburn gasoline engines. ... Use of low molecular weight olefins as reductants for selective removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases, either by bleeding the olefins into the exhaust stream or blending them into the fuel itself, has attracted the interest of engine makers and regulatory agencies. ...

JOSEPH HAGGIN

1994-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

142

Voltage Sag-Related Upsets of Industrial Process Controls in Petroleum and Chemical Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with PLC controls. The sensitivity of these process controls can stop an essential service motor required for a continuous process such as in a refinery or chemical plant. Typically the controls are sensitive to the common momentary voltage sag caused...

Mansoor, A.; Key, T.; Woinsky, S.

143

From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels June 25, 2010 - 4:00pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell INEOS Bio -- one of the 17 global companies of the chemicals company INEOS -- is on schedule to begin construction this fall on the new Indian River BioEnergy Center near Vero Beach, Florida. The INEOS facility -- which was formerly a grapefruit processing plant for Ocean Spray -- will produce nearly eight million gallons of bioethanol per year from renewable biomass including yard, wood and vegetable waste. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Department of Energy awarded cost-share grants to 19 integrated biorefinery projects throughout the country. INEOS Bio was selected to for a matching grant of up to $50 million, which will fund the construction for the new center.

144

Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

Additive manufacturing method of producing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

Painter, Kevin

146

A typical Ztrack'' long-term tracking result for the SSC aperture study  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of supercomputer CPU time has been used for tracking particles in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) using a vectorized, multi-tasked post-Teapot tracking program called Ztrack.'' Typically, hundreds of particles with appropriate initial displacements (relative to the closed orbits) are tracked for a hundred thousand turns. One then simply makes a survival plot (turn at which particle is lost versus initial displacements) to determine the dynamic aperture. Occasionally, particles are tracked to a million turns for very selective cases. These numerical studies aid in determining the best aperture for the SSC. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Yan, Y.; Bourianoff, G. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA)); Schachinger, L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

148

Capacitive chemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

149

Chemicals from Metabolic Pathways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A few basic raw materials, petroleum, natural gas, +S from oil or natural gas, and O2 + N2 from air, generate first primary (or platform) chemicals, next secondary (commodity) chemicals, then intermediates, and f...

John Villadsen; Jens Nielsen; Gunnar Lidén

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry 455 Chemical Nanotechnology 4 units Prof. Richard Brutchey, Fall 2014 (Lecture = 12:00�12:50 pm MWF) CHEM 455 is an upper-division undergraduate course in Chemical Nanotechnology. The intent

Rohs, Remo

151

Chemicals and health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemicals and health ... I must add here that some chemicals are indeed dangerous in the environment, largely because they persist, they don't break down, and they can therefore build up in the food chain. ...

1980-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Biobased Chemicals Without Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike most other companies using biology to make chemicals, LanzaTech does not rely on biomass feedstocks. ...

MELODY BOMGARDNER

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

153

Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemical Processes ICEHT Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICEHT) Place: Hellas, Greece Zip:...

154

HARVARD UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL BIOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARVARD UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL BIOLOGY PHD PROGRAM 2013-2014 Student Handbook #12;Program Contacts at the beginning of each semester. Laboratory Rotations Students in the Chemical Biology Program are expected an interest in having Chemical Biology Program Students in their labs. Students may rotate in the labs

Church, George M.

155

Computational Chemical Materials Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Thermal barrier coatings, wear resistance coatings, radiation resistant materials · Materials for opticalHome Computational Chemical and Materials Engineering Tahir Cagin Chemical Engineering Department to understand behavior and properties of materials as a function of ­ Chemical constitution ­ Composition

156

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Chemical Manufacturing:  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technology Pathways Technology Pathways U.S. chemical producers recognize that energy efficiency offers a competitive edge in world markets. In 1996 the U.S. industry entered into partnership with ITP to work toward shared goals. Since then, the Chemical Industry of the Future partnership has been feeding the technology pipeline so that U.S. chemical producers will have the technologies they need to achieve their long-term economic, energy, and environmental goals. The DOE's Industries of the Future process helps entire industries articulate their long-term goals and publish them in a unified vision for the future. To achieve that vision, industry leaders jointly define detailed R&D agendas known as roadmaps. ITP relies on roadmap-defined priorities to target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a

157

Heterogeneous Catalysts for Converting Renewable Feedstocks to Fuels and Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Another popular platform molecule is 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) which is produced by the dehydration of hexoses. HMF has potential as an important bio-based commodity chemical for the synthesis of a variety of...

Karen Wilson; Adam F. Lee…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Alternative Value Chains for Biomass Conversion to Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whereas biomass conversion is widely envisioned to proceed via platform molecules that are employed as building blocks to produce chemicals, an alternative value chain is proposed that ... and cost effective rout...

Pierre Gallezot

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

160

Multi-scale scratching in chemical-mechanical polishing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the fabrication of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) semiconductor devices, the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process is extensively employed. During the CMP process, undesirable scratches are produced on Cu ...

Eusner, Thor

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Proper Use of Cotton Harvest-Aid Chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many factors influence the effectiveness of harvest-aid chemicals. One of the most important is plant maturity. This publication explains various methods by which producers can track plant maturity to ensure that defoliants and dessicants...

Stichler, Charles; Supak, James; Hake, Kater; Warrick, Billy

1995-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

162

Typical Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and operatioal support Typical Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and operatioal support Vendor's Name Contact/Rep Address Work Phone 615 Music Productions, Inc. Steve Hayes or Laura Palmer 1030 16th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212 616-244-6515 Adams, James F. James Adams 1217 Brookshire Dr., Bedford, TX 76021 214-674-6868 Adobe Systems Inc. N/A 2750 Barrett Lakes Blvd., Kennesaw, GA 30144 800-833-6687 Atlantech Resellers Inc, DBA CablesAndKits.com Craig Haynie 4555 Atwater Ct Ste ! Buford, GA 21075 877-633-2629 Albuquerque Printing Co Albert Padilla 3838 Bogan Ave.NE, Albq. 87109 505-872-2200 AlphaTRAC, Inc. John Ciolek 8670 Wolff Ct Ste 120 Westminster, CO 80031 303-428-5670 Amazon.com CSR

163

Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Producer gas from citrus wood fuels irrigation power unit  

SciTech Connect

A 90-hp diesel engine operating a citrus irrigation system was converted to run on a dual-fuel mixture utilizing producer gas from citrus wood chips as the main fuel source. A chip feeder mechanism, gasifier, filter system and control unit were designed to meet typical irrigation power requirements. Blighted, unproductive and dead trees removed near the irrigation site were used for chipping. Data on chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying rate and fuel/tree weight are presented but labour and equipment costs were not determined. 14 references.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

INTEGRATION OF OPTOELECTRONICS AND MICROFLUIDICS FOR BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL SENSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRATION OF OPTOELECTRONICS AND MICROFLUIDICS FOR BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL SENSING Thesis by Mark Over the past decade, rapid advances in microfluidics have led to the creation of valves, pumps, mixers of microfluidics is the need for a typically large interrogation setup to determine what is actually happening

Quake, Stephen R.

166

Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

Liu, Paul K. T. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Gallaher, George R. (Oakmont Borough, PA); Wu, Jeffrey C. S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Ris Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6.2 Risø Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been chemically (canola) oil with methanol. Biodiesel can be burned directly in diesel engines. Robert Diesel himself to producing low-cost biodiesel is to select clever blends of the cheapest feedstocks available, while main

169

Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

acid using known technologies or combined with Schematic illustrating the NovomerPraxair semi-integrated process to produce high- value chemical intermediates. Graphic image...

170

Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore, they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Argonne CNM Highlight: Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemmical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Ferroelectric materials display a spontaneous electric polarization below the Curie temperature that can be reoriented, typically by applying an electric field. In this study, researchers from Argonne, Northern Illinois University, and The University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that the chemical environment can control the polarization orientation in an ultrathin ferroelectric film. This is complementary to recent predictions that polarization can affect surface chemistry and illuminates potential applications in sublithographic patterning and electrically tunable catalysts. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements showed that high or low

172

Spain excites U.S. chemicals makers for investment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spain excites U.S. chemicals makers for investment ... Strategic economic factors make Spain an attractive target for U.S. investment overseas, chemical producers told fellow foreign investors at a meeting of the American Management Association last week in New York City.. ...

1967-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

173

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tranter shock tube tranter shock tube A shock tube for high temperature studies of chemical reaction kinetics. Overview The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the elementary chemical reactions, non-reactive energy transfer processes, and coupled kinetics processes involved in combustion. The basic scientific approach is to combine a theoretical effort in the energetics, dynamics, and kinetics of chemical reactions with an experimental effort in thermochemistry, dynamics, and kinetics. Both the theoretical and experimental components of the program are vertically integrated to span a wide range of phenomena relevant to the study of chemical reactivity. This integrated approach produces synergy that results from the strong interaction between the theoretical and experimental efforts. Taken as a

174

Sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor for detecting and differentiating chemical analytes includes a microscale body having a first end and a second end and a surface between the ends for adsorbing a chemical analyte. The surface includes at least one conductive heating track for heating the chemical analyte and also a conductive response track, which is electrically isolated from the heating track, for producing a thermal response signal from the chemical analyte. The heating track is electrically connected with a voltage source and the response track is electrically connected with a signal recorder. The microscale body is restrained at the first end and the second end and is substantially isolated from its surroundings therebetween, thus having a bridge configuration.

Yi, Dechang (Metuchen, NJ); Senesac, Lawrence R. (Knoxville, TN); Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method and apparatus for detecting chemical binding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

American Chemical Society-Chinese Chemical Society Alliance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

American Chemical Society-Chinese Chemical Society Alliance ... The American Chemical Society and the Chinese Chemical Society (CCS) formed a three-year collaborative alliance in 2010 to address shared global concerns. ...

MARINDA LI WU; YAO JIANNIAN

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

Number of Producing Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Producing Gas Wells Producing Gas Wells Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 452,945 476,652 493,100 487,627 514,637 482,822 1989-2012 Alabama 6,591 6,860 6,913 7,026 7,063 6,327 1989-2012 Alaska 239 261 261 269 277 185 1989-2012 Arizona 7 6 6 5 5 5 1989-2012 Arkansas 4,773 5,592 6,314 7,397 8,388 8,538 1989-2012 California 1,540 1,645 1,643 1,580 1,308 1,423 1989-2012 Colorado 22,949 25,716 27,021 28,813 30,101 32,000 1989-2012 Gulf of Mexico 2,552 1,527 1,984 1,852 1,559 1,474 1998-2012 Illinois 43 45 51 50 40 40 1989-2012 Indiana 2,350 525 563 620 914 819 1989-2012 Kansas

178

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

SciTech Connect

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Chemical reactor and method for chemically converting a first material into a second material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

180

Improving liquid chemical intervention methods to control pathogens on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Factors that affect liquid chemical intervention methods of controlling pathogens on fresh-cut produce were investigated. The relationship between produce tissue structure (intercellular space, cell size, and cell distribution) and the sanitizing...

Troya, Maria Rosa

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Long-laser-pulse method of producing thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing thin films by means of laser vaporization employs a long-pulse laser (Nd-glass of about one millisecond duration) with a peak power density typically in the range 10.sup.5 -10.sup.6 W/cm.sup.2. The method may be used to produce high T.sub.c superconducting films of perovskite material. In one embodiment, a few hundred nanometers thick film of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x is produced on a SrTiO.sub.3 crystal substrate in one or two pulses. In situ-recrystallization and post-annealing, both at elevated temperature and in the presence of an oxidizing agen The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-C03-76SF0098 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California.

Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Olander, Donald K. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Typical, finite baths as a means of exact simulation of open quantum systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is presently considerable interest in accurately simulating the evolution of open systems for which Markovian master equations fail. Examples are systems that are time-dependent and/or strongly damped. A number of elegant methods have now been devised to do this, but all use a bath consisting of a continuum of harmonic oscillators. While this bath is clearly appropriate for, e.g., systems coupled to the EM field, it is not so clear that it is a good model for generic many-body systems. Here we explore a different approach to exactly simulating open-systems: using a finite bath chosen to have certain key properties of thermalizing many-body systems. To explore the numerical resources required by this method to approximate an open system coupled to an infinite bath, we simulate a weakly damped system and compare to the evolution given by the relevant Markovian master equation. We obtain the Markovian evolution with reasonable accuracy by using an additional averaging procedure, and elucidate how the typicality of the bath generates the correct thermal steady-state via the process of "eigenstate thermalization".

Luciano Silvestri; Kurt Jacobs; Vanja Dunjko; Maxim Olshanii

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

183

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for...

184

Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Abstract: The reduction of...

185

Chemical Structure and Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2154-3 2154-3 UC-400 Annual Report 2000 Chemical Structure and Dynamics Steven D. Colson, Associate Director Robin S. McDowell, Program Manager and the Staff of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program April 2001 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report Contents Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report 1. Introduction Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program......................................................... 1-3 2. Reaction Mechanisms at Liquid Interfaces Structure and Reactivity of Ice Surfaces and Interfaces G. A. Kimmel, Z. Dohnálek, K. P. Stevenson, R. S. Smith,

186

Dynamics of femtosecond laser produced tungsten nanoparticle plumes S. S. Harilal,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamics of femtosecond laser produced tungsten nanoparticle plumes S. S. Harilal,1 N. Farid,1,2 A tungsten nanoparticle plumes in vacuum. Fast gated images showed distinct two components expansion features for a cost effective way for various applica- tions. Typical synthesis methods for nanoparticles are liquid

Harilal, S. S.

187

CHEMICAL UNIONS FORM ALLIANCE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL UNIONS FORM ALLIANCE ... The Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical & Energy "Workers International Union (PACE) and the United Steelworkers of America (USWA) are industrial unions that have similar histories and many chemical and petroleum industry members, say union officials. ... PACE has created strategic alliances with several companies, said PACE President Boydlfoung in a statement, adding that it made sense to try the same thing with other unions. ...

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Chemicals (2010 MECS)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

189

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for… (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter , with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

191

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weakly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

192

Chemical Market Prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Market Prices ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1945-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

193

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter , with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

195

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MARKET PRICES ... Compiled from weekly current price listings in the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter , with permission of the publisher under its copyright. ...

