National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for typical urban water

  1. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  2. EPA Urban Waters Small Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is accepting applications for the Urban Waters Small Grants Program to address urban runoff pollution with a focus on underserved communities.

  3. NFWF Five Star & Urban Waters Restoration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is accepting applications for up to $2.1 million to develop community capacity to sustain local natural resources for future generations by providing modest financial assistance to diverse local partnership for wetland, riparian, forest and coastal habitat restoration, urban wildlife conservation, stormwater management as well as outreach, education and stewardship.

  4. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  5. Coping with urban water shortages during drought: the effects of legal and administrative factors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziegielewski, B.; Ferrell-Dillard, R.; Beck, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    The study describes the results of a survey of 547 local water supply systems serving some 31 million residents of urban areas in the states of Alabama, California, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Wyoming. While examining the legal and administrative aspects of drought management, the survey also included the assessment of the current status of drought preparedness and long-term drought protection among the responding water supply systems. The rate of legal or administrative problems encountered during drought response was surprisingly low, affecting only twenty percent of all implementing systems. The low incidence of difficulties counters a widespread assumption that the legal environment frequently restrains or constricts drought response efforts.

  6. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

    2001-10-01

    What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

  7. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Intermediate Minimum Property Standards Supplement 4930. 2 (1989 edition). Solar heating and domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1 were developed to provide a sound technical basis for housing under numerous programs of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). These Intermediate Minimum Property Standards for Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems are intended to provide a companion technical basis for the planning and design of solar heating and domestic hot water systems. These standards have been prepared as a supplement to the Minimum Property Standards (MPS) and deal only with aspects of planning and design that are different from conventional housing by reason of the solar systems under consideration. The document contains requirements and standards applicable to one- and two-family dwellings, multifamily housing, and nursing homes and intermediate care facilities references made in the text to the MPS refer to the same section in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing 4910.1.

  8. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  9. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  10. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling Citation Details In-Document...

  11. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  12. NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set May 1, 2008 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released an updated typical meteorological year (TMY) data set derived from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Data Base update. The TMY3 data and user's manual are available at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/tmy3. The new data sets update and expand the TMY2 data sets released by NREL in 1994. The TMY3 data

  13. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  14. A global map of urban extent from nightlights

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhang, Xuesong; He, Chunyang; Elvidge, Christopher

    2015-05-13

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land-cover and land-use changes, has a profound impact on the Earth system including biodiversity, the cycling of water and carbon and exchange of energy and water between Earth’s surface and atmosphere, all affecting weather and climate. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important for scientific understanding of their contribution to the changing Earth system, and for practical management and policy decisions. We developed a method to map the urban extent from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable-light data atmore » the global level and derived a new global map of 1-km urban extent for year 2000. Based on this map, we found that globally, urban land area is about 0.5% of total land area but ranges widely at regional level from 0.1% in Oceania to 2.3% in Europe. At the country level, urban land area varies from lower than 0.01% to higher than 10%, but is lower than 1% for most (70%) countries. Urbanization follows land mass distribution, as anticipated, with the highest concentration found between 30°N to 45°N latitude and the largest longitudinal peak around 80°W. Based on a sensitivity analysis and comparison with other global urban area products, we found that our global product of urban area provides a reliable estimate of global urban areas and offer the potential of capturing more accurately their spatial and temporal dynamics.« less

  15. Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Typical Oak Ridge cemesto ... Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus

  16. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  18. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a...

  19. Volker Urban | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volker Urban Volker Urban Volker Urban Principal Investigator E-mail: urbanvs@ornl.gov Phone: 865-576-7221 Fax: 865-574-6080 Website: Oak Ridge National Lab Website Principal...

  20. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

  1. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable ...

  2. Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lennar Homes & Lennar Urban Place: Miami, FL Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  3. Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulvihill, Peter R. . E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris . E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

    2007-05-15

    This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

  4. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The ...

  5. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Excel file and dataset for VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in ...

  6. Water and Energy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Energy Agricultural irrigation system Agricultural irrigation system The world's water systems are undergoing significant stress. Extreme events and changing weather patterns are overwhelming an already inadequate water infrastructure. At the same time, urbanization, population growth and economic development are increasing demand for energy. Water and energy are tightly intertwined: energy is required to produce clean water and water is required for energy production, for example to

  7. A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Ainhoa; Donnelly, Alison; Jones, Mike; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Lopes, Myriam

    2013-01-15

    Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

  8. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  9. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of decision windows can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. The concept of decision windows was further elaborated. Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  10. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  11. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  12. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition - Dataset | Department of Energy 6: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Excel file and dataset for VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition File fotw#906_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline - Dataset Fact #859 February 9,

  13. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spun Off From A Government Lab" (Not) just your typical Lab spin off Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Far from Silicon Valley, Descartes Labs aims to turn a national research facility's AI research into new ways of understanding the world. July 30, 2015 Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Descartes Labs cofounders Mark

  14. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  15. Boston Architectural College Urban Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Arthur C.

    2013-07-31

    The Boston Architectural College's Urban Sustainability initiative is a demonstration project as defined by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. BAC's proposed project with the U.S. Department of Energy - NETL, is a large part of that overall initiative. The BAC's Urban Sustainability Initiative is a multi-part project with several important goals and objectives that will have a significant impact on the surrounding neighborhood including: energy conservation, reduction of storm water runoff, generation of power through alternative energy sources, elimination/reduction of BAC carbon footprint, and to create a vehicle for ongoing public outreach and education. Education and outreach opportunities will serve to add to the already comprehensive Sustainability Design courses offered at BAC relative to energy savings, performance and conservation in building design. At the finish of these essential capital projects there will be technical materials created for the education of the design, sustainability, engineering, community development and historic preservation communities, to inform a new generation of environmentally-minded designers and practitioners, the city of Boston and the general public. The purpose of the initiative, through our green renovations program, is to develop our green alley projects and energy saving renovations to the BAC physical plant, to serve as a working model for energy efficient design in enclosed 19th century and 20th century urban sites and as an educational laboratory for teaching ecological and sustainable technologies to students and the public while creating jobs. The scope of our project as it relates to the BAC and the U.S. Department of Energy- NETL combined efforts includes: Task I of the project is Phase II (Green Alley). Task I encompasses various renovation activities that will demonstrate the effectiveness of permeable paving and ground water recharge systems. It will aid in the reduction of storm water runoff into the Charles River Basin in one of its most significantly polluted sections and, will provide a green renovation mechanism for the redirected storm water of a public alley way. This activity is designed to improve the quality of water recharging the ground water and protecting the vulnerable wood pilings under many of the historic masonry buildings in Boston's Back Bay. Sustainable design research and system monitoring opportunities will also be incorporated, providing ongoing tools for public outreach and education through innovative signage and "virtual tour" technology. The monitoring will include a "building performance dash board" that reflects real time operating conditions and improvements in environmental and economic performance to be prominently displayed on the face of our 320 Newbury Street building (approximately 1.5 million people walk by annually). The project site and demonstration area is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task II of the project is Geothermal Solution. This task involves the installation of approximately seven Geothermal wells which will tap into the earth's constant underground temperatures to provide air-conditioning and heating for BAC facilities. The environmentally friendly geothermal system uses no fossil fuel, produces no emissions and runs silently, providing a sustainable model for commercial and residential buildings throughout Boston. Ultimately the combination of this project and other projects will assist in making the BAC "carbon-neutral", and could generate enough additional energy to provide free power to the Engine 33 and Ladder 15 Firehouse located at 941 Boylston Street. The project is located at the rear of 951 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02115 and the parking area adjacent to Public Alley #444 in Boston's historic Back Bay. Task III of the project is the Sustainability Design Curriculum at the BAC. The BAC is the nation’s largest independent, multi-disciplinary college of spatial design, and a leader in sustainable design education. The Sustainabiltiy Design program, in particular, focuses on energy efficiency,energy performance, energy modeling, energy and air quality principles, green building, renewable energy alternatives and much more. Additionally, the Urban Sustainability Initiative has an objective of providing courses relative to the BAC's demonstration project with DOE, the project’s period of performance activities, subsequent performance data and anticipated sustainability teaching tools. In keeping with BAC's practice based curriculum, students have been involved in the discussion and planning of this project since its inception and sustainability issues have become a part of other programs throughout the college as well. Students will continue to benefit from this hands-on learning opportunity. The project is located at 320 Newbury Street Boston, MA 02115. Task IV of the project is Program Management and Reporting. This task will involve BAC's oversight and general management of the entire project including subcontract administration, contracts administration, technical and financial reporting, design and renovation assistance, other deliverables in accordance with the Federal Assistance reporting Checklist and other contractual obligations and provisions.

  16. Urban Electric Vehicle (UEV) Technical Specifications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    URBAN ELECTRIC VEHICLE (UEV) TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Effective January 1, 2003 Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications UEV AMERICA January 1, 2003 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS MINIMUM UEV REQUIREMENTS The UEVAmerica Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technology to provide for an independent assessment of urban electric vehicles (UEV), designed specifically for use in an urban (surface street) environment with speeds no greater than 45 mph.

  17. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries Print Friday, 01 February 2013 00:00 In experiments at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a superthin coating of water-no deeper than a few molecules-to the surface of a barium fluoride crystal.

  18. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  19. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition | Department of Energy 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when purchasing vehicles. The graph below shows a three-month moving

  20. Analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS using RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.J.; Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of a typical BWR/4 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) has been performed using two advanced, best-estimate computer codes, namely, RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1. The transient was initiated by an inadvertant closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with subsequent failure to scram the reactor. However, all other safety features namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure coolant injection and the standby liquid (boron) control system were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. It has been found that both RAMONA-3B (with three-dimensional neutron kinetics) and TRAC-BD1 (with point kinetics) yielded similar results for the global parameters such as reactor power, system pressure and the suppression pool temperature. Both calculations showed that the reactor can be brought to hot shutdown in approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes with borated water mass flow rate of 2.78 kg/s (43 gpm) with 23800 ppM of boron. The suppression pool water temperature (assuming no pool cooling) at this time could be in the range of 170 to 205/sup 0/F. An additional TRAC-BD1 calculation with RAMONA-3B reactor power indicates that the thermal-hydraulic models in RAMONA-3B, although simpler than those in TRAC-BD1, can adequately represent the system behavior during the ATWS-type transient.

  1. AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon UEVAmerica Specifications PDF icon ETA-UTP001 ...

  2. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis ...

  3. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5h: Urban Transport and Energy Efficiency AgencyCompany...

  4. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to ...

  5. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5f: Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change...

  6. The Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Sourcebook on Sustainable Urban Transport AgencyCompany Organization: GIZ...

  7. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy usage and urban development patterns affect approximately 70% of that consumption. This document describes a model design for urban development and redevelopment ...

  8. South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) AgencyCompany Organization ICLEI - Local Governments for...

  9. Study of multiband disordered systems using the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yi; Terletska, Hanna; Moore, C.; Ekuma, Chinedu; Tam, Ka-Ming; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-11-06

    We generalize the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation to multiband disordered systems. Using our extended formalism, we perform a systematic study of the nonlocal correlation effects induced by disorder on the density of states and the mobility edge of the three-dimensional two-band Anderson model. We include interband and intraband hopping and an intraband disorder potential. Our results are consistent with those obtained by the transfer matrix and the kernel polynomial methods. We also apply the method to KxFe2-ySe2 with Fe vacancies. Despite the strong vacancy disorder and anisotropy, we find the material is not an Anderson insulator. Moreover our resultsmore » demonstrate the application of the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation method to study Anderson localization in real materials.« less

  10. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill after heating and cooling. There are

  11. DURA URBAN HOUSE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DURA URBAN HOUSE Solar Decathlon DURA URBAN HOUSE People from many nations arrive in New York City to pursue the American Dream. The New York City College of Technology team embodies this spirit in Solar Decathlon 2015, called DURA-an acronym for Diverse, Urban, Resilient, and Adaptable. The group is assembled DURA in the Brooklyn Navy Yard in preparation for the competition in Irvine, California. The slender, 24-ft. by 50-ft. house is suitable for single family living on a small city lot.

