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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Survey of renewable chemicals produced from ...  

RESEARCH Open Access Survey of renewable chemicals produced from lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment Patanjali Varanasi1,2, ...

2

Method of producing a chemical hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wendt, Kraig M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

3

Chemical-Tolerant Microbes Produce 50-Fold More Organic Acid ...  

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently targeted several ‘building block’ chemicals that could be produced via microorganism consumption of biomass.

4

Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The national laboratory consortium has undertaken a joint R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume II. Fermentation chemicals from biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technological and economic feasibility of producing some selected chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone, butanol, acetic acid, citric acid, 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. The demand for acetone and butanol has grown considerably. They have not been produced fermentatively for three decades, but instead by the oxo and aldol processes. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5% to 7%/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. For about 50 years fermentation has been the chief process for citric acid production. The feedstock cost is 15% to 20% of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5%/yr growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. R and D are needed to establish a viable commercial process. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed. Recovery and purification of the product require considerable improvement. Other chemicals such as lactic acid, isopropanol, maleic anhydride, fumarate, and glycerol merit evaluation for commercial fermentative production in the near future.

Villet, R. (ed.)

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers  

SciTech Connect

Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield… (more)

Li, Liang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A Novel Chemical Pathway for Producing Low Cost Ti by Direct ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... chemical pathway is described for producing titanium metal or titanium hydride powder that has realistic potential for drastic reductions in energy consumption ...

10

Solar photo-thermal catalytic reactions to produce high value chemicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the research work accomplished to date on the utilization of solar photo-thermal energy to convert low cost chemical feedstocks into high $-value chemical products. The rationale is that the solar IR-VIS-UV spectrum is unique, supplying endothermic reaction energy as well as VIS-UV for photochemical activation. Chemical market analysis and product price distribution focused attention on speciality chemicals with prices >$1.00/lb, and a synthesis sequence of n-paraffins to aromatics to partial oxidized products. The experimental work has demonstrated that enhanced reaction effects result from VIS-UV irradiation of catalytically active V2O5/SiO2. Experiments of the past year have been on dehydrogenation and dehydrocyclization of n-paraffins to olefins and aromatics with preference for the latter. Recent results using n-hexane produced 95% conversion with 56% benzene; it is speculated that aromatic yield should reach {approximately}70% by further optimization. Pilot- and commercial-scale reactor configurations have been examined; the odds-on-favorite being a shallow fluid-bed of catalyst with incident radiation from the top. Sequencing for maximum cost effectiveness would be day-time endothermic followed by night-time exothermic reactions to produce the products.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Wentworth, W.E. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Method for Producing Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics and for Stabilizing Contaminants Encapsulated therein Utilizing Reducing Agents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions is stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

1999-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

12

Physical and chemical properties of dust produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} RF plasma discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titan's atmospheric chemistry is simulated using a Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge produced in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} mixture. The produced solid particles are analysed ex-situ. Chemical properties are deduced from: elemental composition, FTIR and LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Optical properties are deduced from reflectivity in visible and IR range.

Ouni, F.; Alcouffe, G.; Szopa, C.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G. [Universite de Versailles St Quentin, Service d'Aeronomie, BP 3-91371 Verrieres le Buisson (France); Adande, G.; Thissen, R.; Quirico, E.; Brissaud, O. [LPG-BP 5338041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Laprevote, O. [ICSN-CNRS Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chemical-Tolerant Microbes Produce 50-Fold More Organic Acid from Biomass  

Production of industrial chemicals has long relied on petroleum-based starting material. As reserves of fossil carbon dwindle, a new approach is looking to microorganisms and their ability to convert renewable sources into valuable chemicals. The U.S. ...

14

Potential for non-thermal cost-effective chemical augmented waterflood for producing viscous oils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chemical enhanced oil recovery has regained its attention because of high oil price and the depletion of conventional oil reservoirs. This process is more complex… (more)

Xu, Haomin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Quality Parameters and Chemical Analysis for Biodiesel Produced in the United States in 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Samples of biodiesel (B100) from producers and terminals in 2011were tested for critical properties: free and total glycerin, flash point, cloud point, oxidation stability, cold soak filterability, and metals. Failure rates for cold soak filterability and oxidation stability were below 5%. One sample failed flash point due to excess methanol. One sample failed oxidation stability and metal content. Overall, 95% of the samples from this survey met biodiesel quality specification ASTM D6751. In 2007, a sampling of B100 from production facilities showed that nearly 90% met D6751. In samples meeting D6751, calcium was found above the method detection limit in nearly half the samples. Feedstock analysis revealed half the biodiesel was produced from soy and half was from mixed feedstocks. The saturated fatty acid methyl ester concentration of the B100 was compared to the saturated monoglyceride concentration as a percent of total monoglyceride. The real-world correlation of these properties was very good. The results of liquid chromatograph measurement of monoglycerides were compared to ASTM D6751. Agreement between the two methods was good, particularly for total monoglycerides and unsaturated monoglycerides. Because only very low levels of saturated monoglycerides measured, the two methods had more variability, but the correlation was still acceptable.

Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; Chupka, G.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by chemical vapor deposition: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a technologically important semiconductor, well-suited for solar photovoltaic energy conversion and thin film device applications. While the glow discharge technique is widely used for the deposition of a-Si:H films, this work is focused on the use of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, i.e., the thermal decomposition of disilane and higher silanes, for the deposition of a-Si:H films. A simple technique for the preparation of disilane and higher silanes by using an electric discharge in monosilane under atmospheric pressure has been developed, and the discharge product can be used directly for the deposition process. The important parameters of the CVD process including the substrate temperature, the composition and flow rate of the reaction mixture, and the nature of the diluent gas for disilane, have also been investigated. The deposition rate of a-Si:H films in a helium atmosphere is considerably higher than that in a hydrogen atmosphere, and the CVD process in a helium atmosphere is well-suited for the deposition of thick a-Si:H films. The a-Si:H films deposited under various conditions have been characterized by the photoconductivity, dissolution rate, optical absorption, mechanical stress, gap state density, minority carrier diffusion length, and stability measurements. On the basis of these measurements, a-Si:H films deposited by the thermal decomposition of disilane in a helium atmosphere exhibit better structural and electronic properties than those deposited in a hydrogen atmosphere.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass: recommendations for R and D. Volume I. Synopsis and executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Areas of research and development judged to be crucial for establishing a biotechnology of biomass processing are identified. Two general avenues are recommended for R and D: (1) in the near term, revival of the older fermentation technology and improvement of processing efficiencies; and (2) in the longer term, the development of novel biotechnological processes, such as for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Recommended R and D ranges from work in moleular genetics to biochemical engineering aspects of plant design. It is recommended that the R and D strategy be designed as an integration of three disciplines: biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry. Applcations of gene-transfer methodology and developments in continuous fermentation should be pursued. Currently, economic incentive for the use of biological conversion processes for producing fuels and chemical feedstocks from biomass is marginal. But as the imported fraction of US oil supply grows and hydrocarbon costs mount, the market is beginning to motivate a quest for substitutes. The commercial potential for biotechnology for establishing a renewable resources chemicals industry appears similar to the potential of the computer and microelectronics field several decades ago.

Villet, R

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Production and Utilization of CO3- Produced by a Corona Discharge in Air for Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization is a multistep ionization process used in mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The formation of product ions depends upon interactions with the analyte and the reactant ion species formed in the ionization source. The predominant reactant ion observed in a point-to-plane corona discharge in air occurs at m/z 60. There have been multiple references in the literature to the identity of this ion with some disagreement. It was postulated to be either CO3- or N2O2-. The identity of this ion is important as it is a key to the ionization of analytes. It was determined here to be CO3- through the use of 18O labeled oxygen. Further confirmation was provided through MS/MS studies. The ionization of nitroglycerine (NG) with CO3- produced the adduct NG•CO3-. This was compared to ionization with NO3- and Cl- reactant ions that also formed adducts with NG. The fragmentation patterns of these three adducts provides insight into the charge distribution and indicates that CO3- has a relatively high electron affinity similar to that of nitrate.

Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Post-Shock Chemical Lifetimes of Outflow Tracers and a Possible New Mechanism to Produce Water Ice Mantles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used a coupled time-dependent chemical and dynamical model to investigate the lifetime of the chemical legacy left in the wake of C-type shocks. We concentrate this study on the chemistry of H2O and O2, two molecules which are predicted to have abundances that are significantly affected in shock-heated gas. Two models are presented: (1) a three-stage model of pre-shock, shocked, and post-shock gas; and (2) a Monte-Carlo cloud simulation where we explore the effects of stochastic shock activity on molecular gas over a cloud lifetime. In agreement with previous studies, we find that shock velocities in excess of 10 km s^-1 are required to convert all of the oxygen not locked in CO into H2O before the gas has an opportunity to cool. For pure gas-phase models the lifetime of the high water abundances, or ``H2O legacy'', in the post-shock gas is 4 - 7 x 10^5 years. Through the Monte Carlo cloud simulation we demonstrate that the time-average abundance of H2O is a sensitive function of the frequency of shocks. Thus we predict that the abundance of H2O and other known outflow tracers can be used to trace the history of shock activity in molecular gas. For gas-grain models we find that the abundance of water-ice on grain surfaces can be quite large and is comparable to that observed in molecular clouds. This offers a possible alternative method to create water mantles without resorting to grain surface chemistry: gas heating and chemical modification due to a C-type shock and subsequent depletion of the gas-phase species onto grain mantles.

Edwin A. Bergin; Gary J. Melnick; David A. Neufeld

1998-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Pyrolysis of Wood and Bark in an Auger Reactor: Physical Properties and Chemical Analysis of the Produced Bio-oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bio-oil was produced at 450C by fast pyrolysis in a continuous auger reactor. Four feed stocks were used: pine wood, pine bark, oak wood, and oak bark. After extensive characterization of the whole bio-oils and their pyrolytic lignin-rich ethyl acetate fractions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), calorific values, viscosity dependences on shear rates and temperatures, elemental analyses, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, water analyses, and ash content, these bio-oils were shown to be comparable to bio-oils produced by fast pyrolysis in fluidized bed and vacuum pyrolysis processes. This finding suggests that portable auger reactors might be used to produce bio-oil at locations in forests to generate bio-oil on-site for transport of the less bulky bio-oil (versus raw biomass) to biorefineries or power generation units. The pyrolysis reported herein had lower heat transfer rates than those achieved in fluidized bed reactors, suggesting significant further improvements are possible.

Ingram, L.; Mohan, D.; Bricka, M.; Steele, P.; Strobel, D.; Crocker, D.; Mitchell, B.; Mohammed, J.; Cantrell, K.; Pittman, C. U. Jr.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Comparison of equilibria and kinetics of high surface area activated carbon produced from different precursors and by different chemical treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activated carbons prepared by chemical activation of coal and macadamia nutshell precursors with KOH and ZnCl{sub 2} have been studied in terms of their equilibrium and dynamic characteristics. These characteristics were then related to the micropore properties: surface area, volume, and half-width. Volumetric techniques were used for equilibria characterization and an FT-IR batch adsorber for dynamics. Carbons activated by KOH resulted in a more microporous structure, while those activated by zinc chloride were more mesoporous. High surface area samples were further studied in terms of their methane adsorption uptake. It was found that nutshell-derived activated carbons have a higher adsorption capacity per unit mass than those derived from coal; however, this was offset by lower particle density (mass/volume). High-pressure (2 GPa) pelletization of the carbons used for dynamic testing had a detrimental effect on capacity, presumably from pore collapse. Dynamic characteristics were found to be rather similar between the samples, with those treated with KOH displaying slower adsorption time scales.

Ahmadpour, A.; King, B.A.; Do, D.D. [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber reservoir for industrial processing purposes at Valley Nitrogen Producers Inc. , El Centro agricultural chemical plant. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber KGRA for industrial processing purposes at the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc. El Centro, California agricultural chemical plant was investigated. The analysis proceeds through the preliminary economics to determine the restraints imposed by geothermal modification size on internal rates of return, and through the energy utilization evaluation to determine the best method for substituting geothermal energy for existing fossil fuel energy. Finally, several geothermal utilization schemes were analyzed for detailed cost-benefit evaluation. An economically viable plan for implementing geothermal energy in the VNP Plant was identified and the final conclusions and recommendations were made based on these detailed cost-benefit analyses. Costs associated with geothermal energy production and implementation were formulated utilizing a modified Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories' ''GEOCOST'' program.

Sherwood, P.B.; Newman, K.L.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

Melendez, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Richardson, Donald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Energy conservation in typical Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

Yang, M. [International Inst. for Energy Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand); Rumsey, P. [Supersymmetry USA, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Production and Handling Slide 42: Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage Yard Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage Yard...

28

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic energies of a few electron volts. Most studies of chemical kinetics made by traditional thermochemical. It is obvious that while some methods of theoretical chemical kinetics (for instance, "absolute" rate theory

Zare, Richard N.

29

Available Technologies: Renewable Chemicals Produced from Lignin  

Renewable Energy; Environmental Technologies. Monitoring and Imaging; ... paper pulping and agriculture; Potential to significantly improve economics of a biorefinery;

30

How much electricity does a typical nuclear power plant generate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much electricity does a typical nuclear power plant generate? ... tariff, and demand charge data? How is electricity used in U.S. homes?

31

An Integrated Strategy for Whole Ecological Utilization of Typical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of typical industrial solid wastes, such as titanium-bearing blast furnace slag, high-silicon iron tailing and boron-enriched slag as well as oil shale.

32

Nuclear outages back within typical range since July following ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. nuclear generator outages were above the levels of the previous four years in the second quarter of 2011 but have returned to more typical ...

33

U.S. refineries and blenders produced record amounts of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Because of its chemical composition, crude oil run through a refinery typically yields roughly twice as much motor gasoline as distillate fuels.

34

Typicality ranking via semi-supervised multiple-instance learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the existing methods for natural scene categorization only consider whether a sample is relevant or irrelevant to a particular concept. However, for the samples relevant to a certain concept, their typicalities or relevancy scores to the concept ... Keywords: multiple-instance learning, natural scene categorization, semi-supervised learning, typicality ranking

Jinhui Tang; Xian-Sheng Hua; Guo-Jun Qi; Xiuqing Wu

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method of producing molybdenum-99  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

Pitcher, Eric John

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

36

Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PNNL-88603 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012...

37

CCE CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Chemicals--Safety measures. 3. Hazardous wastes. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Prudent) produced two major reports on laboratory safety and laboratory waste disposal: Prudent Practices Nanomaterials, 77 4.G Biohazards, 79 4.H Hazards from Radioactivity, 79 5 Management of Chemicals 83 5.A

Tai, Yu-Chong

38

Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemical Logging Chemical Logging Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Chemical Logging Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Presence and geochemical composition of fluid producing zones Thermal: Calcium-alkalinity ratios versus depth assist in defining warm and hot water aquifers Dictionary.png Chemical Logging: Chemical logging produces a chemical profile of the formation fluid within a well based on the measurement of changes in the chemical composition of the drilling fluid during drilling operations.

39

Energy-Efficient Lighting The typical American family spends more  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) saves you money in the long run with lower energy bills. CFLs are significant Typical incandescent 75-watt light bulb Compact Fluorescent 18-watt light bulb Purchase cost $0.60 $ 5 that incandescent bulbs use becomes heat while only 10 percent becomes light. CFLs create less heat because more

40

Chemical leukoderma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the first report, to date, of chemical leukoderma that wasreview on biological, chemical and clinical aspects. Pigment4. Briganti S, et al. Chemical and instrumental approaches

O'Reilly, Kathryn E; Patel, Utpal; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi; Machler, Brian C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Passive in-situ chemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical sensor for assessing a chemical of interest. In typical embodiments the chemical sensor includes a first thermocouple and second thermocouple. A reactive component is typically disposed proximal to the second thermal couple, and is selected to react with the chemical of interest and generate a temperature variation that may be detected by a comparison of a temperature sensed by the second thermocouple compared with a concurrent temperature detected by the first thermocouple. Further disclosed is a method for assessing a chemical of interest and a method for identifying a reaction temperature for a chemical of interest in a system.

Morrell, Jonathan S. (Farragut, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Signatures of Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption for Typical AHUs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis is performed to investigate the signatures of different parameters on the heating and cooling energy consumption of typical air handling units (AHUs). The results are presented in graphic format. HVAC simulation engineers can use these graphs to make quick and rational decisions during the model calibration, identify faulty parameters, and develop optimized operation and control schedules. An application example is given as well in the paper.

Wei, G.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT McGILL Bachelor of Engineering in Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT McGILL Bachelor of Engineering in Chemical Engineering What is chemical engineering? Chemical engineers design processes and systems that produce everything from plastics and paper to pharmaceuticals, processed foods and advanced materials.What a chemist might produce in a test tube, chemical

Barthelat, Francois

45

Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels  

SciTech Connect

A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of windows in buildings similar to the typical buildings. (author)

Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Is the Sun Embedded in a Typical Interstellar Cloud?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical properties and kinematics of the partially ionized interstellar material near the Sun are typical of warm diffuse clouds in the solar vicinity. The interstellar magnetic field at the heliosphere and the kinematics of nearby clouds are naturally explained in terms of the S1 superbubble shell. The interstellar radiation field at the Sun appears to be harder than the field ionizing ambient diffuse gas, which may be a consequence of the low opacity of the tiny cloud surrounding the heliosphere. The spatial context of the Local Bubble is consistent with our location in the Orion spur.

P. C. Frisch

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

48

Meteorology: typical meteorological data for selected stations in Ghana  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

data for selected stations in Ghana data for selected stations in Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations> (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

49

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in Sri  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

50

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

51

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions

52

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

53

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

54

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT for INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS DE-FG05-85ER13439 1-AUG-1985 to 31-JUL-1994 Robert F. Curl and Graham P. Glass Principal Investigators Introduction This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then

55

Apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

56

NTRM Producer Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NTRM ® Producer Information. An NTRM ® (NIST Traceable Reference Material) is a commercially produced reference ...

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

57

Determination of selected elements in SRM 1548a typical diet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron activation analysis (NAA), including instrumental NAA (INAA) and radiochemical NAA, is one of the primary analytical techniques used for the certification of elemental content in biological standard reference materials (SRMs) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). SRM 1548a, which is a freeze-dried mixture of typical diet composite based on foods consumed in the United States was analyzed for aluminum, calcium, chlorine, potassium, manganese, and sodium by INAA. This analysis is a part of an ongoing effort to improve the quality of the SRMs by understanding and minimizing all known sources of errors or interferences in NAA. To perform highly accurate INAA, the system was calibrated using multiple primary standards. Homogeneity was also measured for these six elements in 12 samples of SRM 1548a in 250-mg sample sizes. The control samples were used to internally evaluate and cross-check the NAA method.

Tandon, L. [North American Scientific, North Hollywood, CA (United States); Garrity, K.M.; Becker, D.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydro-chemical Process for Alumina Production from Low Grade ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process is a hydro-chemical treatment for the residue after the typical Bayer ... LNG Power Plant:Trihydrate (150°C Dgs.) & Monohydrate (250°C Dgs.)*.

60

Available Technologies:Biosynthetically Produced Pinene for Jet ...  

A Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) research team has constructed a metabolic pathway to produce the monoterpene pinene, an immediate chemical precursor to a potential ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Older adults as digital content producers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Older adults are normally characterized as consumers, rather than producers, of digital content. Current research concerning the design of technologies for older adults typically focuses on providing access to digital resources. Access is important, ... Keywords: older adults, social connection, user-generated content

Jenny Waycott; Frank Vetere; Sonja Pedell; Lars Kulik; Elizabeth Ozanne; Alan Gruner; John Downs

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Chemical Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reactor concept for deep space exploration Research directions Weapons chemistry and nuclear performance Radiological, nuclear, and chemical signatures Energy production,...