1941-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Assessment of typical BWR (boiling water reactor) vessel configurations and examination coverage  

SciTech Connect

Even though boiling water reactors (BWRs) are not susceptible to the kind of incident known as pressurized thermal shock that must be considered in the design and operation of pressurized water reactors, BWR reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) have experienced higher than expected embrittlement caused by fast neutron irradiation. This has required the vessel to be at a higher temperature than originally projected before the plant can be taken to power operation. In addition, many BWR plants have received exemption from the 10-year volumetric nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of the vessel as required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B PV) Code Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components,'' because NDE access is severely restricted. Since many RPV welds have not been examined after being placed in service and the potential for service-induced flaws exists, regulatory authorities are looking closely at examination relief requests. BWR reactor vessel examination coverage is typically limited by plant design. Most BWR plants were designed when inservice examination codes were in the early stages of development, and very little consideration was give to designing for NDE access. Consequently, there is restricted access for many areas of the RPV. Since an increase in examination requirements has been placed in ASME B PV Code Section XI in these areas, efforts have begun on a thorough analysis of the vessel weld volumes examined during inservice examination and an evaluation of possibility expanding the RPV examination coverage. Because of these concerns, an investigation of the accessibility of the reactor vessel for NDE was performed to define the present status and to determine the improvements in coverage that can be accomplished in the near future. 7 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Walker, S.M. (EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation Center, Charlotte, NC (USA)); Feige, E.J.; Ingamells, J.R. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA)); Calhoun, G.L.; Davis, J.; Kapoor, A. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this past quarter, work continued on: the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement; the optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optical control methods; and in the area of chemical additives, work continued on the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

Yortsos, Y.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Numerical simulation of a Q-switched cw chemical HF laser  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of a Q-switched cw chemical laser is developed. The model is based on a simplified description of the active medium and the exact wave description of the mode structure of radiation. The model is used to study numerically the spatial-angular parameters of the output beam of a HF laser. We considered an unstable cavity that provided a high stability of the axis of the laser-pulse radiation pattern upon Q-switching with the help of a rotating mirror. The results of numerical simulation showed that for typical dimensions of a plane or an unstable cavity of the positive branch in a cw chemical laser, the angular radiation divergence rapidly changes in time and on average exceeds the diffraction limit by an order of magnitude. The problem can be solved by replacing a rotating mirror Q switch by a fixed one with time-dependent transmission. We also considered a negative-branch unstable cavity which can provide a stable radiation divergence upon Q-switching produced by a rotating mirror. (lasers)

Kuprenyuk, V I [Institute for Laser Physics, Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Scientific and Industrial Corporation 'Vavilov State Optical Institute', St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Yurii P; Mashendzhinov, Viktor I; Rotinyan, Mikhail A; Fedorov, Igor' A [Russian Science Centre 'Applied Chemistry', St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rodionov, A Yu

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY ABBREVIATION CHEMICAL NAME HAZARDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irritant destain Methanol,acetic acid,H2O Flammable, Corrosive - acid DI H2O Deionized water DCM Nitric acid Corrosive - acid KAc Potassium acetate Irritant KCl Potassium chloride Irritant K2H PO4 Corrosive - base LiCl Lithium chloride Harmful MeOH Methanol Flammable #12;CHEMICAL ABBREVIATION KEY

Pawlowski, Wojtek

200

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Reed, of the Illinois Geological Survey...Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Richmond...Board of Health, Madison, Wis. Division...Pennsylvania. Division of Chemical Education: Chairman...the University of Illinois; on execu-tive...from 10 or more plants were macerated...

1939-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Chemical Signals Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Signals · Types · Production · Transmission · Reception · Reading: Ch 10 except boxes 10.1 and 10.2 #12;What is chemical communication? · Movement of molecules from sender to receiver · Methods compounds are volatile. - 5-20 carbon compounds - carbon (MW=12) + hydrogen is less dense than oxygen (MW

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

202

Chemical Engineering Andrew Zydney  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;ChE Employment (2003 at PSU) Merck Dow ExxonMob Air Products Amgen PPG Sunoco Kraft Foods NRC Procter, microelectronics, consumer products, biotechnology, fuels / energy, environmental engineering, etc. ·Chemical Engineers focus on the processes involved in making new products, including chemical reactions

Maranas, Costas

203

CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 Risk and Safety Manager 5535 Security 7058 #12;- 3 - FOREWORD This reference manual outlines the safe

Bolch, Tobias

204

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Cleaning Chemical Cleaning Renee H. Spires Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Project Manager July 29, 2009 Tank Waste Corporate Board 2 Objective Provide an overview of the ECC process and plan 3 Chemical Cleaning * Oxalic Acid can get tanks clean - Tank 16 set a standard in 1982 - Tanks 5-6 Bulk OA cleaning results under evaluation * However, the downstream flowsheet and financial impacts of handling the spent acid were unacceptable Before After Tank 16 Tank 16 4 Oxalic Acid Flowsheet Impacts Evap Sludge Washing Evap Feed/Drop Tank 8 Wt% Oxalic Acid Neutralization Tank Solids Liquid High oxalate concentration Negligible oxalate concentration * Oxalates from chemical cleaning impact salt processing * A process change was needed Evaporator Saltstone Vaults DWPF Filled Canisters 5 Vision * Eliminate the impacts to the Tank Farm

205

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Producer Biodiesel Producer Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Requirements Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is composed of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from plant or animal matter, meets the

206

Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Lyon, Richard E. (Absecon, NJ); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

207

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Manufacturing of a Crab Analogue to Determine the Quality of U.S. Shore-based Produced Surimi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

storage stability and chemical composition of surimi produced using an in-line washing system were of the 13th by the FlY Arctu rus and held using a flooded refrigerated seawater (RSW) system (Gwinn, 1987

209

Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

210

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Chemically sensitive interfaces on SAW devices  

SciTech Connect

Using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, three approaches to the effective use of chemically sensitive interfaces that are not highly chemically selective have been examined: (1) molecular identification from time-resolved permeation transients; (2) using multifrequency SAW devices to determine the frequency dependence of analyte/film interactions; (3) use of an array of SAW devices bearing diverse chemically sensitive interfaces to produce a distinct response pattern for each analyte. In addition to their well-known sensitivity to mass changes (0.0035 monolayer of N{sub 2} can be measured), SAW devices respond to the mechanical and electronic properties of thin films, enhancing response information content but making a thorough understanding of the perturbation critical. Simultaneous measurement of changes in frequency and attenuation, which can provide the information necessary to determine the type of perturbation, are used as part of the above discrimination schemes.

Ricco, A.J.; Martin, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Xu, Chuanjing [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Allred, R.E. [Adherent Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

Engelke, Raymond P. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedges, Robert O. (Los Alamos, NM); Kammerman, Alan B. (Los Alamos, NM); Albright, James N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

Specimen Curriculum for Chemical Engineering Focus Area: Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry Chem 220B 3 hours Physical Chemistry Chem 230 3 hours Chemical Reactor Engineering ChBE 225 3Specimen Curriculum for Chemical Engineering Focus Area: Chemical Engineering Semester hours SOPHOMORE YEAR FALL SPRING Chem 219A

Bordenstein, Seth

215

Exploration strategies based on a coalbed methane producibility model  

SciTech Connect

Knowing geologic and hydrologic characteristics of a basin does not necessarily lead to a determination of its coalbed methane producibility because it is the synergy among key hydrogeologic controls that governs producibility. Detailed studies performed in the San Juan, Piceance, and Sand Wash Basins determined that the key hydrogeologic factors affecting producibility include depositional setting and coal distribution, tectonic and structural setting, coal rank and gas generation, hydrodynamics, permeability, and gas content. The conceptual model based on these factors provides a rationale for exploration and development strategies for unexplored areas or in basins having established or limited production. Exceptionally high productivity requires good permeability; thick, laterally continuous high-rank and high-gas-content coals; dynamic flow of ground water through those coals; generation of secondary biogenic gases; and migration and conventional trapping of thermogenic and biogenic gases. Higher coalbed methane producibility commonly occurs in areas of upward flow associated with permeability barriers (no-flow boundaries). Fluid migration across a large gathering area orthogonal to permeability barriers and/or in situ generation of secondary biogenic gases concentrate the coal gas, resulting in higher gas contents. Low coalbed methane production is typically associated with very low permeability systems; the absence of conventional or hydrodynamic traps; and thin, low-rank coals below the threshold of thermogenic gas generation. Production from relatively low-gas-content coals in highly permeable recharge areas may result in excessive water and limited coalbed methane production. Thus, high permeability can be as detrimental to coalbed methane producibility as is low permeability.

Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Hamilton, D.S.; Tyler, R.; Finley, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Exploration strategies based on a coalbed methane producibility model  

SciTech Connect

Knowing geologic and hydrologic characteristics of a basin does not necessarily lead to a determination of its coalbed methane producibility because it is the synergy among key hydrogeologic controls that governs producibility. Detailed studies performed in the San Juan, Piceance, and Sand Wash Basins determined that the key hydrogeologic factors affecting producibility include depositional setting and coal distribution, tectonic and structural setting, coal rank and gas generation, hydrodynamics, permeability, and gas content. The conceptual model based on these factors provides a rationale for exploration and development strategies for unexplored areas or in basins having established or limited production. Exceptionally high productivity requires good permeability; thick, laterally continuous high-rank and high-gas-content coals; dynamic flow of ground water through those coals; generation of secondary biogenic gases; and migration and conventional trapping of thermogenic and biogenic gases. Higher coalbed methane producibility commonly occurs in areas of upward flow associated with permeability barriers (no-flow boundaries). Fluid migration across a large gathering area orthogonal to permeability barriers and/or in situ generation of secondary biogenic gases concentrate the coal gas, resulting in higher gas contents. Low coalbed methane production is typically associated with very low permeability systems; the absence of conventional or hydrodynamic traps; and thin, low-rank coals below the threshold of thermogenic gas generation. Production from relatively low-gas-content coals in highly permeable recharge areas may result in excessive water and limited coalbed methane production. Thus, high permeability can be as detrimental to coalbed methane producibility as is low permeability.

Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Hamilton, D.S.; Tyler, R.; Finley, R.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy Frontier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations DOE Logo Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations DOE Logo Focus Areas Reaction Mechanisms Controlled Active Metals Materials Synthesis Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations > IACT Home IACT News IACT Partners IACT Staff IACT Awards Publications & Presentations Jobs at IACT Energy Frontier Research Centers at Argonne Strategic Alliances Research Facilities & Tools Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a multidisciplinary approach to address key catalytic conversions that could improve the efficiency of producing fuels from biomass. IACT focuses on advancing the science of catalysis for the efficient conversion of energy resources into usable forms. IACT's goal is to find ways to achieve control and efficiency of chemical conversions comparable to those in nature.

218

Quantifying the parameters of successful agricultural producers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the parameters of successful agricultural producers. Through the use of the Financial and Risk Management (FARM) Assistance database, this study evaluated economic measures for row-crop producers...

Kaase, Gregory Herman

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

 The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

220

Chemical Evolution and Chemical State of the Long Valley Magma...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Magma Chamber Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Chemical Evolution and Chemical State of the Long Valley Magma Chamber Abstract...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Experiments with Wind to Produce Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nat EXPERIMENTS WITH WIND TO PRODUCE ENERGY Curriculum: Wind Power (simple machines, weatherclimatology, aerodynamics, leverage, mechanics, atmospheric pressure, and energy...

222

Surface Chemical Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Chemical Dynamics Surface Chemical Dynamics The goal of the Surface Chemical Dynamics Program is to elucidate the underlying physical processes that determine the products (selectivity) and yield (efficiency) of chemical transformations relevant to energy-related chemistry on catalytic and nanostructured surfaces. Achieving this end requires understanding the evolution of the reactant-molecule/surface complex as molecules adsorb, bonds dissociate, surface species diffuse, new bonds form and products desorb. The pathways and time scales of these processes are ultimately determined by a multidimensional potential energy surface that is a function of the geometric and electronic structures of the surface and the reactant, product, intermediate and transition-state molecular and atomic species.

223

Chemicals from Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Added Chemicals from Biomass. Volume I: Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas (www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/35523.pdf) . 6. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical...

David R. Dodds; Richard A. Gross

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

Chemical decontamination specification preparation  

SciTech Connect

Since the first low-concentration chemical decontamination in the United States at Vermont Yankee in 1979, > 75 decontamination applications have been made at > 20 nuclear electrical generating stations. Chemical decontamination has become a common technique for reducing person-rem exposures. Two vendors are currently offering low-concentration chemical decontamination reagents for application in boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor systems. All technical aspects associated with the chemical decontamination technology have been commercially tested and are well advanced beyond the research and development stage. Extensive corrosion and material compatibility testing has been performed on the major solvent systems with satisfactory results. The material compatibility testing for the three main solvent systems, CANDECON, CITROX, and LOMI, has been documented in numerous Electric Power Research Institute reports.

Miller, M.A.; Remark, J.F.; Vandergriff, D.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Western Chemical Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Western Chemical Information ... For the most part, the units are small because production is geared to the needs of the 11 states, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, not to the entire country. ...

FREDERICK G. SAWYER

1949-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

226

Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and looping cycles in general represent an important new ... technologies, which can be deployed for direct combustion as well as be used in gasification...2...stream suitable fo...

Edward John (Ben) Anthony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Chemicals from coal  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Chemicals from Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...easy. Reduction to atmospheric pressure causes the...typically high content of water. About 20 percent of...equipment for acetylene recovery and gas purification...by gasifying coke in water-gas sets. 2. After...experimentation has been at atmospheric pressure. Recent research...

Arthur M. Squires

1976-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

230

NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmentally friendly process offers Environmentally friendly process offers intriguing alternative to fossil-fuel-based ethylene for chemicals and transportation fuels. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated a new way to use photosynthesis to produce ethylene. NREL scientists introduced a gene for ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remained stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that could be easily captured. Ethylene is the most widely produced petrochemical feedstock in the world. It is currently produced exclusively from fossil fuels, and its production is the largest carbon dioxide (CO 2 )- emitting process in the chemical industry. Steam cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons from

231

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, C.J.

1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: A tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, Carl J. (Farragut, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

William Orem; Calin Tatu; Matthew Varonka; Harry Lerch; Anne Bates; Mark Engle; Lynn Crosby; Jennifer McIntosh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Definition: Independent Power Producer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producer Producer Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Independent Power Producer Any entity that owns or operates an electricity generating facility that is not included in an electric utility's rate base. This term includes, but is not limited to, cogenerators and small power producers and all other nonutility electricity producers, such as exempt wholesale generators, who sell electricity.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An Independent Power Producer is an entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users. NUGs may be privately held facilities, corporations, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers, and non-energy industrial concerns capable of feeding excess energy into

236

The characterization and stereochemical utilization of phosphorothioates produced by chemical and enzymatic synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis of Glucose-1-Phosphorothioate and Kinetic Comparison to its Oxygen Analogue 18 Isolation and Purification of Glucose-1-Phosphorothioate . . 19 Synthesis of Uridine Diphosphoglucose-P(S) via Uridine Diphosphoglucose Pyrophosphorylase 22... Purification and Characterization of Uridine Diphosphoglucose-)3(S) 23 Synthesis of Uridine Diphosphoglucose-P(S) from Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridylyl Transferase 25 Purification and Characterization of Uridine Diphospho- glucose-P(S) from Galactose-1...

Newborn, Joey Scott

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite - Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined HLW  

SciTech Connect

During the seventh year of the current grant (DE-FG02-05ER63966) we completed an exhaustive study of cold calcination and began work on the development of tank fill materials to fill empty tanks and control residuals. Cold calcination of low and high NOx low activity waste (LAW) SRS Tank 44 and Hanford AN-107 simulants, respectively with metallic Al + Si powders was evaluated. It was found that a combination of Al and Si powders could be used as reducing agents to reduce the nitrate and nitrite content of both low and high NOx LAW to low enough levels to allow the LAW to be solidified directly by mixing it with metakaolin and allowing it to cure at 90 C. During room temperature reactions, NOx was reduced and nitrogen was emitted as N2 or NH3. This was an important finding because now one can pretreat LAW at ambient temperatures which provides a low-temperature alternative to thermal calcination. The significant advantage of using Al and Si metals for denitration/denitrition of the LAW is the fact that the supernate could potentially be treated in situ in the waste tanks themselves. Tank fill materials based upon a hydroceramic binder have been formulated from mixtures of metakaolinite, Class F fly ash and Class C flue gas desulphurization (FGD) ash mixed with various concentrations of NaOH solution. These harden over a period of hours or days depending on composition. A systematic study of properties of the tank fill materials (leachability) and ability to adsorb and hold residuals is under way.