  12. Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.

  13. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  14. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  15. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  16. How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchica...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (US) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Urbanization Global urban land Urban area Built-up area Impervious surface Hierarchy of ...

  17. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  18. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  19. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Drain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water Heat Recovery Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water

  20. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  1. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  2. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  3. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-11-18

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  4. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-10-08

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  5. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  6. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the start of steam release. (authors)

  7. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in the atmosphere have a sizeable effect on our climate. September 30, 2015 A new study by a science team led by Los Alamos National Laboratory stresses the importance of understanding mixed black and brown carbon in smoke emissions for climate models. The particulates found in urban smoke are especially prone

  8. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Resources, February 2004 | Department of Energy Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 U.S. cities and towns now account for over 80% of our national energy usage and urban development patterns affect approximately 70% of that consumption. This document describes a model design for urban development and redevelopment

  9. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  10. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Shea Rose, Leanna

    2007-06-14

    Data on materials and surface types that comprise a city, i.e. urban fabric, are needed in order to estimate the effects of light-colored surfaces (roofs and pavements) and urban vegetation (trees, grass, shrubs) on the meteorology and air quality of a city. We discuss the results of a semi-automatic statistical approach used to develop data on surface-type distribution and urban-fabric makeup using aerial color orthophotography, for four metropolitan areas of Chicago, IL, Houston, TX, Sacramento, CA, and Salt Lake City, UT. The digital high resolution (0.3 to 0.5-m) aerial photographs for each of these metropolitan areas covers representative urban areas ranging from 30 km{sup 2} to 52 km{sup 2}. Major land-use types examined included: commercial, residential, industrial, educational, and transportation. On average, for the metropolitan areas studied, vegetation covers about 29-41% of the area, roofs 19-25%, and paved surfaces 29-39%. For the most part, trees shade streets, parking lots, grass, and sidewalks. At ground level, i.e., view from below the tree canopies, vegetation covers about 20-37% of the area, roofs 20-25%, and paved surfaces 29-36%.

  11. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice nucleation effciencies and can serve as effcient IN at atmospheric conditions typical for cirrus and mixed phase clouds. This indicates a potential link between human activities and cloud formation, and thus climate.

  12. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security Home/Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, Energy-Water Nexus, Global, Global,

  13. Water Technology Research | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Technology Research Wastewater treatment plant Wastewater treatment plant Water is an increasingly valuable natural resource. By identifying typical sources and distribution of microbial communities in waterways, researchers can develop hydrological models that incorporate the microbial data, laying out how water flows from different sources and how rain events affect bacterial diversity and count. For example, by studying how microbes flourish in specific areas, it may be possible to

  14. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  15. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security Home/Tag:Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis,

  16. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL * Kate McMordie Stoughton - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * kate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water efficiency

  17. 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University's Urban

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harvest Team Submission | Department of Energy Ryerson University's Urban Harvest Team Submission 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University's Urban Harvest Team Submission Ryerson University's Urban Harvest's team submission to the 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition. PDF icon harvest_home_team_submission.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014 Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Ryerson University -- Harvest Home Presentation Indoor airPLUS

  18. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  19. Indonesia-GTZ Emissions Reductions in Urban Transport | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    policy on sustainable urban transport, as well as general deficiencies regarding personal and financial resources in city administrations. The methodological approach of GTZ...

  20. Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Presentation of Results Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of Results AgencyCompany...

  1. Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Transport Project GIZ Sourcebook Module 4f: Eco Driving Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station ... further results Find Another Tool...

  2. ICLEI Sustainable Urban Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Urban Energy Planning AgencyCompany Organization: ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics:...

  3. Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adapting Urban Transport to Climate Change- Module 5f - Sustainable transport: a sourcebook for policy-makers in developing cities Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH...

  4. Clean Urban Transport for Europe CUTE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport for Europe CUTE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) Place: Ulm, Germany Zip: 89077 Product: Germany-based, European Union project...

  5. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy...

  6. Urban structure and its influence on vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.; Jones, D.W.; Harrison, G.

    1996-04-01

    This paper examines what is known about the relationship between urban spatial structure (i.e. the arrangement of residential, industrial, commercial, recreational and municipal buildings and land lots) and urban travel. The first section provides an overview of the empirical evidence for relationships between urban spatial structure and travel in the United States. Section two focuses on the barriers to and opportunities for reducing the use of automobiles and light trucks in urban areas. The final section offers a policy-point-of-impact perspective on the sort of instruments governments have at their disposal for reducing vehicular travel.

  7. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Community Partnerships *5 US Dept of Housing and Urban Development Energy Efficiency Project Finance *5 * Some Restrictions Depending On Funding "Modest" "Total ...

  8. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  9. Housing and urban development research reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

  10. Converting urban tree maintenance residue to energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, W.K.; Massey, J.G.; Sumrall, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of utilizing urban wood waste collected by a tree maintenance firm in Houston, Texas (handling 30,000 ton waste/year) are examined: (a) hauling to a remote landfill; (b) chipping and hauling to a (local) power plant and converting to electricity; and (c) chipping and selling to an outside firm for use as boiler fuel. Breakdown of costs are given for each method in monetary and energy terms. Method (b) was the cheapest, producing a net energy gain (870 million Btu/day), but the firm chose method (c), since it realized a direct monetary return.

  11. UWV (Unmanned Water Vehicle) - Umbra Package v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model the mobility of systems moving in the water. This package currently models first order physics -basically a velocity integrator. This package depends on interface classes (typically base classes) that reside in the Mobility package.

  12. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, Philip J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Parish, Esther S; Mei, Rui; Ernst, Kathleen M; Absar, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  13. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-11-15

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  14. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: DMSPOLS; Nightlights; Urban ...

  15. Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,391 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Rachel Segalman, Jeffrey Urban and Kevin See have invented a water based process to make thermoelectric films. The resulting composite film

  16. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power - NearyFig1 Permalink Gallery University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Water Power University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Sandia Labs Water Power Technologies Department promotes open-source marine hydrokinetic research by disseminating information on MHK technology designs

  17. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Water Power - Water PowerTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-16T18:27:48+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower Optimization Developing tools for optimizing the U.S. hydropower fleet's performance with minimal environmental impact. Technology Development Improving the power performance and reliability of marine hydrokinetic technologies. Market Acceleration & Deployment Addressing barriers to development, deployment, and evaluation of

  18. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  19. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment

  20. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Chirjiv K. Apul, Defne S.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. Many different composting toilet designs are available. Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. There are many barriers to composting toilets. Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In todays flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (5060%), temperature (4065 C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (2535), pH (5.58.0), and porosity (3550%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperaturetime criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and experience in composting toilet design and operation and program operation.

  1. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  2. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  3. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  4. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  5. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heaters | Department of Energy Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF),

  6. A spatially distributed model for the assessment of land use impacts on stream temperature in small urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ning; Yearsley, John; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-05-15

    Stream temperatures in urban watersheds are influenced to a high degree by anthropogenic impacts related to changes in landscape, stream channel morphology, and climate. These impacts can occur at small time and length scales, hence require analytical tools that consider the influence of the hydrologic regime, energy fluxes, topography, channel morphology, and near-stream vegetation distribution. Here we describe a modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM, with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM, which has the capability to simulate the hydrology and water temperature of urban streams at high time and space resolutions, as well as a representation of the effects of riparian shading on stream energetics. We demonstrate the modeling system through application to the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The results suggest that the model is able both to produce realistic streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that are consistent with observations throughout a complex stream network. We use the modeling construct to characterize impacts of land use change and near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature throughout the Mercer Creek system. We then explore the sensitivity of stream temperature to land use changes and modifications in vegetation along the riparian corridor.

  7. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

    2008-02-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

  8. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  9. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold

  10. Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions, if and only if they are implemented in the framework of appropriate urban planning. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included in the Transportation Toolkit from...

  11. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 5:00PM EST U.S. Department of Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting proposals for the National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant...

  12. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVGeneration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quantity Description The estimated potential energy generation from utility-scale PV in urban areas of a particular place. Use this type to express a quantity of energy. The...

  13. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide a framework to capture them in climate models." The researchers used state-of-the-art instruments in field studies near London tracking an urban plume as it moved across...

  14. AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures AVTA: Urban Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures PDF icon UEVAmerica Specifications PDF icon ETA-UTP001 Implementation of SAE Standard J1263, Feb. 1996 - Road Load Measurement and Dynamometer Simulation Using Coastdown Techniques PDF icon ETA-UTP002 Implementation of SAE Standard J1666, May 1993 - Electric Vehicle Acceleration, Gradeability, and Deceleration Test Procedure PDF icon ETA-UTP003

  15. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 | Department of Energy A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 This 2004 document is a resource designed to help cities develop sustainable energy plans that will enable communities to meet their present needs without compromising the ability of future

  16. National setting for productive conservation in urban transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; LaBelle, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    The need for productive conservation strategies in urban transportation is discussed. Key trends in urban transportation are discussed as a basis for identifying target areas for productive conservation strategies. The need for and expected impacts of such candidate strategies as improvements in conventional automobiles, increases in automobile load factors, changes in highway and transit system operation, price-driven reductions in travel, and shifts to more-efficient modes are briefly outlined.

  17. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer | Department of Energy Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland PDF icon 2004_deer_erkkila.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK

  18. The LANL urban consequences project (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The LANL urban consequences project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The LANL urban consequences project × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the

  19. Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Weatherization Assistance | Department of Energy Pilot Projects » Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for Weatherization Assistance Housing and Urban Development Multifamily Properties Eligible for Weatherization Assistance On January 25, 2010, the Department of Energy (DOE) implemented a new rule 71-CFR-3847 for its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). Under the new rule, if a public housing, assisted multi-family or Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC)

  20. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area. Our si mulations suggest that cool-city strategies can typically reduce local urban air temperature by 0.5-1 degrees C; as more sporadic events, larger decreases (1.5 degrees C, 2.5-2.7 degrees C and 4-6 degrees C) were also simulated. With regard to ozone mixing ratios along the simulated trajectories, the effects of cool-city strategies appear to be on the order of 2 ppb, a typical decrease. The photochemical trajectory model (CIT) also simulates larger decreases (e.g., 4 to 8 ppb), but these are not taken as representative of the potential impacts in this report. A comparison with other simulations suggest very crudely that a decrease of this magnitude corresponds to significant ''equivalent'' decreases in both NOx and VOCs emissions in the region. Our preliminary results suggest that significant UHI control can be achieved with cool-cities strategies in the GTA and is therefore worth further study. We recommend that better input data and more accurate modeling schemes be used to carry out f uture studies in the same direction.

  1. Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

  2. Storm water modeling at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veis, Christopher

    1996-05-01

    Storm water modeling is important to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for compliance with regulations that govern water discharge at large industrial facilities. Modeling is also done to study trend in contaminants and storm sewer infrastructure. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to simulate rainfall events at LLNL. SWMM is a comprehensive computer model for simulation of urban runoff quantity and quality in storm and combined sewer systems. Due to time constraints and ongoing research, no modeling was completed at LLNL. With proper information about the storm sewers, a SWMM simulation of a rainfall event on site would be beneficial to storm sewer analyst.

  3. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  4. Water in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piechota, Thomas C

    2013-02-08

    This research project focused on sustainability issues in the southwest U.S. with an emphasis on water and energy. The efforts were directed through the UNLV Urban Sustainability Office with the funding used to develop a sustainability strategic plan; conduct extensive community outreach in the greater metropolitan area; provide seed money for multidisciplinary research teams to conduct studies in the areas of ecological, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability leading to community-based solutions; and to provide service-learning opportunities for UNLV graduate and undergraduate students. The research advanced understanding of urban and regional water issues with a particular focus on climate change and climate variability in the southwest. In addition, various events were held to promote discussion on energy, water, and sustainability discussions in the community. The impact of this research was broad dissemination of research through 13 peer-reviewed publications, learning opportunities for countless students as a result of class room equipment upgrades (see report for upgrade details), and new research funding for further advancement of these research efforts.