63

Engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing geothermal heat from the Heber Reservoir for industrial processing purposes at Valley Nitrogen Producers Inc. , El Centro Agricultural Chemical Plant. Second quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial economic evaluation is provided for the alternatives to natural gas consumption previously identified. Using estimates of well costs, well flow, well life, temperature, enthalpy, and rates of return on invested capital, the cost of brine production has been estimated in terms of a demand charge and an energy charge. Capital costs of geothermal flash steam and binary systems from 5 to 30 Gross MW capacities have been estimated utilizing a modified Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories GEOCOST computer program. Fossil fuel costs, geothermal brine costs, and rate of inflation have been projected through 1997. Using these data, the thermal cycle efficiencies, and the capital cost data, the projected annual cost savings and the internal rate of return, as a function of the amount of fossil fuel displaced by geothermal energy, have been calculated and preliminary conclusions have been drawn based on this overall economic evaluation. In addition to an overall economic evaluation, an individual energy utilization evaluation was undertaken. Using estimates of capital costs, energy costs, and energy conversion efficiencies, a total unit charge rate in $/Hp-hr was assigned to each existing equipment driver and each proposed energy alternative to determine the best method for substituting geothermal energy for existing fossil fuel energy in the Valley Nitrogen Producers (VNP) Plant Steam Cycle. An optimal cost-effective plan for individual energy utilization in the VNP Plant Steam Cycle was developed from this evaluation and preliminary conclusions drawn.

Not Available

1977-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Produced Conversion Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical conversion coatings are commonly applied to Mg alloys as paint bases and in some cases as stand-alone protection. Traditional conversion coatings ...

65

Chemical microsensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven. Note that other radiotracers that are described in the literature can Radiotracers currently produced at Brookhaven. Note that other radiotracers that are described in the literature can also be transferred to our laboratory. Molecular Target/use Radiotracer Name Structure Chemical Name Hexokinase/glucose metabolism, cancer, brain function 18 FDG 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose Dopamine D2/D3 receptors/addiction, psychiatric disorders [ 11 C]raclopride 3,5-dichloro-N-{[(2S)-1-ethylpyrrolidin- 2-yl]methyl}-2-hydroxy-6- [ 11 C]methoxybenzamide Dopamine transporters / cocaine pharmacokinetics, addiction, neurological disorders [ 11 C]cocaine methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-s(benzoyloxy)- 8-[ 11 C]methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] octane-2-carboxylate Blood flow/nicotine pharmacokinetics [ 11 C]nicotine 3-[(2S)-1-[ 11 C]methylpyrrolidin-2-

67

Top-k typicality queries and efficient query answering methods on large databases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding typical instances is an effective approach to understand and analyze large data sets. In this paper, we apply the idea of typicality analysis from psychology and cognitive science to database query answering, and study the novel problem of answering ... Keywords: Efficient query answering, Top-k query, Typicality analysis

Ming Hua; Jian Pei; Ada W. Fu; Xuemin Lin; Ho-Fung Leung

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Plants producing DHA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CSIRO researchers published results in November 2012 showing that the long-chain n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can be produced in land plants in commercially valuable quantities. Plants producing DHA inform Magazine algae algal AOCS bi

69

Chemical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

Lowell, Jr., James R. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Rayfield, George W. (Bend, OR)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Chemical preconcentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Objective Chemical Engineers of chemicals. This lesson introduces students to one component of chemical engineering: food processing, and a chemical engineer 2. How chemical engineers are involved in food production 3. That chemical engineers need

Provancher, William

72

Modeling deuterium fractionation in cold and warm molecular environments with large chemical networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of deuterated species have long proven essential to probe properties and thermal history of various astrophysical environments. We present an elaborated chemical model that includes tens of thousands of reactions with multi-deuterated species, both gas-phase and surface, in which the most recent information on deuterium chemistry is implemented. A detailed study of the chemical evolution under wide range of temperatures and densities typical of cold molecular cores, warm protostellar envelopes, and hot cores/corinos is performed. We consider two cases of initial abundances, with 1) mainly atomic composition and all deuterium locked in HD, and 2) molecular abundances accumulated at 1 Myr of the evolution of a cold prestellar core. We indicate deuterated species that are particularly sensitive to temperature gradients and initial chemical composition. Many multiply-deuterated species produced at 10 K by exothermic ion-molecule chemistry retain large abundances even when temperature rises above 100 ...

Albertsson, T; Henning, Th

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Chemical Activation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Activation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Adsorption Milton R. Smith, Jr., 1 Edward W. Bittner, 1 Wei Shi, 1, 2 J. Karl Johnson, 1, 2 and Bradley C....

74

Chemical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

1992-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Chemical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

Lowell, Jr., James R. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Rayfield, George W. (Eugene, OR)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A study of the effects of well and fracture design in a typical Marcellus shale well.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The problem with typical Marcellus shale wells is the lack of information that has beenaccumulated and the amount of information that is commercially available to… (more)

Schweitzer, Ross T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Report on Produced Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices Page 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................. 11 1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Background ................................................................................................................... 11 1.3 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 11

78

Coal markets squeeze producers  

SciTech Connect

Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

Ryan, M.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Chemical Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

Francesca Matteucci

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

80

Learning Outcomes Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry: Biochemistry Major (typical electives)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

foundations in the fundamentals and applications of current chemical theories for the physical world. B. Use graphing 100A 105A Characterize reaction kinetics in a laboratory 100A 105A Measure chemical equilibria the factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction, including temperature. Analyze kinetic data

Gleeson, Joseph G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

ii Produced Water Pretreatment for Water Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal drilling and slickwater hydrofracturing have enabled shale gas to become a significant contributor to the United States ’ energy supply. Hydrofracturing typically requires 2MM – 6.5MM gallons of water per shale gas well. About 15-25 % of this water returns to the surface as “flowback ” within 30 days after hydrofracturing. “Produced water ” continues to flow at a much reduced rate, e.g. 2-10 bbl/day, for the life of the well. In addition to high salinity and hardness levels (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), much Marcellus produced water also contains significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), particularly radium. The near absence of disposal wells in Pennsylvania initially forced much of the produced water to be trucked into Ohio for disposal by deep-well injection (UIC). Currently up to 95 % of the

Principal Investigator; James M. Silva; James M. Silva; Hope Matis; William L. Kostedt Iv; Vicki Watkins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Chemical composition of melanin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical composition of melanin Chemical composition of melanin Name: Peggy M Siemers Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What is the chemical composition of Melanin by specific amino acids, or the DNA code for melanin? Replies: This is a good question! The answer is somewhat complex and I'm sure I don't have all the details but here goes... First, there is not a specific DNA code for melanin because like many biomolecules, it is not the result of a single gene product. People that are deficient in melanin are oculo/dermal albinos and I believe there have been seven different types of mutations. These different mutations reflect the multiple steps required to produce melanin. The original building block for melanin is tyrosine, one of the amino acids. This amino acid is modified by enzymes to produce the building block (monomer) for melanin synthesis by a process called polymerization that is also controlled by an enzyme. The polymers ,I believe, can attain diff3erent lengths and they can also form aggregates of different sizes alone and in combination with other molecules such as proteins. This is in part responsible for differences in coloration seen within and between individuals. NEWTON RULES

83

About Chemical Hazards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Hazards What Is a Chemical Hazard? chemical hazards.jpg A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in...

84

Process for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing hydrogen by an electrolysis of water with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide is provided. It is to use an electrolytic cell prepared by bonding a gas and liquid permeable anode on one surface of a cation-exchange membrane of a fluorinated polymer and a gas and liquid permeable cathode on the other surface of the membrane. An economical metal can be used as the substance for the electrolytic cell. Hydrogen can be produced at a low voltage in stable for a long time.

Oda, Y.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

85

Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT3, in the AU1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing acoustic wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

I. M. Neklyudov; A. N. Dovbnya; N. P. Dikiy; O. P. Ledenyov; Yu. V. Lyashko

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

86

To Look or Not to Look? Typical and Atypical Development of Oculomotor Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to inhibit saccades toward suddenly appearing peripheral stimuli (prosaccades) and direct them to contralateral locations instead (antisaccades) is a crucial marker of eye movement control. Typically developing infants as young as 4-month-olds ...

Gaia Scerif; Annette Karmiloff-smith; Ruth Campos; Mayada Elsabbagh; Jon Driver; Kim Cornish

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Chemical Product and Process Volume 2, Issue 1 2007 Article 10  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical entities (NCEs) is a kinetic model of the reaction system. Once obtained, this allows the chemical for the kinetic terms Ri will be unknown. It is therefore difficult, especially when each chemical species may, the dynamics of well- mixed chemical systems typically obey the law of mass action kinetics and hence

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

88

FAQS Qualification Card - Chemical Processing | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Processing Chemical Processing FAQS Qualification Card - Chemical Processing A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). For each functional area, the FAQS identify the minimum technical competencies and supporting knowledge and skills for a typical qualified individual working in the area. FAQC-ChemicalProcessing.docx Description Chemical Processing Qualification Card More Documents & Publications FAQS Gap Analysis Qualification Card - Chemical Processing

89

Chemical Reactions in DSMC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DSMC simulations of chemically reacting gas flows have generally employed procedures that convert the macroscopic chemical rate equations to reaction cross-sections at the microscopic level. They therefore depend on the availability of experimental data that has been fitted to equations of the Arrhenius form. This paper presents a physical model for dissociation and recombination reactions and a phenomenological model for exchange and chain reactions. These are based on the vibrational states of the colliding molecules and do not require any experimentally-based data. The simplicity of the models allows the corresponding rate equations to be written down and, while these are not required for the implementation of the models, they facilitate their validation. The model is applied to a typical hypersonic atmospheric entry problem and the results are compared with the corresponding results from the traditional method. It is also used to investigate both spontaneous and forced ignition as well as the structure of a deflagration wave in an oxygen-hydrogen mixture.

Bird, G. A. [GAB Consulting Pty Ltd, 144/110 Sussex Street, Sydney NSW 2000 (Australia)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

90

Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.

Demirgian, J.

1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

91

METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

1964-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Chemical Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Science Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krässig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H. Schmidt-Böcking, W. Schmitt, S.H. Southworth, Th. Weber, and L. Young Crystal structure analysis of microporous Na16Nb12.8Ti3.2O44.8(OH)3.2l8H2O and Na/Nb/Zr/O/H2O phases A. Tripathi, J. Parise, M. Nyman, T.M. Nenoff, and W. Harrison Double K-photoionization of heavy atoms R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, E.P. Kanter, B. Krässig, and S.H. Southworth Forward-backward asymmetries of atomic photoelectrons S.H. Southworth, B. Krässig, E.P. Kanter, J.C. Bilheux, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, and L. Young In situreduction of various iron oxides to form high-surface-area Fe-metal catalysts as studied by high-resolution powder diffraction

93

Excursions in Chemical Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009). [118] F. A. Cotton, Chemical Applications of GroupExcursions in Chemical Dynamics by Shervin Fatehi AFall 2010 Excursions in Chemical Dynamics Copyright 2010 by

Fatehi, Shervin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Photo of the Week: Not Your Typical Jet Engine | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Not Your Typical Jet Engine Not Your Typical Jet Engine Photo of the Week: Not Your Typical Jet Engine November 23, 2012 - 11:57am Addthis As part of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, the U.S. conducted extensive research showing that nuclear fission could power an aircraft. The research involved a series of Heat Transfer Reactor Experiments (HTREs), which tested if different types of jet engines could be run by nuclear power. In 1955, however, the project was cancelled, and a safe, operational prototype aircraft was never developed. In this 1988 photo, the two HTRE reactors are shown in transport to Idaho National Laboratory's EBR-1 visitor center, where they remain today. | Photo courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory. As part of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, the U.S. conducted

95

Implementation of on-line control in chemical process plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A range of identification, estimation and control algorithms has been implemented and tested on a chemical process plant/process control computer system which is typical of installations in the process industries. The plants studied are a gas-separating ... Keywords: Adaptive control, Kalman filters, chemical industry, computer control, fluid composition control, multivariable control systems, nonlinear systems, optimal control, parameter estimation, stochastic control

L. S. Kershenbaum; T. R. Fortescue

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cf3 radical An image of the CF3 radicals produced by the photodissociation of CF3I. Chemical Dynamics The goal of this effort is to investigate the unimolecular and bimolecular...

97

Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Laia, J.R.; Barbero, R.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Control of electroosmotic flow in laser-ablated and chemically ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Chemical modification of hydro- lyzed and ablated PETG channels to produce ... carbon tape and coated with approximately 10 nm car- bon before ...

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

BS in General Science, with various specializations possible Typical Program of Study1 4 year  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BS in General Science, with various specializations possible Typical Program of Study1 ­ 4 year Fall Quarter Winter Quarter Spring Quarter Freshman Science (5) Science (5) Science (5) Math (5) Math (5) Core (5) Core (5)2 Core (5) Core (5) Sophomore Science (5) Science (5) Science (5) Science (5

Carter, John

100

System for treating produced water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/News-transformative-method-produces-green-biofuels-052710.aspx?xmlmenuid=51  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/News-transformative-method-produces-green-biofuels- 052710.aspx?xmlmenuid=51 Transformative Method Produces Green Biofuels May 27, 2010 A new way to make valuable chemicals

Lovley, Derek

102

Method of producing catalytic materials for fabricating nanostructures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Chemical Looping for Combustion and Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChemiCal looping for Combustion and ChemiCal looping for Combustion and hydrogen produCtion Objective The objective of this project is to determine the benefits of chemical looping technology used with coal to reduce CO 2 emissions. Background Chemical looping is a new method to convert coal or gasified coal to energy. In chemical looping, there is no direct contact between air and fuel. The chemical looping process utilizes oxygen from metal oxide oxygen carrier for fuel combustion, or for making hydrogen by "reducing" water. In combustion applications, the products of chemical looping are CO 2 and H 2 O. Thus, once the steam is condensed, a relatively pure stream of CO 2 is produced ready for sequestration. The production of a sequestration ready CO 2 stream does not require any additional separation units

104

Major Energy Producers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

206(92) 206(92) Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 January 1994 Elk. I nergy Information dministration This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. All telephone orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents McPherson Square Bookstore U.S. Government Printing Office 1510 H Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20402 Washington, DC 20005 (202)783-3238 (202)653-2050 FAX (202)512-2233 FAX (202)376-5055 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., eastern time, M-F 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., eastern time, M-F All mail orders should be directed to: U.S. Government Printing Office P.O. Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Complimentary subscriptions and single issues are available to certain groups of subscribers, such as

105

Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

106

Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms. Battelle ...

107

Analysis of magnetic fields produced far from electric power lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors develop a simple and general method for analyzing the magnetic fields produced by power lines at far distances, that is, at distances large in comparison to the spacing between the line's phase conductors. Magnetic fields produced far from conventional power lines have remarkably simple properties. The authors present formulae for the fields produced by various conventional and unconventional power line configurations; included are line designs characterized by reduced magnetic-field levels. Errors in the formulae are less than [plus minus]10% at the edge of a typical transmission right-of-way.

Kaune, W.T. (Enertech Consultants Campbell, CA (United States)); Zaffanella, L.E. (High Voltage Transmission Research Center, Lenox, MA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Enhancing chemical reactions  

SciTech Connect

Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

Morrey, John R. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The Particle Adventure | How do we interpret our data? | Typical detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical detector components Typical detector components The reason that detectors are divided into many components is that each component tests for a special set of particle properties. These components are stacked so that all particles will go through the different layers sequentially. A particle will not be evident until it either interacts with the detector in a measurable fashion, or decays into detectable particles. The interaction of various particles with the different components of a detector: *Neutrinos are not shown on this chart because they rarely interact with matter, and can only be detected by missing matter and energy. Just so you know, the pion ( ) is a charged meson.* A few important things to note: Charged particles, like electrons and protons, are detected both in the tracking chamber and the electromagnetic calorimeter.

110

Evaluation of the typical meteorological years for solar heating and cooling system studies. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of an evaluation of the weather data set, generated at Sandia Laboratories, known as the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Data. The purpose of the evaluation is to determine how well the TMY data represent actual long-term weather data in affecting the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. The two data sets are compared through detailed SHAC simulation.

Freeman, T. L.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Genetically Engineered Ethanol Producing Microorganisms ...  

Researchers at PNNL have developed a process concept for the use of microorganisms in the production of fuels, chemicals and other products.

112

Method of producing synthetic pitch  

SciTech Connect

Embodiments of a method are described for modifying pitches, oils, tars, and binders by using these materials as solvents to extract organic chemicals from coal.

Kennel, Elliot B. (Morgantown, WV); Stansberry, Peter G. (North Olmsted, OH); Stiller, Alfred H. (Morgantown, WV); Zondlo, John W. (Albright, WV)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

113

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

114

Method and apparatus for chemical synthesis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

Kong; Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID), Herring; J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID), Grandy; Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

115

Niobium-titanium superconductors produced by powder metallurgy having artificial flux pinning centers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superconductors formed by powder metallurgy have a matrix of niobium-titanium alloy with discrete pinning centers distributed therein which are formed of a compatible metal. The artificial pinning centers in the Nb-Ti matrix are reduced in size by processing steps to sizes on the order of the coherence length, typically in the range of 1 to 10 nm. To produce the superconductor, powders of body centered cubic Nb-Ti alloy and the second phase flux pinning material, such as Nb, are mixed in the desired percentages. The mixture is then isostatically pressed, sintered at a selected temperature and selected time to produce a cohesive structure having desired characteristics without undue chemical reaction, the sintered billet is reduced in size by deformation, such as by swaging, the swaged sample receives heat treatment and recrystallization and additional swaging, if necessary, and is then sheathed in a normal conducting sheath, and the sheathed material is drawn into a wire. The resulting superconducting wire has second phase flux pinning centers distributed therein which provide enhanced J.sub.ct due to the flux pinning effects.

Jablonski, Paul D. (Madison, WI); Larbalestier, David C. (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

117

Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Looping Looping Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Introduction 2 Process Description 3 Benefits 4 Oxygen Carriers 5 Multimedia 6 Patents 7 References 8 External Links Introduction Chemical looping or chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that could provide the means to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel combustion where there is no direct contact between air and fuel.[1] Oxygen is extracted from air, then the oxygen is reacted with the hydrocarbon fuel producing an exhaust gas composed of carbon dioxide and water vapor.[2] The water vapor is condensed out of the gas resulting in near 100% carbon dioxide stream that could be sequestered in the ground.