Grutzeck, Michael

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol 19, No 1, 1993 MALE-PRODUCED AGGREGATION PHEROMONE OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

respond The pheromone includes two hydro- carbon components, (3E,5E,7�£)-5-ethy1-7-methyl-3 transmit fruit-degrading micro- organisms, such as brown rot [Monilinia fiucticola (Wint.) Honey] in stone

239

PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Challenges for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering", National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2003. #12;2 B1 PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering Bylaws Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering College of Engineering and Architecture Approved by Voiland School faculty

Collins, Gary S.

240

Research: A typical thermal barrier coating consists of two layers over the substrate: 1) a ceramic top coat to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research: A typical thermal barrier coating consists of two layers over the substrate: 1) a ceramic-level understanding of the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic interfaces present in thermal barrier coatings. We have interfaces weaken as the ceramic thickens. This provides atomic-level insight as to why thermal barrier

Carter, Emily A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

General Project Sequence The following are typical steps on many projects. Actual required steps may vary from project to project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General Project Sequence The following are typical steps on many projects. Actual required steps may vary from project to project depending upon the scope, complexity, and specific features. Time periods indicated will vary depending on the nature of the project and needs of the user group

Mather, Patrick T.

242

Glass Inclusions in Mariana Arc Phenocrysts: A New Perspective on Magmatic Evolution in a Typical Intra-oceanic Arc1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass Inclusions in Mariana Arc Phenocrysts: A New Perspective on Magmatic Evolution in a Typical at Dallas, Box 830688, Richardson, TX 75083-0688, USA A B S T R A C T Major element compositions of glass of these lavas reflects accumulation of plagioclase. Glass inclusions also show the common occurrence of felsic

Stern, Robert J.

243

Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) What's it for: measuring the size of particles typically in the sub micron region,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) · What's it for: measuring the size of particles typically weight of organic compounds. #12;·DLS Measurement: the speed at which the particles are diffusing due to Brownian motion is measured by recording the rate at which the intensity of the scattered light fluctuates

Subramanian, Venkat

244

Energy footprint of Locally Produced Ethanol   

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The study was performed in western Kenya, and data was gotten from a Mumias Sugar Company and Spectre International ethanol distillery. Fertilizers had the largest energy share while industrial chemicals were the least. Indirect inputs had a larger energy...

Chiatula, Ebelechukwu

2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

245

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory delivers financially attractive systems that use biomass to produce industrial and consumer products.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass to produce industrial and consumer products. While biomass holds potential for a ready supply from biomass--has stymied government and industry alike. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific to using biomass. Our research is focused on producing high-value bioproducts, such as chemicals

246

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

247

Chemical Cleaning Program Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Cleaning Chemical Cleaning Program Review Neil Davis Deputy Program Manager Waste Removal & Tank Closure July 29, 2009 SRR-STI-2009-00464 2 Contents Regulatory drivers Process overview Preliminary results Lessons learned Path forward 3 Regulatory Drivers The Federal Facilities Agreement establishes milestones for the removal of bulk waste and closure of each non-compliant tank Per the Dispute Resolution: - "DOE shall complete operational closure of Tanks 19 and 18 by 12/31/2012" - "DOE shall complete operational closure of 4 tanks by 9/30/2015" SRR intention to close 4 tanks by 9/30/2010, or as soon as possible Tanks 5 & 6 will be 2 of the 4 tanks 4 Tank Closure Process Bulk Waste Removal Mechanical Heel Removal Chemical Cleaning Annulus

248

Chemical Label Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Label Information Chemical Label Information Chemical Name CAS No. NFPA 704 Label Data Hazard Information Health Fire Reactivity Other acetone 67641 1 3 0 Eye, skin and mucous membrane irritatiion. Central nervous system depression. chloroform 67663 2 0 0 CAR [1] and TERAT [2] Liver and kidney disorders. Eye and skin irritation. Central nervous system depression. Cardiac arrythmia. ethanol 64175 0 3 0 Skin and eye irritation. ethyl alcohol 64175 0 3 0 Skin and eye irritation. hydrofluoric acid 7664393 4 0 0 Acute [3] - Skin contact can lead to bone damage. Skin, eye and mucous membrane irritation. hydrogen peroxide (35 to 52%) 7722841 2 0 1 OX Very irritating to the skin, eye and respiratory tract. hydrogen peroxide (> 52%) 7722841 2 0 3 OX Extremely irritating to the skin, eye and respiratory tract.

249

Chemical Storage-Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage - Storage - Overview Ali T-Raissi, FSEC Hydrogen Storage Workshop Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois August 14-15, 2002 Hydrogen Fuel - Attributes * H 2 +½ O 2 → H 2 O (1.23 V) * High gravimetric energy density: 27.1 Ah/g, based on LHV of 119.93 kJ/g * 1 wt % = 189.6 Wh/kg (0.7 V; i.e. η FC = 57%) * Li ion cells: 130-150 Wh/kg Chemical Hydrides - Definition * They are considered secondary storage methods in which the storage medium is expended - primary storage methods include reversible systems (e.g. MHs & C-nanostructures), GH 2 & LH 2 storage Chemical Hydrides - Definition (cont.) * The usual chemical hydride system is reaction of a reactant containing H in the "-1" oxidation state (hydride) with a reactant containing H in the "+1" oxidation

250

Chemical profiles of switchgrass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

profiles profiles of switchgrass Zhoujian Hu a,b , Robert Sykes a,c , Mark F. Davis a,c , E. Charles Brummer a,d , Arthur J. Ragauskas a,b,e, * a BioEnergy Science Center, USA b School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401, USA d Institute for Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA e Forest Products and Chemical Engineering Department, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 15 April 2009 Received in revised form 10 December 2009 Accepted 10 December 2009 Available online 13 January 2010 Keywords: Switchgrass Morphological components Chemical

251

Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

252

Physical and Chemical Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

data image data image Physical and Chemical Applications Research in this area includes: Chemical analysis (femtosecond laser ablation). Advanced sensors (laser ultrasonics). Advanced materials and nanotechnology for clean energy- hydrogen storage, nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes, nanowires, and nanoparticles). Photons to fuels (biosynthetic pathways for generating hydrocarbon biofuels in photosynthetic organisms). Advanced Sensor Development Sensor-based control of industrial processes can help companies: Decrease production costs; Reduce waste of raw materials on manufacturing lines; Lower manufacturing downtime from equipment maintenance; Increase the energy efficiency of manufacturing processes; Detect equipment failure early, before it becomes a major liability;

253

Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 September 1933 research-article Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation G. R. Goldsbrough The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

On Ocean Currents Produced by Winds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 January 1935 research-article On Ocean Currents Produced by Winds G. R. Goldsbrough The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access...

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Lead in Maple Syrup Produced in Connecticut  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lead in Maple Syrup Produced in Connecticut ... Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. ... Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504 ...

David E. Stilwell; Craig L. Musante

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River...

257

California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

that validated the viability of this technology platform for producing cellulosic ethanol from corn stover at reasonable yields. The California Energy Commission has awarded...

258

Hydrogenase mimic produces hydrogen under the light  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Hydrogenase mimic produces hydrogen under the light 24 Jan 2013 Researchers from the laboratory of Giovanna Ghirlanda...

259

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3,...

260

An efficient platform for screening expression and crystallization of glycoproteins produced in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An efficient platform for screening expression and crystallization of glycoproteins produced, USA. 2The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey modifications will yield samples amenable to crystallization. We describe a platform, which we have proven

Lebendiker, Mario

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hooker Chemical Co - NY 05  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Hooker Chemical Co - NY 05 Hooker Chemical Co - NY 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hooker Chemical Co. (NY.05) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Occidental Chemical Corporation Hooker Electrochemical Corporation NY.05-1 NY.05-2 Location: Niagara Falls , New York NY.05-3 Evaluation Year: 1985 NY.05-1 NY.05-2 Site Operations: Design, engineering, construction, equipping and operation of a plant for the manufacture of Product 45 (xylene hexachloride); MFL (Miller's fluorolubricant); P-45Cl; and recovered P-45Cl2 from residues produced in the manufacture of P-45Cl; used hydrochloric acid (a byproduct of the P-45 Program) in the chemical processing of uranium-bearing slag as a precursor to recovery. NY.05-2 NY.05-4 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Radiation levels below criteria NY.05-1

262

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

3 - Chemically derived graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The synthesis of graphene via chemical functionalisation of graphite is reviewed, including investigations that unravelled the atomic structure of resulting graphene oxide (GO) sheets in the suspension. The fundamental properties of GO are discussed and a summary of recent advances in device applications is provided.

R.S. Sundaram

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Design for chemical recycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than design. Life-cycle assessment (LCA), resource envi- ronmental profile analysis...product from cradle to grave. Although LCA is considered to be an evaluation tool and...polyol from oil. 7. The design check using LCA In order to check that chemical recycling...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Germany's Chemical Plans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

THE DIRECTION OF PROPOSED PLANT investments in the German Federal Republic is on the brink of significant change, according to the 1956 picture of capital expenditure projects. Leading German chemical companies are spending less on new plants in L956 than ...

1956-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

266

Chemical Plant Expansion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite $4 billion of capital expenditure for plant expansion over the past seven years, a high level of construction activity is expected to continue ... A marked increase in capital expenditures of t h e six largest chemical companies tooïç place in 1951 over 1950. ...

JOHN M. WEISS

1952-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

267

NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

None

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

268

Chemicals from Coal Coking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemicals from Coal Coking ... Since 2009, she has been at INCAR-CSIC, researching the preparation and characterization of carbon materials (cokes and fibers) and nanomaterials (nanotubes and graphenes) and their catalytic, environmental, and energy applications. ... He then joined the Fundamental Studies Section of the British Coke (later Carbonization) Research Association, eventually becoming Head of Fundamental Studies. ...

Marcos Granda; Clara Blanco; Patricia Alvarez; John W. Patrick; Rosa Menéndez

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

PRODUCER -SCROUNGER GAME n-Person Game  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

size, ESS frequency of scrounging Assumptions of Producer-Scrounger Game Fix group (or population size Producer invades Scrounger n-Person Game with ESS q* : 0 ESS ** q P q S dq dW dq dW ESS frequency of scrounger

Caraco, Thomas

270

American Chemical Society Award Winners, Chicago, III.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

American Chemical Society Award Winners, Chicago, III. ... Copyright © 1970 American Chemical Society ...

1970-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

CSD: Research Programs: Chemical Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSD: Research: Chemical Physics CSD: Research Programs: Chemical Physics CSD: Research: Chemical Physics CSD: Research Programs: Chemical Physics LBL Logo A-Z CSD Research Highlights CSD Directory Chemical Sciences Division A-Z Index Phone Book Search Berkeley Lab INTRODUCTION TO CSD NATIONAL FACILITIES & CENTERS RESEARCH PROGRAMS Atomic, Molecular & Optical Sciences Catalytic Science Chemical Physics The Glenn T. Seaborg Center (GTSC) STUDENT & POSTDOCTORAL OPPORTUNITIES NEWS & EVENTS CSD CONTACTS LBNL HOME Privacy & Security Notice DOE UC Berkeley CSD > Research Programs > Chemical Physics The Chemical Physics Program of the Chemical Science Division of LBNL is concerned with the development of both experimental and theoretical methodologies for studying molecular structure and dynamical processes at the most fundamental level, and with the application of these to specific

272

Work Practices for Chemical Fumehoods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Practices for Chemical Fumehoods Practices for Chemical Fumehoods (Reviewed May 16, 2011) Always use a chemical fumehood when working with toxic and/or volatile chemicals, not on an open bench. Chemical fumehoods are designed to provide protection for the user from chemical and radiological contaminants. However, they do not absolutely eliminate exposure, even under ideal conditions. Careless work practices can result in considerable exposure to users who may believe they are protected. To optimize the performance of the chemical hood, adhere to the following work practices: 1. Ensure that your chemical hood has a current inspection sticker (dated within the last year). The face velocity should be between 80 and 120 linear feet per minute (lfpm). 2. Verify that the chemical hood is drawing air.

273

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco Documents - and - Tobacco Companies Sucessfully Prevented Tobacco Control Legislation in Argentina Speaker(s): Ernesto Sebrie Suzaynn Schick Date: November 10, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Two seminars will be presented by two speakers. "Chemical change in secondhand tobacco smoke...." (by Dr. Schick): The major US tobacco companies responded to Hirayama et al's 1981 paper showing secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers by intensifying their study of the chemistry and toxicity of secondhand smoke. Using a variety of experimental approaches, RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris studied the effects of aging, dilution and contact with typical room surfaces on secondhand

274

Typical Response to Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oppen.2006. PRSLB. 273:2305 - 2312 http://www.science.uts.edu Thermal Tolerance Magnetic Davies Keppels Magnetic Davies Control 30 oC 31 oC escence(Fv/Fm) Which kept at 27.5C for 5 days? Berkelmans and van Oppen.2006. PRSLB. 273:2305 - 2312 Keppels Magnetic Davies

Mitchell, Randall J.

275

Chemically graftedChemically grafted nanoparticlesnanoparticles Quantum dot Nanoparticle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemically graftedChemically grafted nanoparticlesnanoparticles Quantum dot Nanoparticle (~ 5nm Pb atomic force microscope tip: tether nanoparticle to oxide dot, or H-terminated pit after HF etch Ebeam

Plotkin, Steven S.

276

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3) 3) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 ii This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 iii The Financial Reporting System, 1977-1993 diskette is available from the Energy Information Administration.

277

VOLUME LXXVI, NUMBER 4, WINTER 2013 When asked to envision a typical workspace, most of us imagine neutral  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

--literally. BY JESSICA STOLLER-CONRAD 20 ENGI NEER I NG & SCIENCE WINTER 2013 #12;The cleanroom at the Kavli Nanoscience, uses a tool in the cleanroom to produce plasmonic chips--devices that increase the intensity of light

Jackson, Jennifer M.