  5. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  6. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1993-1994. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Alternatives for ground water cleanup; Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; and, Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  7. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1992. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; Ground water vulnerability assessment; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; and Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  8. Underground Infrastructure Impacts Due to a Surface Burst Nuclear Device in an Urban Canyon Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bos, Randall J.; Dey, Thomas N.; Runnels, Scott R.

    2012-07-03

    Investigation of the effects of a nuclear device exploded in a urban environment such as the Chicago studied for this particular report have shown the importance on the effects from the urban canyons so typical of today's urban environment as compared to nuclear test event effects observed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Pacific Testing Area on which many of the typical legacy empirical codes are based on. This report first looks at the some of the data from nuclear testing that can give an indication of the damage levels that might be experienced due to a nuclear event. While it is well known that a above ground blast, even a ground burst, very poorly transmits energy into the ground ( < 1%) and the experimental results discussed here are for fully coupled detonations, these results do indicate a useful measure of the damage that might be expected. The second part of the report looks at effects of layering of different materials that typically would make up the near ground below surface environment that a shock would propagate through. As these simulations support and is widely known in the community, the effects of different material compositions in these layers modify the shock behavior and especially modify the energy dispersal and coupling into the basement structures. The third part of the report looks at the modification of the underground shock effects from a surface burst 1 KT device due to the presence of basements under the Chicago buildings. Without direct knowledge of the basement structure, a simulated footprint of a uniform 20m depth was assumed underneath each of the NGI defined buildings in the above ground environment. In the above ground case, the underground basement structures channel the energy along the line of site streets keeping the shock levels from falling off as rapidly as has been observed in unobstructed detonations. These simulations indicate a falloff of factors of 2 per scaled length as compared to 10 for the unobstructed case. Again, as in the above ground case, the basements create significant shielding causing the shock profile to become more square and reducing the potential for damage diagonal to the line of sight streets. The results for a 1KT device is that the heavily damaged zone (complete destruction) will extend out to 50m from the detonation ({approx}100m for 10KT). The heavily to moderately damaged zone will extend out to 100m ({approx}200m for 10KT). Since the destruction will depend on geometric angle from the detonation and also the variability of response for various critical infrastructure, for planning purposes the area out to 100m from the detonation should be assumed to be non-operational. Specifically for subway tunnels, while not operational, they could be human passable for human egress in the moderately damaged area. The results of the simulations presented in this report indicate only the general underground infrastructure impact. Simulations done with the actual basement geometry would be an important improvement. Equally as important or even more so, knowing the actual underground material configurations and material composition would be critical information to refine the calculations. Coupling of the shock data into structural codes would help inform the emergency planning and first response communities on the impact to underground structures and the state of buildings after the detonation.

  9. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infrastructure - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  10. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savings - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  11. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scarcity - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  12. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  13. COLLOQUIUM: The Promise of Urban Science | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 16, 2013, 3:15pm to 4:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: The Promise of Urban Science Professor Steven E. Koonin New York University Presentation: File TC16APR2013_SEKooninWO31_34.pptx For the first time in history, more than half of the world's population lives in urban areas; by mid-century, 70 percent of the world's more than 9 billion people will live in cities. Enabling those cities to deliver services effectively, efficiently, and sustainably while keeping citizens safe,

  14. Fact #759: December 24, 2012 Rural vs. Urban Driving Differences |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: December 24, 2012 Rural vs. Urban Driving Differences Fact #759: December 24, 2012 Rural vs. Urban Driving Differences According to the National Household Travel Survey, those living in rural areas drive ten more miles in a day than those who live in cities. People living in the suburbs drive only about three to four more miles per day than those within the city. From 2001 to 2009, the total number of daily miles driven decreased by 12%, much of it due to decreases by

  15. The LANL urban consequences project (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The LANL urban consequences project Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The LANL urban consequences project Authors: Bos, Randall J [1] ; Brown, Michael J [1] ; Goorley, John T [1] ; Grinstein, Fernando [1] ; Heger, Arlen S [1] ; Linn, Rodman R [1] ; Zhang, Duan Z [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2010-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1172860 Report Number(s): LA-UR-10-06665; LA-UR-10-6665 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 12 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  17. Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status after One Year Experience Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status...

  18. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Louisville, Kentucky | Department of Energy Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Urbane Homes, Louisville, Kentucky Case study of Urbane Homes who worked with Building America research partner NAHBRC to build HERS-57 homes with rigid foam insulated slabs and foundation walls, advanced framed walls, high-efficiency heat pumps, and ducts in conditioned space. PDF icon Urbane Homes - Louisville, KY More Documents & Publications High

  19. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Housing and Urban Development U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development The mission of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes for all. HUD is working to strengthen the housing market to bolster the economy and protect consumers; meet the need for quality affordable rental homes; utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of

  20. Analysis of high-pressure boiloff situation during an MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.

    1986-01-01

    An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is recognized as one of the boiling water reactor (BWR) accident sequences potentially leading to core damage. Of all the various ATWS initiating events, the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) closure ATWS is the most severe, because of its relatively high frequency of occurrence and its challenge to the residual heat removal and containment integrity systems. Although under investigation for quite a long period of time, different aspects of this type of transient are still being analyzed. The final outcome of these studies should be a well-defined set of recommendations for the plant operator to mitigate an ATWS accident. The objective of this paper is to provide a best estimate analysis of the MSIV closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark-1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which as a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The one-dimensional capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.

  1. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  2. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  3. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  4. Outdoor classroom inspires urban students to pursue technical careers |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Outdoor classroom inspires urban students to pursue technical careers | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  5. Safety in urban environment and emergency notice boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Confortini, Claudia; Tira, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    Reliable and safe urban system conditions have to be a crucial goal of ordinary planning activities. Among planning goals, priority must be given to indications relating to the safety levels to be achieved and to the amount of resources to be directed towards reducing the vulnerability of urban systems and therefore of the measures to be taken. Uban vulnerability cannot in fact be reduced to the sum of the vulnerability of single buildings or to the physical vulnerability of its various components. This research work consists of identifying those urban sub-areas that are important for safety in relation to natural risks, ambits that should be highlighted by means of permanent emergency notice boards/billboards. What are the hazard notices relating to all natural hazards and related risks? Where are they located? Are they clear and straightforward so that all residents and visitors are able to understand them, as it is already the case for road signs (or at least it should be)? What urban sub-areas are worth highlighting in relation to natural risks, acting for example as escape routes or meeting points? How is information for the public managed in order that people are immediately, easily and regularly notified? What is the relation of such signals to ordinary traffic signals? Research into the state of the art of permanent notice boards/billboards of this type, currently distinguished only by sporadic and local initiatives, aims at carrying out a census of and recognizing urban elements already considered as important for reducing the vulnerability of the urban system to different natural calamities and at providing new highlights as regards the identification of new ones. The next step is to work out a decision and common-language strategy for planning these elements and for their adequate signposting, so as to be able to live in the urban environment with awareness, safety and confidence, including with respect to more remote and therefore often neglected natural risks. The paper deals with literature in the field and shows the results of the few relevant case studies at work.

  6. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  8. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  9. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-06-29

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  10. Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

  11. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  12. Restoring our urban communities: A model for an empowered America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This booklet tells the story of how two very different types of organizations - Bethel New Life and Argonne National Laboratory - have forged a partnership to rebuild West Garfield Park. This unique Partnership blends Bethel`s theological and sociological roots with Argonne`s scientific and technological expertise. Together they hope to offer the community fresh, transferable approaches to solving urban socio-economic and environmental problems. The Partnership hopes to address and solve the inner city`s technological problems through community participation and collaborative demonstrations - without losing sight of the community`s social needs. The key themes throughout this booklet - jobs, sustainable community development, energy efficiency, and environment - highlight challenges the partners face. By bringing people and technologies together, this Partnership will give West Garfield Park residents a better life -- and, perhaps, offer other communities a successful model for urban renewal.

  13. Optical bullet-tracking algorithms for weapon localization in urban environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R S; Breitfeller, E F

    2006-03-31

    Localization of the sources of small-arms fire, mortars, and rocket propelled grenades is an important problem in urban combat. Weapons of this type produce characteristic signatures, such as muzzle flashes, that are visible in the infrared. Indeed, several systems have been developed that exploit the infrared signature of muzzle flash to locate the positions of shooters. However, systems based on muzzle flash alone can have difficulty localizing weapons if the muzzle flash is obscured or suppressed. Moreover, optical clutter can be problematic to systems that rely on muzzle flash alone. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a projectile tracking system that detects and localizes sources of small-arms fire, mortars and similar weapons using the thermal signature of the projectile rather than a muzzle flash. The thermal signature of a projectile, caused by friction as the projectile travels along its trajectory, cannot be concealed and is easily discriminated from optical clutter. The LLNL system was recently demonstrated at the MOUT facility of the Aberdeen Test Center [1]. In the live-fire demonstration, shooters armed with a variety of small-arms, including M-16s, AK-47s, handguns, mortars and rockets, were arranged at several positions in around the facility. Experiments ranged from a single-weapon firing a single-shot to simultaneous fire of all weapons on full automatic. The LLNL projectile tracking system was demonstrated to localize multiple shooters at ranges up to 400m, far greater than previous demonstrations. Furthermore, the system was shown to be immune to optical clutter that is typical in urban combat. This paper describes the image processing and localization algorithms designed to exploit the thermal signature of projectiles for shooter localization. The paper begins with a description of the image processing that extracts projectile information from a sequence of infrared images. Key to the processing is an adaptive spatio-temporal filter developed to suppress scene clutter. The filtered image sequence is further processed to produce a set of parameterized regions, which are classified using several discriminate functions. Regions that are classified as projectiles are passed to a data association algorithm that matches features from these regions with existing tracks, or initializes new tracks as needed. A Kalman filter is used to smooth and extrapolate existing tracks. Shooter locations are determined by solving a combinatorial least-squares solution for all bullet tracks. It also provides an error ellipse for each shooter, quantifying the uncertainty of shooter location. The paper concludes with examples from the live-fire exercise at the Aberdeen Test Center.

  14. NYU's Center for Urban Science and Progress announces partnerships with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    four national laboratories NYU announces partnerships NYU's Center for Urban Science and Progress announces partnerships with four national laboratories The four labs are Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos and Sandia. April 5, 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  15. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  16. The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation In an effort "to examine the nexus of energy and mobility for future transportation systems," the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility consortium. By studying mobility as a system researchers can predict future trends, an invaluable asset to policymakers as they prepare for the future of transportation. This

  17. Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cool Roof Infrastructure Urban Heat Islands: Cool Roof Infrastructure Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center Project Partners: -- Guangdong Provincial Academy of Building Research - Guangdong, China -- Chongqing University - Chongqing, China -- Research Institute of Standards and Norms - China -- Chinese Academy of Sciences - Beijing, China DOE Funding: $795,000 Project Term: Jan. 2011 - Dec. 2015 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean

  18. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, Rajasekar; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban emergency evacuation framework that can improve traffic mobility and safety under critical infrastructure disruption in today s socially connected world.

  19. Transportation of radionuclides in urban environs: draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, N.C.; Aldrich, D.C.; Daniel, S.L.; Ericson, D.M.; Henning-Sachs, C.; Kaestner, P.C.; Ortiz, N.R.; Sheldon, D.D.; Taylor, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report assesses the environmental consequences of the transportation of radioactive materials in densely populated urban areas, including estimates of the radiological, nonradiological, and social impacts arising from this process. The chapters of the report and the appendices which follow detail the methodology and results for each of four causative event categories: incident free transport, vehicular accidents, human errors or deviations from accepted quality assurance practices, and sabotage or malevolent acts. The numerical results are expressed in terms of the expected radiological and economic impacts from each. Following these discussions, alternatives to the current transport practice are considered. Then, the detailed analysis is extended from a limited area of New York city to other urban areas. The appendices contain the data bases and specific models used to evaluate these impacts, as well as discussions of chemical toxicity and the social impacts of radioactive material transport in urban areas. The latter are evaluated for each causative event category in terms of psychological, sociological, political, legal, and organizational impacts. The report is followed by an extensive bibliography covering the many fields of study which were required in performing the analysis.