118

Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

119

Laser induced chemical reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division of theINFRARED LASER ENHANCEMENT OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS A. B. C. D.Laser Inhibition of Chemical Reaction Effect of Isotopic

Orel, Ann E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

B49: Typical Microstructures of Flash-Sintered 8 Mol % YSZ  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A16: Analysis of Surface Physic-Chemical Properties of Titanium Heat Treated · A17: Morphology Variations of GaN Nanowires and Devices ... A21: Synthesis and Characterization of ?-Tricalcium Phosphate / Glutamic acid ... B13: Ionic Conductivity of Doped Ceria Thin Films Using Different Electrode Configurations.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Results of Aging Tests of Vendor-Produced Blended Feed Simulant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is procuring through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) a minimum of five 3,500 gallon batches of waste simulant for Phase 1 testing in the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). To make sure that the quality of the simulant is acceptable, the production method was scaled up starting from laboratory-prepared simulant through 15-gallon vendor prepared simulant and 250-gallon vendor prepared simulant before embarking on the production of the 3500-gallon simulant batch by the vendor. The 3500-gallon PEP simulant batches were packaged in 250-gallon high molecular weight polyethylene totes at NOAH Technologies. The simulant was stored in an environmentally controlled environment at NOAH Technologies within their warehouse before blending or shipping. For the 15-gallon, 250-gallon, and 3500-gallon batch 0, the simulant was shipped in ambient temperature trucks with shipment requiring nominally 3 days. The 3500-gallon batch 1 traveled in a 70-75°F temperature controlled truck. Typically the simulant was uploaded in a PEP receiving tank within 24-hours of receipt. The first uploading required longer with it stored outside. Physical and chemical characterization of the 250-gallon batch was necessary to determine the effect of aging on the simulant in transit from the vendor and in storage before its use in the PEP. Therefore, aging tests were conducted on the 250-gallon batch of the vendor-produced PEP blended feed simulant to identify and determine any changes to the physical characteristics of the simulant when in storage. The supernate was also chemically characterized. Four aging scenarios for the vendor-produced blended simulant were studied: 1) stored outside in a 250-gallon tote, 2) stored inside in a gallon plastic bottle, 3) stored inside in a well mixed 5-L tank, and 4) subject to extended temperature cycling under summer temperature conditions in a gallon plastic bottle. The following series of aging tests were conducted to accomplish these objectives.

Russell, Renee L.; Buchmiller, William C.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

122

Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Exhibitor: MURLIN CHEMICAL INC.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Murlin Chemical, Inc. manufactures Bone Ash at its plant located in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA. Established in 1978, Murlin Chemical supplies ...

124

FAQ 7-How is depleted uranium produced?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? Depleted uranium is produced during the uranium enrichment process. In the United States, uranium is enriched through the gaseous diffusion process in which the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other. The stream having the greater uranium-235 concentration is referred to as enriched UF6, while the stream that is reduced in its concentration of uranium-235 is referred to as depleted UF6. The depleted UF6 can be converted to other chemical forms, such as depleted uranium oxide or depleted uranium metal.

125

Produced water associated with the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary: Produced water associated with the oil and gas (O&G) industry annually introduces hundreds of billions of gallons of brackish wastewa- ter in the U.S. alone. Most produced water is highly saline companies pay to have this contaminated produced water trucked to reinjection sites for disposal--an expen

126

Chemical Safety Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Home Chemical Safety Topical Committee Library Program Contacts Related Links Site Map Tools 2013 Chemical Safety Workshop Archived Workshops Contact Us Health and Safety HSS Logo Chemical Safety Program logo The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Chemical Safety web pages provide a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of chemical management. This page is supported by the Chemical Safety Topical Committee which was formed to identify chemical safety-related issues of concern to the DOE and pursue solutions to issues identified. Noteworthy products are the Chemical Management Handbooks and the Chemical Lifecycle Cost Analysis Tool, found under the TOOLS menu. Chemical Management Handbook Vol (1) Chemical Management Handbook Vol (2)

127

Testa Produce | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Testa Produce Testa Produce Jump to: navigation, search Name Testa Produce Facility Testa Produce Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Testa Produce Developer Testa Produce Energy Purchaser Testa Produce Location Chicago IL Coordinates 41.81065982°, -87.65433311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.81065982,"lon":-87.65433311,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

128

Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

130

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

131

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

132

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

133

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

134

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

135

Chapter 13. Chemical Kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chemical reactions. · Only gases, for which the kinetic theory of Chapter 4 is applicable, are consideredChapter 13. Chemical Kinetics #12;· Why do some chemical reactions proceed with lighting speed when the way in which molecules combine to form products? · All of these questions involve chemical kinetics

Ihee, Hyotcherl

136

and Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biological and Chemical Engineering Building #12;2 Biological and Chemical Engineering Building sta is constructing a new building that will house the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department and Chemical Engineering Building will provide critically needed space for innovators in multiple disciplines

Prinz, Friedrich B.

137

Chemical Sciences Division Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Development of Measurements and Standards for Biofuels; Chemical Metrology in Support of the US Hydrogen Infrastructure; ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

About Chemical Hazards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Hazards Chemical Hazards What Is a Chemical Hazard? chemical hazards.jpg A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result in serious injuries if not properly handled. Household items such as bleach can result in harmful chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid if carelessly used. Gasoline fumes from containers for lawnmowers or boats can result in major health hazards if inhaled. DOE Oak Ridge uses thousands of chemicals in its varied research and other operations. New chemicals are or can be created as a result of the research or other activities. DOE follows national safety requirements in storing and handling these chemicals to minimize the risk of injuries from its chemical usage. However, accidents can occur despite careful attention to proper handling and storage procedures.

139

Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

Miller, John R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

Typical Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and operatioal support Typical Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and operatioal support Vendor's Name Contact/Rep Address Work Phone 615 Music Productions, Inc. Steve Hayes or Laura Palmer 1030 16th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212 616-244-6515 Adams, James F. James Adams 1217 Brookshire Dr., Bedford, TX 76021 214-674-6868 Adobe Systems Inc. N/A 2750 Barrett Lakes Blvd., Kennesaw, GA 30144 800-833-6687 Atlantech Resellers Inc, DBA CablesAndKits.com Craig Haynie 4555 Atwater Ct Ste ! Buford, GA 21075 877-633-2629 Albuquerque Printing Co Albert Padilla 3838 Bogan Ave.NE, Albq. 87109 505-872-2200 AlphaTRAC, Inc. John Ciolek 8670 Wolff Ct Ste 120 Westminster, CO 80031 303-428-5670 Amazon.com CSR

142

Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Viewing the Chemical Evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Charge Balance Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlations from charge conservation are affected by when charge/anticharge pairs are created during the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision. For charges created early, balancing charges are typically separated by the order of one unit of spatial rapidity by the end of the collision, whereas those charges produced later in the collision are far more correlated. By analyzing correlations from STAR for different species, I show that one can distinguish the two separate waves of charge creation expected in a high-energy collision, one at early times when the QGP is formed and a second at hadronization. Further, I extract the density of up, down and strange quarks at in the QGP and find agreement at the 20% level with expectations for a chemically thermalized plasma.

Scott Pratt

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

144

Advances in solar assisted drying systems for agricultural produce  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technical directions in the development of solar assisted drying systems system for agricultural produce are compact collector design, high efficiency, integrated storage, and long-life drying system. Air based solar collectors are not the only available ... Keywords: V-groove solar collector, double-pass solar collector, photovoltaic thermal collectors, solar assisted chemical heat pump system, solar dehumidification system

Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Sulaiman; Mohd Yusof Othman; Sohif Mat; Muhamad Yahya; Mohamad A. Alghoul; Baharudin Ali; Lim Chin Haw; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Azami Zaharim

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Superconducting articles of manufacture and method of producing same  

SciTech Connect

Bulk coatings of Nb.sub.3 Ge with high superconducting transition temperatures bonded to metallic substrates and a chemical vapor deposition method for producing such coatings on metallic substrates are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a Nb.sub.3 Ge coating having a transition temperature in excess of 21.5 K may be tightly bonded to a copper substrate.

Newkirk, Lawrence R. (Los Alamos, NM); Valencia, Flavio A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Science: similarities and differences among catalysts: Clustering and profiling diverse data on chemical reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The science of chemistry has seen less recent use of knowledge discovery techniques than sister sciences like biology, possibly because the comparatively modest size of typical chemical data sets do not obviously call out for data mining. The mistaken ...

Raúl E. Valdés-Pérez; Andrew V. Zeigarnik; Jérôme Pesenti

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemical Reference Data Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Reference Data Group. Welcome. The Chemical Reference Data Group compiles, evaluates, correlates and measures ...

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

Impact of Alternative Energy Prices, Tenure Arrangements and Irrigation Technologies on a Typical Texas High Plains Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irrigation is a major contributing factor in crop production on the Texas High Plains. It is responsible for greatly increasing crop production and farm income for the region. Two factors, a declining groundwater supply and increasing production costs, are of primary concern because they impact on farm operations and producer economic viability. A recursive linear programming model for a typical Texas High Plains irrigated farm was developed to evaluate expected impact of price changes, tenure and new technology. The model includes a Fortran sub-routine that adjusts irrigation factors each year based on the linear programming solution of the previous year. After calculating new pumping energy requirements, well yield, and pumping lift, the Fortran component updates the linear programming model. This procedure continues automatically to the end of a specified planning period or to economic exhaustion of the groundwater, whichever occurs first. Static applications of the model, in a deep water situation, showed that a natural gas price increase from $1.50 to $2.20 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) would result in reductions in irrigation levels. Irrigation was terminated when the price of natural gas reached about $7.00 per mcf. In a shallow water situation, much higher natural gas prices were reached ($3.60 per mcf) before short-run adjustments in farm organization began to occur. Under furrow irrigation, irrigation was terminated when the natural gas price reached $7.00 per mcf. Increased natural gas prices impact heavily on returns above variable costs (up to 15 percent reductions) for a 60 percent natural gas price increase. The effects of rising natural gas prices over a longer period of time were more significant. Annual returns (above variable and fixed costs) were reduced by as much as 30 percent, and the present value of returns to water was reduced by as much as 80 percent as the natural gas price was increased annually by $0.25 per mcf (from $1.50 per mcf). The economic life of deep groundwater was shortened by as much as 18 years. Renter-operators are even more vulnerable to rising natural gas prices than are owner-operators. With rising natural gas prices, profitability over time for the renter is low. As natural gas prices continue to increase, the greater will be the incentives for renter-operators to seek more favorable rental terms such as a sharing of irrigation costs. With the problem of a declining groundwater supply and rising natural gas prices, an economic incentive exists for producers to find new technologies that will enable them to make more efficient use of remaining groundwater and of natural gas. Substantial economic gains appear feasible through improved pump efficiency. Increasing pump efficiency from 50 to 75 percent will not increase the economic life of the water supply, but can improve farm profits over time; e.g., the present value of groundwater was increased 33 percent for a typical farm with an aquifer containing 250 feet of saturated thickness and 15 percent for 75 feet of saturated thickness. Improved irrigation distribution systems can help conserve water and reduce irrigation costs. Results indicate that irrigation can be extended by 11 or more years with 50 percent improved distribution efficiency. In addition, the increase in present value of groundwater on the 1.69 million irrigated acres of the Texas High Plains was estimated to be $995 million with 50 percent improved efficiency. Limitations in borrowing can substantially reduce annual net returns. This analysis suggests that the farmer can economically justify very high costs of borrowing rather than a limitation of funds available for operating expenses.

Petty, J. A.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hardin, D. C.; Whitson, R. E.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Boson stars: Chemical potential and quark condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the properties of a star made of self-gravitating bosons gas in a mean-field approximation. A generalized set of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov(TOV) equations is derived to incorporate the effect of chemical-potential in the general relativistic frame work. The metric-dependence of the chemical-potential gives a new class of solutions for the boson stars. It is demonstrated that the maximum mass and radius of the star change in a significant way when the effect of finite chemical-potential is considered. We also discuss the case of a boson star made of quark-condensates. It is found that when the self-interaction between the condensates is small as compared to their mass, the typical density is too high to form a diquark-boson star. Our results indicate that the star of quark-condensate may be formed in a low-density and high-pressure regime.

Jitesh R. Bhatt; V. Sreekanth

2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

152

Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Definition: Chemical Logging | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Logging Logging Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Chemical Logging Chemical logging produces a chemical profile of the formation fluid within a well based on the measurement of changes in the chemical composition of the drilling fluid during drilling operations.[1] References ↑ http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/6076582-xtVTIk/6076582.pdf Ret Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Chemical_Logging&oldid=600357" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Linked Data Developer services OpenEI partners with a broad range of international organizations to grow

154

Storage and Proper Segregation of Chemical Classes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proper Segregation of Chemical Classes Proper Segregation of Chemical Classes Partial List of Incompatible chemicals (Toxic Hazards) Substances in the left hand column should be stored and handled so that they cannot possibly accidentally contact corresponding substances in the center column, because toxic materials (right hand column) would be produced. Arsenical Materials Any Reducing Agent Arsine Azides Acids Hydrogen Azide Cyanides Acids Hydrogen Cyanide Hypochlorites Acids Chlorine or Hypochlorous Acid Nitrates Sulfuric Acid Nitrogen Dioxide Nitric acid Copper, Brass, Heavy Metals Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrites Acids Nitrous Fumes Phosphorus Caustic Alkalies/ Reducers Phosphine Selenides Reducers Hydrogen Selenide Sulfides Acids Hydrogen Sulfide Tellurides Reducers Hydrogen Telluride

155

Green method to produce propylene oxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Materials Argonne National Laboratory Center for Nanoscale Materials U.S. Department of Energy Search CNM ... Search Argonne Home > Center for Nanoscale Materials > CNM Home About CNM Research Facilities People For Users Publications News & Highlights News Research Highlights Newsletters CNM Images on Flickr Events Jobs CNM Users Organization Contact Us Other DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers Green method to produce propylene oxide conversion of propylene to polyene oxide via silver nanoclusters Simulation of propylene to propylene oxide conversion via silver nanoclusters supported on an alumina surface. Propylene oxide is an important chemical whose current industrial production is energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Attempts to solve this problem by using catalysts based on bulk silver surfaces with

156

Financial News for Major Energy Producers, Third Quarter 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producers, Third Quarter 2010 Producers, Third Quarter 2010 Release Date: January 5, 2011 Next Release Date: To Be Determined Report Sections: Corporate and Petroleum Net Income Worldwide Oil and Gas Production Operations Worldwide Refining/Marketing Operations Worldwide Petroleum Capital Expenditures Worldwide Downstream Natural Gas and Power, and Chemicals Operations Supplemental Figures Supplemental Tables Download this Report: Full Report in PDF-Format Past Issues in PDF-Format Additional Information FRS Home Financial Terms Glossary Contacts Notes: The "Financial News for Major Energy Producers" is issued quarterly to report recent trends in the financial performance of the major energy producers. "Major energy producers" are respondents to Form EIA-28 (Financial Reporting System). All U.S.-based respondent companies that

157

Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Presented by: J.M. Hieb, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company CHPRC1204-04 Chemical Lifecycle Management Cost Everyone is trying to stretch a...

159

PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 PhD Chemical Engineering MS Chemical Engineering Bylaws Gene and Linda Voiland School of ChemicalD Chemical Engineering, MS Chemical Engineering B. Discipline: Edgar, et al.1 provide a succinct description of chemical engineering: "chemical engineers seek to understand, manipulate, and control the molecular basis

Collins, Gary S.

160

Chemical Physics Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... spectroscopy. Ultrafast lasers are used to … more. >> see all Chemical Physics programs and projects ... *. Bookmark and Share. ...

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Chemical Sciences Division - CSD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSD Chemical Sciences Division CSD Organization Contact List Search Other Links Research Areas Research Highlights Organization Contacts Publications Awards Employment...

162

CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Bolch, Tobias

163

Chemical biology drug discovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keywords Chemical biology drug discovery high-throughput screening protein ligands proteases novel chemical and biochemical methods for the identification and optimization of protein ligands us of pro- tein ligands. Results of this research are translated into protein-specific, chemical probes

Schüler, Axel

164

Chemical engineering Research !!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical engineering Research !! www.chemeng.lth.se Updated August 2012 #12;WWT Fermentation University/Faculty of Engineering-LTH/Department of Chemical Engineering Membrane Group Ann-Sofi Jönsson More research projects. #12;Lund University/Faculty of Engineering-LTH/Department of Chemical Engineering

165

Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . . Realization 2d Zeolites Finite Zeolites The Layer . . . Holes University (Brigitte Servatius -- WPI) #12;Chemical Zeolites Combinatorial . . . Realization 2d Zeolites. Chemical Zeolites · crystalline solid · units: Si + 4O Si O O O O · two covalent bonds per oxygen #12

Servatius, Brigitte

166

CHEMICAL AND PAPER ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAFETY HANDBOOK For CHEMICAL AND PAPER ENGINEERING 2010-2011 #12;Page 1 Safety Guidelines Department of Chemical and Paper Engineering Miami University - Oxford, Ohio 45056 The following safety and Laboratory Coordinator Responsibilities III. Emergency Procedures IV. Chemical Storage V. Routine

Dollar, Anna

167

Alternative Energy Producers Credit (Montana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Alternative Energy Producers Credit for 35% of the eligible expenditures on renewable energy generation facilities to be claimed as a tax credit. However, this credit is reduced by the amount...

168

Methods of producing transportation fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

169

Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.  

SciTech Connect

Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the manner in which produced water is managed. This report presents an overview of produced water, summarizes the study, and presents results from the study at both the national level and the state level. Chapter 2 presents background information on produced water, describing its chemical and physical characteristics, where it is produced, and the potential impacts of produced water to the environment and to oil and gas operations. A review of relevant literature is also included. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to collect information, including outreach efforts to state oil and gas agencies and related federal programs. Because of the inconsistency in the level of detail provided by various state agencies, the approaches and assumptions used to extrapolate data values are also discussed. In Chapter 4, the data are presented, and national trends and observations are discussed. Chapter 5 presents detailed results for each state, while Chapter 6 presents results from federal sources for oil and gas production (i.e., offshore, onshore, and tribal lands). Chapter 7 summarizes the study and presents conclusions.

Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

CCE CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 VIII. Electrical Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 IX. Hazardous Waste: Hazardous Chemicals Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Appendix B: Means of Lab Waste Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Appendix C: Where to put specific wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Appendix D

Elowitz, Michael

171

Platform Chemicals from an Oilseed Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US chemical industry is $460 billion in size where a $150 billion segment of which is non-oxygenated chemicals that is sourced today via petroleum but is addressable by a renewable feedstock if one considers a more chemically reduced feedstock such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oil, due to its chemical functionality, provides a largely untapped opportunity as a renewable chemical source to replace petroleum-derived chemicals and produce platform chemicals unavailable today. This project examined the fertile intersection between the rich building blocks provided by vegetable oils and the enhanced chemical modification capability provided by metathesis chemistry. The technology advanced in this study is the process of ethylene cross-metathesis (referred to as ethenolysis) with vegetable oil and vegetable oil derivatives to manufacture the platform-chemical 9-decenoic acid (or 9DA) and olefin co-products. The project team meet its goals of demonstrating improved catalyst efficiencies of several multiples, deepening the mechanistic understanding of metathesis, synthesis and screening of dozens of new catalysts, designing and modeling commercial processes, and estimating production costs. One demonstrable result of the study was a step change improvement in catalyst turnover number in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate as reported here. We met our key measurable of producing 100 lbs of 9DA at the pilot-scale, which demonstrated ability to scale-up ethenolysis. DOE Project funding had significant positive impact on development of metathetically modified vegetable oils more broadly as the Cargill/Materia partnership, that was able to initiate primarily due to DOE funding, has succeeded in commercializing products, validating metathesis as a platform technology, and expanding a diverse products portfolio in high value and in large volume markets. Opportunities have expanded and business development has gained considerable momentum and enabled further expansion of the Materia/Cargill relationship. This project exceeded expectations and is having immediate impact on DOE success by replacing petroleum products with renewables in a large volume application today.

Tupy, Mike; Schrodi Yann

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

172

Argonne CNM Highlight: Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Reverse Chemmical Switching of a Ferroelectric Film Ferroelectric materials display a spontaneous electric polarization below the Curie temperature that can be reoriented, typically by applying an electric field. In this study, researchers from Argonne, Northern Illinois University, and The University of Pennsylvania have demonstrated that the chemical environment can control the polarization orientation in an ultrathin ferroelectric film. This is complementary to recent predictions that polarization can affect surface chemistry and illuminates potential applications in sublithographic patterning and electrically tunable catalysts. In situ synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements showed that high or low

173

Passive gust load alleviation through bend-twist coupling of composite beams on typical commercial airplane wings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of bend-twist coupling on typical commercial airplane wings are evaluated. An analytical formulation of the orthotropic box beam bending stiffness matrix is derived by combining Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and ...