278

Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology 1 Faculty of Engineering, Department of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Engineering with Fine Chemicals Processing, run jointly with the Department of Chemistry for chemical engineering graduates with formal training in synthetic chemistry and process developmentChemical Engineering and Chemical Technology 1 Faculty of Engineering, Department of --Chemical

279

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Chemical Sciences Division: Directory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO CSD NATIONAL FACILITIES & CENTERS RESEARCH STUDENT & POSTDOCTORAL OPPORTUNITIES NEWS & EVENTS CSD CONTACTS LBNL HOME Privacy & Security Notice DOE UC Berkeley CSD Directory A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Rebecca Abergel CSD Project Scientist; The Glenn T. Seaborg Center. Musahid Ahmed CSD Staff Scientist, Chemical Physics Program/Chemical Dynamics Beamline Publications Richard A. Andersen Professor of Chemistry, UC Berkeley; CSD Senior Faculty Scientist, The Glenn T. Seaborg Center Publications John Arnold Professor of Chemistry, UC Berkeley; CSD Faculty Scientist, Catalytic Science Program Publications B Ali Belkacem CSD Deputy and Senior Staff Scientist; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences Program Leader

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

New mud system produces solids-free, reusable water  

SciTech Connect

The Corpus Christi, Texas, based Cameron Equipment Co., Inc., has developed a closed-loop mud treating system that removes solids from water-based systems and leaves the separated fluid clean and chemical free enough to be re-used directly on the rig. The system has been successfully applied by a Gulf of Mexico operator in areas where zero discharge is required. The alternative mud conditions program offered by the developers is called the Cameron Fluid Recycling System. Designed for closed-loop water-based fluids, the system is a new method of removing solids from normally discharged fluids such as drilling mud, waste and wash water, or any other water-based fluid that contains undesirable solids. The patented method efficiently produces end products that are (1) dry solids; and (2) essentially 100% solids-free fluid that can be re-used in the same mud system. All excess drilling mud, and all wash water that would normally go to the reserve pit or a cuttings barge are collected in a tank. Recycled fluid is compatible with the mud system fluid, no harmful chemicals are used, and pH is not altered.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Why Sequencea Biogas-Producing Microbial Community?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Biogas-Producing Microbial Community? a Biogas-Producing Microbial Community? The world population is steadily growing, and so is the amount of waste produced by human activity. For example, an estimated 236 million tons of municipal solid waste are produced annually in the U.S., 50% of which is biomass. At the same time, energy sources are rapidly depleting. Converting organic waste to renewable biofuel by anaerobic digestion hence represents one appealing option to mitigate this problem. Biogas is a natural by-product of the decomposition of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment and comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. This naturally occurring process has been known for more than a century. More recently, it has been gaining importance as more efficient anaerobic digestion technologies have been developed to treat and recover energy (in

284

California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Logos Technologies and EERE are partnering with Edeniq of Visalia to build a plant that will produce cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass, wood chips, and corn leaves, stalks, and husks--all plentiful, nonfood feedstock sources in California.

285

Ex Parte Communications- Uranium Producers of America  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On Thursday, February 12, 2015, representatives from the Uranium  Producers  of America (UPA) met with the Department of Energy (DOE) officials to discuss the management of the federal excess...

286

Producing X-rays at the APS  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

287

Methods and systems for producing syngas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

288

Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this quarter work continued on: development of relative permeabilities during steam injection; optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optimal control methods; and behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Persistence and transport potential of chemicals in a multimedia environment  

SciTech Connect

Persistence in the environment and potential for long-range transport are related since time in the environment is required for transport. A persistent chemical will travel longer distances than a reactive chemical that shares similar chemical properties. Scheringer (1997) has demonstrated the correlation between persistence and transport distance for different organic chemicals. However, this correlation is not sufficiently robust to predict one property from the other. Specific chemicals that are persistent mayor may not exhibit long-range transport potential. Persistence and long-range transport also present different societal concerns. Persistence concerns relate to the undesired possibility that chemicals produced and used now may somehow negatively affect future generations. Long-range transport concerns relate to the undesired presence of chemicals in areas where these compounds have not been used. Environmental policy decisions can be based on either or both considerations depending on the aim of the regulatory program. In this chapter, definitions and methods for quantifying persistence and transport potential of organic chemicals are proposed which will assist in the development of sound regulatory frameworks.

van de Meent, D.; McKone, T.E.; Parkerton, T.; Matthies, M.; Scheringer, M.; Wania, F.; Purdy, R.; Bennett, D.H.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

chemicals | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coal-to-chemicals facilities in South Africa. To put chemicals production from coalpetcoke into context, refer to Figure 1, which shows the many potential products that can be...

291

CHEMICAL MAKERS INVEST IN SOLAR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMICAL MAKERS INVEST IN SOLAR ... CAPACITY BOOST: New projects target raw materials and research ... The projects will increase capacity and advance research for chemical components of both traditional polysilicon solar cells and newer thin-film modules. ...

MELODY VOITH

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

292

White matter microstructure correlates of narrative production in typically developing children and children with high functioning autism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated the relationship between white matter microstructure and the development of morphosyntax in a spoken narrative in typically developing children (TD) and in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Autism is characterized by language and communication impairments, yet the relationship between morphosyntactic development in spontaneous discourse contexts and neural development is not well understood in either this population or typical development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess multiple parameters of diffusivity as indicators of white matter tract integrity in language-related tracts in children between 6 and 13 years of age. Children were asked to spontaneously tell a story about at time when someone made them sad, mad, or angry. The story was evaluated for morphological accuracy and syntactic complexity. Analysis of the relationship between white matter microstructure and language performance in TD children showed that diffusivity correlated with morphosyntax production in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a fiber tract traditionally associated with language. At the anatomical level, the HFA group showed abnormal diffusivity in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) relative to the TD group. Within the HFA group, children with greater white matter integrity in the right ILF displayed greater morphological accuracy during their spoken narrative. Overall, the current study shows an association between white matter structure in a traditional language pathway and narrative performance in TD children. In the autism group, associations were only found in the ILF, suggesting that during real world language use, children with HFA rely less on typical pathways and more on alternative ventral pathways that possibly mediate visual elements of language.

Brian D. Mills; Janie Lai; Timothy T. Brown; Matthew Erhart; Eric Halgren; Judy Reilly; Anders Dale; Mark Appelbaum; Pamela Moses

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Determination of self-absorption corrections by computation in routine gamma-ray spectrometry for typical environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

A simple and practical method has been developed to quickly calculate self-absorption corrections and mass attenuation coefficients, {mu}/p, in common environmental samples being analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The method involves using a sample computer program and estimates of the elemental compositions of typical environmental samples. The use of this method eliminates the need for gamma-ray-transmission measurements of individual samples, as well as expensive and time consuming elemental analyses of routine samples. The calculated percent attenuation of the beam through various samples, as determined by this method, agrees very well with experimentally measured values of percent attenuation.

Oresegun, M.O. [Univ. of Ibadan (Nigeria); Decker, K.M.; Sanderson, C.G. [Environmental Measurements Lab., New York, NY (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

BUILDING A CHEMICAL LASER WEAPON  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BUILDING A CHEMICAL LASER WEAPON ... Under fire, Airborne Laser program director confronts challenges of revolutionary weapons system ...

WILLIAM G. SCHULZ

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

295

LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group  

SciTech Connect

The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

296

Naming chemical compounds: Calculator drill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

36. Bits and pieces, 13. A calculator can be programmed to drill students on chemical compound naming rules.

David Holdsworth; Evelyn Lacanienta

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Material and Chemical Processing (Concentrated Solar) (4 Activities)  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

Concentrated sunlight is a versatile and high-quality form of energy with several potential applications besides producing heat and electricity. Today, scientists are developing systems that use concentrated sunlight to detoxify hazardous wastes, to drive chemical reactions, and to treat materials for increased hardness and resistance to corrosion.

298

ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 ­ 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

299

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CYTOPLASM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A and the Thyroid: R. F. SHEETS, JR., and DR.H. C. STRUCK...oper-ations, uses or liberates energy and reproduces its own substance...because of a fancied resem-blance to myosin, reserving the name...we have produced membranous sheets which included fibers and have...

R. R. BENSLEY

1942-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Production of Feedstock Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biorefinery" complex. The large corn wet milling industry now provides a supply of...17). We estimate that in 1985 corn syrups could be produced commer-cially...In addition, the residues from corn wet milling are high-value oil and protein...

T. K. Ng; R. M. Busche; C. C. McDonald; R. W. F. Hardy

1983-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Production of Feedstock Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cost of the sugar produced. Steam-explosion pretreatments...Perhaps the most powerful tool em-ploye4j#present for...grown in large-scale culture systems for use as protein sources...nutritional and toxicologi-cal assessments have limited the development...

T. K. Ng; R. M. Busche; C. C. McDonald; R. W. F. Hardy

1983-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

302

Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae for the production of platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus belonging to the Zygomycetes.... It is among others known for its ability to produce the sustainable platform chemicals l...-(+)-lactic acid, fumaric acid,...

Bas J. Meussen; Leo H. de Graaff…

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Chemical-Catalytic Approaches to the Production of Furfurals and Levulinates from Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The synthesis and chemistry of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF), ... levulinic acid (LA), three carbohydrate-derived platform molecules produced by the chemical-catalytic processing...

Mark Mascal; Saikat Dutta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Process design and evaluation of value-added chemicals production from biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three different biodiesel production processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. The process for producing biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol was designed using commercial chemical catal...

A. -Ra Go; Jae Wook Ko; Sang Jun Lee…

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

Kirby, Brian J. (San Francisco, CA); Reichmuth, David S. (Oakland, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

306

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

307

Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions  

SciTech Connect

There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; (CIW); (RITS)

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

308

A GASFLOW analysis of a steam explosion accident in a typical light-water reactor confinement building  

SciTech Connect

Steam over-pressurization resulting from ex-vessel steam explosion (fuel-coolant interaction) may pose a serious challenge to the integrity of a typical light-water reactor confinement building. If the steam generation rate exceeds the removal capacity of the Airborne Activity Confinement System, confinement over pressurization occurs. Thus, there is a large potential for an uncontrolled and unfiltered release of fission products from the confinement atmosphere to the environment at the time of the steam explosion. The GASFLOW computer code was used to analyze the effects of a hypothetical steam explosion and the transport of steam and hydrogen throughout a typical light-water reactor confinement building. The effects of rapid pressurization and the resulting forces on the internal structures and the heat exchanger service bay hatch covers were calculated. Pressurization of the ventilation system and the potential damage to the ventilation fans and high-efficiency particulate air filters were assessed. Because of buoyancy forces and the calculated confinement velocity field, the hydrogen diffuses and mixes in the confinement atmosphere but tends to be transported to its upper region.

Travis, J.R. [ESSI Inc. (United States); Wilson, T.L.; Spore, J.W.; Lam, K.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rao, D.V. [SEA Inc. (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Chemical kinetics modeling  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Chemical Hydrogen Storage Research and Development | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Chemical Hydrogen Storage Research and Development Chemical Hydrogen Storage Research and Development DOE's chemical hydrogen storage R&D is focused on developing low-cost...

313

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Chemical Resources | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Resources Chemical Resources Chemical Inventory All Sample Preparation Labs are stocked with an assortment of common solvents, acids, bases, buffers, and other reagents. See our Chemical Inventories for a list of available reagents. If you need large quantities of any chemicals, please order or bring your own supply (see below). Chemical Inventories Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) If you will be working with any samples or reagents that are significantly toxic, reactive, corrosive, flammable, or otherwise especially hazardous, we may require an approved SOP before you can begin work. Examples: Reagents with an NFPA Rating of 3 or 4 in any category, nanomaterials, heavy metals, pyrophoric materials, water reactive materials. BLANK SOP SSRL BLANK SOP LCLS Ordering Chemicals

315

How is shale gas produced? | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? How is shale gas produced? More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary...

316

The Effects of Walking Surface and Vibration on the Gait Pattern and Vibration Perception Threshold of Typically Developing Children and Children with Idiopathic Toe Walking.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The aim of the current study is to investigate novel therapeutic/treatment methods and outcome measurement for children with Idiopathic Toe Walking (ITW). Fifteen typically… (more)

Fanchiang, Hsin-chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

319

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

A critical comparison of ionospheric depletion chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Six chemicals, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}, CF{sub 3}BR, and Ni(CO){sub 4}, are considered as ionospheric modification agents. Each of these species reacts in the F region to produce localized plasma depletions. The first three interact with O{sup +} and yield polyatomic ions which dissociatively recombine with electrons to give neutrals. The last three dissociatively attach electrons to produce heavy negative ions which become mutually neutralized by reactions with O{sup +}. The effectiveness of these chemicals depends on the amount which goes into the vapor state upon release. Thermodynamic calculations show that H{sub 2}O has the lowest vapor yield of about 20% from a heated, pressurized tank. Over 60% of the other substances should be vented in gaseous form. Based on estimates of plasma density reduction and airglow stimulation, nickel carbonyl is the most efficient of the six species for modifying the nighttime ionosphere. During the daytime, CF{sub 3}BR and SF{sub 6} provide the largest depletions.

Bernhardt, P.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash  

SciTech Connect

In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some of the more interesting results of these investigations are presented.

Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Published by American Chemical Society. Copyright © American Chemical Society.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Society. Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Published by American Chemical Society. Copyright © American Chemical Society. However, no copyright claim is made to original U.S. Government works, or works produced by employees of any Commonwealth realm Crown government in the course of their duties. Article Radical Coupling Reactions in Lignin Synthesis: A DFT study Amandeep Kaur Sangha, Jerry Matthew Parks, Robert F. Standaert, Angela Ziebell, Mark F Davis, and Jeremy C. Smith J. Phys. Chem. B, Just Accepted Manuscript * DOI: 10.1021/jp2122449 * Publication Date (Web): 04 Apr 2012 Downloaded from http://pubs.acs.org on April 10, 2012 Just Accepted "Just Accepted" manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication. They are posted

327

Chemical & EngChemical/Engineering Materials Division | Neutron Science |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Engineering Materials Division Chemical and Engineering Materials Division SHARE Chemical and Engineering Materials Division CEMD Director Mike Simonson The Chemical and Engineering Materials Division (CEMD) supports neutron-based research at SNS and HFIR in understanding the structure and dynamics of chemical systems and novel engineering materials. The user community takes advantage of division-supported capabilities of neutron scattering for measurements over wide ranges of experimental and operating conditions, including studies of chemical and physical changes in situ. User experiments with diffraction, small-angle scattering, inelastic and quasielastic scattering, and neutron imaging instruments address a range of problems in chemistry and in engineering materials research. Current areas of research supported by the division include the structure

328

Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary inertia?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...A2006Neural crest cells and the community of plan for craniofacial development: historical...Rev. Ecol. Evol. 38, 793-817. Review. Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary...Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. Review | 0 Gonadal Steroid Hormones | Animals...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

6, 1006310086, 2006 Lightning-produced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with lightning flash data from the Canadian Lightning Detection Network and Environment Canada Doppler radar measurements, the pro-15 duction of NO2 molecules per lightning flash is determined. Using these two methodsACPD 6, 10063­10086, 2006 Lightning-produced NO2 observed at Vanscoy, SK A. Fraser et al. Title

330

SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE'  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EUROPE SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE' The Soviet Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography ( V N I R 0) has built machines for production of a protein- rich paste from protein paste from Black Sea shrimp. Each machine, operated by 2 people, has a processing capacity of 1

331

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

Robert A. Liske

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

CHEMICAL SENSORS School of Chemistry and Biochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL SENSORS CHEM 6282 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry Chemical sensors theory of chemical recognition, electrochemical, optical, mass sensors and data reduction. Text: J. Janata, "Principles of Chemical Sensors", 2010 Springer NOTE: GT Library purchased an e

Sherrill, David

334

Chemical speciation of neptunium in spent fuel. Annual report for period 15 August 1999 to 15 August 2000  

SciTech Connect

(B204) This project will examine the chemical speciation of neptunium in spent nuclear fuel. The R&D fields covered by the project include waste host materials and actinide chemistry. Examination of neptunium is chosen since it was identified as a radionuclide of concern by the NERI workshop. Additionally, information on the chemical form of neptunium in spent fuel is lacking. The identification of the neptunium species in spent fuel would allow a greater scientific based understanding of its long-term fate and behavior in waste forms. Research to establish the application and development of X-ray synchrotrons radiation (XSR) techniques to determine the structure of aqueous, adsorbed, and solid actinide species of importance to nuclear considerations is being conducted at Argonne. These studies extend current efforts within the Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory to investigate actinide speciation with more conventional spectroscopic and solids characterization (e.g. SEM, TEM, and XRD) methods. Our project will utilize all these techniques for determining neptunium speciation in spent fuel. We intend to determine the chemical species and oxidation state of neptunium in spent fuel and alteration phases. Different types of spent fuel will be examined. Once characterized, the chemical behavior of the identified neptunium species will be evaluated if it is not present in the literature. Special attention will be given to the behavior of the neptunium species under typical repository near-field conditions (elevated temperature, high pH, varying Eh). This will permit a timely inclusion of project results into near-field geochemical models. Additionally, project results and methodologies have applications to neptunium in the environment, or treatment of neptunium containing waste. Another important aspect of this project is the close cooperation between a university and a national laboratory. The PI has a transuranic laboratory at MIT where students can perform spectroscopic and radiochemical experiments. Through the ANL partner, students can have additional experience performing research in a DOE setting. This will provide a unique and constructive opportunity for developing quality graduate students with experience and expertise in handling actinides. Our ability to produce experienced actinide scientists is currently restricted by the dearth of radiochemistry and nuclear research at universities. Regardless of all else, future researchers must be trained and educated if the United States is to maintain a leadership role in nuclear technology. This project provides such an opportunity.