  20. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  1. A Study of the Effects of Different Urban Wind Models on Dispersion Patterns Using Joint Urban 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowardhan, A A; Brown, M J

    2012-02-21

    The Quick Urban & Industrial Complex (QUIC) Dispersion Modeling System has been developed to rapidly compute the transport and dispersion of toxic agent releases in the vicinity of buildings. It is composed of a wind solver, an 'urbanized' Lagrangian random-walk model, and a graphical user interface. QUIC has two different wind models: (a) The QUIC-URB wind solver, an empirically-based diagnostic wind model and (b) The QUIC-CFD (RANS) solver, based on the 3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this paper, we discuss the effect of different wind models on dispersion patterns in dense built-up areas. The model-computed wind from the two urban wind models- QUIC-URB and QUIC-CFD are used to drive the dispersion model. The concentration fields are then compared to measurements from the Oklahoma City Joint Urban 2003 field experiment. QUIC produces high-resolution 3-D mean wind and concentration fields around buildings, in addition to deposition on the ground and building surfaces. It has options for different release types, including point, moving point, line, area, and volumetric sources, as well as dense gas, explosive buoyant rise, multi-particle size, bioslurry, and two-phase releases. Other features include indoor infiltration, a pressure solver, outer grid simulations, vegetative canopies, and population exposure calculations. It has been used for biological agent sensor siting in cities, vulnerability assessments for heavier-than-air chemical releases at industrial facilities, and clean-up assessments for radiological dispersal device (RDD) releases in cities (e.g., see Linger et al., 2005; Brown, 2006a, b). QUIC has also been used for dust transport studies (Bowker et al., 2007a) and for the impact of highway sound barriers on the transport and dispersion of vehicle emissions (Bowker et al., 2007b).

  2. Impact of urban heat island on cooling and environment: A demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Landscaping has been shown in simulation and field studies to reduce building cooling loads by affecting microclimatic factors such as solar radiation, wind speed and air temperature. A demonstration project was undertaken to determine the magnitude of landscape induced changes in microclimate on building cooling loads and water use on four typical residences in Phoenix, Arizona. The energy use and microclimate of three unlandscaped (bare soil, rock mulch) and one landscaped (turf) home were monitored during summer 1990. In the fall, turf was placed around one of the unlandscaped houses, and shade trees planted on the west and south sides of another. Measurements continued during the summer of 1991. Total house air conditioning and selected appliance electrical data were collected, as well as inside and outside air temperatures. Detailed microclimate measurements were obtained for one to two week periods during both summers. Maximum reductions of hourly outside air temperatures of 1 to 1.5{degrees}C, and of daily average air temperatures of up to 1{degrees}C, resulted from the addition of turf landscaping. Addition of small trees to the south and west sides of another treatment did not have a noticeable effect on air temperature. Cooling load reductions of 10% to 17% were observed between years when well-watered turf landscaping was added to a house previously surrounded by bare soil. Addition of small trees to another bare landscape did not produce a detectable change in cooling load. The results of the study are used as input to a standard building energy use simulation model to predict landscape effects on cooling load and water usage for three typical houses, and to develop guidelines for use of energy efficient residential landscapes in Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  4. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  5. How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    framework for evading confusion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical framework for evading confusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How much of the world's land has been urbanized, really? A hierarchical framework for evading confusion Urbanization has transformed the world's landscapes, resulting in a series of ecological and environmental problems. To assess

  6. Sandia Energy Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doe-eere-technologist-in-residence-pilotfeed 0 Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm http:energy.sandia.govsandia-team-attends-world-water-week-in-sto...

  7. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  8. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  9. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  10. Bioenergy Impacts … Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  11. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Federal aappropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and for sundry independent agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and offices are enumerated and discussed. Recommendations by the House Committee on Appropriations are given along with a detailed description of each program considered. Specific programs discussed include: urban research, urban development, urban planning, solar energy, environmental quality, space stations, space shuttle orbiters, scientific research and education, and selective service. This bill, H.R. 5713, makes appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985.

  12. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  13. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area

  14. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments Webinar (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the Webinar titled "Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments," originally presented on September 18, 2012.

  15. Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Traffic Congestion, 2011 | Department of Energy 5: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011 Fact #775: April 15, 2013 Top Ten Urban Areas for Fuel Wasted due to Traffic Congestion, 2011 The top ten urban areas across the U.S. accounted for nearly 40% of the total fuel wasted due to traffic congestion in 2011. Highway congestion caused vehicles in the combined urban areas of New York, Los Angeles and Chicago to waste about 600 million gallons of fuel

  16. Fact #902: December 7, 2015 Rural versus Urban Vehicle Miles of Travel by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State | Department of Energy 2: December 7, 2015 Rural versus Urban Vehicle Miles of Travel by State Fact #902: December 7, 2015 Rural versus Urban Vehicle Miles of Travel by State SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In the United States, the U.S. Department of Transportation classifies 3.9 million miles of roadway as rural and 1.2 million miles of roadway as urban. Each state has a different travel pattern affecting the proportion of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) on rural versus urban roads.

  17. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  18. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  19. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  20. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  1. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-12-31

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion.

  2. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

  3. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  4. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  5. Energy-Water Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and

  6. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  7. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  9. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  10. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  11. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  12. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of measuring water vapor, making it a prime location for research of this type. The first water vapor IOP, conducted in September 1996, focused on using instruments to measure water vapor and determining the accuracy and calibration of each instrument. The second water vapor IOP, held in September and October of 1997,

  13. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitable water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  14. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion, integrated laboratory, field, and numerical approaches are utilized to better understand the radionuclide behavior and the development/utility of decontamination agents.

  15. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Report on Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). It is a summary of the currently existing knowledge base on its topic, nested within a broader framing of issues and questions that need further attention in the longer run. The report arrives at a number of assessment findings, each associated with an evaluation of the level of consensus on that issue within the expert community, the volume of evidence available to support that judgment, and the section of the report that provides an explanation for the finding. Cross-sectoral issues related to infrastructures and urban systems have not received a great deal of attention to date in research literatures in general and climate change assessments in particular. As a result, this technical report is breaking new ground as a component of climate change vulnerability and impact assessments in the U.S., which means that some of its assessment findings are rather speculative, more in the nature of propositions for further study than specific conclusions that are offered with a high level of confidence and research support. But it is a start in addressing questions that are of interest to many policymakers and stakeholders. A central theme of the report is that vulnerabilities and impacts are issues beyond physical infrastructures themselves. The concern is with the value of services provided by infrastructures, where the true consequences of impacts and disruptions involve not only the costs associated with the clean-up, repair, and/or replacement of affected infrastructures but also economic, social, and environmental effects as supply chains are disrupted, economic activities are suspended, and/or social well-being is threatened. Current knowledge indicates that vulnerability concerns tend to be focused on extreme weather events associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

  16. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  17. NDN Water Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NDN Water Summit is a two-day summit to build tribal executive capacity through a strategic series of forums, events, and sharing of documentation and experiences. Speakers will cover topics on water policy, climate change, and more.

  18. Indian Water 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Indian Water is a call to help plan a national water summit. This strategic session consist of a facilitated dialog with tribal leaders on important opportunities, challenges and tactics, which...

  19. Electrolysis of Water

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students observe the electrolysis of water using either photovoltaics or a battery as the electric energy source.

  20. Water | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States Significant opportunities are emerging in the public and private sector to tackle water stewardship: the U.S. Department of Energy has identified the energy-water nexus as an emerging activity that require substantial R&D investment in the coming years, and DOE's Water Energy Nexus report has identified reclaimed

  1. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water Vapor Water vapor is the most effective, fastest changing, and least understood of the greenhouse gases. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas; as a matter of fact, it is the dominant greenhouse gas. But scientists don't

  2. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  3. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  4. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  5. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  6. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  7. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  8. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  9. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion-selective electrodes and inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The WSO found in produced water samples was primarily polar in nature and distributed between the low and midrange carbon ranges. Typical levels of total extractable material (TEM) was about 20 mg/L; that associated with the aromatic fraction was present at 0.2 mg/L and that in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction was present at less than 0.02 mg/L. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids were also found in the produced water, occurring at a total concentration of 30 mg/L. It was estimated that the presence of 30 mg/L organic acids would artificially overstate TEM content by 2 mg/L. Of the five tested parameters, the factor that most controlled the total WSO in produced water was that of aqueous phase pH. Beyond a value of pH7 significant quantities of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range material become markedly soluble as they deprotonate in a basic aqueous phase. Both the absolute and relative volumes of GOM brine and crude additionally affected total WSO. Produced water appeared to reach a saturation level of WSO at a.50% water/oil ratio. Pressure slightly enhanced WSO by increasing the relative quantity of C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} range material. Temperature primarily altered the relative ratio of carbon ranges within the WSO without significantly elevating the total WSO in the GOM brine. Salinity had the least affect on the chemical character or the carbon size of WSO in produced water.

  10. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  11. California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water...

  12. Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Substitute Water Supply Plans Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

  13. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  14. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  15. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  16. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  17. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  18. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  19. GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater Oak Ridge National Laboratory <p> Oak Ridge National Laboratory&#39;s facility tests several water heaters at one time. Because of ORNL&#39;s accelerated durability testing, they estimate that 10 months of constant operation in its testing facility is comparable to 10 years of service life in a typical residential setting. | Photo courtesy of the Building Technologies Research and Integration Center, ORNL</p> Oak Ridge National Laboratory's

  20. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse...

  1. Oasys Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oasys Water Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oasys Water Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Product: Cambridge-based developer of Engineered Osmosis, desalination and water treatment...

  2. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  3. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power (Redirected from Water) Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum...

  4. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs. Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn

  5. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  6. GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning and Urban Transport (Espaol) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 2a: Land Use Planning...

  7. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriation Act, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The budget appropriations for FY 1983 for the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies are presented.

  8. Best Practices Case Study: Urbane Homes - Crestwood, KY, Various Locations, Greater Louisville, KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Urbane Homes, who worked with Building America to build market rate homes with HERS scores of 57 to 62. Despite a down market theyve sold every home within 3 weeks of listing, without any advertising.

  9. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Nina Bauer, Annette Haase, Dagmar

    2011-03-15

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  10. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  11. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  12. Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban Native Youth in STEM Education

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SUN Project is a new collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and the American Indian Science and Engineering Society to engage urban Native American youth in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.

  13. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development PROGRAMS OF HUD

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Housing and Urban Development PROGRAMS OF HUD Major Mortgage, Grant, Assistance, and Regulatory Programs 2013 ii Table of Contents Table of Contents ................................................................................................................ ii Community Planning and Development ............................................................................ 1 Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) ........................................................ 1 Capacity

  14. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  15. Novel Americium Treatment Process for Surface Water and Dust Suppression Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiepel, E.W.; Pigeon, P.; Nesta, S.; Anderson, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), a former nuclear weapons production plant, has been remediated under CERCLA and decommissioned to become a National Wildlife Refuge. The site conducted this cleanup effort under the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) that established limits for the discharge of surface and process waters from the site. At the end of 2004, while a number of process buildings were undergoing decommissioning, routine monitoring of a discharge pond (Pond A-4) containing approximately 28 million gallons of water was discovered to have been contaminated with a trace amount of Americium-241 (Am-241). While the amount of Am-241 in the pond waters was very low (0.5 - 0.7 pCi/l), it was above the established Colorado stream standard of 0.15 pCi/l for release to off site drainage waters. The rapid successful treatment of these waters to the regulatory limit was important to the site for two reasons. The first was that the pond was approaching its hold-up limit. Without rapid treatment and release of the Pond A-4 water, typical spring run-off would require water management actions to other drainages onsite or a mass shuttling of water for disposal. The second reason was that this type of contaminated water had not been treated to the stringent stream standard at Rocky Flats before. Technical challenges in treatment could translate to impacts on water and secondary waste management, and ultimately, cost impacts. All of the technical challenges and specific site criteria led to the conclusion that a different approach to the treatment of this problem was necessary and a crash treatability program to identify applicable treatment techniques was undertaken. The goal of this program was to develop treatment options that could be implemented very quickly and would result in the generation of no high volume secondary waste that would be costly to dispose. A novel chemical treatment system was developed and implemented at the RFETS to treat Am-241 contaminated pond water, surface run-off and D and D dust suppression water during the later stages of the D and D effort at Rocky Flats. This novel chemical treatment system allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment of all contaminated waste waters to the very low stream standard of 0.15 pCi/1 with strict compliance to the RFCA discharge criteria for release to off-site surface waters. The rapid development and implementation of the treatment system avoided water management issues that would have had to be addressed if contaminated water had remained in Pond A-4 into the Spring of 2005. Implementation of this treatment system for the Pond A-4 waters and the D and D waters from Buildings 776 and 371 enabled the site to achieve cost-effective treatment that minimized secondary waste generation, avoiding the need for expensive off-site water disposal. Water treatment was conducted for a cost of less than $0.20/gal which included all development costs, capital costs and operational costs. This innovative and rapid response effort saved the RFETS cleanup program well in excess of $30 million for the potential cost of off-site transportation and treatment of radioactive liquid waste. (authors)

  16. Water Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Water Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an...