Gauthier Perron, Sébastien

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Siphons in Chemical Reaction Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

credited. Siphons in Chemical Reaction Networks Referencesfor a class of nonlinear chemical equations. SIAM J. Appl.to persistence analysis in chemical reaction networks. In:

Shiu, Anne; Sturmfels, Bernd

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , Ed. , Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. J. Chem.£d. Amer/can Chemical Society. Easlon. PA. 18042. Vol. Lof Laboratory Safety. the Chemical Rubber Company Cleveland.

Ricks Editor, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Method for producing synthetic fuels from solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organic solid wastes represented by the general chemical formula C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z are reacted with steam at elevated temperatures to produce H.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The overall process is represented by the reaction C.sub.X H.sub.Y O.sub.Z + 2(X-Z/2)H.sub.2 O.fwdarw..sup..delta.XCO.sub.2 + [(Y/2) + 2(X-Z/2)] H.sub.2 . (1) reaction (1) is endothermic and requires heat. This heat is supplied by a tower top solar furnace; alternatively, some of the solid wastes can be burned to supply heat for the reaction. The hydrogen produced by reaction (1) can be used as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. Alternatively, methanol can be produced by the commercial process CO.sub.2 + 3H.sub.2 .fwdarw. CH.sub.3 OH + H.sub.2 O . (2) since reaction (1) is endothermic, the system represents a method for storing heat energy from an external source in a chemical fuel produced from solid wastes.

Antal, Jr., Michael J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

177

Chemical reactions in reverse micelle systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to conducting chemical reactions in reverse micelle or microemulsion systems comprising a substantially discontinuous phase including a polar fluid, typically an aqueous fluid, and a microemulsion promoter, typically a surfactant, for facilitating the formation of reverse micelles in the system. The system further includes a substantially continuous phase including a non-polar or low-polarity fluid material which is a gas under standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and which is generally a water-insoluble fluid in a near critical or supercritical state. Thus, the microemulsion system is maintained at a pressure and temperature such that the density of the non-polar or low-polarity fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. The method of carrying out chemical reactions generally comprises forming a first reverse micelle system including an aqueous fluid including reverse micelles in a water-insoluble fluid in the supercritical state. Then, a first reactant is introduced into the first reverse micelle system, and a chemical reaction is carried out with the first reactant to form a reaction product. In general, the first reactant can be incorporated into, and the product formed in, the reverse micelles. A second reactant can also be incorporated in the first reverse micelle system which is capable of reacting with the first reactant to form a product.

Matson, Dean W. (Kennewick, WA); Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Consani, Keith A. (Richland, WA)

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

SciTech Connect

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Chemical Manufacturing:  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technology Pathways Technology Pathways U.S. chemical producers recognize that energy efficiency offers a competitive edge in world markets. In 1996 the U.S. industry entered into partnership with ITP to work toward shared goals. Since then, the Chemical Industry of the Future partnership has been feeding the technology pipeline so that U.S. chemical producers will have the technologies they need to achieve their long-term economic, energy, and environmental goals. The DOE's Industries of the Future process helps entire industries articulate their long-term goals and publish them in a unified vision for the future. To achieve that vision, industry leaders jointly define detailed R&D agendas known as roadmaps. ITP relies on roadmap-defined priorities to target cost-shared solicitations and guide development of a

180

NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chemical stratification in the atmosphere of Ap star HD 133792. Regularized solution of the vertical inversion problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High spectral resolution studies of cool Ap stars reveal conspicuous anomalies of the shape and strength of many absorption lines. This is a signature of large atmospheric chemical gradients produced by the selective radiative levitation and gravitational settling of chemical species. Here we present a new approach to mapping the vertical chemical structures in stellar atmospheres. We have developed a regularized chemical inversion procedure that uses all information available in high-resolution stellar spectra. The new technique for the first time allowed us to recover chemical profiles without making a priori assumptions about the shape of chemical distributions. We have derived average abundances and applied the vertical inversion procedure to the high-resolution VLT UVES spectra of the weakly magnetic, cool Ap star HD 133792. Our analysis yielded improved estimates of the atmospheric parameters of HD 133792. We show that this star has negligible vsini and the mean magnetic field modulus =1.1+/-0.1 kG. We have derived average abundances for 43 ions and obtained vertical distributions of Ca, Si, Mg, Fe, Cr, and Sr. All these elements except Mg show high overabundance in the deep layers and solar or sub-solar composition in the upper atmosphere of HD 133792. In contrast, the Mg abundance increases with height. We find that transition from the metal-enhanced to metal-depleted zones typically occurs in a rather narrow range of depths in the atmosphere of HD 133792. Based on the derived photospheric abundances, we conclude that HD 133792 belongs to the rare group of evolved cool Ap stars, which possesses very large Fe-peak enhancement, but lacks a prominent overabundance of the rare-earth elements.

O. Kochukhov; V. Tsymbal; T. Ryabchikova; V. Makaganyk; S. Bagnulo

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method for producing laser targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25.mu. to 75.mu. diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection.

Jarboe, Thomas R. (Oakland, CA); Baker, William R. (Orinda, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

A reactive BGK-type model: influence of elastic collisions and chemical interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, momentum and total energy (kinetic plus internal chemical bond energy). Moreover the H theorem holds true is typical in Hydrogen combustion applications. #12;KINETIC MODEL With reference to Eq. (2), the microscopic reproduces the laws of chemical kinetics. #12;Conservation laws. Conservation of mass, momentum and total

Ceragioli, Francesca

184

Turbulent Mixing with Chemical Reaction in the Planetary Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed statistics of the fluctuating concentration field produced by large-eddy simulations (LES) of the chemically reactive mixing of two species in a convectively driven mixed layer are presented. The effect of the turbulent mixing on the ...

R. I. Sykes; S. F. Parker; D. S. Henn; W. S. Lewellen

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

Casserly, Thomas Bryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Fundamental Interactions -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tranter shock tube tranter shock tube A shock tube for high temperature studies of chemical reaction kinetics. Overview The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the elementary chemical reactions, non-reactive energy transfer processes, and coupled kinetics processes involved in combustion. The basic scientific approach is to combine a theoretical effort in the energetics, dynamics, and kinetics of chemical reactions with an experimental effort in thermochemistry, dynamics, and kinetics. Both the theoretical and experimental components of the program are vertically integrated to span a wide range of phenomena relevant to the study of chemical reactivity. This integrated approach produces synergy that results from the strong interaction between the theoretical and experimental efforts. Taken as a

188

Method and apparatus for detecting chemical binding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method for screening binding between a target binder and potential pharmaceutical chemicals involves sending a solution (preferably an aqueous solution) of the target binder through a conduit to a size exclusion filter, the target binder being too large to pass through the size exclusion filter, and then sending a solution of one or more potential pharmaceutical chemicals (preferably an aqueous solution) through the same conduit to the size exclusion filter after target binder has collected on the filter. The potential pharmaceutical chemicals are small enough to pass through the filter. Afterwards, x-rays are sent from an x-ray source to the size exclusion filter, and if the potential pharmaceutical chemicals form a complex with the target binder, the complex produces an x-ray fluorescence signal having an intensity that indicates that a complex has formed.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); Havrilla, George J. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, Thomasin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wells, Cyndi A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

189

From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels June 25, 2010 - 4:00pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell INEOS Bio -- one of the 17 global companies of the chemicals company INEOS -- is on schedule to begin construction this fall on the new Indian River BioEnergy Center near Vero Beach, Florida. The INEOS facility -- which was formerly a grapefruit processing plant for Ocean Spray -- will produce nearly eight million gallons of bioethanol per year from renewable biomass including yard, wood and vegetable waste. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Department of Energy awarded cost-share grants to 19 integrated biorefinery projects throughout the country. INEOS Bio was selected to for a matching grant of up to $50 million, which will fund the construction for the new center.

190

Chemical evolution STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Outline Absorption Chemical evolution STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 8. Absorption; chemical evolution Piet Piet van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Absorption; chemical evolution #12;Outline Absorption Chemical evolution Outline Absorption Holmberg's analysis Analysis of Disney et al. Edge

Kruit, Piet van der

191

Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Chemical Structure and Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2154-3 2154-3 UC-400 Annual Report 2000 Chemical Structure and Dynamics Steven D. Colson, Associate Director Robin S. McDowell, Program Manager and the Staff of the Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program April 2001 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report Contents Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report Chemical Structure and Dynamics 2000 Annual Report 1. Introduction Chemical Structure and Dynamics Program......................................................... 1-3 2. Reaction Mechanisms at Liquid Interfaces Structure and Reactivity of Ice Surfaces and Interfaces G. A. Kimmel, Z. Dohnálek, K. P. Stevenson, R. S. Smith,

193

Chemical reactor and method for chemically converting a first material into a second material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

194

ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING CORROSION TESTING  

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Corrosion Testing 3 Background: Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process Treatment Tank Deposition Tank 3000 gpm Mixers Oxalic ...

195

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety Plan m Chemical$torase Guidelines Chemical Is Incompatible llll i With ii Hydrocarbons (such as butane, propane,

Ricks Editor, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Discrete second order adjoints in atmospheric chemical transport modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) are essential tools for the study of air pollution, for environmental policy decisions, for the interpretation of observational data, and for producing air quality forecasts. Many air quality studies require ... Keywords: 65, Chemical transport models, Hessian singular vectors, Optimization, Second order adjoints, Sensitivity analysis, Stiff equations

Adrian Sandu; Lin Zhang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Chemical Testing of Textiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Testing of Textiles is edited by Qinguo Fan and covers more subjects than the title implies. These subjects include fiber and yarn identification, ...

198

American Chemical Society  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. American Chemical Society (ACS). Purpose: Air and water mediate chemistry on Earth. ... Related Project(s): ACS. Details: ...

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

199

Chemical Sciences Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& CENTERS RESEARCH STUDENT & POSTDOCTORAL OPPORTUNITIES NEWS & EVENTS CSD CONTACTS LBNL HOME logo Privacy & Security Notice DOE UC Berkeley Chemical Sciences Division imagemap...

200

Chemical Name Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Enter a chemical species name or pattern: (eg, methane, *2-hexene); Select the desired units for thermodynamic data: SI calorie-based; ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Biomass pyrolysis for chemicals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals The problems associated with the use of fossil fuels demand a transition to renewable sources (sun, wind, water, geothermal, biomass) for… (more)

Wild, Paul de

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Brookhaven Chemical Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Physics While the field of physics generally strives to find compact and universal explanations for how the components of our universe interact, chemistry is traditionally...

203

Method of producing heavy oils  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of producing viscous oils from a subterranean reservoir containing unconsolidated or friable sand, the reservoir being penetrated by at least one well in fluid communication therewith comprising: (a) first, stimulating the reservoir by injecting steam through the well at a pressure sufficient to fracture the reservoir adjacent the well; (b) next, shutting in the well for a period of time; (c) then, completing the well adjacent the reservoir with a gravel pack; (d) then, producing oil from the reservoir through the well; and (e) periodically, subsequently stimulating the reservoir by injecting steam through the well and into the reservoir at a pressure below the pressure which would fracture the reservoir adjacent the well.

Ferguson, N.B.

1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

204

Process for producing advanced ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

Kwong, Kyei-Sing (Tuscaloosa, AL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Method for producing carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM HALIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process amd associated apparatus for producing UF/sub 4/ from U/sub 3/ O/sub 8/ by a fluidized'' technique are reported. The U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ is first reduced to UO/sub 2/ by reaction with hydrogen, and the lower oxide of uranium is then reacted with gaseous HF to produce UF/sub 4/. In each case the reactant gas is used, alone or in combination with inert gases, to fluidize'' the finely divided reactant solid. The complete setup of the plant equipment including bins, reactor and the associated piping and valving, is described. An auxiliary fluorination reactor allows for the direct production of UF/sub 6/ from UF/sub 4/ and fluorine gas, or if desired, UF/sub 4/ may be collected as the product.

Murphree, E.V.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

207

PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

Anicetti, R.J.

1959-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

208

Method for producing monodisperse aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis.

J. Thomas Dickinson; Michael L. Alexander

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

210

Fullerenes produced by harnessing sunlight  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two independent groups of researchers have demonstrated that fullerenes can be produced by harnessing focused sunlight to vaporize carbon. Adapted to a large scale, generation of the carbon-cage molecules in solar furnaces might overcome yield-limiting problems associated with other fullerene production techniques, the researchers suggest. At Rice University, Houston, chemistry professor Richard E. Smalley and graduate students L.P. Felipe Chibante, Andreas Thess, J. Michael Alford, and Michael D. Diener used a parabolic mirror to focus sunlight on a graphite target to produce what appears to be a high yield of fullerenes. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, Colo., Roland R. Pitts, Mary Jane Hale, Carl Bingham, Allan Lewandowski, and David E.King, working in collaboration with Clark L. Fields, a chemistry professor at the University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, used NREL's high-flux solar furnace to produce soot that contains C[sub 60] and C[sub 70]. Papers describing the Rice and NREL results appeared together in last week's Journal of Physical Chemistry (97, 8696 and 8701 (1993)).

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Chemical Plume Source Localization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of estimating a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume using an autonomous vehicle as a sensor probe in a fluid flow. The fluid flow is assumed to have a high Reynolds number. Therefore, the ... Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, Bayesian inference methods, chemical plume tracing, online mapping, online planning, plume source localization

Shuo Pang; J. A. Farrell

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Enhanced Chemical Cleaning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Cleaning Chemical Cleaning Renee H. Spires Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Project Manager July 29, 2009 Tank Waste Corporate Board 2 Objective Provide an overview of the ECC process and plan 3 Chemical Cleaning * Oxalic Acid can get tanks clean - Tank 16 set a standard in 1982 - Tanks 5-6 Bulk OA cleaning results under evaluation * However, the downstream flowsheet and financial impacts of handling the spent acid were unacceptable Before After Tank 16 Tank 16 4 Oxalic Acid Flowsheet Impacts Evap Sludge Washing Evap Feed/Drop Tank 8 Wt% Oxalic Acid Neutralization Tank Solids Liquid High oxalate concentration Negligible oxalate concentration * Oxalates from chemical cleaning impact salt processing * A process change was needed Evaporator Saltstone Vaults DWPF Filled Canisters 5 Vision * Eliminate the impacts to the Tank Farm

213

Modelling the chemical evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced observational facilities allow to trace back the chemical evolution of the Universe, on the one hand, from local objects of different ages and, secondly, by direct observations of redshifted objects. The chemical enrichment serves as one of the cornerstones of cosmological evolution. In order to understand this chemical evolution in morphologically different astrophysical objects models are constructed based on analytical descriptions or numerical methods. For the comparison of their chemical issues, as there are element abundances, gradients, and ratios, with observations not only the present-day values are used but also their temporal evolution from the first era of metal enrichment. Here we will provide some insight into basics of chemical evolution models, highlight advancements, and discuss a few applications.

Hensler, Gerhard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by petition only. 405 Applications of Probability and Statistics for Chemical Engineers (3, Fa) Principles of probability and statistics, random variables and random functions. Application to chemical engineering Chemical Reactor Analysis (3, Fa) Basic concepts of chemical kinetics and chemical reactor design

Wang, Hai

215

Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Enrollment by petition only. CHE 405 Applications of Probability and Statistics for Chemical Engineers (3, Fa) Principles of probability and statistics, random variables and random functions. Application to chemical) CHE 442 Chemical Reactor Analysis (3, Fa) Basic concepts of chemical kinetics and chemical reactor

Wang, Hai

216

Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

1960-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Simulation of Control Options for HVAC Management of a Typical Office Julien CAILLET julien.caillet@mines-paristech.fr  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of Control Options for HVAC Management of a Typical Office Building. Julien CAILLET thermal comfort and to reduce energy consumption of buildings. Among defect correction, HVAC control appears as a way of significant improvement. HVAC control is examined by using a dynamic simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Dynamical and chemical evolution of NGC1569  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blue Compact Dwarf and Dwarf Irregular galaxies are generally believed to be unevolved objects, due to their blue colors, compact appearance and large gas fractions. Many of these objects show an ongoing intense burst of star formation or have experienced it in the recent past. By means of 2-D hydrodynamical simulations, coupled with detailed chemical yields originating from SNeII, SNeIa, and intermediate-mass stars, we study the dynamical and chemical evolution of model galaxies with structural parameters similar to NGC1569, a prototypical starburst galaxy. A burst of star formation with short duration is not able to account for the chemical and morphological properties of this galaxy. The best way to reproduce the chemical composition of this object is by assuming long-lasting episodes of star formation and a more recent burst, separated from the previous episodes by a short quiescent period. The last burst of star formation, in most of the explored cases, does not affect the chemical composition of the galaxy, since the enriched gas produced by young stars is in a too hot phase to be detectable with the optical spectroscopy. Models assuming the infall of a big cloud towards the center of the galaxy reproduce the chemical composition of the NGC1569, but the pressure exercised by the cloud hampers the expansion of the galactic wind, at variance with what observed in NGC1569.

S. Recchi; G. Hensler; L. Angeretti; F. Matteucci

2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Environmentally friendly process offers intriguing alternative to fossil-fuel-based ethylene for chemicals and transportation fuels.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Number of Producing Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Producing Gas Wells Producing Gas Wells Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 452,945 476,652 493,100 487,627 514,637 482,822 1989-2012 Alabama 6,591 6,860 6,913 7,026 7,063 6,327 1989-2012 Alaska 239 261 261 269 277 185 1989-2012 Arizona 7 6 6 5 5 5 1989-2012 Arkansas 4,773 5,592 6,314 7,397 8,388 8,538 1989-2012 California 1,540 1,645 1,643 1,580 1,308 1,423 1989-2012 Colorado 22,949 25,716 27,021 28,813 30,101 32,000 1989-2012 Gulf of Mexico 2,552 1,527 1,984 1,852 1,559 1,474 1998-2012 Illinois 43 45 51 50 40 40 1989-2012 Indiana 2,350 525 563 620 914 819 1989-2012 Kansas

223

Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen

Y. T. Shah; G. J. Stiegel; S. Krishnamurthy

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Surface Chemical Dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Chemical Dynamics Surface Chemical Dynamics The goal of the Surface Chemical Dynamics Program is to elucidate the underlying physical processes that determine the products (selectivity) and yield (efficiency) of chemical transformations relevant to energy-related chemistry on catalytic and nanostructured surfaces. Achieving this end requires understanding the evolution of the reactant-molecule/surface complex as molecules adsorb, bonds dissociate, surface species diffuse, new bonds form and products desorb. The pathways and time scales of these processes are ultimately determined by a multidimensional potential energy surface that is a function of the geometric and electronic structures of the surface and the reactant, product, intermediate and transition-state molecular and atomic species.

225

Chemicals from coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Prepared by Eastman Chemical Company  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., nor any of their subcontractors nor the U.S. Department of Energy, nor any person acting on behalf of either: (A) Makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the information contained in this report, or that the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report may not infringe privately owned rights; or (B) Assumes any liabilities with respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the use of, any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Department of Energy. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein does not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH™) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration

For The

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications  

SciTech Connect

A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

Engelke, Raymond P. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedges, Robert O. (Los Alamos, NM); Kammerman, Alan B. (Los Alamos, NM); Albright, James N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

towards shop operations. H-1 Chemic_l Hygiene and Safety ,of this section, any chemic:ads per kflop'am of body welshtUNSUPPORTED CHEMIC. -M. VITON NITrlI.E NATI'R.4I. BUTYL

Ricks Editor, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Using Energy Efficiency and Producing it Renewably  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Energy Efficiency and Producing it Renewably Title Using Energy Efficiency and Producing it Renewably Publication Type Book Chapter Year of Publication 2011 Authors Gadgil,...