Ken Czerwinski; Don Reed

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Experimental characterization and chemical kinetics study of chemical looping combustion .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most promising technologies to achieve carbon capture in fossil fuel power generation plants. A novel rotary-bed reactor… (more)

Chen, Tianjiao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Separation of oil and water produced by micellar-solution/ polymer flooding  

SciTech Connect

The phase behavior of produced fluids from a micellar/polymer project is dominated by producedsulfonate equivalent-weight distribution, total sulfonate production, and aqueous-phase salt concentration and type. Produced fluids at Marathon Oil Co.'s 219-R Project showed evidence of having passed through a salinity gradient created by reservoir brine at the leading edge of the displacement and fresh polymer water behind the micellar solution. During early production, when aqueousphase salt concentration was relatively high, highequivalent-weight sulfonates were permanently entrained in produced oil. Significant amounts of water also remained. As the salt content of produced water declined, high-equivalent-weight sulfonates moved to middle and aqueous phases. The middle and aqueous phases carried significant quantities of oil during these periods. All three problems-water in oil, oil in the middle phase, and oil in water-were corrected by treatment with demulsifying chemicals that rendered all sulfonates highly watersoluble. Water-soluble amines and alcohols were effective. Because of large quantities of sulfonate production and resulting low oil/water tensions, extended retention times were needed in separation vessels. In the absence of adequate retention (highest sulfonate production), a freshwater wash of the oil with an appropriate demulsifying chemical after initial oil/water separation removed the remaining sulfonate (and water) from the oil. All production from the 219-R Project was successfully treated and sold with strict quality control. Data from laboratory corefloods pertinent to the characterization of produced-fluid phase behavior are presented.

Dreher, K.D.; Shoppman, T.D.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Treating paraffin deposits in producing oil wells  

SciTech Connect

Paraffin deposition has been a problem for operators in many areas since the beginning of petroleum production from wells. An extensive literature search on paraffin problems and methods of control has been carried out, and contact was made with companies which provide chemicals to aid in the treatment of paraffin problems. A discussion of the nature of paraffins and the mechanisms of this deposition is presented. The methods of prevention and treatment of paraffin problems are summarized. Suggested procedures for handling paraffin problems are provided. Suggestions for areas of further research testing are given.

Noll, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Recommended inorganic chemicals for calibration  

SciTech Connect

All analytical techniques depend on the use of calibration chemicals to relate analyte concentration to an instrumental parameter. A fundamental component in the preparation of calibration solutions is the weighing of a pure chemical or metal before preparing a solution standard. The analyst must be assured that the purity, stoichiometry, and assay of the chemical are known. These terms have different meanings, and each has an important influence. This report is intended to assist the analyst in the selection and use of chemical standards for instrumental calibration. Purity, stoichiometry, and preparation of solutions for different purposes are discussed, and a critical evaluation of the best materials available for each element is presented for use in preparing solutions or calibration standards. Information on the chemical form, source, purity, drying, and appropriate precautions is given. In some cases, multiple sources or chemical forms are available. Certain radioactive elements, the transuranic elements, and the noble gases are not considered.

Moody, J.R.; Greenberg, R.R.; Pratt, K.W.; Rains, T.C.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Bimetallic Fe–Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2-4) In CLC (schematic in Figure 1), a fuel is combusted in a fuel reactor (“reducer”) in contact with an oxygen carrier (typically a metal oxide). ... After combustion of the fuel, the reduced metal is then transferred to the air reactor (“oxidizer”) where it is reoxidized by air, and then circulated back to the reducer to close the material “loop”. ... Son, S. R.; Kim, S. D.Chemical-looping combustion with NiO and Fe2O3 in a thermobalance and circulating fluidized bed reactor with double loops Ind. Eng. ...

Saurabh Bhavsar; Götz Veser

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

340

Chemical Engineering | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Engineering Materials Clean Energy Nuclear Sciences Computer Science Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Engineering SHARE Engineering Engineering at ORNL is integrated with nearly all of the scientific research areas and user facilities. In particular, ORNL has core capabilities chemical engineering and systems engineering. Chemical engineering moves knowledge gained from fundamental chemical research toward applications. For example, this capability supports the development of fuel reprocessing techniques and enables radioisotope production, isotope separation, and development of isotope applications. This capacity also contributes to advances in energy efficiency, renewable

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

342

Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5) 5) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995 January 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995 ii To download the Financial Reporting System 1977-1995 data files, access the Energy Information Center's FTP site, at ftp: //ftp.eia.doe.gov or access the Energy Information Administration's Home Page at http://www.eia.doe.gov.

344

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6) 6) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996 January 1998 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996 ii The Financial Reporting System 1977-1996 data files can be downloaded from the Energy Information

345

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7) 7) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997 January 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997 ii The Financial Reporting System 1977-1997 data files can be downloaded from the Energy Information Administration's

346

Method for producing catalysts from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method for producing catalysis from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

April 25, 2013 April 25, 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 The eighth in a series of reports required by section 1245 (d) (4) (A) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 April 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran 1 Table of Contents March - April 2013 Update ........................................................................................................................... 2 Tables ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 Figures ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

349

Producing and Marketing High-Value Calves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carcasses. Oklahoma State University (Smith et al., 2000) and University of Arkansas (Troxel et al., 2001) researchers conducted livestock market surveys to determine factors that affect value in feeder cattle. Their data indicate that small... cattle that will produce calves with adequate muscling. Body condition. The Oklahoma study found that thin cattle received discounts of $9 to $10 per cwt when compared to cattle of average condition, and that fat cattle received discounts of $6...

Cleere, Jason; Boleman, Larry L.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

350

Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

ChemicalChemical StratigraphyStratigraphy Oxygen, Carbon, Strontium,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2/25/2009 1 ChemicalChemical StratigraphyStratigraphy Oxygen, Carbon, Strontium, Sulphur Isotopes Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department evolves over time, with the geological time line running from right to left in this graph. The increased

Miami, University of

353

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

Robert A. Liske

2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

D3/D7 holographic gauge theory and chemical potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with flavor hypermultiplets at finite temperature and in the dS4 space is studied for finite quark number density (nb) by a dual supergravity background with nontrivial dilaton and axion. The quarks and their number density nb are introduced by embedding a probe D7 brane. We find a critical value of the chemical potential at the limit of nb=0, and it coincides with the effective quark mass given in each theory for nb=0. At this point, a transition of the D7 embedding configurations occurs between their two typical ones. The phase diagrams of this transition are shown in the plane of chemical potential versus temperature and cosmological constant for Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature and in dS4, respectively. In this phase transition, the order parameter is considered as nb. This result seems to be reasonable since both theories are in the quark deconfinement phase.

Kazuo Ghoroku; Masafumi Ishihara; Akihiro Nakamura

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

355

Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes  

SciTech Connect

This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Galactic cosmic-ray-produced thermoluminescence profiles in meteorites, lunar samples and a terrestrial analog  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The long-term radiation shielding properties of common extraterrestrial materials are poorly known, although these materials are the most likely structural elements on airless worlds such as the Moon. We report on radiation dose profiles in meteorites and lunar soil cores using specific minerals as naturally-occuring “dosimeters”. We find that radiation profiles are fairly flat in typical meteoroid bodies (< 85 cm radius) and drop by only about 40% through about 2.5 m of lunar soil. These profiles are produced by primary galactic cosmic rays and the secondary proton cascade but with a significant contribution by secondary neutrons at depths of about 2 m (300 g/cm2).

Paul H. Benoit; Yongheng Chen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Profiles in Energy Efficiency: Production Strategy Saves Money and Energy Eastman Chemical Company  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Strategy Saves Money & Energy: Eastman Chemical Production Strategy Saves Money & Energy: Eastman Chemical Company Eastman Chemical Company produces a broad range of advanced materials, additives and functional products, specialty chemicals, and fibers that are found in products people use every day. With its global headquarters in Kingsport, TN, Eastman employs approximately 13,500 people worldwide and operates 14 production facilities in the United States. An active partner in the U.S. EPA's ENERGY STAR program, Eastman has used the ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Energy Management to restructure its energy program and the partnership to secure executive-level support, capital funding, and broader organizational involvement in energy management.

360

Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from rubber production and compounding  

SciTech Connect

Facilities engaged in rubber production and compounding may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist those who produce rubber in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

Not Available

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

November 2006 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.4 LABORATORY-SPECIFIC SAFETY PLANS 4.5 LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS 4.6 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN REVIEW 5.0 LABORATORYNovember 2006 1 CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (November 2006) Department of Chemistry Vanderbilt University #12;November 2006 2 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 THE LABORATORY STANDARD 3.0 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 4

Bordenstein, Seth

362

MATLAB Applications in Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MATLAB® Applications in Chemical Engineering James A. Carnell North Carolina State University MATLAB is a powerful code-based mathematical and engineering calculation program. It performs all introduction to MATLAB in chemical engineering, and in no way attempts to be a comprehensive MATLAB learning

Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.

363

Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

Dees, H.C.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

364

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) produced from hydrocarbon in SOFCs. PAHs containing a benzene ring usually occur in oil, coal, and tar, PAHs are typically liquids at ambient temperature and pressure which make them convenient for capture

Frenkel, Anatoly

365

Chemical analysis quality assurance at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is a uranium reprocessing facility operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The chemical analysis support required for the plant processes is provided by a chemical analysis staff of 67 chemists, analysts, and support personnel. The documentation and defense of the chemical analysis data at the ICPP has evolved into a complete chemical analysis quality assurance program with training/qualification and requalification, chemical analysis procedures, records management and chemical analysis methods quality control as major elements. The quality assurance procedures are implemented on a central analytical computer system. The individual features provided by the computer system are automatic method selection for process streams, automation of method calculations, automatic assignment of bias and precision estimates at analysis levels to all method results, analyst specific daily requalification or with-method-use requalification, untrained or unqualified analyst method lockout, statistical testing of process stream results for replicate agreement, automatic testing of process results against pre-established operating, safety, or failure limits at varying confidence levels, and automatic transfer and report of analysis data plus the results of all statistical testing to the Production Department.

Hand, R.L.; Anselmo, R.W.; Black, D.B.; Jacobson, J.J.; Lewis, L.C.; Marushia, P.C.; Spraktes, F.W.; Zack, N.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1) 1) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2001 January 2003 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration

367

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

369

Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989  

SciTech Connect

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

Not Available

1991-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

Chyung, Kenneth (Painted Post, NY); Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Holleran, Louis M. (Big Flats, NY); Olszewski, Anthony R. (Bath, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FLUORINE REACTIONS IN THE CH2F2-OLEFIN-02 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ . . 44 V-2, RELATIVE YIELDS OF PRODUCTS FROM SCAVENGED AND NON-SCAVENGED CH2C12 SYSTEMS RELATIVE YIELDS OF PRODUCTS FROM SCAVENGED AND NON-SCAVENGED CH3C1 SYSTEMS.... and phosphorus 6 produced by recoil methods. Carbene Chemistry ~Bk d. Carbenes are 'species which have a carbon atom that is directly bonded to only two other atoms by single bonds. This divalent char- acter of carbenes was fi. rst observed by Dumas...

Lowery, Kirby

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER (FEAC307)  

SciTech Connect

Oil production is shifting from ''shallow'' wells (0-650 ft water depth) to off-shore, deep-water operations (>2,600 ft.). Production from these operations is now approaching 20%. By 2007, it is projected that as much as 70% of the U.S. oil production will be from deep-water operations. The crude oil from these deep wells is more polar, thus increasing the amount of dissolved hydrocarbons in the produced water. Early data from Gulf of Mexico (GOM) wells indicate that the problem with soluble organics will increase significantly as deep-water production increases. Existing physical/chemical treatment technologies used to remove dispersed oil from produced water will not remove dissolved organics. GOM operations are rapidly moving toward design of high-capacity platforms that will require compact, low-cost, efficient treatment processes to comply with current and future water quality regulations. This project is an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum industry-wide problem of treating water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project is to maximize oxidation of water-soluble organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigates: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Industrial collaborators include Chevron, Shell, Phillips, BP Amoco, Statoil, and Marathon Oil through a joint project with the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF). The research and demonstration program consists of three phases: (1) Laboratory testing in batch reactors to compare effectiveness of organics destruction using corona discharge ozone generation methods with hydrogen peroxide generated sonochemically and to evaluate the enhancement of destruction by UV light and micro-bubble spraying. (2) Continuous-flow studies to determine the efficacy of various contactors, the dependency of organics destruction on process variables, and scale-up issues. (3) Field testing of a prototype system in close collaboration with an industrial partner to generate performance data suitable for scale-up and economic evaluation.

Klasson, KT

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Method for producing and treating coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A Laboratory Method of Producing High Potentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Details are given of the experimental arrangement by which, using Tesla coils in oil, very high potentials have been produced and measured. Excited at the rate of 120 sparks per second Tesla coils have been operated at 3,000,000 volts in ordinary transformer oil at atmospheric pressure. In oil under a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch, voltages as high as 5,200,000 have been produced with intermittent excitation. These voltages (peak values) are measured by a simple capacity-potentiometer, in which an insulated electrode "picks up" a known fraction of the total voltage, this fractional voltage being measured by means of a sphere gap. Measurements are given of the voltage-distribution along Tesla coils. Calculations and measurements of the efficiency and power-output of such coils show that at 120 sparks per second, a coil operating at 5,000,000 volts provides sufficient power, if used to accelerate helium nuclei in a suitable vacuum-tube, to yield the equivalent of about 2,600 grams of radium.