  17. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Water Heating September 2, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo...

  18. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU-style development path would avoid 430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More than 60% of these energy savings would come from reduced activity and production levels. In carbon terms, this would amount to more than a billion-tonne reduction of energy-related carbon emissions compared with the BAU scenario in 2025, though the absolute level of emissions rises in both scenarios. Aside from the energy and carbon savings related to CLU scenario development, this study showed impending saturation effects in commercial construction, urban appliance ownership, and fertilizer application. The implication of these findings is that urbanization will have a direct impact on future energy use and emissions - policies to guide urban growth can play a central role in China's efforts to mitigate emissions growth.

  19. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge. The science team will conduct a three- year Water Cycle Pilot Study within the ARM SGP CART site, primarily in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The host facility in the Walnut River Watershed is the Atmospheric

  20. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  1. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Housing and Urban Development The mission of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality affordable homes for all. HUD is working to strengthen the housing market to bolster the economy and protect consumers; meet the need for quality affordable rental homes; utilize housing as a platform for improving quality of life; build inclusive and sustainable communities free from discrimination, and transform the way HUD

  2. Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel-and CNG-powered Urban Buses

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES [ * ] Patrick COROLLER & Gabriel PLASSAT French Agency of Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) Air & Transport Division [ * ] presented at the DEER 2003 Conference by Dr. Thierry SEGUELONG, Aaqius & Aaqius) ABSTRACT Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has

  3. Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status after One Year Experience | Department of Energy Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status after One Year Experience Retrofit Program of a Euro 1 andn EUro 2 Urban Bus Fleet in La Rochelle: Status after One Year Experience 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Rhodia Electronics and Catalysis PDF icon 2004_deer_rocher.pdf More Documents & Publications Improvement and Simplification of Diesel Particulate Filter System

  4. Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy Winners of Hydrogen Student Design Contest Turn Urban Waste into Energy September 20, 2012 - 1:10pm Addthis The University of Maryland team accepted the award for the best combined heat, hydrogen, and power system design at the World Hydrogen Energy Conference (WHEC) in Toronto. | Photo courtesy of Jennie Moton. The University of Maryland team accepted the award for the best combined heat, hydrogen,

  5. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Contact...

  6. Sandia Energy - Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas...

  7. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  8. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, a backward--bent duct buoy (BBDB) oscillating water column wave energy converter design. The team from HMRC included Tom Walsh, Brian Holmes, Florent Thiebaut, Neil...

  9. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Water Power WEC-Sim Code Development Meeting at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  10. Water Success Stories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Water Success Stories en Catching a Wave: Innovative Wave Energy Device Surfs for Power in Hawaii http:energy.goveeresuccess-storiesarticlescatching-wave-innovative-wave-en...

  11. Water Power Program: Publications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Hydropower Market Report Details Bookmark & Share View Related Welcome to the Water Power Program Publication and Product Library. This library will allow you to find...

  12. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  13. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  14. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Shuli Yeh Chiatsung Budd, William W. Chen Liling

    2009-02-15

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

  15. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  16. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  17. Multi-resolution integrated modeling for basin-scale water resources management and policy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Hoshin V. (Hoshin Vijai),; Brookshire, David S.; Springer, E. P.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the land surface of the Earth is considered to be arid or semi-arid with an annual average of less than 12-14 inches of rainfall. The availability of water in such regions is of course, particularly sensitive to climate variability while the demand for water is experiencing explosive population growth. The competition for available water is exerting considerable pressure on the water resources management. Policy and decision makers in the southwestern U.S. increasingly have to cope with over-stressed rivers and aquifers as population and water demands grow. Other factors such as endangered species and Native American water rights further complicate the management problems. Further, as groundwater tables are drawn down due to pumping in excess of natural recharge, considerable (potentially irreversible) environmental impacts begin to be felt as, for example, rivers run dry for significant portions of the year, riparian habitats disappear (with consequent effects on the bio-diversity of the region), aquifers compact resulting in large scale subsidence, and water quality begins to suffer. The current drought (1999-2002) in the southwestern U.S. is raising new concerns about how to sustain the combination of agricultural, urban and in-stream uses of water that underlie the socio-economic and ecological structure in the region. The water stressed nature of arid and semi-arid environments means that competing water uses of various kinds vie for access to a highly limited resource. If basin-scale water sustainability is to be achieved, managers must somehow achieve a balance between supply and demand throughout the basin, not just for the surface water or stream. The need to move water around a basin such as the Rio Grande or Colorado River to achieve this balance has created the stimulus for water transfers and water markets, and for accurate hydrologic information to sustain such institutions [Matthews et al. 2002; Brookshire et al 2003; Krause, Chermak Brookshire, 2003].

  18. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josphine R.; Taylor, Christophe M.; Marciochi, Don; Lower, Scott; Woodruff, Veronica; Wright, Diane; Poole, Tim

    2004-12-10

    The purpose of the research project was to advance the concept of real-time water quality management in the San Joaquin Basin by developing an application to drainage of seasonal wetlands in the Grassland Water District. Real-time water quality management is defined as the coordination of reservoir releases, return flows and river diversions to improve water quality conditions in the San Joaquin River and ensure compliance with State water quality objectives. Real-time water quality management is achieved through information exchange and cooperation between shakeholders who contribute or withdraw flow and salt load to or from the San Joaquin River. This project complements a larger scale project that was undertaken by members of the Water Quality Subcommittee of the San Joaquin River Management Program (SJRMP) and which produced forecasts of flow, salt load and San Joaquin River assimilative capacity between 1999 and 2003. These forecasts can help those entities exporting salt load to the River to develop salt load targets as a mechanism for improving compliance with salinity objectives. The mass balance model developed by this project is the decision support tool that helps to establish these salt load targets. A second important outcome of this project was the development and application of a methodology for assessing potential impacts of real-time wetland salinity management. Drawdown schedules are typically tied to weather conditions and are optimized in traditional practices to maximize food sources for over-wintering wildfowl as well as providing a biological control (through germination temperature) of undesirable weeds that compete with the more proteinaceous moist soil plants such as swamp timothy, watergrass and smartweed. This methodology combines high resolution remote sensing, ground-truthing vegetation surveys using established survey protocols and soil salinity mapping using rapid, automated electromagnetic sensor technology. This survey methodology could be complemented with biological surveys of bird use and invertebrates to produce a robust long-term monitoring strategy for habitat health and sustainability.

  19. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater, Surface Water, and Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site December 2013 LMS/RVT/S00913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Riverton, Wyoming December 2013 RIN 13095603 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, Wyoming, Sample Location Map

  1. A Case Study of Urbanization Impact on Summer Precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area. Urban Heat Island Versus Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Xiuqun

    2015-10-23

    Convection-resolving ensemble simulations using the WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) are conducted to investigate the individual and combined impacts of land use and anthropogenic pollutant emissions from urbanization on a heavy rainfall event in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA) in China. The simulation with the urbanization effect included generally captures the spatial pattern and temporal variation of the rainfall event. An improvement of precipitation is found in the experiment including aerosol effect on both clouds and radiation. The expanded urban land cover and increased aerosols have an opposite effect on precipitation processes, with the latter playing a more dominant role, leading to suppressed convection and rainfall over the upstream (northwest) area, and enhanced convection and more precipitation in the downstream (southeast) region of the GBMA. In addition, the influence of aerosol indirect effect is found to overwhelm that of direct effect on precipitation in this rainfall event. Increased aerosols induce more cloud droplets with smaller size, which favors evaporative cooling and reduce updrafts and suppress convection over the upstream (northwest) region in the early stage of the rainfall event. As the rainfall system propagates southeastward, more latent heat is released due to the freezing of larger number of smaller cloud drops that are lofted above the freezing level, which is responsible for the increased updraft strength and convective invigoration over the downstream (southeast) area.

  2. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  3. Water frac applications in high island 384 field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claiborne, E.B. Jr.; Saucier, R.; Wilkinson, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    A frac pack technique using water, herein referred to as a water frac, has been developed for use in wells where the goal is to achieve effective sand control at minimal cost while bypassing wellbore skin thus increasing well productivities. This increased productivity is accomplished by a properly designed, length limited, hydraulic fracture, created and propped with non-damaging fluid/prop that provides a highly conductive flow path through the wellbore damaged zone, in conjunction with a proper gravel packed completion. The process is applicable to intervals comprised of multiple pay zones by using a multi-stage water frac technique. The entire process of creating and packing the fracture(s) and gravel packing is accomplished using a properly defined gel free brine. The multi-stage water frac process has been applied and evaluated in the High Island 384 Field. Job evaluations herein illustrate the process. The process has also been applied using uncrosslinked gelled fluids in this field as well, with the evaluations to date indicating the water frac results to be superior. Comparisons with larger sized frac packs in a similar area also indicate the water fracs to be equal or superior to the frac packs in well performance. In the following, the process of a water frac will be described, typical field pumping techniques will be provided and field applications and results will be presented.

  4. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  5. A Strategic Project Appraisal framework for ecologically sustainable urban infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, John; Iyer-Raniga, Usha; McLaughlin, Patricia; Mills, Anthony

    2012-02-15

    Actors in the built environment are progressively considering environmental and social issues alongside functional and economic aspects of development projects. Infrastructure projects represent major investment and construction initiatives with attendant environmental, economic and societal impacts across multiple scales. To date, while sustainability strategies and frameworks have focused on wider national aspirations and strategic objectives, they are noticeably weak in addressing micro-level integrated decision making in the built environment, particularly for infrastructure projects. The proposed approach of this paper is based on the principal that early intervention is the most cost-effective and efficient means of mitigating the environmental effects of development projects, particularly macro infrastructure developments. A strategic overview of the various project alternatives, taking account for stakeholder and expert input, could effectively reduce project impacts/risks at low cost to the project developers but provide significant benefit to wider communities, including communities of future stakeholders. This paper is the first exploratory step in developing a more systematic framework for evaluating strategic alternatives for major metropolitan infrastructure projects, based on key sustainability principles. The developed Strategic Project Appraisal (SPA) framework, grounded in the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), provides a means of practically appraising project impacts and alternatives in terms of quantified ecological limits; addresses the neglected topic of metropolitan infrastructure as a means of delivering sustainability outcomes in the urban context and more broadly, seeks to open a debate on the potential for SEA methodology to be more extensively applied to address sustainability challenges in the built environment. Practically applied and timed appropriately, the SPA framework can enable better decision-making and more efficient resource allocation ensuring low impact infrastructure development.

  6. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. The efficiency of RDD cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the 'old reliable' methodologies. While an RDD is primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly 'package and dispose' method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination. (authors)

  7. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  8. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information required to analyze the scenarios using Water-MARKAL. This report describes the successes and challenges of defining and demonstrating the decision tool, Water-MARKAL. The issues that the stakeholders perceive for New York City are listed and the difficulties in gathering required information for Water-MARKAL to analyze these issues at the desired level of detail are described.