230

NETL: Produced Water Management Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PWMIS Home Produced Water Management Information System The Produced Water Management Information System is an online resource for technical and regulatory information for managing...

231

NETL: Produced Water Management Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Produced Water Management Technology Descriptions Fact Sheet - Underground Injection for Disposal PWMIS Home Intro to Produced Water Technology Descriptions Basic Separation...

232

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

233

Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy Frontier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations DOE Logo Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations DOE Logo Focus Areas Reaction Mechanisms Controlled Active Metals Materials Synthesis Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations > IACT Home IACT News IACT Partners IACT Staff IACT Awards Publications & Presentations Jobs at IACT Energy Frontier Research Centers at Argonne Strategic Alliances Research Facilities & Tools Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a multidisciplinary approach to address key catalytic conversions that could improve the efficiency of producing fuels from biomass. IACT focuses on advancing the science of catalysis for the efficient conversion of energy resources into usable forms. IACT's goal is to find ways to achieve control and efficiency of chemical conversions comparable to those in nature.

234

POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require softening to dissolve alkali. Produced water total dissolved solids were 2,835 mg/L and less than 20 mg/L hardness as the sum of divalent cations. Produced water requires softening to dissolve chemicals. Softened produced water was used to dissolve chemicals in these evaluations. Crude oil API gravity varies across the field from 19.7 to 22.2 degrees with a dead oil viscosity of 95 to 280 cp at 75 F. Interfacial tension reductions of up to 21,025 fold (0.001 dyne/cm) were developed with fifteen alkaline-surfactant combinations at some alkali concentration. An additional three alkaline-surfactant combinations reduced the interfacial tension greater than 5,000 fold. NaOH generally produced the lowest interfacial tension values. Interfacial tension values of less than 0.021 dyne/cm were maintained when the solutions were diluted with produced water to about 60%. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} when mixed with surfactants did not reduce interfacial tension values to levels at which incremental oil can be expected. NaOH without surfactant interfacial tension reduction is at a level where some additional oil might be recovered. Most of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions producing ultra low interfacial tension gave type II- phase behavior. Only two solutions produced type III phase behavior. Produced water dilution resulted in maintenance of phase type for a number of solutions at produced water dilutions exceeding 80% dilution. The average loss of phase type occurred at 80% dilution. Linear corefloods were performed to determine relative permeability end points, chemical-rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Asymptotic of the largest and typical dimensions of isotypic components of tensor representations of the symmetric group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vershik and Kerov in \\cite{VK85} gave asymptotical bounds for the maximal and typical dimensions of the irreducible representations of the symmetric group. It was conjectured by Grigori Olshanski that the maximal and typical dimensions of the isotypical components of the representations in the base of Schur-Weyl duality accept similar asymptotical bounds. Using the method of Vershik and Kerov the conjecture of Grigori Olshanski is proven in this paper. More precisely, consider the tensor representation of the symmetric group on $N$ letters on the space $(C^r)^{\\tensor N}$. The isotypical components of this representation are parametrized by Young diagrams with $N$ cells and at most $r$ rows, and the relative dimensions of these components give rise to a measure on the set of such Young diagrams. Philippe Biane in \\cite{Biane2001} found the limit shape of a typical Young diagram with respect to this measure in the limit when $N$ grows and $\\sqrt{N}/r$ converges to a constant. By showing that this limit shape i...

Mkrtchyan, Sevak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

237

Genotoxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex chemical mixtures are ubiquitous in the environment. Humans are frequently exposed to these mixtures; therefore, it is important to understand potential interactions of chemical mixtures. Mixture interactions may influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of the components of a complex mixture. The research conducted for this dissertation has coupled chemical fractionation with in vitro and in vivo bioassays to assess the potential carcinogenic risk of complex mixtures. A non-aqueous phase liquid from a wood treatment plant was separated into acid (AF), base (BF) and neutral fractions (NF). The NF was further enriched using column chromatography to produce a polychlorinated dinbenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction. The genotoxicity of these mixtures were assessed via analytical quantification, in vitro (Salmonella microsome and E. coli prophage induction) and in vivo (32P-postlabeling) bioassays. The NF was further tested to measure bulky DNA adducts and induction of tumor formation. The AF contained the highest level of pentachlorophenol and the highest concentration of total PAHs. Although the carcinogenic PAHs were highest in the PCDD fraction, the highest concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BAP), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene were detected in the PAH fraction. A positive genotoxic response in Salmonella was induced by the crude extract, the PAH and BF, whereas the AF and BF induced a positive response in the E. coli assay. In vivo, the PAH fraction induced the highest DNA adduct frequencies in the lung. The NF, reconstituted mixture (RM) (which includes equivalent concentrations of seven carcinogenic PAHs in the NF), BAP and the NF amended with BAP (NF+BAP) were all tested in an infant mouse model. At the highest dose, after a 24 hr exposure, NF+BAP had the highest total DNA adducts measured in liver which was three to seven times higher than with other treatments. Adduct levels were comparable to the control after 280 days. The highest incidence of tumors was observed in the liver. At the high dose, NF+BAP elicited the highest incidence of tumors. The results of this research confirm previous studies and indicate that the carcinogenic potential of PAH mixtures may be greater than predicted by chemical analysis.

Phillips, Tracie Denise

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Chemically enhanced oil recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yet when conducted according to present state of the art, chemical flooding (i.e., micellar/polymer flooding, surfactant/polymer flooding, surfactant flooding) can mobilize more residual crude oil than any other method of enhanced oil recovery. It also is one of the most expensive methods of enhanced oil recovery. This contribution will describe some of the technology that comprises the state of the art technology that must be adhered to if a chemical flood is to be successful. Although some of the efforts to reduce cost and other points are discussed, the principle focus is on technical considerations in designing a good chemical flooding system. The term chemical flooding is restricted here to methods of enhanced oil recovery that employs a surfactant, either injected into the oil reservoir or generated in situ, primarily to reduce oil-water interfacial tension. Hence, polymer-water floods for mobility or profile control, steam foams, and carbon dioxide foams are excluded. Some polymer considerations are mentioned because they apply to providing mobility control for chemical flooding systems.

Nelson, R.C.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized.

Bond, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

Harwood, B.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

Chemical profiles of switchgrass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

profiles profiles of switchgrass Zhoujian Hu a,b , Robert Sykes a,c , Mark F. Davis a,c , E. Charles Brummer a,d , Arthur J. Ragauskas a,b,e, * a BioEnergy Science Center, USA b School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401, USA d Institute for Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA e Forest Products and Chemical Engineering Department, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 15 April 2009 Received in revised form 10 December 2009 Accepted 10 December 2009 Available online 13 January 2010 Keywords: Switchgrass Morphological components Chemical

244

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

245

Chemical Cleaning Program Review  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Cleaning Chemical Cleaning Program Review Neil Davis Deputy Program Manager Waste Removal & Tank Closure July 29, 2009 SRR-STI-2009-00464 2 Contents Regulatory drivers Process overview Preliminary results Lessons learned Path forward 3 Regulatory Drivers The Federal Facilities Agreement establishes milestones for the removal of bulk waste and closure of each non-compliant tank Per the Dispute Resolution: - "DOE shall complete operational closure of Tanks 19 and 18 by 12/31/2012" - "DOE shall complete operational closure of 4 tanks by 9/30/2015" SRR intention to close 4 tanks by 9/30/2010, or as soon as possible Tanks 5 & 6 will be 2 of the 4 tanks 4 Tank Closure Process Bulk Waste Removal Mechanical Heel Removal Chemical Cleaning Annulus

246

Chemical Label Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Label Information Chemical Label Information Chemical Name CAS No. NFPA 704 Label Data Hazard Information Health Fire Reactivity Other acetone 67641 1 3 0 Eye, skin and mucous membrane irritatiion. Central nervous system depression. chloroform 67663 2 0 0 CAR [1] and TERAT [2] Liver and kidney disorders. Eye and skin irritation. Central nervous system depression. Cardiac arrythmia. ethanol 64175 0 3 0 Skin and eye irritation. ethyl alcohol 64175 0 3 0 Skin and eye irritation. hydrofluoric acid 7664393 4 0 0 Acute [3] - Skin contact can lead to bone damage. Skin, eye and mucous membrane irritation. hydrogen peroxide (35 to 52%) 7722841 2 0 1 OX Very irritating to the skin, eye and respiratory tract. hydrogen peroxide (> 52%) 7722841 2 0 3 OX Extremely irritating to the skin, eye and respiratory tract.

247

Chemical Storage-Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage - Storage - Overview Ali T-Raissi, FSEC Hydrogen Storage Workshop Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois August 14-15, 2002 Hydrogen Fuel - Attributes * H 2 +½ O 2 → H 2 O (1.23 V) * High gravimetric energy density: 27.1 Ah/g, based on LHV of 119.93 kJ/g * 1 wt % = 189.6 Wh/kg (0.7 V; i.e. η FC = 57%) * Li ion cells: 130-150 Wh/kg Chemical Hydrides - Definition * They are considered secondary storage methods in which the storage medium is expended - primary storage methods include reversible systems (e.g. MHs & C-nanostructures), GH 2 & LH 2 storage Chemical Hydrides - Definition (cont.) * The usual chemical hydride system is reaction of a reactant containing H in the "-1" oxidation state (hydride) with a reactant containing H in the "+1" oxidation

248

NREL: News - NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photosynthesis Environmentally-friendly process offers intriguing alternative to fossil-fuel based ethylene for chemicals and transportation fuels September 25, 2012 Scientists at...

249

Physical and Chemical Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

data image data image Physical and Chemical Applications Research in this area includes: Chemical analysis (femtosecond laser ablation). Advanced sensors (laser ultrasonics). Advanced materials and nanotechnology for clean energy- hydrogen storage, nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes, nanowires, and nanoparticles). Photons to fuels (biosynthetic pathways for generating hydrocarbon biofuels in photosynthetic organisms). Advanced Sensor Development Sensor-based control of industrial processes can help companies: Decrease production costs; Reduce waste of raw materials on manufacturing lines; Lower manufacturing downtime from equipment maintenance; Increase the energy efficiency of manufacturing processes; Detect equipment failure early, before it becomes a major liability;

250

Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

Clark, Edward C. (Woodinville, WA); Huxtable, Douglas D. (Bothell, WA)

1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

251

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Lyon, Richard E. (Absecon, NJ); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

253

Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silie alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Producer Biodiesel Producer Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Producer Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Producer Requirements Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is composed of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from plant or animal matter, meets the

255

Contaminant distributions at typical U.S. uranium milling facilities and their effect on remedial action decisions  

SciTech Connect

Past operations at uranium processing sites throughout the US have resulted in local contamination of soils and ground water by radionuclides, toxic metals, or both. Understanding the origin of contamination and how the constituents are distributed is a basic element for planning remedial action decisions. This report describes the radiological and nonradiological species found in ground water at a typical US uranium milling facility. The report will provide the audience with an understanding of the vast spectrum of contaminants that must be controlled in planning solutions to the long-term management of these waste materials.

Hamp, S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Jackson, T.J. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dotson, P.W. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Chemical Conversion Coating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 16   Applications of aluminum using chemical conversion coatings...doors 6063 Acrylic paint (b) Cans 3004 Sanitary lacquer Fencing 6061 None applied Chromate conversion coatings Aircraft fuselage skins 7075 clad with 7072 Zinc chromate primer Electronic chassis 6061-T4 None applied Cast missile bulkhead 356-T6 None applied Screen 5056 clad with 6253 Clear varnish...

257

Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite - Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined HLW  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the seventh year of the current grant (DE-FG02-05ER63966) we completed an exhaustive study of cold calcination and began work on the development of tank fill materials to fill empty tanks and control residuals. Cold calcination of low and high NOx low activity waste (LAW) SRS Tank 44 and Hanford AN-107 simulants, respectively with metallic Al + Si powders was evaluated. It was found that a combination of Al and Si powders could be used as reducing agents to reduce the nitrate and nitrite content of both low and high NOx LAW to low enough levels to allow the LAW to be solidified directly by mixing it with metakaolin and allowing it to cure at 90 C. During room temperature reactions, NOx was reduced and nitrogen was emitted as N2 or NH3. This was an important finding because now one can pretreat LAW at ambient temperatures which provides a low-temperature alternative to thermal calcination. The significant advantage of using Al and Si metals for denitration/denitrition of the LAW is the fact that the supernate could potentially be treated in situ in the waste tanks themselves. Tank fill materials based upon a hydroceramic binder have been formulated from mixtures of metakaolinite, Class F fly ash and Class C flue gas desulphurization (FGD) ash mixed with various concentrations of NaOH solution. These harden over a period of hours or days depending on composition. A systematic study of properties of the tank fill materials (leachability) and ability to adsorb and hold residuals is under way.

Grutzeck, Michael

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Evaluation of biological and physico-chemical quality of the compost produced from pulp mill residues.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Nos últimos anos, a produção de celulose kraft branqueada vem crescendo significativamente no Brasil e, com isso, aumenta-se a preocupação dos aspectos ambientais desta tipologia,… (more)

Marcos Antonio de Souza Lima Guerra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Highly Active and Lower Cost Nanoparticle Catalyst for Producing Biofuel and Feedstock Chemicals  

Biofuels such as ethanol are already in use as alternatives to fossil fuels. These man-made fuels help to offset carbon dioxide emissions and are a ...

260

CALTECH CORE-COLLAPSE PROJECT (CCCP) OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE: TYPICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITOR STARS  

SciTech Connect

Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are rare events, constituting only a few percent of all core-collapse SNe, and the current sample of well-observed SNe IIn is small. Here, we study the four SNe IIn observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). The CCCP SN sample is unbiased to the extent that object selection was not influenced by target SN properties. Therefore, these events are representative of the observed population of SNe IIn. We find that a narrow P-Cygni profile in the hydrogen Balmer lines appears to be a ubiquitous feature of SNe IIn. Our light curves show a relatively long rise time (>20 days) followed by a slow decline stage (0.01-0.15 mag day{sup -1}), and a typical V-band peak magnitude of M{sub V} = -18.4 {+-} 1.0 mag. We measure the progenitor star wind velocities (600-1400 km s{sup -1}) for the SNe in our sample and derive pre-explosion mass-loss rates (0.026-0.12 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We compile similar data for SNe IIn from the literature and discuss our results in the context of this larger sample. Our results indicate that typical SNe IIn arise from progenitor stars that undergo luminous-blue-variable-like mass loss shortly before they explode.

Kiewe, Michael; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Leonard, Douglas C.; Emilio Enriquez, J. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Bradley Cenko, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Moon, Dae-Sik [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sand, David J.; Soderberg, Alicia M., E-mail: avishay.gal-yam@weizmann.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

 The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

262

PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

263

Work Practices for Chemical Fumehoods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Practices for Chemical Fumehoods Practices for Chemical Fumehoods (Reviewed May 16, 2011) Always use a chemical fumehood when working with toxic and/or volatile chemicals, not on an open bench. Chemical fumehoods are designed to provide protection for the user from chemical and radiological contaminants. However, they do not absolutely eliminate exposure, even under ideal conditions. Careless work practices can result in considerable exposure to users who may believe they are protected. To optimize the performance of the chemical hood, adhere to the following work practices: 1. Ensure that your chemical hood has a current inspection sticker (dated within the last year). The face velocity should be between 80 and 120 linear feet per minute (lfpm). 2. Verify that the chemical hood is drawing air.

264

CSD: Research Programs: Chemical Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSD: Research: Chemical Physics CSD: Research Programs: Chemical Physics CSD: Research: Chemical Physics CSD: Research Programs: Chemical Physics LBL Logo A-Z CSD Research Highlights CSD Directory Chemical Sciences Division A-Z Index Phone Book Search Berkeley Lab INTRODUCTION TO CSD NATIONAL FACILITIES & CENTERS RESEARCH PROGRAMS Atomic, Molecular & Optical Sciences Catalytic Science Chemical Physics The Glenn T. Seaborg Center (GTSC) STUDENT & POSTDOCTORAL OPPORTUNITIES NEWS & EVENTS CSD CONTACTS LBNL HOME Privacy & Security Notice DOE UC Berkeley CSD > Research Programs > Chemical Physics The Chemical Physics Program of the Chemical Science Division of LBNL is concerned with the development of both experimental and theoretical methodologies for studying molecular structure and dynamical processes at the most fundamental level, and with the application of these to specific

265

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory Page 1 Technical Activities Report Physical & Chemical Properties Division ...

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

266

Chemical Engineering & Processing Humidity Information at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Chemical Engineering & Processing Humidity Information at NIST. Chemical Engineering & Processing Humidity Information at NIST. ...

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

267

Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated ...  

Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, ...

268

Experiments with Wind to Produce Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nat EXPERIMENTS WITH WIND TO PRODUCE ENERGY Curriculum: Wind Power (simple machines, weatherclimatology, aerodynamics, leverage, mechanics, atmospheric pressure, and energy...

269

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco Documents - and - Tobacco Companies Sucessfully Prevented Tobacco Control Legislation in Argentina Speaker(s): Ernesto Sebrie Suzaynn Schick Date: November 10, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Two seminars will be presented by two speakers. "Chemical change in secondhand tobacco smoke...." (by Dr. Schick): The major US tobacco companies responded to Hirayama et al's 1981 paper showing secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers by intensifying their study of the chemistry and toxicity of secondhand smoke. Using a variety of experimental approaches, RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris studied the effects of aging, dilution and contact with typical room surfaces on secondhand

271

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hooker Chemical Co - NY 05  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Hooker Chemical Co - NY 05 Hooker Chemical Co - NY 05 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hooker Chemical Co. (NY.05) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Occidental Chemical Corporation Hooker Electrochemical Corporation NY.05-1 NY.05-2 Location: Niagara Falls , New York NY.05-3 Evaluation Year: 1985 NY.05-1 NY.05-2 Site Operations: Design, engineering, construction, equipping and operation of a plant for the manufacture of Product 45 (xylene hexachloride); MFL (Miller's fluorolubricant); P-45Cl; and recovered P-45Cl2 from residues produced in the manufacture of P-45Cl; used hydrochloric acid (a byproduct of the P-45 Program) in the chemical processing of uranium-bearing slag as a precursor to recovery. NY.05-2 NY.05-4 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Radiation levels below criteria NY.05-1

272

Chemical Sciences Division: Directory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO CSD NATIONAL FACILITIES & CENTERS RESEARCH STUDENT & POSTDOCTORAL OPPORTUNITIES NEWS & EVENTS CSD CONTACTS LBNL HOME Privacy & Security Notice DOE UC Berkeley CSD Directory A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Rebecca Abergel CSD Project Scientist; The Glenn T. Seaborg Center. Musahid Ahmed CSD Staff Scientist, Chemical Physics Program/Chemical Dynamics Beamline Publications Richard A. Andersen Professor of Chemistry, UC Berkeley; CSD Senior Faculty Scientist, The Glenn T. Seaborg Center Publications John Arnold Professor of Chemistry, UC Berkeley; CSD Faculty Scientist, Catalytic Science Program Publications B Ali Belkacem CSD Deputy and Senior Staff Scientist; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences Program Leader

273

Resistance to Chemicals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 14   Corrosion of lead in chemical process fluids...� � 76.2 3 Tallow � � 304.8 12 Olive � � 76.2 3 Cod liver � � 152.4 6 Neatsfoot � � 279.4 11 Fish � � 279.4 11 Vegetable � � 584.2 23 Peanut � � 457.2 18 Sulfonation with

274

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmentally friendly process offers Environmentally friendly process offers intriguing alternative to fossil-fuel-based ethylene for chemicals and transportation fuels. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated a new way to use photosynthesis to produce ethylene. NREL scientists introduced a gene for ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remained stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that could be easily captured. Ethylene is the most widely produced petrochemical feedstock in the world. It is currently produced exclusively from fossil fuels, and its production is the largest carbon dioxide (CO 2 )- emitting process in the chemical industry. Steam cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons from

276

Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County  

SciTech Connect

Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Process and Plant Design (3, Sp) Applications of unit opera- tions, thermodynamics, kinetics variables and random functions. Application to chemical engineering problems, including process design concepts of chemical kinetics and chemi- cal reactor design. Prerequisite: MATH 245. coUrSeS of in

Wang, Hai

278

Definition: Independent Power Producer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Producer Producer Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Independent Power Producer Any entity that owns or operates an electricity generating facility that is not included in an electric utility's rate base. This term includes, but is not limited to, cogenerators and small power producers and all other nonutility electricity producers, such as exempt wholesale generators, who sell electricity.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An Independent Power Producer is an entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users. NUGs may be privately held facilities, corporations, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers, and non-energy industrial concerns capable of feeding excess energy into

279

Information extraction from chemical patents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................................................................................................................................ vii Glossary .................................................................................................................................................. ix 1. Introduction... .................................................................... 211 Figure 6-2: Diagrammatic illustration of PatentEye Repository RDF .................................................. 212 ix Glossary API Application Programming Interface CAS Chemical Abstracts Service ChEBI Chemical Entities...