G. Breit; M. A. Tuve; O. Dahl

1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Method for producing small hollow spheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

Rosencwaig, Allen (Danville, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Dressler, John L. (Spring Valley, OH)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

379

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic SocietyVol.25 page 27 During a very wet four days in Sydney (typical of this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. With stunning views of Sydney Harbour, the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House, the Crystal four days in Sydney (typical of this year's summer weather in the city) 335 delegates gathered

Phipps, Steven J.

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

382

Examining chemical structure at the interface between a polymer binder and a pharmaceutical crystal with neutron reflectometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanical properties of many composites are determined in part by the chemical structure and bonding at the interface between constituents in the microstructure. The study of these interfaces in molecular crystal – polymer composites is difficult using traditional techniques such as electron microscopy or X-ray scattering because of weak or detrimental interactions between the probe and materials. Here, the interface between acetaminophen and a poly(ester urethane) copolymer is analyzed using ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and neutron reflectometry. These materials were chosen for their relevance to pharmaceutical tablets and plastic-bonded explosives. The acetaminophen was shown to dissolve into the polymer coating and creates an interphase region between the two materials; this mixing is almost certainly produced by typical formulation conditions, and likely affects mechanical response of the composite. Additionally, reflectometry shows that plasticizing the polymer alters this interphase region. These techniques can be applied to similar composites to reveal the relation between formulation conditions, constituent interface microstructure characteristics, and bulk mechanical response.

J.D. Yeager; M. Dubey; M.J. Wolverton; M.S. Jablin; J. Majewski; D.F. Bahr; D.E. Hooks

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Application of various membranes to remove NOM typically occurring in Korea with respect to DBP, AOC and transport parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bench- and pilot-scale membrane tests were performed to remove natural organic matter (NOM) originating from Paldang Lake in Korea. Membrane performance was demonstrated in terms of DOC, biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and transport parameters. Various membranes such as reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated for this study. Four different NF membranes were selected for pilot-scale filtration testing and investigated in terms of both flux decline and DOC removal. To demonstrate the effect of temperature on the source water seasonally, the flux of membranes was measured with pure water at different temperatures ranging from 25 to 7°C. Coagulation/sedimentation treated water was used as feed water without removing residual chlorine; related plants were located at the Suji water treatment plant of Yongin City. To investigate more rigorously the organic fouling for various NF membranes, mass transport behaviors of organic matter solutes were evaluated by an irreversible thermodynamic model. The pore sizes of the NF membranes tested in the pilot slightly increased due to the oxidation of the polymer structure of the membranes from residual chlorine during the 4-month tests. Periodic chemical cleaning with a caustic solution was made to prevent accumulation of foulants on the membrane surface. The NF membranes exhibited stable efficiencies in terms of DOC and AOC removal during the test for 4 months.

Noeon Park; Boksoon Kwon; Minjeong Sun; Hyowon Ahn; Chunghwan Kim; Changho Kwoak; Dongju Lee; Seonha Chae; Hoon Hyung; Jaeweon Cho

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARCTURUS  

SciTech Connect

We derive a self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters and abundances of 17 elements for the red giant star Arcturus: T{sub eff} = 4286 {+-} 30 K, log g = 1.66 {+-} 0.05, and [Fe/H] = -0.52 {+-} 0.04. The effective temperature was determined using model atmosphere fits to the observed spectral energy distribution from the blue to the mid-infrared (0.44 to 10 {mu}m). The surface gravity was calculated using the trigonometric parallax of the star and stellar evolution models. A differential abundance analysis relative to the solar spectrum allowed us to derive iron abundances from equivalent width measurements of 37 Fe I and 9 Fe II lines, unblended in the spectra of both Arcturus and the Sun; the [Fe/H] value adopted is derived from Fe I lines. We also determine the mass, radius, and age of Arcturus: M = 1.08 {+-} 0.06 M{sub Sun }, R = 25.4 {+-} 0.2 R{sub Sun }, and {tau} = 7.1{sup +1.5}{sub -1.2} Gyr. Finally, abundances of the following elements are measured from an equivalent width analysis of atomic features: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn. We find the chemical composition of Arcturus typical of that of a local thick-disk star, consistent with its kinematics.

Ramirez, I. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Allende Prieto, C., E-mail: ivan@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Structural impacts of the 1985 farm bill on typical farms in the Texas Southern High Plains and delta region of Mississippi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STRUCTURAL IMPACTS OF THK 1985 FARM BILL ON TYPICAL FARMS IN THK TEXAS SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS AND DELTA REGION OF MISSISSIPPI A Thesis by CHARLES FREDERICK MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics STRUCTURAL IMPACTS OF THE 1985 FARM BILL ON TYPICAL FARMS IN THE TEXAS SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS AND DELTA REGION OF MISSISSIPPI A Thesis by CHARLES FREDERICK...

Miller, Charles Frederick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities A photo of a man in a white lab coat and dark goggles looking at a microscope. A bright green light shines down from the microscope lens and illuminates a round glass tray containing small white beads. The Laser Raman Spectrometer is used to obtain phase and structural identification information for catalysts used in the thermochemical conversion process. NREL researchers use chemical and catalyst science to assess and improve biochemical and thermochemical conversion throughout the processes, from analyzing feedstocks to improving the yield of desired end products. Catalyst Science Syngas produced during gasification contains tars that are contaminants, but these tars can be reformed to more syngas using tar-reforming

388

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted wet chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles is reported. ? Substituting water with non-aqueous media prevents the formation of nickel hydroxide. ? Size of particles decreased from 10 to 20 nm down to 2–4 nm by using multi-jet mode. ? Synthesized nanoparticles have diffraction patterns similar to amorphous materials. -- Abstract: In this study nickel nanoparticles were prepared via chemical reduction of nickel acetate using sodium borohydride using electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. This technique was used to spray a finely dispersed aerosol of nickel precursor solution into the reductive bath. Obtained particles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles and showed that applying EHDA technique to chemical reduction method results in producing smaller particles with narrower size distribution in comparison with conventional reductive precipitation method.

Barzegar Vishlaghi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzalipour Tabriz, M., E-mail: meisam.fa@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad Moradi, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Laser techniques for studying chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce thin films for microelectronics, protective coatings and other materials processing applications. Despite the large number of applications, however, little is known about the fundamental chemistry and physics of most CVD processes. CVD recipes have generally been determined empirically, but as process requirements become more stringent, a more basic understanding will be needed to improve reactor design and speed process optimization. In situ measurements of the reacting gas are important steps toward gaining such an understanding, both from the standpoint of characterizing the reactor and testing models of a CVD process. Our work, a coordinated program of experimental and theoretical research in the fundamental mechanisms of CVD, illustrates the application of laser techniques to the understanding of a CVD system. We have used a number of laser-based techniques to probe CVD systems and have compared our measurements with predictions from computer models, primarily for the silane CVD system. The silane CVD model solves the two-dimensional, steady-state boundary layer equations of fluid flow coupled to 26 elementary chemical reactions describing the thermal decomposition of silane and the subsequent reactions of intermediate species that result in the deposition of a silicon film.

Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Method for producing high energy electroluminescent devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fabricating electroluminescent devices exhibiting visible electroluminescence at room temperature, where the devices include at least one doped layer of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H layer is deposited on a substrate by homogeneous chemical vapor deposition (H-CVD) in which the substrate is held at a temperature lower than about 200.degree. C. and the a-Si:H layer is doped in-situ during deposition, the amount of hydrogen incorporated in the deposited layer being 12-50 atomic percent. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer is between 1.6 and 2.6 eV, and in preferrable embodiments is between 2.0 and 2.6 eV. The conductivity of the a-Si:H layer is chosen in accordance with device requirements, and can be 10.sup.16 -10.sup.19 carriers/cm.sup.2. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer depends at least in part on the temperature of the substrate on which the layer is deposited, and can be "tuned" by changing the substrate temperature.

Meyerson, Bernard S. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Scott, Bruce A. (Pleasantville, NY); Wolford, Jr., Donald J. (Croton-on-Hudson, NY)

1992-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

391

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4) 4) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 January 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore. The project was directed by Mark E. Rodekohr, Director of the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (202) 586-1441, and Mary E. Northup, Chief of

392

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203

393

Integrated structural repair of a producing FPSO  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art in FPSO design is advancing rapidly. The long-term reliability of FPSO systems has improved as maintenance issues, have received greater emphasis in both new-builds and conversions. Despite this new emphasis, problems will still arise and repairs will still be required. Ultimately, the ability of any FPSO to stay on location and on production will depend on the scope of repairs which can be economically performed in-situ. In 1994 and 1995, Marathon Petroleum Indonesia Limited (MPIL) performed an in-situ repair on the FPSO Kakap Natuna. The scope and complexity of this work suggests there are few, if any, limits on in-situ structural repairs which can be successfully performed on a producing FPSO. The use of an integrated execution strategy for the repairs greatly reduced their cost.

Johnson, P.R. [Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, T.A. [Aker Omega Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

The economics of producing biodiesel from algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process.

Brian J. Gallagher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

System and method for producing metallic iron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

396

Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Walter, Kevin Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993  

SciTech Connect

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

Anderson, Norman L. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Broadband microwave burst produced by electron beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical and experimental study of fast electron beams attracts a lot of attention in the astrophysics and laboratory. In the case of solar flares the problem of reliable beam detection and diagnostics is of exceptional importance. This paper explores the fact that the electron beams moving oblique to the magnetic field or along the field with some angular scatter around the beam propagation direction can generate microwave continuum bursts via gyrosynchrotron mechanism. The characteristics of the microwave bursts produced by beams differ from those in case of isotropic or loss-cone distributions, which suggests a new tool for quantitative diagnostics of the beams in the solar corona. To demonstrate the potentiality of this tool, we analyze here a radio burst occurred during an impulsive flare 1B/M6.7 on 10 March 2001 (AR 9368, N27W42). Based on detailed analysis of the spectral, temporal, and spatial relationships, we obtained firm evidence that the microwave continuum burst is produced by electron beams. For the first time we developed and applied a new forward fitting algorithm based on exact gyrosynchrotron formulae and employing both the total power and polarization measurements to solve the inverse problem of the beam diagnostics. We found that the burst is generated by a oblique beam in a region of reasonably strong magnetic field ($\\sim 200-300$ G) and the burst is observed at a quasi-transverse viewing angle. We found that the life time of the emitting electrons in the radio source is relatively short, $\\tau_l \\approx 0.5$ s, consistent with a single reflection of the electrons from a magnetic mirror at the foot point with the stronger magnetic field. We discuss the implications of these findings for the electron acceleration in flares and for beam diagnostics.

A. T. Altyntsev; G. D. Fleishman; G. -L. Huang; V. F. Melnikov

2007-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

402

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

403

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

404

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

405

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

406

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

407

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

408

Synthesis of graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: A schematic showing the overall reduction process of graphite to reduced graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route. - Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by diverse routes viz. chemical and electrochemical methods. • NaBH{sub 4} was effective for removing oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide. • Sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) showed high specific capacitance. • Electrochemical rendered a cheap route for production of graphene in powder form. - Abstract: Graphene platelets were synthesized from graphene oxide by chemical and electrochemical route. Under the chemical method, sodium borohydride and hydrazine chloride were used as reductants to produce graphene. In this paper, a novel and cost effective electrochemical method, which can simplify the process of reduction on a larger scale, is demonstrated. The electrochemical method proposed in this paper produces graphene in powder form with good yield. The atomic force microscopic images confirmed that the graphene samples prepared by all the routes have multilayers of graphene. The electrochemical process provided a new route to make relatively larger area graphene sheets, which will have interest for further patterning applications. Attempt was made to quantify the quantum of reduction using cyclic voltammetry and choronopotentiometry techniques on reduced graphene samples. As a measure in reading the specific capacitance values, a maximum specific capacitance value of 265.3 F/g was obtained in sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide.

Ramachandran, Rajendran; Felix, Sathiyanathan [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Joshi, Girish M. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Raghupathy, Bala P.C., E-mail: balapraveen2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Research and Advanced Engineering Division (Materials), Renault Nissan Technology and Business Center India (P) Ltd., Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeong, Soon Kwan, E-mail: jeongsk@kier.re.kr [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

410

Biological pretreatment of produced water for reuse applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry represents a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced water is characterized by high levels of… (more)

Kwon, Soondong, 1973-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Jefferson Lab's upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first ligh...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upgraded Free-Electron Laser produces first light June 18, 2003 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have produced first...

412

Neutrons Reveal New Electrocatalyst Family for Producing Hydrogen...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

systems currently in use. Summary Most renewable energy is produced in the form of electricity, which is expensive to store and transport in large quantities. Producing hydrogen...

413

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

414

ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Jump to: navigation, search Name: ASEM Green Independent Power Producers Network Place: Germany Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A...

415

An Isotropic Chemical Shift-Chemical Shift Anisotropic Correlation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dimension. This back and forth rotation is repeated and synchronized with a special radio frequency (RF) pulse sequence to produce an isotropic-anisotropic shift 2D...

416

Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Three-Fluidized Bed Reactor Cold Flow Model for Chemical Looping Hydrogen Generation: Pressure Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping hydrogen generation (CLHG) can produce pure hydrogen with inherent separation of CO2 from fossils fuel. The process involves a metal oxide, as an oxygen carrier, such as iron oxide. The CLHG syst...

Zhipeng Xue; Wenguo Xiang; Shiyi Chen…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

New Science for Chemicals Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors (WHO,461, 472 (2009). 17. NRC, Science and Decisions: AdvancingPOLICYFORUM SCIENCE AND REGULATION New Science for Chemicals

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Chemical Conversions of Natural Precursors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many products from the flavour industry are primary products from renewable resources or secondary products obtained by chemical conversions of the primary products. In general these secondary products are key...

Peter H. van der Schaft

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Genotoxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

studies, specifically on carbon monoxide. Schmiedeberg focused on liver and its detoxification mechanisms. Lewin?s work included chronic toxicity of narcotics, along with toxicity of chemicals such as methanol, glycerol, acrolein and chloroform...

Phillips, Tracie Denise

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| under AEC Contract A T (30-1)-3780 " â–  ' Annual Report (1970) Principal In-vestigator: Martin Karpins Institution: Harvard University The research performed under this contract can best be sunmarized under several headings. (a) Alkali-Halideg Alkali-Halide (MX^ M*X*) Exchange Reactions. This project is being continued. A careful study of certain

422

Health assessment for Kalama Specialty Chemicals, Burton, South Carolina, Region 4. CERCLIS No. SCD094995503. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Kalama Specialty Chemicals (Kalama) 16-acre site is located in Beaufort County, South Carolina. The Vega Chemical Company operated at the site from 1973 until 1977. As a speciality chemical company, it produced a wide range of chemicals in small, special-order batches for use by manufacturing firms and larger chemical producers. In 1977, the facility was purchased by Kalama primarily to manufacture the herbicide and plant growth regulator Krenite (fosamine ammonium). Chemical sampling conducted at Kalama has been limited in scope. Lead, benzene, ethyl benzene, and dichloromethane have been among the detected on-site groundwater and soil contaminants. On the basis of available information, the Kalama site is considered to be of potential public health concern.