  9. California State Water Resources Control Board Storm Water Homepage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Water Resources Control Board Storm Water Homepage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board...

  10. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  11. Energy and Water Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Letter 2004-02 - FY 2004 Le2islation Provisions (dated March 1.2004) Energy and Water Act AL-2004-02 provides guidance regarding the implementation of Section 30 I. 304....

  12. Water Power News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    858936+791+7+343Water Power News en Energy Department Awards 10.5 Million for Next-Generation Marine Energy Systems http:energy.goveerearticlesenergy-department-awards-105-...

  13. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  14. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  15. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  16. Storm Water Individual Permit.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit. Wednesday, January 22, 2014 5:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center 10 Cities of Gold Road, Pojoaque, NM The Individual Permit authorizes...

  17. Electrolysis of Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis of Water Grades: 5-8 Topic: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Solar Owner: Florida Solar Energy Center This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of...

  18. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  19. energy-water interdependency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water interdependency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. Purifying contaminated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  1. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility began on October 27 and ended on November 16, 2003. Researchers David Whiteman and Francis Schmidlin of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Holger Voemel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Larry Miloshevich of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and Barry Lesht

  2. Energy-Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-Water Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  3. Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Water EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation cost-competitive with traditional sources of energy. EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make

  4. Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Water This map demonstrates the potential capacity to generate clean hydroelectric energy at existing non-powered dams across the U.S. Learn more. America has vast wave, tidal and hydropower resources - but much of this energy remains untapped. The Energy Department is committed to driving critical research and development efforts to expand electricity generation from these clean energy resources. This includes investments in existing hydropower facilities to equip them with the necessary

  5. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

  6. Guide to Colorado Well Permits, Water Rights, and Water Administration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Well Permits, Water Rights, and Water Administration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook:...

  7. Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  8. Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors called photoelectrochemical materials, which use light energy to directly dissociate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.

  9. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  10. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the decontamination process(es). In the case of an entire building, the value may be obvious; it's costly to replace the structure. For a smaller item such as a vehicle or painting, the cost versus benefit of decontamination needs to be evaluated. This will be determined on a case by case basis and again is beyond the scope of this report, although some thoughts on decontamination of unique, personal and high value items are given. But, this is clearly an area that starting discussions and negotiations early on will greatly benefit both the economics and timeliness of the clean up. In addition, high value assets might benefit from pre-event protection such as protective coatings or HEPA filtered rooms to prevent contaminated outside air from entering the room (e.g., an art museum).

  11. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse osmosis to "super purify" water allows the system to reuse water and cool down our powerful yet thirsty computers. January 30, 2014 Super recycled water: quenching computers LANL's Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, key to reducing the Lab's discharge of liquid. Millions of gallons of industrial

  12. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  13. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Water Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Efficiency A photo of water spilling out of a downspout from the roof of a multi-story office building. NREL conserves water in a number of innovative ways. A photo of water passing through a landscaped area. Rain water from NREL's Research Support Facility passes through landscaped areas before discharging into Lena Gulch. To remain resilient in the arid climate of the southwest, NREL is committed to the efficient use of water throughout the laboratory. Best Practices All new buildings on

  14. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  15. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  16. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum Provides the community...

  17. Water and Energy (18 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces students to the properties of water and using water as an energy source with the following activities

  18. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water ...

  19. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Water heating accounts for about 18% of your home's energy use. Reducing your hot water use, employing energy-saving strategies, and choosing an energy efficient

  20. WATER AND METHANOL MASER ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 6 REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2012-11-10

    The NGC 2024 FIR 6 region was observed in the water maser line at 22 GHz and the methanol class I maser lines at 44, 95, and 133 GHz. The water maser spectra displayed several velocity components and month-scale time variabilities. Most of the velocity components may be associated with FIR 6n, while one component was associated with FIR 4. A typical lifetime of the water maser velocity components is about eight months. The components showed velocity fluctuations with a typical drift rate of about 0.01 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The methanol class I masers were detected toward FIR 6. The methanol emission is confined within a narrow range around the systemic velocity of the FIR 6 cloud core. The methanol masers suggest the existence of shocks driven by either the expanding H II region of FIR 6c or the outflow of FIR 6n.

  1. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  2. A study of the Oklahoma City urban heat island using ground measurements and remote sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M. J.; Ivey, A.; McPherson, T. N.; Boswell, D.; Pardyjak, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Oklahoma City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Joint URBAN 2003 Tracer Field Experiment conducted in Oklahoma City from June 29, 2003 to July 30, 2003 (Allwine et al., 2004). The instrumented van was driven over four primary routes that included legs from the downtown core to four different 'rural' areas. Each route went through residential areas and most often went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2004) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 20 to 40 minutes to complete. Based on seven nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 0.5-6.5 C between the urban core and nearby 'rural' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the Joint URBAN 2003 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Oklahoma City, and to test new urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt and Shi, 2004). In addition to the ground measurements, skin temperature measurements were also analyzed from remotely sensed images taken from the Earth Observing System's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). A surface kinetic temperature thermal infrared image captured by the ASTER of the Oklahoma City area on July 21, 2001 was analyzed within ESRI's ArcGIS 8.3 to correlate variations in temperature with land use type. Analysis of this imagery suggests distinct variations in temperature across different land use categories. Through the use of remotely sensed imagery we hope to better understand the development of the urban heat island analysis.

  3. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  4. RAPID DETERMINATION OF {sup 210} PO IN WATER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-05-22

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that can be used for emergency response or routine water analyses. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD) event or a radiological attack associated with drinking water supplies occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of water samples, including drinking water, ground water and other water effluents. Current analytical methods for the assay of {sup 210}Po in water samples have typically involved spontaneous auto-deposition of {sup 210}Po onto silver or other metal disks followed by counting by alpha spectrometry. The auto-deposition times range from 90 minutes to 24 hours or more, at times with yields that may be less than desirable. If sample interferences are present, decreased yields and degraded alpha spectrums can occur due to unpredictable thickening in the deposited layer. Separation methods have focused on the use of Sr Resin?, often in combination with 210Pb analysis. A new rapid method for {sup 210}Po in water samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that utilizes a rapid calcium phosphate co-precipitation method, separation using DGA Resin? (N,N,N?,N? tetraoctyldiglycolamide extractant-coated resin, Eichrom Technologies or Triskem-International), followed by rapid microprecipitation of {sup 210}Po using bismuth phosphate for counting by alpha spectrometry. This new method can be performed quickly with excellent removal of interferences, high chemical yields and very good alpha peak resolution, eliminating any potential problems with the alpha source preparation for emergency or routine samples. A rapid sequential separation method to separate {sup 210} Po and actinide isotopes was also developed. This new approach, rapid separation with DGA Resin plus microprecipitation for alpha source preparation, is a significant advance in radiochemistry for the rapid determination of {sup 210}Po.

  5. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Table HC1-8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.3 1.3 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.2 Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.7 4.5 4.7 3.4 7.4 New England .............................................

  7. Table HC7-8a. Home Office Equipment by Urban/Rural Location,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Home Office Equipment by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.4 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 43.9 16.0 20.2 16.1 4.1 Personal Computers 2 ................................. 60.0 25.6 9.3 15.0 10.1 4.7

  8. Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale June 25, 2013 - 12:42pm Addthis Learn how the CUNY Energy Institute is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used to store renewable energy. | Video courtesy of the Energy Department. Alexa McClanahan Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E What are the key facts? The CUNY Energy Institute

  9. Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buses | Department of Energy Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban Buses Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban Buses 2003 DEER Conference Presentations: French Agency of Environment and Energy Management PDF icon deer_2003_seguelong.pdf More Documents & Publications Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Performance and durability of PSA Peugeot Citroen's DPF System on a Taxi Fleet in the

  10. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 2_lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Water Transport Exploratory Studies Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda

  11. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  12. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  13. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 1. Wind and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2015-09-25

    We found that numerical-weather-prediction models are often used to supply the mean wind and turbulence fields for atmospheric transport and dispersion plume models as they provide dense horizontally- and vertically-resolved geographic coverage in comparison to typically sparse monitoring networks. Here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run over the month-long period of the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign conducted in Oklahoma City and the simulated fields important to transport and dispersion models were compared to measurements from a number of sodars, tower-based sonic anemometers, and balloon soundings located in the greater metropolitan area. Time histories of computed wind speed, wind direction, turbulent kinetic energy (e), friction velocity (u* ), and reciprocal Obukhov length (1 / L) were compared to measurements over the 1-month field campaign. Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature (? ), and e were compared during short intensive operating periods. The WRF model was typically able to replicate the measured diurnal variation of the wind fields, but with an average absolute wind direction and speed difference of 35 and 1.9 m s-1 , respectively. Then, using the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) surface-layer scheme, the WRF model was found to generally underpredict surface-layer TKE but overpredict u* that was observed above a suburban region of Oklahoma City. The TKE-threshold method used by the WRF models MYJ surface-layer scheme to compute the boundary-layer height (h) consistently overestimated h derived from a ? gradient method whether using observed or modelled ? profiles.

  14. A Case Study of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model Applied to the Joint Urban 2003 Tracer Field Experiment. Part 1. Wind and Turbulence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Brown, Michael J.; Halverson, Scot A.; Bieringer, Paul E.; Annunzio, Andrew; Bieberbach, George; Meech, Scott

    2015-09-25

    We found that numerical-weather-prediction models are often used to supply the mean wind and turbulence fields for atmospheric transport and dispersion plume models as they provide dense horizontally- and vertically-resolved geographic coverage in comparison to typically sparse monitoring networks. Here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run over the month-long period of the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign conducted in Oklahoma City and the simulated fields important to transport and dispersion models were compared to measurements from a number of sodars, tower-based sonic anemometers, and balloon soundings located in the greater metropolitan area. Time histories of computed windmore » speed, wind direction, turbulent kinetic energy (e), friction velocity (u* ), and reciprocal Obukhov length (1 / L) were compared to measurements over the 1-month field campaign. Vertical profiles of wind speed, potential temperature (θ ), and e were compared during short intensive operating periods. The WRF model was typically able to replicate the measured diurnal variation of the wind fields, but with an average absolute wind direction and speed difference of 35° and 1.9 m s-1 , respectively. Then, using the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) surface-layer scheme, the WRF model was found to generally underpredict surface-layer TKE but overpredict u* that was observed above a suburban region of Oklahoma City. The TKE-threshold method used by the WRF model’s MYJ surface-layer scheme to compute the boundary-layer height (h) consistently overestimated h derived from a θ gradient method whether using observed or modelled θ profiles.« less

  15. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Technology Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Technology Development Conventional Water Power: Technology...

  16. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  17. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower. The introduction of some quantity of deuterium into the gaseous flow before the hot tower lowers the tritium separation factor in that column. One possible variant of deuterium introduction to the hot tower of the first stage was modelled. The decontamination capacity increases by a 2.5 factor.

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2014 Groundwater, Surface Water, Produced Water, and Natural Gas Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site October 2014 LMS/GSB/S00614 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to

  19. Water_Treatment.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Since dewatering at the Weldon Spring site began in 1992, more than 290 million gallons of contaminated water have been treated and released into the Missouri River from two similar water treatment facilities at the site and the nearby Quarry. On September 30, 1999, dewatering efforts at the Chemical Plant site were completed, meeting one of the most substantial milestones of the project and bringing to an end a part of history that was started nearly 5 decades ago. From 1955 to 1966, uranium

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  2. Sandia Energy - Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Water Monitoring & Treatment Technologycwdd2015-05-0...

  3. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  4. Alternative Water Sources Map | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Efficiency Alternative Water Sources Map Alternative Water Sources Map The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created the Alternative Water Map to...

  5. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  6. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    2015-04-13

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  7. Federal Incentives for Water Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-05

    This factsheet lists the major federal incentives for water power technologies available as of April 2013.