Jessop, David M

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Devices for collecting chemical compounds  

SciTech Connect

A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

Chemical Informatics Research - Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Chemical Informatics Research Group. William E. Wallace III (Group Leader) Laurell R. Phillips (Office ...

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

283

Chemical Transformations of Nanostructured Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Solution-based Processing for Ceramic Materials. Presentation Title, Chemical ...

284

Chemical Sciences Division - Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Sciences Division. Carlos A. Gonzalez (Division Chief) Carol A. Driver (Office Manager) Division Office Staff Directory. ...

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical Energy Storage Nuclear & Environmental Processes National Security Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Center for...

286

LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

287

Experimental Datasets from Chemical Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 29, 2005 ... Optimization Online. Experimental Datasets from Chemical Thermodynamics. Evgenii Rudnyi (Evgenii ***at*** Rudnyi.Ru). Abstract: I have ...

288

Spectroscopical Analysis of Mechano-chemically Activated Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechano-chemical activation is fundamentally different than chemical activation in that energy is added to alter the state of bond energy instead of exciting electrons to produce a chemical reaction. Mechano-chemical activation has demonstrated to alter the chemical reaction and rates. There remains no development of a model to quantify the changes in reactions due to mechano-chemical activation. This research aims in expanding our understanding of the influence of mechanochemical activation methods. The dynamics and kinetics of mechano-chemically activated surfaces will be studied using x-ray spectroscopy methods. Mechano-chemical interactions can be quantified through the study of electron energies. X-ray spectroscopy is a useful method of analyzing and quantifying electron energy states. X-ray absorbance is used to study the valence state electron shells of iron undergone activation through sliding friction of naturally produced wax. In-situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy is employed to instantaneously characterize single crystal tantalum samples of each principal crystallographic orientation during oxidation. Sliding friction of the naturally produced wax resulted in a reduction in the binding energy of the iron 2p electrons by approximately one electron-volt. This reduction in binding energy is attributed to ferrocene which is an organo-metallic alloy, Fe(C5H5)2. Mechanical strain of the crystal lattices of tantalum resulted in altered activation energies. Activation energy increased with the application of lattice strain. At increasing strain, oxide properties become more dependent on the lattice strain than the crystal orientation and temperature. A model system is developed incorporating mechanical strain into the prediction of activation energy and rates.

Cooper, Rodrigo

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Microscopic Models for Chemical Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce an infinite particle system dynamics, which includes stochastic chemical kinetics models, the classical Kac model and free space movement. We study energy redistribution between two energy types (kinetic and chemical) in different time scales, similar to energy redistribution in the living cell. One example is considered in great detail, where the model provides main formulas of chemical thermodynamics.

Malyshev, V A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Microscopic Models for Chemical Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce an infinite particle system dynamics, which includes stochastic chemical kinetics models, the classical Kac model and free space movement. We study energy redistribution between two energy types (kinetic and chemical) in different time scales, similar to energy redistribution in the living cell. One example is considered in great detail, where the model provides main formulas of chemical thermodynamics.

V. A. Malyshev

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

291

AGRI-SCIENCE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AGRI-SCIENCE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY NETWORK Vehicle for translation: Pioneering a cross-academic, -industry and -government network Chemical Biology Community Agri- Sciences Community Industry Policy makers), with multidisciplinary approaches being the drivers enabling this. Chemical Biology through physical science innovation

292

Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for Waste Heat Recovery in Refineries and Chemical Process Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design of a low temperature Rankine cycle system using R-113 working fluid for recovery and conversion of process waste heat is described for typical applications in oil refineries and chemical plants. The system is designed to produce electric power from waste heat available in a temperature range from 180oF to 400oF. The design of a new ORC turbo generator uniquely adapted to applications of this type is presented. The unit has been designed for power outputs from 3/4 to 2 1/2 MW and turbine inlet temperatures from 170 to 260oF. The machine design has eliminated the need for shaft seals, shaft couplings and the usual lube oil console normally required for turbine-generator units. Results of prototype tests of a 1 MW unit are presented. A product package and recommended division of responsibilities between purchaser, A&E company and supplier is presented for installations in refineries and process plants. The product package covers the electrical power range from 3/4 to 5 MW and waste heat streams from 20 to 130 million BTU/hr.

Meacher, J. S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory delivers financially attractive systems that use biomass to produce industrial and consumer products.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass to produce industrial and consumer products. While biomass holds potential for a ready supply from biomass--has stymied government and industry alike. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific to using biomass. Our research is focused on producing high-value bioproducts, such as chemicals

294

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir.

Laguna, George R. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Chemical sensing flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new chemical probe determines the properties of an analyte using the light absorption of the products of a reagent/analyte reaction. The probe places a small reaction volume in contact with a large analyte volume. Analyte diffuses into the reaction volume. Reagent is selectively supplied to the reaction volume. The light absorption of the reaction in the reaction volume indicates properties of the original analyte. The probe is suitable for repeated use in remote or hostile environments. It does not require physical sampling of the analyte or result in significant regent contamination of the analyte reservoir. 7 figs.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Butler, M.A.

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

Chemical sensor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

Darrow, Christopher B. (Pleasanton, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Modesto, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Berkeley, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Areawide chemical contamination  

SciTech Connect

Nine case histories illustrate the mounting problems owing to chemical contamination that often extends beyond the workplace into the community. The effects include not only carcinogenesis and teratogenesis, so much in the public's mind, but also severe neurological and gonadal disabilities immediately after exposure. Recognition of causal relationships is often made by astute clinicians. The experience of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in studying Japanese survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki serves as a model for future studies of communities exposed to unusual environmental contamination.

Miller, R.W.

1981-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Process for producing ethanol from syngas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

299

Method of producing amorphous thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention dicloses a method for sintering particulate material (such as silica) with a laser beam to produce amorphous optical thin films on substrates.

Brusasco, R.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

How to Enhance Creativity and Produce Breakthroughs,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

'Incentives for Innovation' - A talk at Brookhaven Lab on How to Enhance Creativity and Produce Breakthroughs, July 18 July 2, 2013 Gustavo Manso UPTON, NY - Gustavo Manso,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel ...  

Researchers at Berkeley Lab have created a process to produce olefins from polyols that may be biomass derived. The team is also the first to ...

302

Producer perception of fed cattle price risk.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Risk is an inevitable part of agricultural production and all producers face various forms of risk. Output price has been shown to be the major… (more)

Riley, John Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), rendered animal fats, or waste veg- etable oils (WVO). The major components of these feedstocks, and emissions. This pub- lication addresses producing one's own biodiesel fuel from waste oil, fats, and oilseed Fuels Inc. How Biodiesel Is Made Biodiesel is made through a chemical reaction between oils or fats

Liskiewicz, Maciej

304

Production of chemical feedstocks from biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glucose and xylose, produced from biomass by hydrolysis with mineral acids can be fermented to produce a variety of chemical feedstocks including ethanol, organic acids, butanol and acetone. Acid rather than enzyme hydrolysis is preferred. In acid hydrolysis reaction temperature and acid concentration were found to be the major variables affecting sugar yield and kinetics. Low reaction temperatures and high acid concentrations are preferred to maximise sugar yields and minimise degradation product formation. Using corn stover residue nearly complete conversion of hemicellulose and cellulose to sugars was obtained. Prehydrolysis of corn stover was found to be faster than paper and peat, and the hydrolysis reaction somewhat slower than prehydrolysis. Acid hydrolyzates using the University of Arkansas process can be fermented to ethanol without pretreatment. Yeast extract is necessary for this process.

Shah, R.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

Greiner, Leonard (2853-A Hickory Pl., Costa Mesa, CA 92626)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Chemical Resources | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Resources Chemical Resources Chemical Inventory All Sample Preparation Labs are stocked with an assortment of common solvents, acids, bases, buffers, and other reagents. See our Chemical Inventories for a list of available reagents. If you need large quantities of any chemicals, please order or bring your own supply (see below). Chemical Inventories Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) If you will be working with any samples or reagents that are significantly toxic, reactive, corrosive, flammable, or otherwise especially hazardous, we may require an approved SOP before you can begin work. Examples: Reagents with an NFPA Rating of 3 or 4 in any category, nanomaterials, heavy metals, pyrophoric materials, water reactive materials. BLANK SOP SSRL BLANK SOP LCLS Ordering Chemicals

310

Radiolabelling of chemicals. [Chemical additives used in geothermal operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Labeling of chemical additives with radioactive isotopes can solve numerous problems in geothermal operations. The physical and chemical behavior of many chemicals slated for geothermal operations can be studied with the required detail at the extremely low concentration of the commercially available (non-labeled) compounds. The problems of labeling and the basics of these radioactively labeled chemicals are described in this report. Conclusions of this study are: (1) chemicals labeled with radioactive isotopes can be used to investigate the chemical and physical behavior of chemical additives used in geothermal operations. The high detection limits make this technology superior to conventional analytical and monitoring methods; (2) severe difficulties exist for utilizing of radioactively labeled chemicals in geothermal operations. The labeling itself can cause technical problems. Another host of problems is caused by the reluctance of chemical manufacturers to release the necessary proprietary information on their chemicals required for proper labeling; and (3) previous attempts to manufacture radioactively labeled flocculants and to utilize them in a geothermal operation were prematurely abandoned for a number of reasons.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

311

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Interested Parties - Dow Chemical | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dow Chemical Interested Parties - Dow Chemical 06-10-10DowChemical.pdf More Documents & Publications Interested Parties - Myriant Interested Parties - XtremePower Interested...

313

Chemical Sciences Division: Introduction: Director's Statement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division Overview Under Construction Ali Belkacem Chemical Sciences Division Director Chemical Sciences Division Research Affiliations Our four core programs-Chemical Physics; The...

314

Chemical Methods for Imaging Glycans during Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bertozzi, C. R. (2004) Chemical remodelling of cell surfacesand Bertozzi, C. R. (2006) Chemical technologies for probingcycloaddition reactions in chemical biology, Chem. Soc. Rev.

Dehnert, Karen Worthington

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Interested Parties - Eastman Chemical | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastman Chemical Interested Parties - Eastman Chemical 06-22-10EastmanChemical.pdf More Documents & Publications Interested Parties - Clean Skies Interested Parties - Myriant...

316

Selective chemical detection by energy modulation of sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting, identifying, and quantifying a component of a sampled fluid includes a sensor which chemically reacts with the component of interest or a derivative thereof, an electrical heating filament for heating the sample before it is applied to the sensor, and modulating means for continuously varying the temperature of the filament (and hence the reaction rate) between two values sufficient to produce the chemical reaction. In response to this thermal modulation, the sensor produces a modulated output signal, the modulation of which is a function of the activation energy of the chemical reaction, which activation energy is specific to the particular component of interest and its concentration. Microprocessor means compares the modulated output signal with standard responses for a plurality of components to identify and quantify the particular component of interest. 4 figs.

Stetter, J.R.; Otagawa, T.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

317

Chemical & EngChemical/Engineering Materials Division | Neutron Science |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Engineering Materials Division Chemical and Engineering Materials Division SHARE Chemical and Engineering Materials Division CEMD Director Mike Simonson The Chemical and Engineering Materials Division (CEMD) supports neutron-based research at SNS and HFIR in understanding the structure and dynamics of chemical systems and novel engineering materials. The user community takes advantage of division-supported capabilities of neutron scattering for measurements over wide ranges of experimental and operating conditions, including studies of chemical and physical changes in situ. User experiments with diffraction, small-angle scattering, inelastic and quasielastic scattering, and neutron imaging instruments address a range of problems in chemistry and in engineering materials research. Current areas of research supported by the division include the structure

318

Chemical heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Kinesin Motor In A Force-producing Conformation  

SciTech Connect

Kinesin motors hydrolyze ATP to produce force and move along microtubules, converting chemical energy into work by a mechanism that is only poorly understood. Key transitions and intermediate states in the process are still structurally uncharacterized, and remain outstanding questions in the field. Perturbing the motor by introducing point mutations could stabilize transitional or unstable states, providing critical information about these rarer states. Here we show that mutation of a single residue in the kinesin-14 Ncd causes the motor to release ADP and hydrolyze ATP faster than wild type, but move more slowly along microtubules in gliding assays, uncoupling nucleotide hydrolysis from force generation. A crystal structure of the motor shows a large rotation of the stalk, a conformation representing a force-producing stroke of Ncd. Three C-terminal residues of Ncd, visible for the first time, interact with the central {beta}-sheet and dock onto the motor core, forming a structure resembling the kinesin-1 neck linker, which has been proposed to be the primary force-generating mechanical element of kinesin-1. Force generation by minus-end Ncd involves docking of the C-terminus, which forms a structure resembling the kinesin-1 neck linker. The mechanism by which the plus- and minus-end motors produce force to move to opposite ends of the microtubule appears to involve the same conformational changes, but distinct structural linkers. Unstable ADP binding may destabilize the motor-ADP state, triggering Ncd stalk rotation and C-terminus docking, producing a working stroke of the motor.

Heuston, E.; Bronner, C; Kull, F; Endow, S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Identifying, Indexing, and Ranking Chemical Formulae and Chemical Names in Digital Documents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

End-users utilize chemical search engines to search for chemical formulae and chemical names. Chemical search engines identify and index chemical formulae and chemical names appearing in text documents to support efficient search and retrieval in the ... Keywords: Chemical name, chemical formula, conditional random fields, entity extraction, hierarchical text segmentation, independent frequent subsequence, index pruning, query models, ranking, similarity search, support vector machines

Bingjun Sun; Prasenjit Mitra; C. Lee Giles; Karl T. Mueller

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chemical and Paper Engineering Student Handbook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical and Paper Engineering Student Handbook 2010-2011 #12;i Table of Contents 2010-2011 Letter-2011.......................................................................... 32 Chemical Engineering Major Curriculum .......................................... 2010.............................. Double Major: Chemical Engineering and Paper Science and Engineering......... 60 Chemical Engineering

Dollar, Anna

322

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3) 3) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 ii This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 iii The Financial Reporting System, 1977-1993 diskette is available from the Energy Information Administration.

323

Method for producing uranium atomic beam source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA)

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING AND MANIPULATING PLASMAS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pinch discharge apparatus is described for producing and manipulating high-temperature plasmas. The apparatus may be of either the linear or toroidal pinch discharge type. Arrangements are provided whereby stabilizing fields may be trapped in the plasma external to the main pinch discharge path and the boundary condition of the stabilizing field programed so as to stabilize the discharge or to promote instabilities in the discharge as desired. The produced plasmas may be employed for various purposes, and fusion neutrons have been produced with the apparatus.

Colgate, S.A.; Ferguson, J.P.; Furth, H.P.; Wright, R.E.

1960-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

325

Mallinckrodt Chemical Co., Former Construction Worker Screening...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mallinckrodt Chemical Co., Former Construction Worker Screening Projects Mallinckrodt Chemical Co., Former Construction Worker Screening Projects Project Name: Building Trades...

326

Chemically-Functionalized Microcantilevers for Detection of ...  

Chemically-Functionalized Microcantilevers for Detection of Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Material Note: The technology described above is an ...

327

Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Free ebook Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontamination pdf download.Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent ...

328

1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Published by American Chemical Society. Copyright © American Chemical Society.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Society. Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036 Published by American Chemical Society. Copyright © American Chemical Society. However, no copyright claim is made to original U.S. Government works, or works produced by employees of any Commonwealth realm Crown government in the course of their duties. Article Radical Coupling Reactions in Lignin Synthesis: A DFT study Amandeep Kaur Sangha, Jerry Matthew Parks, Robert F. Standaert, Angela Ziebell, Mark F Davis, and Jeremy C. Smith J. Phys. Chem. B, Just Accepted Manuscript * DOI: 10.1021/jp2122449 * Publication Date (Web): 04 Apr 2012 Downloaded from http://pubs.acs.org on April 10, 2012 Just Accepted "Just Accepted" manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication. They are posted

329

A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash  

SciTech Connect

In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some of the more interesting results of these investigations are presented.

Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Chemical Engineering | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Engineering Materials Clean Energy Nuclear Sciences Computer Science Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Materials Science and Engineering Mathematics Physics More Science Home | Science & Discovery | More Science | Engineering SHARE Engineering Engineering at ORNL is integrated with nearly all of the scientific research areas and user facilities. In particular, ORNL has core capabilities chemical engineering and systems engineering. Chemical engineering moves knowledge gained from fundamental chemical research toward applications. For example, this capability supports the development of fuel reprocessing techniques and enables radioisotope production, isotope separation, and development of isotope applications. This capacity also contributes to advances in energy efficiency, renewable

331

Chemical Informatics Research Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... variety of chemical and physical properties of gas, liquid, and ... Density Functional Tight Binding Methods—Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB ...

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

332

Portable Chemical Sensors for Environmental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Sensors for Environmental and State of Health Monitoring Emerging nano technologies are transforming microsensor research and development, a key enabler of Sandia's...

333

Chemical/Biochemical Microsensor Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... (b) An example of the power of the Event ... stability, speed and reproducibility of sensing materials are critical to next-generation chemical sensing ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

ITP Chemicals: Metal Dusting Phenomenon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IL DuPont Central Research Wilmington, DE Duraloy Technologies, Inc. Scottsdale, PA Exxon Chemical Company Baytown, TX Haynes International, Inc. Kokomo, IN Sandvik Steel...

335

FAQS Reference Guide- Chemical Processing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This reference guide addresses the competency statements in the February 2010 edition of DOE-STD-1176-2010, Chemical Processing Functional Area Qualification Standard.

336

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work reported includes: Chemical-Metallurgical Processing; Fuel Cycle Applications of Volatility and Fluidization Techniques; Calorimetry; Reactor Safety; Energy Conversion; and Determination of Nuclear Constants.

Lawroski, S.; Vogel, R. C.; Levenson, Milton; Munnecke, V. H.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Final Report - Chemical Industry Corrosion Management - A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2)  

SciTech Connect

The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment with the goals to avoid premature failure, to quantitatively manage corrosion over the entire life of high temperature process equipment, to select alloys for equipment and to assist in equipment maintenance programs. ASSET software operates on typical Windows-based (Trademark of Microsoft Corporation) personal computers using operating systems such as Windows 2000, Windows NT and Vista. The software is user friendly and contains the background information needed to make productive use of the software in various help-screens in the ASSET software. A graduate from a university-level curriculum producing a B.S. in mechanical/chemical/materials science/engineering, chemistry or physics typically possesses the background required to make appropriate use of ASSET technology. A training/orientation workshop, which requires about 3 hours of class time was developed and has been provided multiple times to various user groups of ASSET technology. Approximately 100 persons have been trained in use of the technology. ASSET technology is available to about 65 companies representing industries in petroleum/gas production and processing, metals/alloys production, power generation, and equipment design.