Not Available

1989-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

423

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Producer Tax Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Tax Refund A biodiesel producer may apply for a refund of Iowa state sales or use taxes paid on purchases. To qualify, the producer must be registered with

424

Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education? ... Environmental Chemistry ...

George W. Parshall; Chadwick A. Tolman

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A new modified-rate approach for gas-grain chemical simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding grain-surface processes is crucial to interpreting the chemistry of the ISM. However, accurate surface chemistry models are computationally expensive and are difficult to integrate with gas-phase simulations. A new modified-rate method for solving grain-surface chemical systems is presented. Its purpose is accurately to model highly complex systems that can otherwise only be treated using the sometimes inadequate rate-equation approach. In contrast to previous rate-modification techniques, the functional form of the surface production rates was modified, and not simply the rate coefficient. This form is appropriate to the extreme "small-grain" limit, and can be verified using an analytical master-equation approach. Various further modifications were made to this basic form, to account for competition between processes, to improve estimates of surface occupation probabilities, and to allow a switch-over to the normal rate equations where these are applicable. The new method was tested against systems solved previously using exact techniques. Even the simplest method is quite accurate, and a great improvement over rate equations. Further modifications allow the master-equation results to be reproduced exactly for the methanol-producing system, within computational accuracy. Small discrepancies arise when non-zero activation energies are assumed for the methanol system, which result from complex reaction-competition processes that cannot be resolved easily without using exact methods. Inaccuracies in computed abundances are never greater than a few tens of percent, and typically of the order of one percent, in the most complex systems tested. Implementation of the method in simple networks, including hydrogen-only systems, is trivial, whilst the results are highly accurate.

R. T. Garrod

2008-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

426

Sandia National Laboratories: MOgene Green Chemicals LLC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MOgene Green Chemicals LLC Sandia to Partner with MOgene Green Chemicals on ARPA-E REMOTE Project On October 2, 2013, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership, Research &...

427

Chemical Safety Program - Library | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standard Safe Management of Mercury DOE Documents & Guidelines Chemical Management Handbook Volumes 1 -3 DOE Handbook, "Chemical Process Hazards Analysis," DOE-HDBK-1100-2004,...

428

PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Hydride Capabilities PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

429

Chemical Safety Program | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of chemical management. This content is supported by the Chemical Safety Topical Committee which was formed to identify...

430

Chemically Reactive Working Fluids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport of Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy for Power Generation Chemically Reactive Working Fluids SunShot CSP...

431

Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on...

432

Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRIBO-CHEMICAL MODELING OF COPPER CMP Shantanu Tripathi 1 ,Technical Area: CMP (Copper) Abstract We are developing antribo-chemical model of copper CMP that considers abrasive

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, Fiona; Dornfeld, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF TEXAS CITY CHEMICALS, INC.  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

1956, when the Texas City Chemicals Company went bankrupt. The plant was purchased by Smith-Douglas Company, a Division of Borden Chemical Company, Bordon, Inc. From information...

434

Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of Sputter-deposited Germanium Cxide (GeOx) Films . Correlation Between Optical Properties And Chemical Composition Of...

435

Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

436

Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Count) Count) Data Series: Wellhead Price Imports Price Price of Imports by Pipeline Price of LNG Imports Exports Price Price of Exports by Pipeline Price of LNG Exports Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Natural Gas Processed NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals LNG Storage Additions LNG Storage Withdrawals LNG Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Lease Fuel Plant Fuel Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period:

437

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NINTH MAGNITUDE CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STAR BD+44 Degree-Sign 493  

SciTech Connect

We present detailed chemical abundances for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star BD+44 Degree-Sign 493, previously reported on by Ito et al. Our measurements confirm that BD+44 Degree-Sign 493 is an extremely metal-poor ([Fe/H] =-3.8) subgiant star with excesses of carbon and oxygen. No significant excesses are found for nitrogen and neutron-capture elements (the latter of which place it in the CEMP-no class of stars). Other elements that we measure exhibit abundance patterns that are typical for non-CEMP extremely metal-poor stars. No evidence for variations of radial velocity has been found for this star. These results strongly suggest that the carbon enhancement in BD+44 Degree-Sign 493 is unlikely to have been produced by a companion asymptotic giant-branch star and transferred to the presently observed star, nor by pollution of its natal molecular cloud by rapidly-rotating, massive, mega metal-poor ([Fe/H] < - 6.0) stars. A more likely possibility is that this star formed from gas polluted by the elements produced in a ''faint'' supernova, which underwent mixing and fallback, and only ejected small amounts of elements of metals beyond the lighter elements. The Li abundance of BD+44 Degree-Sign 493 (A(Li) = log (Li/H)+12 =1.0) is lower than the Spite plateau value, as found in other metal-poor subgiants. The upper limit on Be abundance (A(Be) = log (Be/H)+12 < - 1.8) is as low as those found for stars with similarly extremely-low metallicity, indicating that the progenitors of carbon- (and oxygen-) enhanced stars are not significant sources of Be, or that Be is depleted in metal-poor subgiants with effective temperatures of {approx}5400 K.

Ito, Hiroko; Aoki, Wako [Department of Astronomical Science, School of Physical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Tominaga, Nozomu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Honda, Satoshi [Kwasan Observatory, School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 377-0702 (Japan); Carollo, Daniela, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: beers@noao.edu, E-mail: tominaga@konan-u.ac.jp, E-mail: honda@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: daniela.carollo@mq.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonic Research Center, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

438

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Co-Produced Geothermal Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Produced Geothermal Systems Produced Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Co-Produced Geothermal System: Co-Produced water is the water that is produced as a by-product during oil and gas production. If there is enough water produced at a high enough temperature co-produced water can be utilized for electricity production. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle General Air Cooled Co-Produced geothermal system demonstration at RMOTC oil site.

440

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Producer Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Fuel Tax Municipalities, counties, or school districts producing biodiesel must file a return documenting their biodiesel production activities and pay $0.03 of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Field application of a chemical heat and nitrogen generating system  

SciTech Connect

Heat is often required to stimulate production in wells with recurrent histories of paraffin deposition and plugging. A chemical system which produces heat and nitrogen at a predetermined well depth is proposed as an alternative to the traditional hot oil and steam generation treatments. The system is described briefly and case histories are given for 3 wells in California and 5 wells in Wyoming. The field results indicate that heat produced by the nitrogen generating system effectively stimulates production from paraffin plugged wells. The heat and nitrogen generating system further shows increased production cycle lengths over those which result from hot oil or paraffin solvent treatments. Beneficial effects of including a paraffin inhibitor in the treatment design are discussed, along with other potential applications for the heat produced by this system.

Mitchell, T.I.; Collesi, J.B.; Donovan, S.C.; McSpadden, H.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Chemical evaluations of John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediment  

SciTech Connect

In October 1989, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted sampling, geological characterization, and chemical evaluation studies on sediment from a proposed ship channel in San Francisco Bay, California. This channel extends from the San Francisco Bar, through San Pablo Bay, into Carquinez Strait, and on to Sacramento. The 1989 study area included a 28-mile-long portion of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel that extended from West Richmond to and including Carquinez Strait. The objective of our study was to determine physical characteristics and chemical contaminant levels in sediment to the proposed project depth of {minus}45 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (plus 2 ft of overdepth). Sediment core samples were collected at 47 locations throughout the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel using a vibratory hammer core sampler. Ten of these locations were from West Richmond, 29 from San Pablo Bay, and 8 from Carquinez Strait. The geological properties of sediment core samples were described, the sediment from the cores was composited into 72 separate samples based on those descriptions, and chemical analyses were conducted of 13 metals, 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 18 pesticides, 7 PCBs, 3 butyltins, and 4 conventional sediment chaacteristics. These data were then compared with sediment values from Oakland and Richmond harbors, reference values from Point Reyes fine- and coarse-grained sediments, and from typical shale sediment. 22 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

SciTech Connect

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

SciTech Connect

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

445

Chlor-syngas: Coupling of Electrochemical Technologies for Production of Commodity Chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel electrolysis process called chlor-syngas, where synthesis gas is produced at the cathode and chlorine gas is produced at the anode. ... The process described here, chlor-syngas, produces two commodity gas streams, Cl2 and synthesis gas (syngas), using low-value chemicals, CO2 and HCl. ... The chlor-syngas process could replace two existing processes in current use: (1) chlor-alkali for the production of Cl2 and (2) gasification of fossil sources, such as natural gas or coal, to produce syngas. ...

Tedd E. Lister; Eric J. Dufek

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

446

Chemical Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Science Chemical Science Chemical Science Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products. Read more. Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty

447

Chemical Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Inventory Chemical Inventory Use the following dropdown menus to filter the results for chemical records. To reset the results clear the entries and click "update". Facility - Any - SSRL LCLS Building - Any - 120 131 999 Room - Any - 109 113 209 257 Storage Area Storage Category Apply Title Facility Building Room Storage Area Storage Category Available to All Qty. Size Units Responsible Person 1,3-cyclohexadiene SSRL 131 209 CI L No 1 25 milliliters (ml) Tsu-Chien Weng 1,4- dioxane SSRL 120 257 CB1 L Yes 1 1 liters (l) Cynthia Patty 1,8-Octanedithiol SSRL 131 209 CA3 L No 1 5 grams (g) Schmidt 1-Chloronapthalene SSRL 131 209 CA3 L No 1 100 grams (g) Schmidt 1-Propanol LCLS 999 109 B1 L Yes 1 4 liters (l) Lisa Hammon

448

Chemical Sciences Division: Research: Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs Programs The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of Berkeley Laboratory's basic research divisions. The CSD is composed of individual research groups that conduct research in the areas of chemical physics and the dynamics of chemical reactions, the structure and reactivity of transient species, electron spectroscopy, surface chemistry and catalysis, electrochemistry, chemistry of the actinide elements and their relationship to environmental issues, and atomic physics. The division's 28 principal investigators, many of whom are on the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, direct the individual research projects and the work of 6 staff scientists, 41 postdoctoral researchers, and 75 graduate students. Our research staff continues to achieve fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients using both state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods. In addition, the division supports a strong effort in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis.

449

Producing Linear Alpha Olefins From Biomass - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

They are versatile building blocks for making a range of chemical products like polyethylene, synthetic oils, plasticizers, detergents and oilfield fluids. Relying on fossil...

450

Thematic Questions about Chemical Elements Nature of the chemical elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Be Atomic No. 1 2 3 4 Isotopes 1,2,3 3,4 6,7 9,10 Name Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Symbol B C N O Atomic No Environment Element Synthesis: Exploration of Chemical Fundamentals Element Synthesis and Isotopes · Elemental Abundance and Isotopes · distribution of elements in the universe · factors that define elemental

Polly, David

451

Radial Mass Fraction Distributions In Ar+N Plasmas Produced In A Wall-Stabilized Arc  

SciTech Connect

Radial distributions of Ar mass fractions in plasmas produced in a wall-stabilized arc have been studied. Measurements have been performed for seven different mixtures of Ar+N2. The obtained results show that the radial distributions of Ar mass fractions strongly depend on the chemical composition of the plasma. In plasmas containing large amount of Ar the distributions have local minima at the arc axis (in high temperature plasma regions), whereas in plasmas consisting mainly of nitrogen the distributions reveal maxima on the discharge axis.

KsiaPzek, Ireneusz [Institute of Physics, Opole University, ul. Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Chemical Sciences Division | Advanced Materials |ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Sciences Chemical Sciences Division SHARE Chemical Sciences Division The Chemical Sciences Division performs discovery and uses inspired research to understand, predict, and control the physical processes and chemical transformations at multiple length and time scales, especially at interfaces. The foundation of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of catalysis, geosciences, separations and analysis, chemical imaging, neutron science, polymer science, and interfacial science. Theory is closely integrated with materials synthesis and characterization to gain new insights into chemical transformations and processes with the ultimate goal of predictive insights. Applied research programs naturally grow out of our fundamental

453

Definition: Chemical energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

energy energy Energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms within molecules. When a chemical reaction occurs, the chemical energy within a molecule can increase or that energy can be released into its surroundings as another form of energy (e.g., heat or light). Fuel combustion is example of the conversion of chemical energy to another form of energy.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In chemistry, Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or, to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries and light bulbs and cells etc. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves energy, which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system Energy that can be released (or absorbed) because of a reaction between a set of

454

Identifying Chemicals That Are Planetary Boundary Threats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Identifying Chemicals That Are Planetary Boundary Threats ... Our point of departure to develop profiles for chemicals that are potential planetary boundary threats is to identify scenarios in which a chemical could fulfill each of the three conditions for being a planetary boundary threat. ... Note that chemicals named as examples do not necessarily represent planetary boundary threats since at least one scenario from each of the three conditions must be fulfilled for a chemical to pose a planetary boundary threat. ...

Matthew MacLeod; Magnus Breitholtz; Ian T. Cousins; Cynthia A. de Wit; Linn M. Persson; Christina Rudén; Michael S. McLachlan

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

455

New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Styrofoam cups are one of many Styrofoam cups are one of many products made from styrene monomer. Exelus Inc. (Livingston, NJ), established in 2000, develops and licenses "Cleaner-by- Design" chemical technologies to produce a vast array of products and materials used in consumer goods, transportation, and food processing. Currently, the company's principal process technologies are: ExSact - a refining technology that overcomes the environmental concerns, safety hazards and rising costs associated with conventional liquid acid technologies ExSyM - energy efficient, low cost SM production technology BTG - efficient, cost-effective conversion of biomass to clean, high-octane, gasoline-compatible fuel http://www.exelusinc.com/ New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces

456

Corrosion of reinforcing steel is typically one of the main problems causing deterioration of concrete structures. The Microcomposite Multistructural Formable (MMFX) steel, which is a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion of reinforcing steel is typically one of the main problems causing deterioration available steel, has proven to have high corrosion resistance in comparison with conventional steel without provides a high resistance to corrosion due to severe environmental exposure in comparison to the use

457

Figure 1. The dataset for the running example is excerpted at left, arranged in the typical manner for MVPA. The boxes at right introduce the dataset  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figure 1. The dataset for the running example is excerpted at left, arranged in the typical manner for MVPA. The boxes at right introduce the dataset representation used in later figures. In these boxes the "dataset-wise" scheme, the examples are relabeled prior to conducting the cross- validation, while

458

PV modules, with a life measured in decades, will typically be in place longer than the outdoor unit of a HVAC system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit of a HVAC system. When the performance of an HVAC system deteriorates, it is usually inspected remain installed on the roof even after the system is no longer being used. Although HVAC units have only jumpers and screws effectively bond all parts of the listed device together. HVAC components are typically

Johnson, Eric E.