  8. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    February 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 LMS/GJO/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 RIN 15026795 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Grand Junction, Colorado, Site Sample Location Map

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site September 2014 LMS/GUP/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April and June 2014, Gunnison, Colorado September 2014 RIN 14046058 and 14066262 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site Planned Sampling Map

  11. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado Processing Site October 2013 LMS/NAP/S00713 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-July 2013, Naturita, Colorado October 2013 RIN 13075483 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Naturita, Colorado, Sample Location Map ......................................................................................3

  12. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites December 2014 LMS/SRW/SRE/S00914 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2014, Slick Rock, Colorado December 2014 RIN 14096456 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2016 LMS/SRE/SRW/S00915 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2015, Slick Rock, Colorado January 2016 RINs 15087319 and 15107424 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  14. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites November 2013 LMS/SRE/SRW/S0913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Slick Rock, Colorado November 2013 RIN 13095593 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  15. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site February 2015 LMS/AMB/S01114 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-November 2014, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico February 2015 RIN 14116607 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Ambrosia Lake, NM, Disposal Site Planned Sampling Map...........................................................3 Data

  16. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2013 LMS/GRN/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2013, Green River, Utah August 2013 RIN 13065402 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Data Assessment Summary ..............................................................................................................7 Water Sampling Field Activities

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2014 LMS/GRN/S00614 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2014, Green River, Utah August 2014 RIN 14066228 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Green River, Utah, Disposal Site Sample Location Map ................................................................5 Data Assessment

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2014 LMS/MON/S01213 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2013, Monument Valley, Arizona March 2014 RIN 13125794 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site, Sample Location Map

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site February 2015 LMS/MON/S01214 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2014, Monument Valley, Arizona February 2015 RIN 14126645 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monument Valley, Arizona, Disposal Site Sample Location Map ..................................................5

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2014 LMS/MNT/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April 2014, Monticello, Utah July 2014 RIN 14046077 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map, April 2014, Monticello, Utah, Processing Site .........................................5 Data Assessment Summary

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2015 LMS/MNT/S00415 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April 2015, Monticello, Utah July 2015 RIN 15046927 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monticello, Utah, Processing Site Sample Location Map ...............................................................5 Data Assessment

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2014 LMS/MNT/S01013 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-October 2013, Monticello, Utah January 2014 RIN 13105661 and 13105711 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map, Monticello, Utah, Processing and Disposal Site, October 2013 ..............5 Data Assessment Summary

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site May 2014 LMS/RVT/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2014, Riverton, Wyoming May 2014 RIN 14035986 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, WY, Processing Site, Sample Location Map ...................................................................3 Data

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and May 2014 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2014 LMS/SHP/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March and May 2014, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2014 RIN 14036011, 14036013, and 14056142 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/SHP/S00315 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2015, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2015 RIN 15036862 and 15036863 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/TUB/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Tuba City, Arizona June 2015 RIN 15026775 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Tuba City, AZ, Disposal Site February 2015 ............................................5 Data

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2013 LMS/TUB/S00813 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-August 2013, Tuba City, Arizona November 2013 RIN 13085553 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map ..............................................................7 Data

  8. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  9. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  10. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  12. High Performance Without Increased Cost: Urbane Homes, Louisville, KY- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes work with Urbane Homes of Louisville, Kentucky, to build a high-performance home that cost $36 per ft2 (not counting the lot).Between 2005 and 2010, Building America research partners worked with 34 builders to construct nearly 3,000 HERS

  13. USDA National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture is accepting proposals for the National Urban and Community Forestry Challenge Cost Share Grant Program to assist the U.S. Forest Service in establishing the grant categories and recommendations of final proposals for the Forest Service to consider.

  14. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  15. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  16. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-14

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol V{sub E} as a function of ethanol mole fraction X{sub E} is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has brittle hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  17. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  18. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  19. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  20. Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  1. water for energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. water service provider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service provider - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Energy/Water History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  4. Energy/Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and September 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Durango, Colorado, Disposal and Processing Sites March 2014 LMS/DUD/DUP/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June and September 2013, Durango, Colorado March 2014 RIN 13055370 and 13085577 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Sample Location Map-June

  6. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air

  7. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    i WATER CONSERVATION PLAN TONOPAH TEST RANGE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY January 10, 2011 Prepared for: Tonopah Test Range Post Office Box 871 Tonopah, Nevada 89049 (702) 295-8109 Prepared by: Sandia National Laboratories / New Mexico Post Office Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0729 (505) 284-1831 On behalf of: Sandia Site Office Post Office Box 5400 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0184 (505) 845-6036 ii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  8. Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

  9. ANALYSIS OF 3-D URBAN DATABASES WITH RESPECT TO POLLUTION DISPERSION FOR A NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN CITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RATTI; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Models to estimate pollution dispersion and wind flow in cities (both at the city-scale and above) require a parametrical description of the urban canopy. For instance, two key parameters are the aerodynamic roughness length z{sub 0} and the zero-plane displacement height z{sub d}, which are related, amongst others, to the surface drag coefficient, the scale and intensity of turbulence, the depth of the roughness sub-layer and the wind speed profile. The calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d}, however, is not straightforward. The classical way to estimate them in open terrain is based on the measurement of wind profile data from a tall mast or, less accurately, on the inference from published roughness values for similar terrain elsewhere (Davenport, 1960; Davenport et al., 2000). Both methods, however, are very difficult to apply to cities, due to the considerable height where wind measurements should be taken (well above the urban canopy) and to the irregularities of urban texture. A promising alternative that has become available in recent years, due to increasing computing resources and the availability of high-resolution 3-D databases in urban areas, is based on the calculation of z{sub 0} and z{sub d} from the analysis and measure of the city geometry (urban morphometry). This method is reviewed for instance in Grimmond and Oke (1999), where values are calculated using different formulas and then compared with the results of field measurements. Urban morphometry opens up a new range of parameters that can easily be calculated in urban areas and used as input for meso-scale and urban dispersion models. This paper reviews a number of them and shows how they could be calculated from urban Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using image-processing techniques. It builds up on the recent work by Ratti et al. 2000, extending the number of case studies cities: London, Toulouse, Berlin, Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

  10. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  11. Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water Quality March 27-29, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability WBS:4.2.1.10 May Wu Argonne National Laboratory This ...

  12. Water Panel Discussion: Federal Reduction Update & Cooling Water...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Houston, TX November 3, 2015 Francis Wheeler Water Savers, LLC (713) 504-6684 fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Don Hofmann Hofmann Water Technologies (800) 289-1833 hofmann@hwt.com...

  13. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even...

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who...

  15. QER- Comment of American Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear QER Team; Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments to the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force to discuss the water and energy nexus, advances in water innovative technologies, and the impact of climate change on water issues. On behalf of American Water, I wish to submit the following White Papers which we have prepared on these critical issues: Innovations in Energy Use Sustainability and Resiliency Planning for Water Utilities One Water Water/Energy Correlation The Value of Water Challenges in the Water Industry: Climate Change Challenges in the Water Industry: Meeting Demand in the West Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Desalination Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Going Green Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Water Reuse Bridging the Water Innovation Gap. Founded in 1886, American Water is the largest publicly traded U.S. water and wastewater utility company. With headquarters in Voorhees, NJ, the company employs approximately 6,600 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to an estimated 14 million people in more than 40 states. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if there is any way American Water can be helpful to your mission. Respectfully Yours, Martin (See attached file: White Papers.pdf) Martin D. Kerckhoff Vice President and Divisional General Counsel Central Division American Water CONFIDENTIAL & PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION This email and any attachments hereto constitute a legally confidential communication from the Legal Department of American Water. The information contained herein is subject to attorney-client privilege and is for the sole use of the intended original addressee. If you are not the intended original addressee, you are hereby notified that any reading, disclosure, copying, distribution, use, or taking of any action in reliance on the contents contained herein is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify us at 314.966.2241 and delete this message from your system. WARNING: Although American Water has taken reasonable precautions to ensure that no viruses are present in this email, it is the responsibility of the recipient to ensure that it is virus free. No responsibility is accepted by American Water for any loss or damage arising in any way from the receipt and/or use of this email.

  16. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  17. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  18. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will...

  19. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  20. NREL: Water Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects NREL's water power R&D projects support industry efforts to develop and deploy cost-effective water power technologies and to better understand the value and potential of...

  1. Hydrogen Production: Thermochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermochemical water splitting uses high temperatures—from concentrated solar power or from the waste heat of nuclear power reactions—and chemical reactions to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water.

  2. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  3. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  4. Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Water Conservation Mission The team facilitates the reduction of water consumption intensity at LM sites, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved by LM, as defined in: Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability The team advocates natural resource sustainability by continually improving water use efficiencies. Scope LM and the contractor evaluate, make recommendations, and

  5. Water-Efficiency Program Prioritization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation outlines water-efficiency program requirements and priorities as presented to Federal agencies by the Federal Energy Management Program.

  6. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility: Using reverse

  7. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  8. Hydrogen isotope separation from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

  9. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  10. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  11. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  12. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  13. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  14. Submerged water wheel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisz, J. O.

    1985-11-05

    A water wheel for operating fully submerged in an ocean current has a rotating frame member supported on the ocean floor for rotation about a vertical axis. The frame member supports a plurality of vertically extending vanes, each vane being rotatably supported on the frame for limited rotation about a vertical axis. It has a hydrofoil shape in cross-section with the axis of rotation parallel to the leading and trailing edges. Rotation of the vanes is limited relative to the frame by a hydraulic piston control system and shock absorbers.

  15. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site December 2013 LMS/GSB/S00613 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  16. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2014 LMS/RBL/S00514 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RBL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site May 2015 LMS/RUL/S00115 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper,

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RUL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site November 2014 LMS/RUL/S00714 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site March 2014 Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited LMS/SAL/S00413 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S.

  2. SPECIAL ACQUISITION REQUIREMENTS ─ TYPICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS, PERSONAL SERVICES, AND FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT IN CONTRACTOR ... governmental functions o personal services and o Federal involvement in contractor ...

  3. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  4. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  5. Feeling lucky? Using search engines to assess perceptions of urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keirstead, James

    2009-02-15

    The sustainability of urban environments is an important issue at both local and international scales. Indicators are frequently used by decision-makers seeking to improve urban performance but these metrics can be dependent on sparse quantitative data. This paper explores the potential of an alternative approach, using an internet search engine to quickly gather qualitative data on the key attributes of cities. The method is applied to 21 world cities and the results indicate that, while the technique does shed light on direct and indirect aspects of sustainability, the validity of derived metrics as objective indicators of long-term sustainability is questionable. However the method's ability to provide subjective short-term assessments is more promising and it could therefore play an important role in participatory policy exercises such as public consultations. A number of promising technical improvements to the method's performance are also highlighted.

  6. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  7. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What waters does LANL protect? What waters does LANL protect? Rainfall in the Jemez Mountains flows to the Valles Caldera and eastward onto Laboratory lands. August 1, 2013 Reflection in the Valles Caldera RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7252/7599998130_b7aef738b9_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8421/7600000986_ebf8889fc7_t.jpg Enlarge Clean the Past: Water Protection What waters does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters

  8. CHIMNEY FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, M.

    1961-08-01

    A boiling-water reactor is described which has vertical fuel-containing channels for forming steam from water. Risers above the channels increase the head of water radially outward, whereby water is moved upward through the channels with greater force. The risers are concentric and the radial width of the space between them is somewhat small. There is a relatively low rate of flow of water up through the radially outer fuel-containing channels, with which the space between the risers is in communication. (AE C)

  9. USGS Annual Water Data Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by the National Water Information System (NWIS). Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. Data provided include extreme and mean discharge rates.

  10. Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternative water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water.

  11. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  12. Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K.