Randy C. John, Arthur L. Young, Arthur D. Pelton, William T. Thompson adn Ian G. Wright

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

Why Sequencea Biogas-Producing Microbial Community?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Biogas-Producing Microbial Community? a Biogas-Producing Microbial Community? The world population is steadily growing, and so is the amount of waste produced by human activity. For example, an estimated 236 million tons of municipal solid waste are produced annually in the U.S., 50% of which is biomass. At the same time, energy sources are rapidly depleting. Converting organic waste to renewable biofuel by anaerobic digestion hence represents one appealing option to mitigate this problem. Biogas is a natural by-product of the decomposition of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment and comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. This naturally occurring process has been known for more than a century. More recently, it has been gaining importance as more efficient anaerobic digestion technologies have been developed to treat and recover energy (in

339

Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

340

Methods and systems for producing syngas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

Hawkes, Grant L; O& #x27; Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Optical interference produced by artificial light  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless infrared transmission systems for indoor use are affected by noise and interference induced by natural and artificial ambient light. This paper presents a characterisation (through extensive measurements) of the interference produced by artificial ...

Adriano J. C. Moreira; Rui T. Valadas; A. M. de Oliveira Duarte

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Method of producing amorphous thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The deteriorating dollar: Producers discuss the ramifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. dollar pricing of crude is once again up for debate due to declines in the dollar earlier this year. Oil producers that have been stung by these fluctuations are searching for remedies while others caution that the cure may be worse than the sickness. This issue of Energy Dente examines the dollar`s direction and the effect on oil producing nations` economic welfare.

NONE

1995-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

A new local concept of chemical potential and chemical hardness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The definition of local hardness by the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the electron density has raised several questions, and its applicability as the local counterpart of chemical hardness has proved to be limited to (globally) hard molecules. Here, we propose that instead of defining a local hardness from the chemical potential in the above way, first a local chemical potential should be defined from the ground-state energy by its derivative with respect to the electron density, from which then the corresponding local hardness can be gained just as the hardness is obtained from the chemical potential - namely, by a simple differentiation with respect to the electron number. In this way, one does not neglect potentially important terms in the local hardness expression.

Gal, Tamas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Highly Active and Lower Cost Nanoparticle Catalyst for Producing ...  

stock chemical for conversion into biofuels and other value-added chemicals. While HMF synthesis from cellulose has already been realized at laboratory scale,

348

Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Chemically capping copper with cobalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous cobalt-phosphorus alloy is grown on SiO"2 and Cu by chemical vapor deposition from dicobaltoctacarbonyl and trimethylphosphine at 250^oC, 300^oC, and 350^oC. Film properties most relevant to adoption into back-end chip fabrication have been ... Keywords: Chemical vapor deposition, Cobalt alloys, Selective deposition

Lucas B. Henderson; John G. Ekerdt

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

REACTOR PRODUCING 3000 F STEAM FOR PROCESS HEAT  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design is presented for a reactor producing 3000 deg F, 400 psi steam to supply process heat for high temperature endothermic chemical reactions. Specifically, the supplying of heat to a coal hydrogenation plant is studied but other applications are possible. Such a market for nuclear heat is economically interesting because the competition is with the relatively expensive oxygen combustion of coal. It was assumed that in the present state of the art a ceramic heat source could not contain nuclear fuel in an open cycle due to the hazard of fission product leakage into the process stream. This assumption limited the high temperature heat source to the order of 10% of the total reactor power. The particular design studied was found to be not economically feasible due 10 the unusually large inventory of enriched uranium required. However, it is felt that with the suggested changes, nuclear process heat from this type of reactor oould be competitive if the excess power produced could be sold economically. (auth)

Roberts, J.T.; Lagarias, J.S.; Remick, F.J.; Ritzmann, R.W.f Roberts, J.O.; Roberts, W.J.; Schmidt, J.E.; Kasten, P.R.

1956-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions  

SciTech Connect

There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; (CIW); (RITS)

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

352

Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper sets forth comprehensive basics of Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria (DTD), developed by the author during the last decade and spread over series of publications. Based on the linear equations of irreversible thermodynamics, De Donder's definition of the thermodynamic force, and the Le Chatelier principle, DTD brings forward a notion of chemical equilibrium as a balance of internal and external thermodynamic forces, acting against a chemical system. The basic expression of DTD is a logistic map that ties together energetic characteristics of the chemical transformation in the system, its deviation from true thermodynamic equilibrium, and the sum of thermodynamic forces, causing that deviation. System deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium is the major variable of the theory. Solutions to the basic map define the chemical system domain of states comprising bifurcation diagrams with four areas, from true thermodynamic equilibrium to chaos, having specific distinctive meaning for chemica...

Zilbergleyt, B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Fuel options from microalgae with representative chemical compositions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Representative species of microalgae are examined with respect to their reported chemical compositions. Each species is analyzed under a variety of culture conditions, with the objective being to characterize an optimum mixture of fuel products (e.g., methane, ethanol, methylester) which should be produced by the particular species. Historically the emphasis has been on the entire algal cell mass. Using the reported chemical composition for the representative species under specific sets of growth conditions, some conclusions can be drawn about the preferred fuel product conversion routes that could be employed. 10 references, 7 figures, 12 tables.

Feinberg, D. A.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Chemical and kinetic equilibrations via radiative parton transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hot and dense partonic system can be produced in the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. How it equilibrates is important for the extraction of Quark-Gluon Plasma properties. We study the chemical and kinetic equilibrations of the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a radiative transport model. Thermal and Color-Glass-Condensate motivated initial conditions are used. We observe that screened parton interactions always lead to partial pressure isotropization. Different initial pressure anisotropies result in the same asymptotic evolution. Comparison of evolutions with and without radiative processes shows that chemical equilibration interacts with kinetic equilibration and radiative processes can contribute significantly to pressure isotropization.

Bin Zhang; Warner A. Wortman

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

356

Chemical plating method of preparing radiation source material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A uniform dispersion of a radioisotope within a noble metal matrix is provided by chemically plating a noble metal coating onto particles including a dissociable compound of the mdioisotope. A suspension of the dissociable compound in a chemically reductive solution is prepared and noble metal cations added to produce the noble metal coatings. The coated particles are filtered, dried and heated to calcine the dissociable compound to a refractory powder. The powder can be encapsulated in measured portions or consolidated and shaped into an elongated form for easy apportionnnent as radiation source material. (Official Gazette)

Smith, P.K.; Huntoon, R.T.; Mosley, W.C. Jr.

1973-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

357

Online Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to create an internet-based Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool that will increase production, decrease costs and enhance environmental protection. This is to be accomplished by pairing an operator's water treatment cost and capacity needs to specific water treatments. This project cataloged existing and emerging produced water treatment technologies and allows operators to identify the most cost-effective approaches for managing their produced water. The tool captures the cost and capabilities of each technology and the disposal and beneficial use options for each region. The tool then takes location, chemical composition, and volumetric data for the operator's water and identifies the most cost effective treatment options for that water. Regulatory requirements or limitations for each location are also addressed. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool efficiently matches industry decision makers in unconventional natural gas basins with: 1) appropriate and applicable water treatment technologies for their project, 2) relevant information on regulatory and legal issues that may impact the success of their project, and 3) potential beneficial use demands specific to their project area. To ensure the success of this project, it was segmented into seven tasks conducted in three phases over a three year period. The tasks were overseen by a Project Advisory Council (PAC) made up of stakeholders including state and federal agency representatives and industry representatives. ALL Consulting has made the catalog and decision tool available on the Internet for the final year of the project. The second quarter of the second budget period, work was halted based on the February 18, 2011 budget availability; however previous project deliverables were submitted on time and the deliverables for Task 6 and 7 were completed ahead of schedule. Thus the application and catalog were deployed to the public Internet. NETL did not provide additional funds and work on the project stopped on February 18, 2011. NETL ended the project on March 31, 2012.

J. Arthur

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method of forming a chemical composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming a chemical composition such as a chemical hydride is described and which includes the steps of selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of hydrogen; and exposing the selected composition to an amount of ionizing radiation to encourage the changing of the chemical bonds of the selected composition, and chemically reacting the selected composition with the source of hydrogen to facilitate the formation of a chemical hydride.

Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wendt, Kraig M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

359

Method for producing small hollow spheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

Hendricks, C.D.

1979-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

360

Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method for producing small hollow spheres  

SciTech Connect

Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

United Wisconsin Grain Producers UWGP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name United Wisconsin Grain Producers (UWGP) Place Friesland, Wisconsin Product Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock References United Wisconsin Grain Producers...

363

Probabilistic human health risk assessment from offshore produced water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Offshore oil and gas facilities are producing huge amounts of produced water during the production. The produced water contains formation water, injected water, small volumes… (more)

Chowdhury, Mohammad Khaled H., 1979-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The Multiplexed Chemical Kinetic Photoionization Mass Spectrometer: A New Approach To Isomer-resolved Chemical Kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

instruments applied to analysis of complex chemical mixturesrelies on chemical separation (by chromatography) into pureThe multiplexed chemical kinetic photoionization mass

Osborne, David L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Summaries of FY 1979 research in the chemical sciences  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to help those interested in research supported by the Department of Energy's Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of six Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. Chemists, physicists, chemical engineers and others who are considering the possibility of proposing research for support by this Division wll find the booklet useful for gauging the scope of the program in basic research, and the relationship of their interests to the overall program. These smmaries are intended to provide a rapid means for becoming acquainted with the Chemical Sciences program for members of the scientific and technological public, and interested persons in the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government, in order to indicate the areas of research supported by the Division and energy technologies which may be advanced by use of basic knowledge discovered in this program. Scientific excellence is a major criterion applied in the selection of research supported by Chemical Sciences. Another important consideration is the identifying of chemical, physical and chemical engineering subdisciplines which are advancing in ways which produce new information related to energy, needed data, or new ideas.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Profiles in Energy Efficiency: Production Strategy Saves Money and Energy Eastman Chemical Company  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Strategy Saves Money & Energy: Eastman Chemical Production Strategy Saves Money & Energy: Eastman Chemical Company Eastman Chemical Company produces a broad range of advanced materials, additives and functional products, specialty chemicals, and fibers that are found in products people use every day. With its global headquarters in Kingsport, TN, Eastman employs approximately 13,500 people worldwide and operates 14 production facilities in the United States. An active partner in the U.S. EPA's ENERGY STAR program, Eastman has used the ENERGY STAR Guidelines for Energy Management to restructure its energy program and the partnership to secure executive-level support, capital funding, and broader organizational involvement in energy management.

367

Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also demonstrated that H2-­release from chemical hydrides can occur by a number of different mechanistic pathways and strongly suggest that optimal chemical ­hydride based H2­release systems may require the use of synergistic dehydrogenation methods to induce H2­-loss from chemically different intermediates formed during release reactions. The efficient regeneration of ammonia borane from BNHx spent fuel is one of the most challenging problems that will have to be overcome in order to utilize AB-based hydrogen storage. Three Center partners, LANL, PNNL and Penn, each took different complimentary approaches to AB regeneration. The Penn approach focused on a strategy involving spent-fuel digestion with superacidic acids to produce boron-halides (BX3) that could then be converted to AB by coordination/reduction/displacement processes. While the Penn boron-halide reduction studies successfully demonstrated that a dialkylsulfide-based coordination/reduction/displacement process gave quantitative conversions of BBr3 to ammonia borane with efficient and safe product separations, the fact that AB spent-fuels could not be digested in good yields to BX3 halides led to a No-Go decision on this overall AB-regeneration strategy.

Sneddon, Larry G.

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

368

Using RFID technology in produce traceability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, food safety events occur because of epizooty. Many countries build food traceability systems to solve these problems. However, the current food traceability system must be executed by paper work and need a lot of manpower. It also cannot ... Keywords: RFID, food safety, food supply chain, produce traceability

Ruey-Shun Chen; C-C Chen; K. C. Yeh; Y-C Chen; C-W Kuo

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electrolysis method for producing hydrogen and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrolytic cell produces a mixture of highly ionized hydrogen and oxygen gases by a method combining electrolysis and radiolysis of an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte, which may be 25 percent of potassium hydroxide, is introduced into the cell and is simultaneously subjected to an electrolyting current and intense irradiation by electromagnetic radiation of frequency less than 10/sup -10/ meters.

Horvath, S.

1978-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for economic storage, handling and delivery of hydrogen. Office of Fossil Energy Milestone · 2006: Define & Petroleum Technology Office of Fossil Energy June 3, 2003 Hydrogen Coordination Meeting #12;Key NearDelivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas Christopher Freitas Office of Natural Gas

371

Process for producing fluid fuel from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

Hyde, Richard W. (Winchester, MA); Reber, Stephen A. (Waltham, MA); Schutte, August H. (Lexington, MA); Nadkarni, Ravindra M. (Arlington, MA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Modeling, Simulation, Ceramics, and Chemical Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 3, 2011 ... Typical applications include aerospace, robotic manipulators, motion simulators, injection molding, CNC machines and material testing ...

373

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

Robert A. Liske

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

chemical (CHE) CHE overview programs available  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Enrollment by petition only. 405 Applications of Probability and Statistics for Chemical Engineers (3, Fa) Principles of probability and statis- tics, random variables and random functions. Application to chemical, Fa) Basic concepts of chemical kinetics and chemical reactor design. Prerequisite: MATH 245. 443UnitOperationsofChemical

Wang, Hai

375

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coatings and sensors are described having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

Frye, G.C.; Brinker, C.J.; Doughty, D.H.; Bein, T.; Moller, K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

376

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

Frye, Gregory C. (P.O. Box 763, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Doughty, Daniel H. (11724 Woodmar La., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Bein, Thomas (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106); Moller, Karin (1114 Princeton Dr., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Coatings with controlled porosity and chemical properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coatings and sensors having both steric and chemical selectivity. Controlled porosity provides the steric selectivity, whereas chemically tailored film properties, using controlled composition or modification by coupling agents, chemical species replacement, or chemical species within pores, provide the chemical selectivity. Single or multiple layers may be provided.

Frye, Gregory C. (Bernalillo County, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Doughty, Daniel H. (Albuquerque, NM); Bein, Thomas (Albuquerque, NM); Moller, Karin (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Source Hydrogen H2 storage Hydrogen Stored Energy Point-of-use Chemical hydrogen storage #12;5 ChemicalChemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage William Tumas proprietary or confidential information #12;2 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Overview Project Start Date: FY

Carver, Jeffrey C.

379

Treating paraffin deposits in producing oil wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paraffin deposition has been a problem for operators in many areas since the beginning of petroleum production from wells. An extensive literature search on paraffin problems and methods of control has been carried out, and contact was made with companies which provide chemicals to aid in the treatment of paraffin problems. A discussion of the nature of paraffins and the mechanisms of this deposition is presented. The methods of prevention and treatment of paraffin problems are summarized. Suggested procedures for handling paraffin problems are provided. Suggestions for areas of further research testing are given.

Noll, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.

Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A Chemical Kinetic Model of Transcriptional Elongation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A chemical kinetic model of the elongation dynamics of RNA polymerase along a DNA sequence is introduced. The proposed model governs the discrete movement of the RNA polymerase along a DNA template, with no consideration given to elastic effects. The model's novel concept is a ``look-ahead'' feature, in which nucleotides bind reversibly to the DNA prior to being incorporated covalently into the nascent RNA chain. Results are presented for specific DNA sequences that have been used in single-molecule experiments of the random walk of RNA polymerase along DNA. By replicating the data analysis algorithm from the experimental procedure, the model produces velocity histograms, enabling direct comparison with these published results.

Yujiro Richard Yamada; Charles S. Peskin

2006-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Definition: Co-Produced Geothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Co-Produced water is the water that is produced as a by-product during oil and gas production. If there is enough water produced at a high enough temperature co-produced water...

383

Mathematical modeling of chemical oil-soluble transport for water control in porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High water-cut is a long-standing problem in the upstream petroleum industry. Typically one-fourth of the produced fluids from oil wells worldwide are hydrocarbons and the remaining is water. Self-selective in-situ gel formation is a new potential technology ... Keywords: Gelation, Numerical modeling, Porous media, Tetra-methyl-ortho-silicate or tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Water cut

H. Valiollahi; Z. Ziabakhsh; P. L. J. Zitha

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microfabricated mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator actively measures the mass of a sample on an acoustic microbalance during the collection process. The microbalance comprises a chemically sensitive interface for collecting the sample thereon and an acoustic-based physical transducer that provides an electrical output that is proportional to the mass of the collected sample. The acoustic microbalance preferably comprises a pivot plate resonator. A resistive heating element can be disposed on the chemically sensitive interface to rapidly heat and release the collected sample for further analysis. Therefore, the mass-sensitive chemical preconcentrator can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

385

ARM - Measurement - Inorganic chemical composition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsInorganic chemical composition ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send...

386

New Science for Chemicals Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors (WHO,461, 472 (2009). 17. NRC, Science and Decisions: AdvancingPOLICYFORUM SCIENCE AND REGULATION New Science for Chemicals

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| under AEC Contract A T (30-1)-3780 " â–  ' Annual Report (1970) Principal In-vestigator: Martin Karpins Institution: Harvard University The research performed under this contract can best be sunmarized under several headings. (a) Alkali-Halideg Alkali-Halide (MX^ M*X*) Exchange Reactions. This project is being continued. A careful study of certain

388

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Shanhu Lee, Kent State University (http://www.personal.kent.edu/~slee19/)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Shanhu Lee, Kent State University (http ionization mass spectrometry (PTR-CIMS). A typical CIMS instrument can be constructed from an ion source, an ion molecular reactor, and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Shown below is schematic diagram of a CIMS

Lee, Shan-Hu

390

NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities A photo of a man in a white lab coat and dark goggles looking at a microscope. A bright green light shines down from the microscope lens and illuminates a round glass tray containing small white beads. The Laser Raman Spectrometer is used to obtain phase and structural identification information for catalysts used in the thermochemical conversion process. NREL researchers use chemical and catalyst science to assess and improve biochemical and thermochemical conversion throughout the processes, from analyzing feedstocks to improving the yield of desired end products. Catalyst Science Syngas produced during gasification contains tars that are contaminants, but these tars can be reformed to more syngas using tar-reforming

391

Chemical and Biological Engineering Department Code 1 Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical and Biological Engineering Department Code 1 CODE of the Department of Chemical of Chemical & Biological Engineering. For clarity of presentation, some passages are copied directly from shall offer an undergraduate chemical and biological engineering program of technological, scientific

392

Chemical & Engineering News Serving the chemical, life sciences and laboratory worlds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical & Engineering News Serving the chemical, life sciences and laboratory worlds Science the hydroxyl oxygen and alcoholic hydrogen stabilizes the transition state. Chemical & Engineering News ISSN 0009-2347 Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society #12;

Truhlar, Donald G

393

Status of Chemical Freeze-Out  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The status of the energy dependence of the chemical freeze-out temperature and chemical potential obtained in heavy ion collisions is presented. Recent proposals for chemical freeze-out conditions are compared.

J. Cleymans; H. Oeschler; K. Redlich; S. Wheaton

2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

CHEMICAL BIODYNAMICS DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Energy and the Chemical Sciences, Proc. 1st Karcherpp. 1-30. 15. M. Calvin, Chemical Carcinogenesis, frog.z ARTlFlCIAL PHOTOSYNTHESIS I CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS J. C.