459

Chemical reactor for converting a first material into a second material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

Kong, Peter C

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

460

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Radium Chemical Co Inc - NY 60  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radium Chemical Co Inc - NY 60 Radium Chemical Co Inc - NY 60 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: RADIUM CHEMICAL CO., INC (NY.60 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: New York , New York NY.60-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 NY.60-1 Site Operations: Commercial Producer of Radium. NY.60-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Commercial site - EPA cleanup project NY.60-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes NY.60-1 Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radium NY.60-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to RADIUM CHEMICAL CO., INC NY.60-1 - Memorandum; A. Wallo to the File; Subject: FUSRAP review and elimination of the Radium Chemical Co. site in New York, NY; November

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Chemical analysis of distribution and marketing (D and M) municipal sludges  

SciTech Connect

The land application of municipal wastewater treatment sludges is widely practiced both as an economic treatment or disposal method and to provide an economic soil nutrient amendment for agricultural use. Recent studies have shown that municipal sewage sludge effluents derived from both domestic and industrial wastewater elicited mutagenic activity as determined by the Ames test. Biological treatment processes remove some degradable organic chemicals but many persistent chemicals remain in the sludge and are hence applied to soils. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of chemicals in D and M sludges to provide a data base of priority pollutant trace metals and organics from sludges produced at facilities in 26 cities across the US. In addition to priority pollutant analysis, efforts were made to characterize non-target organic chemicals that predominated in sample extracts from each city using GC/MS. A total of 67 composite samples were analyzed. This paper discusses the results of chemical analyses of the sludge products.

Coleman, W.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Baird, R.; Gabrielian, S.M. (County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (USA))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education ... Many decisions made by working scientists have both a technical and an ethical component. ... To educate students about ethical misconduct in science, case studies were used in an ethics discussion board for a class group project. ...

Jeffrey Kovac

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Chemical intensification of dental radiographs  

SciTech Connect

The potential applications of chemical intensification in dental radiography are explored. Three standard photographic intensifiers and three methods designed for radiographic use are evaluated. One of these methods is shown to be capable of reducing radiation dose to one half, without loss of diagnostic quality. Further work is necessary to achieve a system sufficiently practicable to deserve widespread use in routine clinical dental radiography.

Price, C.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Biological and Chemical Engineering Building,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BioE/ChemE Building West ampus creation enter, Under struction Biological and Chemical Engineering Building, Under Construction Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Under Construction Arrillaga Sports Center. Eng. Paul G. Allen Building Roble Pool Roble Modulars Godzilla Thornton Center Bambi Roble Gym orsythe

Kay, Mark A.

465

Extended range chemical sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy. 6 figures.

Hughes, R.C.; Schubert, W.K.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

466

Spiral Waves of Chemical Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...is tethered by an unwinding string (Fig. 1B). At p > l...minute. In its spontaneously oscillating form and its merely excitable...mentions spiral waves in the oscillating reagent on page 29 of "Investiga-tion...homogeneous chemical auto-oscillating systems" (in Russian...

Arthur T. Winfree

1972-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Scientific Instrumentation Unit produces, among other products, plastic tools and instruments for bio-chemical labs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Closed Test Tubes Rack (for Eppendorf) Test Tubes Rack Aluminum Burette Rack (for Eppendorf) Round Test Shield 16 Closed Test Tubes Rack (for Eppendorf)17 Test Tubes Rack 18 Size large small Price (NIS) 400 Burette Rack (for Eppendorf)19 Round Test Tubes Stand with Lock Lid (for Eppendorf)20 Flat panel for Test

Shapiro, Ehud

468

Growth of metallic nanowires by chemical etching and the use of microfluidics channels to produce quantum point contacts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A self-terminated electrochemical method was used to fabricate microscopic-scale contacts between two Au electrodes in a microfluidic channel. The conductance of contacts varies in a… (more)

Soltani, Fatemeh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Influence of Chemical Pretreatment on the Internal Structure and Reactivity of Pyrolysis Chars Produced from Sugar Cane Bagasse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Marion Carrier †, Hein Wjp Neomagus ‡, Johann Görgens †, and Johannes H. Knoetze * † ... A study of the steam gasification of Eucalyptus chars has been carried out, using Li, Na and K chlorides as catalysts, in order to characterize the gas phase with a view to its energy use, analyzing the influence of steam flow rates, initial mass of char, particle size and temp. ... Energy Conversion and Management (2006), 47 (7-8), 1004-1013 CODEN: ECMADL; ISSN:0196-8904. ...

Marion Carrier; Hein Wjp Neomagus; Johann Görgens; Johannes H. Knoetze

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

470

OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban 1 MAY 2003 and Former Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee on Chemical Weapons Conference on Disarmament PRESENTATIONS Chemical Weapons Destruction CHEMICAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: Sergey Baranovsky

Sussex, University of

471

Method of producing nano-scaled graphene and inorganic platelets and their nanocomposites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm, and often between 0.34 nm and 1.02 nm. The method comprises: (a) subjecting the layered material in a powder form to a halogen vapor at a first temperature above the melting point or sublimation point of the halogen at a sufficient vapor pressure and for a duration of time sufficient to cause the halogen molecules to penetrate an interlayer space of the layered material, forming a stable halogen-intercalated compound; and (b) heating the halogen-intercalated compound at a second temperature above the boiling point of the halogen, allowing halogen atoms or molecules residing in the interlayer space to exfoliate the layered material to produce the platelets. Alternatively, rather than heating, step (a) is followed by a step of dispersing the halogen-intercalated compound in a liquid medium which is subjected to ultrasonication for exfoliating the halogen-intercalated compound to produce the platelets, which are dispersed in the liquid medium. The halogen can be readily captured and re-used, thereby significantly reducing the impact of halogen to the environment. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH)

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

472

Method of producing nano-scaled graphene and inorganic platelets and their nanocomposites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm, and often between 0.34 nm and 1.02 nm. The method comprises: (a) subjecting the layered material in a powder form to a halogen vapor at a first temperature above the melting point or sublimation point of the halogen at a sufficient vapor pressure and for a duration of time sufficient to cause the halogen molecules to penetrate an interlayer space of the layered material, forming a stable halogen-intercalated compound; and (b) heating the halogen-intercalated compound at a second temperature above the boiling point of the halogen, allowing halogen atoms or molecules residing in the interlayer space to exfoliate the layered material to produce the platelets. Alternatively, rather than heating, step (a) is followed by a step of dispersing the halogen-intercalated compound in a liquid medium which is subjected to ultrasonication for exfoliating the halogen-intercalated compound to produce the platelets, which are dispersed in the liquid medium. The halogen can be readily captured and re-used, thereby significantly reducing the impact of halogen to the environment. The method can further include a step of dispersing the platelets in a polymer or monomer solution or suspension as a precursor step to nanocomposite fabrication.

Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

473

Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

Waters, M.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A. [Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Second Generation Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit

475

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16.............................................................................................21 Coal and Methane Production

Maxwell, Bruce D.

476

SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

477

EWO Meeting March 2013 Reliable Produc.on Planning of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by regions - ProducIon capacity of each plant and its producIon costs - Availability of key raw material - Inventory holding costs, inventory capacity, and ini - SaIsfy customer demand across all markets - Achieve mass balance across

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

478

Factors Affecting Cotton Producers' Choice of Marketing Outlet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, changes in government policies, supply and demand fundamentals and price patterns in the cotton market have led to several shifts in how producers market their cotton. This thesis examined producer cash marketing choices, including...

Pace, Jason 1979-

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

479

Functionally gradient titanium-aluminide composites produced by laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The laser surface cladding of Ti-Al/TiB2...composites was investigated as a means of producing a functionally gradient material on a commercially pure Ti substrate. Single and double layers were produced. The pro...

J. H. Abboud; D. R. F. West; R. D. Rawlings

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

How Much Energy Does Each State Produce? | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Much Energy Does Each State Produce? How Much Energy Does Each State Produce? Energy Production in Trillion Btu: 2012 Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producers Alliance Producers Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance Place Sacramento, California Sector Biomass Product National trade association of biomass power producers in US. References USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance is a company located in Sacramento, California . References ↑ "USA Biomass Power Producers Alliance" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=USA_Biomass_Power_Producers_Alliance&oldid=352626" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages

482

ACS Meeting and Chemical Exposition Draw Large Attendance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ACS Meeting and Chemical Exposition Draw Large Attendance ... Copyright © 1958 American Chemical Society ...

1958-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Low-Temperature and Co-Produced Resources Fact Sheet  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's low-temperature and co-produced resources program area.

484

Cracking catalyst and method of producing the same  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to exchanged ammoniated cogels having improved catalytic activity and process for producing the same.

Alafandi, H.; Stamires, D.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

485

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

486

Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

487

Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

488

Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

247 Neutron producing target for accelerator based neutron source for NCT V. Belov1 , S. Fadeev1, Russia Summary Neutron producing targets for novel accelerator based neutron source [1, 2] are presented Neutron producing target is one of the main elements of proposed accelerator based facility for neutron

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

489

ccsd00001732, Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water with a melted NaCl is used as a test liquid. The liquid plasma is produced by the fundamental waveccsd­00001732, version 2 ­ 7 Nov 2004 Development behavior of liquid plasma produced by YAG laser the hazardous material called the environment material. Then, the plasma produced in liquid by the laser light

490

Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/:SiO/sub 2/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/:SiO/sub 2/, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO/sub 2/ films.

Tallant, D.R.; Taylor, E.L.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Method for producing components with internal architectures, such as micro-channel reactors, via diffusion bonding sheets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

Alman, David E. (Corvallis, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR); Davis, Daniel L. (Albany, OR)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

492

Transmission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations of ordering in Au-Cu clusters produced in a laser vaporization source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Au-Cu bimetallic alloy clusters are produced in a laser vaporization source starting from Au-Cu alloy targets with different stoichiometric compositions. The clusters are deposited on two different substrates—amorphous carbon and crystalline MgO—and are characterized by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. The experiments show that the overall chemical composition in the clusters is the same as the chemical composition of the target material; but the crystal structure of the Au-Cu alloy clusters differs from their known bulk crystal structure. Electron microscopy experiments provide evidence that no chemical ordering exists between Au and Cu atoms and that the clusters are solid solutions. Monte Carlo simulations using the second moment tight-binding approximation, however, predict Cu3Au clusters ordered in the core but with a disordered mantle. The possible origins of the differences between experiment and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed.

B. Pauwels; G. Van Tendeloo; E. Zhurkin; M. Hou; G. Verschoren; L. Theil Kuhn; W. Bouwen; P. Lievens

2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

493

Gas separation by pressure swing adsorption for producing hydrogen from coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project demonstrated the feasibility of producing high purity hydrogen from a coal gasification product gas mixture by Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) using a commercial 5A zeolite as the adsorbent. The major advantage of PSA over conventional hydrogen upgrading processes is associated with lower overall production costs. This is mainly due to the integration of PSA into H/sub 2/ production plants as a single unit operation by replacing the low temperature carbon monoxide shift, carbon dioxide wash and methanation steps. In this way, hydrogen production costs are typically reduced from 7 to 40%. A single bed PSA process was designed to simulate the various steps of commercial multibed PSA plants. A new and very important step, ''Vacuum Purge'', was also investigated. 45 refs., 38 figs., 50 tabs.

Kapoor, A.; Ritter, J.A.; Yang, R.T.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

The resource of biomethane, produced via biological, thermal and electrical routes, as a transport biofuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomethane is an energy vector suitable for renewable transport fuel which may derive energy through three different methodologies: thermal gasification; biological anaerobic digestion; and conversion of electricity to hydrogen (via electrolysis) and on to methane as described by the Sabatier Equation. Thermal gasification to produce methane (based on “hard” feed stock) tends to require significant scale, of the order of 400 MW. Biological anaerobic digestion (based on “soft” feed stock) is typically of scale less than 1 MW. Systems based on the Sabatier Equation convert hydrogen to methane exothermically and sequester carbon. The resource is assessed at 19% of energy in transport in Ireland. Adopting the approach of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (for example double credit for biofuels from residues and lignocellulosic feed stock) biomethane can supply 40% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T). The resource is sufficient to supply 30% of the private transport fleet with indigenous sustainable gaseous biofuel.

Jerry D. Murphy; James Browne; Eoin Allen; Cathal Gallagher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Producing hydrogen from water, without  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Researchers at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory have patented a "Method of Generating Hydrogen by Catalytic Decomposition of Water." The invention potentially leapfrogs current capital and energy intensive processes that produce hydrogen from fossil fuels or through the electrolysis of water. According to co-inventor Arun Bose, "Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis, but the high voltage requirements are a commercial barrier. The invention provides a new route for producing hydrogen from water by using mixed proton-electron conducting membranes." Water is

496

Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO4 + Cl-rich waters containing 103 to 104 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by

497

NETL: Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Technology with CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Commercialization of the Iron Based Coal Direct Chemical Looping Process for Power Production with in situ CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0009761 CDLC Process Concept CDLC Process Concept (click to enlarge) Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) is developing the coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) process. The CDCL process consists of a unique moving bed reactor - the reducer - where pulverized coal is fully converted using iron-based oxygen carriers. The oxygen carrier is reduced from Fe2O3 to FeO/Fe and the flue gas is a concentrated stream of CO2 that is available for storage or beneficial use. The reduced FeO/Fe is oxidized to Fe2O3 using air in the combustor, liberating heat to produce steam for a

498

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and Chemicals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and and Chemicals Corp - Bonnie Mill Plant - FL 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemicals Corp., Bonnie Mill Plant (FL.03) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: CF Industries Bonnie Uranium Plant FL.03-2 Location: Approximately 2 miles south of Highway 60 between Mulberry and Bartow , Bartow , Florida FL.03-2 Evaluation Year: 1985 FL.03-2 Site Operations: Recovered uranium concentrates from phosphate solutions produced at this plant. FL.03-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority FL.03-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium FL.03-2 Radiological Survey(s): Yes FL.03-4 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

499

CFD model for the simulation of chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A chemical looping combustion (CLC) system uses a metal oxide solid carrier to combust a source of fuel in isolation from the source of oxygen which produces an exhaust gas of primarily carbon dioxide and water. In this work, a full three-dimensional model of a chemical looping combustion system was developed to simulate the particle–fluid hydrodynamics, thermal characteristics, and reaction efficiency of the CLC system using coal particles as a fuel source. Multiple heterogeneous and homogenous reactions are considered in the CLC model including the oxidation and reduction reactions of the metal oxide carrier and gasification reactions. Within each coal particle, the temperature-dependent devolatilization, moisture release, and particle swelling effects are included. Modeling results showing fluidization regimes, circulation rate, reactor efficiencies, and temperature profiles are presented to demonstrate the utility of the model.

James M. Parker

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Liver and biliary tract cancer among chemical workers  

SciTech Connect

A recent cohort mortality study of male, hourly wage employees of a large Michigan chemical production and research facility had found a greater than expected number of deaths coded to liver and biliary tract cancer. In response, an additional investigation was then undertaken of the 44 liver and biliary tract cancer deaths observed between 1940 and 1982. A random sample (N = 1,888) of subjects was selected from the total cohort (N = 21,437) to serve as referents. Company work history records were used to classify cases and referents by work area assignment and potential for exposure to 11 selected chemical agents which have been shown to produce cancer of the liver or biliary passages in experimental animals. Statistically significant associations in both positive and negative directions were found for several work areas within the facility. A suggestive association was found for vinyl chloride monomer, based on five cases with presumed exposure.

Bond, G.G.; McLaren, E.A.; Sabel, F.L.; Bodner, K.M.; Lipps, T.E.; Cook, R.R. (Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z