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

CHEMICAL PROCESS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Dept. of Energy. Chemical Marketing Reporter, JanuaryUniv. of Calif. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (March 1977).Ergun et aL, "Analysis of Chemical Coal Cleaning Processes,"

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Tribo-Chemical Modeling of Copper CMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRIBO-CHEMICAL MODELING OF COPPER CMP Shantanu Tripathi 1 ,an integrated tribo-chemical model of copper CMP thatThe role of glycine in the chemical mechanical planarization

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, Fiona; Dornfeld, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall 2013-Winter 2014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADVANCED CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall 2013-Winter 2014 Certificate Program CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONCONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION #12;About the Advanced Chemical Engineering Certificate Program The new Advanced Chemical Engineering Certificate Program offers professionals in chemi- cal engineering

California at Davis, University of

398

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5) 5) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995 January 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1995 ii To download the Financial Reporting System 1977-1995 data files, access the Energy Information Center's FTP site, at ftp: //ftp.eia.doe.gov or access the Energy Information Administration's Home Page at http://www.eia.doe.gov.

399

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6) 6) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996 January 1998 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1996 ii The Financial Reporting System 1977-1996 data files can be downloaded from the Energy Information

400

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7) 7) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997 January 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/ Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1997 ii The Financial Reporting System 1977-1997 data files can be downloaded from the Energy Information Administration's

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Clean Energy Producing and Exporting Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a theoretical discussion of policy making in the energy industry that adopt policy theories to develop strategies for better energy management. The paper aims to present the applicability of existing policies as methods of management and control of energy in its industry, underlying the importance of OPEC’s role with reference to the EU, US and the Far East. Initial findings suggest that further research is needed to help identify the necessary strategies for an international organization. OPEC is proposed as a starting point for these investigations. Further study into developing an organization to allow for international producers and consumers needs is also needed. Questions regarding the need for such an organization, with best fitting structure are being investigated. The model developed will be presented to various Natural Gas producing countries such as Iran, Iraq, Russia, and Saudi to name a few and will ultimately be set up the same way that OPEC was.

Atighetchi, K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Method of producing silicon carbide articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

Milewski, John V. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Method for producing catalysis from coal  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

Grinstead, R.R.

1962-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

405

Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

April 25, 2013 April 25, 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 The eighth in a series of reports required by section 1245 (d) (4) (A) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 April 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran 1 Table of Contents March - April 2013 Update ........................................................................................................................... 2 Tables ............................................................................................................................................................ 4 Figures ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

406

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

410

Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research  

SciTech Connect

In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

Key, M

2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Performance measurement of magnetohydrodynamic code for space plasma on typical scalar-type supercomputer systems with a large number of cores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computational performance of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is evaluated on two typical scalar-type supercomputer systems. We have carried out performance tuning of a three-dimensional MHD code for space plasma simulations on the HA8000 (with 8192 ... Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics simulation, parallel computing, performance evaluation, scalar massively computer system

Keiichiro Fukazawa; Takayuki Umeda

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Nowadays, a large spectrum of knowledge is required from PhD students working within the area of Energy Conversion Systems. Nevertheless, typical PhD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy Conversion Systems. Nevertheless, typical PhD comptetences are often restricted to their fieldTech Summer School « Integrated Approach to Energy Systems » is to make up for those lacks, bring out the main challenges and provide methodological approaches to address multi-disciplinary energy-related challenges

415

Do Producer Prices Lead Consumer Prices?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased rapidly. Excluding food and energy, prices of crude materials and intermediate goods rose at annual rates of 7.2 and 16.7 percent, respectively. At the same time, however, prices of consumer goods and services excluding food and energy increased a more modest 2.9 percent. Many analysts are concerned that recent increases in the prices of crude and intermediate goods may be passed through to consumers, resulting in a higher rate of inflation in consumer prices later this year and perhaps in 1996. This article examines whether price increases at the early stages of production should be expected to move through the production chain, leading to increases in consumer prices. In the first section, a review of basic economic theory suggests there should be a pass-through effect—that is, producer prices should lead and thereby help predict consumer prices. A more sophisticated analysis, though, suggests the pass-through effect may be weak. In the second section, an examination of the empirical evidence indicates that producer prices are not always good predictors of consumer prices. The article Todd E. Clark is an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Mangal Goswami, a research associate at the bank, helped prepare the article. concludes that the recent increases in some producer prices do not necessarily signal higher inflation.

E. Clark

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Chemical Homogeneity in Collinder 261 and Implications for Chemical Tagging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents abundances for 12 red giants of the old open cluster Collinder 261 based on spectra from VLT/UVES. Abundances were derived for Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zr and Ba. We find the cluster has a solar-level metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.03 dex. However some alpha elements were found to be enhanced. The star-to-star scatter was consistent with the expected measurement uncertainty for all elements. The observed rms scatter is as follows: Na = 0.07, Mg = 0.05, Si = 0.06, Ca = 0.05, Mn = 0.03, Fe = 0.02, Ni = 0.04, Zr = 0.12, and Ba = 0.03 dex. The intrinsic scatter was estimated to be less than 0.05 dex. Such high levels of homogeneity indicate that chemical information remains preserved in this old open cluster. We use the chemical homogeneity we have now established in Cr 261, Hyades and the HR1614 moving group to examine the uniqueness of the individual cluster abundance patterns, ie. chemical signatures. We demonstrate that the three studied clusters have unique chemical signatures, and discuss how other such signatures may be searched for in the future. Our findings support the prospect of chemically tagging disk stars to common formation sites in order to unravel the dissipative history of the Galactic disk.

G. M. De Silva; K. C. Freeman; M. Asplund; J. Bland-Hawthorn; M. S. Bessell; R. Collet

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

417

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

418

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

419

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

420

Selective chemical detection by energy modulation of sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting, identifying, and quantifying a component of a sampled fluid includes a sensor which chemically reacts with the component of interest or a derivative thereof, an electrical heating filament for heating the sample before it is applied to the sensor, and modulator for continuously varying the temperature of the filament (and hence the reaction rate) between two values sufficient to produce the chemical reaction. In response to this thermal modulation, the sensor produces a modulated output signal, the modulation of which is a function of the activation energy of the chemical reaction, which activation energy is specific to the particular component of interest and its concentration. Microprocessor which compares the modulated output signal with standard responses for a plurality of components to identify and quantify the particular component of interest. In particular, the concentration of the component of interest is proportional to the amplitude of the modulated output signal, while the identifying activation output energy of the chemical interaction indicative of that component is proportional to a normalized parameter equal to the peak-to-peak amplitude divided by the height of the upper peaks above a base line signal level. 5 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Otagawa, T.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

422

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

423

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

424

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

425

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce biofuels. Researchers from Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and UC Berkeley coupled infrared (IR) rays from ALS Beamline 1.4.3 to the first open-channel microfluidic platform to determine the chemistry that shapes biofilm development. This combination of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy and the microfluidic platform will have a significant impact on several scientific disciplines that require chemical-scale information on biofilm phenotype and function, including Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and subsurface biogeochemical studies.

426

CHEN 3600 Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEN 3600 ­ Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4 EWE-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Notes 4 EWE: "Engineering With Excel" Larsen Page 2 will be added using "cutting and pasting". #12;CHEN 3600 ­ Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering Chemical

Clement, Prabhakar

427

Division of Chemical & Biological Sciences | Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division of Chemical & Biological Sciences Division of Chemical & Biological Sciences Image Welcome Research teams in this Division conduct fundamental and applied studies of how...

428

Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences Program | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BES Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Program SHARE BES Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Program The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy...

429

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Chemical Manufacturing...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

with American Chemistry Council to develop a technology strategy. Council for Chemical Research Vision2020 partner. American Institute for Chemical Engineers Vision2020...

430

NRG Chemical Engineering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemical Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name NRG Chemical Engineering Place United Kingdom Sector Biofuels Product UK-based firm which in May 2007 signed an agreement with...

431

Chemical Sciences Division: Introduction: Organization Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chart Ultrafast X-Ray Science Laboratory ALS-MES Beamline Actinde Science Chemical Dynamics Beamline Centers Programs Chemical Physics The Glenn T. Seaborg Center...

432

Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage March 7, 2012 - 9:50am Addthis...

433

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Process Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO 2 Capture William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio...

434

Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Chemistry & Chemical Engineerin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Chemistry research photo Sandia's Combustion Research Facility pioneered the use of chemical-imaging tools, such as laser diagnostics, for...

435

Chemical and Materials Sciences Building | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building provides modern laboratory and office space for researchers studying and developing materials and chemical processes for energy-related technologies. The Chemical...

436

Chemical Agent Decontamination Composition Comprising A ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Chemical warfare agents are stockpiled ... but also in today's climate of terrorist threats of WMD chemical attacks.Methods for decontamination of che ...

437

Nanometric Optical Imaging Frontiers in Chemical Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanometric Optical Imaging Frontiers in Chemical Imaging Seminar Series Presented by... Professor thermal imaging, chemical delivery and other new horizons. Finally, as part of this lecture, Lewis

438

Chemical and Engineering Materials | Neutron Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials SHARE Chemical and Engineering Materials Neutron-based research at SNS and HFIR in Chemical and Engineering Materials strives to understand the structure and dynamics...

439

ORISE: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) Training The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) works closely with the Chemical Stockpile Emergency...

440

Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic candle filter materials. Final report, September 1988--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ceramic candle filters are being developed for use in advanced power generation systems such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbine (DCFT). The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter which must be removed to meet both environmental and process limitations. The ceramic candles increase the efficiency of the advanced power generation systems and protect downstream equipment from erosion and impingement of particulate matter in the hot exhaust gases. Ceramic candle filters are rigid, closed-ended (capped on one side) porous cylinders which generally have a flange on the open-ended side. The flange at the open end allows the candle to be suspended by a tubesheet in the filter vessel. Candle filters have shown promise, but have also encountered durability problems during use in hostile, high-temperature environments. Limitations in the candle lifetime lower the economic advantages of using candle filters for this application. Candles typically fail by cracking at the flange or in the body of the candle. The objective of this project was to test and analyze ceramic candle filter materials and to evaluate the degradation mechanisms. The tests were conducted such that the effects of each degradation mechanism could be examined. Separately. The overall objective of the project was to: (a) develop a better understanding of the thermal and chemical degradation mechanisms of ceramic candle filter materials in advanced coal utilization projects, (b) develop test procedures, and (c) recommend changes to increase filter lifetime. 15 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content which includes: (a) A chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; (b) the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; (c) the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; (d) the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products.

Michaels, Edward D. (Spring Valley, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1) 1) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2001 January 2003 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration

444

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

447

Proposal to produce large compact toroids  

SciTech Connect

Relatively large, hot compact toroids might be produced in the annular space between two concentric one-turn coils. With currents in the two coils flowing in the same direction, the magnetic fields on each side of the plasma are in opposite directions. As the fields are raised, the plasma ring is heated and compressed radially towards the center of the annular space. By the addition of two sets of auxiliary coils, the plasma ring can be ejected out one end of the two-coil system into a long axial magnetic field.

Phillips, J.A.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Lakewood, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

Chyung, Kenneth (Painted Post, NY); Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Holleran, Louis M. (Big Flats, NY); Olszewski, Anthony R. (Bath, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump  

SciTech Connect

Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

Wilkie, D.I. (Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Shi, Jinjun (Columbus, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

454

Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others] and others

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Chemical Sciences Division: Research: Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs Programs The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of Berkeley Laboratory's basic research divisions. The CSD is composed of individual research groups that conduct research in the areas of chemical physics and the dynamics of chemical reactions, the structure and reactivity of transient species, electron spectroscopy, surface chemistry and catalysis, electrochemistry, chemistry of the actinide elements and their relationship to environmental issues, and atomic physics. The division's 28 principal investigators, many of whom are on the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, direct the individual research projects and the work of 6 staff scientists, 41 postdoctoral researchers, and 75 graduate students. Our research staff continues to achieve fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients using both state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods. In addition, the division supports a strong effort in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis.

456

Chemical Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemical Science Chemical Science Chemical Science Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products. Read more. Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty

457

Chemical Inventory | Sample Preparation Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Inventory Chemical Inventory Use the following dropdown menus to filter the results for chemical records. To reset the results clear the entries and click "update". Facility - Any - SSRL LCLS Building - Any - 120 131 999 Room - Any - 109 113 209 257 Storage Area Storage Category Apply Title Facility Building Room Storage Area Storage Category Available to All Qty. Size Units Responsible Person 1,3-cyclohexadiene SSRL 131 209 CI L No 1 25 milliliters (ml) Tsu-Chien Weng 1,4- dioxane SSRL 120 257 CB1 L Yes 1 1 liters (l) Cynthia Patty 1,8-Octanedithiol SSRL 131 209 CA3 L No 1 5 grams (g) Schmidt 1-Chloronapthalene SSRL 131 209 CA3 L No 1 100 grams (g) Schmidt 1-Propanol LCLS 999 109 B1 L Yes 1 4 liters (l) Lisa Hammon

458

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

Berkner, K.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Chemical sciences, annual report 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of eleven research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a DOE National Laboratory. In FY 1993, the Division made considerable progress on developing two end-stations and a beamline to advance combustion dynamics at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). In support of DOE`s national role in combustion research and chemical science, the beamline effort will enable researchers from around the world to make fundamental advances in understanding the structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates and transients, and in understanding the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions. The Division has continued to place a strong emphasis on full compliance with environmental health and safety guidelines and regulations and has made progress in technology transfer to industry. Finally, the Division has begun a new program in advanced battery research and development that should help strengthen industrial competitiveness both at home and abroad.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ice Crystals Produced by Expansion: Experiments and Application to Aircraft-produced Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of ice crystals as a result of the expansion and cooling of moist air was investigated by laboratory experiment. In particular, the warmest expanded air temperature that produces crystals was sought as a function of the initial ...

T. C. Foster; J. Hallett

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Chemical Hygiene Plan i January 2013 Chemical Hygiene Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in their laboratory research or other work procedures prior to conducting work; 5. Utilizing appropriate measures. The UC-system wide SDS library has the capability of developing new SDSs based on the known chemical, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes

El Zarki, Magda

462

Method for producing and treating coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

464

Microreactor for fast chemical kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical reaction process in a T-shaped microchannel is studied experimentally through the reaction of Ca++ with a fluorescent tracer, Calcium-green. For thin channels (10 um), diffusion of species is found to behave in a way independent of the thickness direction. In such a situation, simulations of a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion model agree remarkably well with the experimental measurements. The comparison of experiments and simulations is used to measure the chemical kinetic constant, which we find to be k=3.2 x 10^5 dm^3/(mol s). Applications of the analysis to faster reactions and to micro-titration are also discussed.

Baroud, C N; Menetrier, L; Tabeling, P; Baroud, Charles N.; Okkels, Fridolin; Menetrier, Laure; Tabeling, Patrick

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Missouri Department of Transportation, Chemical Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Missouri Department of Transportation, Chemical Laboratory. NVLAP Lab Code: 200544-0. Address and Contact Information: ...

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

466

Chemical agent decontamination composition comprising a ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Chemical agent decontamination composition comprising a perfluorinated alkyl bromide Date: 05/13/2008

467

The Mork Family Department of Chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHE The Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science #12;Chemical engineers design, control and optimize large-scale chemical, physiochemical and biochemical processes in automotive and space-related industries to materials used in the biomedical and electronics elds. Chemical

Rohs, Remo

468

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals and Safety Numbers Research Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety Human Resources (Accident Reports) 4589 Clinical Engineering 2964 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL HYGIENE

Oliver, Douglas L.

469

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) LAB SPECIFIC INFORMATION & STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs/23/09 This is the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) for the Materials Research Laboratory (MRL) Spectroscopy Facility. All labs using chemicals are required by Cal-OSHA to have a written safety plan (CHP) in place for chemical

Bigelow, Stephen

470

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety Officer Biological (Accident Reports) 2204 Bioengineering 2965 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN (CHP) (4/2007) 1

Oliver, Douglas L.

471

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN AND HAZARD COMMUNICATION PLAN Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals and Safety Numbers Research Safety 2723 Environmental Health/Safety Chemical Hygiene Officer Radiation Safety Human Resources (Accident Reports) 4589 Bioengineering 2965 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS CHEMICAL HYGIENE PLAN

Kim, Duck O.

472

Chemical Exergy of Canola Biomass Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LS Karpushenkova Chemical Faculty, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus Thermodynamic properties of canola biomass components: seeds ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

473

Homeland Security Chemical/Biological/Radiological/Nuclear ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Information at NIST. Homeland Security Chemical/Biological/Radiological/ Nuclear/Explosives (CBRNE) Information at NIST. ...

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

TSCA and the regulation of renewable chemicals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biobased chemicals represent a multi-billion pound chemical business, and their share of the global chemical industry is expected to grow from 2% to 22% by 2025 TSCA and the regulation of renewable chemicals Publications aocs articles book books c

475

Chemical Sciences Division | Advanced Materials |ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Sciences Chemical Sciences Division SHARE Chemical Sciences Division The Chemical Sciences Division performs discovery and uses inspired research to understand, predict, and control the physical processes and chemical transformations at multiple length and time scales, especially at interfaces. The foundation of the division is a strong Basic Energy Sciences (BES) portfolio that pushes the frontiers of catalysis, geosciences, separations and analysis, chemical imaging, neutron science, polymer science, and interfacial science. Theory is closely integrated with materials synthesis and characterization to gain new insights into chemical transformations and processes with the ultimate goal of predictive insights. Applied research programs naturally grow out of our fundamental

476

Definition: Chemical energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

energy energy Energy stored in chemical bonds between atoms within molecules. When a chemical reaction occurs, the chemical energy within a molecule can increase or that energy can be released into its surroundings as another form of energy (e.g., heat or light). Fuel combustion is example of the conversion of chemical energy to another form of energy.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In chemistry, Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or, to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries and light bulbs and cells etc. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves energy, which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system Energy that can be released (or absorbed) because of a reaction between a set of

477

Method for producing high energy electroluminescent devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fabricating electroluminescent devices exhibiting visible electroluminescence at room temperature, where the devices include at least one doped layer of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H layer is deposited on a substrate by homogeneous chemical vapor deposition (H-CVD) in which the substrate is held at a temperature lower than about 200.degree. C. and the a-Si:H layer is doped in-situ during deposition, the amount of hydrogen incorporated in the deposited layer being 12-50 atomic percent. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer is between 1.6 and 2.6 eV, and in preferrable embodiments is between 2.0 and 2.6 eV. The conductivity of the a-Si:H layer is chosen in accordance with device requirements, and can be 10.sup.16 -10.sup.19 carriers/cm.sup.2. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer depends at least in part on the temperature of the substrate on which the layer is deposited, and can be "tuned" by changing the substrate temperature.

Meyerson, Bernard S. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Scott, Bruce A. (Pleasantville, NY); Wolford, Jr., Donald J. (Croton-on-Hudson, NY)

1992-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

478

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Apparatus and methods for detecting chemical permeation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting the permeation of hazardous or toxic chemicals through protective clothing are disclosed. The hazardous or toxic chemicals of interest do not possess the spectral characteristic of luminescence. The apparatus and methods utilize a spectrochemical modification technique to detect the luminescence quenching of an indicator compound which upon permeation of the chemical through the protective clothing, the indicator is exposed to the chemical, thus indicating chemical permeation.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typically produced chemically" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4) 4) Distribution Category UC-950 Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 January 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore. The project was directed by Mark E. Rodekohr, Director of the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (202) 586-1441, and Mary E. Northup, Chief of

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