    2011-04-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

  13. Autonomous UAV-Based Mapping of Large-Scale Urban Firefights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snarski, S; Scheibner, K F; Shaw, S; Roberts, R S; LaRow, A; Oakley, D; Lupo, J; Neilsen, D; Judge, B; Forren, J

    2006-03-09

    This paper describes experimental results from a live-fire data collect designed to demonstrate the ability of IR and acoustic sensing systems to detect and map high-volume gunfire events from tactical UAVs. The data collect supports an exploratory study of the FightSight concept in which an autonomous UAV-based sensor exploitation and decision support capability is being proposed to provide dynamic situational awareness for large-scale battalion-level firefights in cluttered urban environments. FightSight integrates IR imagery, acoustic data, and 3D scene context data with prior time information in a multi-level, multi-step probabilistic-based fusion process to reliably locate and map the array of urban firing events and firepower movements and trends associated with the evolving urban battlefield situation. Described here are sensor results from live-fire experiments involving simultaneous firing of multiple sub/super-sonic weapons (2-AK47, 2-M16, 1 Beretta, 1 Mortar, 1 rocket) with high optical and acoustic clutter at ranges up to 400m. Sensor-shooter-target configurations and clutter were designed to simulate UAV sensing conditions for a high-intensity firefight in an urban environment. Sensor systems evaluated were an IR bullet tracking system by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and an acoustic gunshot detection system by Planning Systems, Inc. (PSI). The results demonstrate convincingly the ability for the LLNL and PSI sensor systems to accurately detect, separate, and localize multiple shooters and the associated shot directions during a high-intensity firefight (77 rounds in 5 sec) in a high acoustic and optical clutter environment with no false alarms. Preliminary fusion processing was also examined that demonstrated an ability to distinguish co-located shooters (shooter density), range to <0.5 m accuracy at 400m, and weapon type.

  14. URBAN ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (UAO) FIRST PLANNING WORKSHOP, JANUARY 27-28-2003. WORKSHOP SUMMARY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS,R.M.; LEE,H.N.

    2003-03-27

    The Urban Atmospheric Observatory (UAO) First Planning Workshop was held on 27-28 January 2003 at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) in downtown Manhattan, New York City. The meeting was well attended by local, state, and national administrators, as well as scientists and engineers from the national laboratories and academia. The real-time intensive UAO is a necessary step toward the development and validation of new technologies in support of the New York City emergency management and anti-terrorism effort. The real-time intensive UAO will be a dense array of meteorological instrumentation, remote sensing and satellite products and model output, as well as radiation detection, gamma spectrometer and aerosol measurements focused onto a small area in the heart of Manhattan. Such a test-bed, developed in a somewhat homogeneous urban area, and with a well-developed communication and data collection backbone, will be of immense utility for understanding how models of all scales can be improved and how they can best be integrated into the city's emergency program. The goal of the First Planning Workshop was to bring together a small group of experts in the fields of urban meteorology, modeling from mesoscale to fine-mesh computational fluid dynamics, instrumentation, communications and visualization, in order to (1) establish the importance of the observational program, (2) define the most efficient and cost-effective design for the program, (3) define needed intensive observational efforts and establish a schedule, and (4) define the importance of the UAO in emergency operations. The workshop achieved its goals with the enthusiastic participation of over forty persons. There was a synthesis of ideas towards a world-class facility that would benefit both immediate emergency management activities and, over an extended time, the entire field of urban meteorology and contaminant dispersion modeling.

  15. Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings Performers: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Dow Chemical Company - Midland, MI DOE Funding: $500,000 Cost Share: $500,000 Project Term: Jan. 2013 - Dec. 2014 Project Objective The U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) is a pioneering research and development (R&D) consortium bringing together governments, key policymakers,

  16. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Urbane Homes, Louisville, KY

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Urbane Homes was founded in 2007, the downturn in the housing market was just beginning and the owners Abe Gilbert and Zane Underwood realized they would have to make their homes very affordable to survive. They worked with the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, a Building America research partner, to streamline their building practices and decided to make their homes more efficient as well. Their goal was to "pick all the low-hanging fruit for green and energy-

  17. CERC-BEE Cool Roofs and Urban Heat Islands: infrastructure and anti-soiling coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ronnen Levinson, Staff Scientist, LBNL RMLevinson@LBL.gov Scott Hunter, Senior Research Scientist, ORNL HunterSR@ORNL.gov CERC-BEE Cool Roofs and Urban Heat Islands: infrastructure and anti-soiling coatings 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary (Cool Roof Infrastructure) Timeline: Start date: January 2011 Planned end date: December 2015 Key Milestones 1. Initiate natural exposure trials in many Chinese cities for roof product rating (6/2014) 2. Start black/white/garden

  18. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  19. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  20. Water Energy Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Energy Tech Team Water Energy Tech Team Featured Publication Featured Publication Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Report June 2014 Read more Water &amp; Energy Water & Energy Explore an info graphic about the water-energy nexus and the trends that affect it Read more ABOUT THE WATER-ENERGY NEXUS Present day water and energy systems are interdependent. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation. Energy is required to extract, treat

  1. Dynamic analysis of the urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics: Focused on housing and green space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Jimin Jeong, Kwangbok; Koo, Choongwan

    2015-02-09

    To systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings, the government has to enforce greenhouse gas reduction policies. However, most of the policies are not properly executed because they do not consider various factors from the urban level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a dynamic analysis of an urban-based low-carbon policy using system dynamics, with a specific focus on housing and green space. This study was conducted in the following steps: (i) establishing the variables of urban-based greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions; (ii) creating a stock/flow diagram of urban-based GHGs emissions; (iii) conducting an information analysis using the system dynamics; and (iv) proposing the urban-based low-carbon policy. If a combined energy policy that uses the housing sector (30%) and the green space sector (30%) at the same time is implemented, 2020 CO{sub 2} emissions will be 7.23 million tons (i.e., 30.48% below 2020 business-as-usual), achieving the national carbon emissions reduction target (26.9%). The results of this study could contribute to managing and improving the fundamentals of the urban-based low-carbon policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  3. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  4. Fish-Friendly Turbine Making a Splash in Water Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fish-Friendly Turbine Making a Splash in Water Power Fish-Friendly Turbine Making a Splash in Water Power October 21, 2011 - 10:29am Addthis A computer simulation of the Alden Fish-Friendly Turbine. A computer simulation of the Alden Fish-Friendly Turbine. Rajesh Dham Hydropower Technology Team Lead How does it work? The Alden turbine has three blades, no gaps, is bigger and rotates more slowly than typical hydro turbines. At peak performance, an Alden turbine should convert about 94 percent of

  5. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Application ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Application required for Section 401 water quality certification under the Clean Water Act. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Section 401 Water Quality...

  6. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies ...

  7. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy...

  8. Trees Water People | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trees Water People Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trees, Water & People Place: Fort Collins, Colorado Zip: 80524 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Trees, Water & People develops...

  9. Sandusky Water Filtration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Filtration Jump to: navigation, search Name Sandusky Water Filtration Facility Sandusky Water Filtration Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In...

  10. Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tahoe Water Systems Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

  11. Westlands Water District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Westlands Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Westlands Water District Place: California Sector: Solar Product: Water district in central California which administers...

  12. Category:Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Water Sampling page? For detailed information on Water Sampling as...

  13. Flat Water Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Flat Water Wind Farm Facility Flat Water Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  14. Vidler Water Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vidler Water Company Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vidler Water Company Inc Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89703 Sector: Solar Product: Nevada-based water and land...

  15. Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation This presentation outlines the goals of the Water Heating Standing...

  16. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Acceleration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration Conventional Water Power: Market AccelerationTara...

  17. Water Power Program At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES FY 2017 BUDGET AT-A-GLANCE The Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies ...

  18. Water Efficiency Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Efficiency Case Studies Water Efficiency Case Studies These case studies offer examples of water efficiency projects implemented by federal agencies. They are organized by ...

  19. Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Ground Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Ground Water Commission Place: Colorado Website: water.state.co.usgroundwater References: Colorado...

  20. NREL: Energy Analysis: Energy-Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Analysis of Project Finance Electric Sector Integration Energy-Water Nexus Energy-Water Modeling and Analysis Technology Development and Deployment Energy-Water System Solutions ...

  1. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  2. Sunlight + Water = Tomorrow's Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Anne Katherine

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production (BISfuel), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of BISfuel is to construct a complete system for solar-powered production of hydrogen fuel via water splitting; design principles are drawn from the fundamental concepts that underlie photosynthetic energy conversion.

  3. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  4. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  5. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  6. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  7. Water Resources Data Nevada Water Year 2002 Water-Data Report NV-02-1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Data Nevada Water Year 2002 By Steven N. Berris, E. James Crompton, Joseph D. Joyner, and Roslyn Ryan Water-Data Report NV-02-1 Prepared in cooperation with the State of Nevada and with other agencies UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GALE A. NORTON, Secretary U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Charles G. Groat, Director For information regarding water-resources investigations in Nevada, write to: District Chief, Water Resources Division U.S.

  8. Kinetic Model for the Radical Degradation of Tri-Halonitromethane Disinfection Byproducts in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Mezyk; Bruce J. Mincher; William J. Cooper; S. Kirkham Cole; Robert V. Fox; Pieror R. Gardinali

    2012-10-01

    The halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts of the ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of drinking waters. Although typically occurring at low concentrations HNMs have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity, and may therefore represent a significant human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the radical based mineralization of fully-halogenated HNMs in water using the congeners bromodichloronitromethane and chlorodibromonitromethane. We have combined absolute reaction rate constants for their reactions with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron as measured by electron pulse radiolysis and analytical measurements of stable product concentrations obtained by 60Co steady-state radiolysis with a kinetic computer model that includes water radiolysis reactions and halide/nitrogen oxide radical chemistry to fully elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. These results are compared to our previous similar study of the fully chlorinated HNM chloropicrin. The full optimized computer model, suitable for predicting the behavior of this class of compounds in irradiated drinking water is provided.

  9. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  10. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In addition to prospective analysis for standards and certification, urban form modeling can also be useful in calculating or verifying ex post facto, bottom-up carbon emissions inventories. Emissions inventories provide a benchmark for evaluating future outcomes and scenarios as well as an empirical basis for valuing low-carbon technologies. By highlighting the embodied energy and emissions of building materials, the LCA approach can also be used to identify the most intensive aspects of industrial production and the supply chain. The agent based modeling aspect of the model can be useful for understanding how policy incentives can impact individual behavior and the aggregate effects thereof. The most useful elaboration of the urban form assessment model would be to further generalize it for comparative analysis. Scenario analysis could be used for benchmarking and identification of policy priorities. If the model is to be used for inventories, it is important to disaggregate the energy use data for more accurate emissions modeling. Depending on the policy integration of the model, it may be useful to incorporate occupancy data for per-capita results. On the question of density and efficiency, it may also be useful to integrate a more explicit spatial scaling mechanism for modeling neighborhood and city-level energy use and emissions, i.e. to account for scaling effects in public infrastructure and transportation.

  11. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  12. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water Data Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water Data Portal Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects...

  13. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Power Forum Home > Water Power Forum > Posts by term > Water Power Forum Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Water power Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post...

  14. Landscaping Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Landscaping Water Conservation April 27, 2015 - 6:39pm Addthis This colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn...

  15. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Q.

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  16. Water Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Energy Water Energy Below are resources for Tribes on water energy technologies. Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydropower Plant This guide aims to give potential developers of small hydropower plants comprehensive information and advice on all necessary procedures for developing a site and includes the key steps to be followed to run a plant. Source: The European Small Hydropower Association. The Law of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy: A Guide to Business and Legal Issues Contains

  17. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  18. Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Sampling Details Activities (63) Areas (51) Regions (5) NEPA(2) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling...

  19. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  20. Water Quantity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quantity Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQuantity&oldid612364" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  1. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  2. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, Nancy E.; Fritz, James S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

  3. Wonders of Water (14 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces scientific concepts of electricity, water, and hydropower to elementary students with the following activities

  4. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  5. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters Watersheds The Rio Grande Buckman Direct Diversion Project Groundwater in the Regional Aquifer...

  6. NREL: Water Power Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications Access NREL publications on water power research. Snowberg, D., and Weber, J. 2015. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework. NREL...

  7. Individual Permit for Storm Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    discharges. The Permit establishes target action levels (TALs) that are equivalent to New Mexico State water-quality criteria. These TALs are used as benchmarks to determine the...

  8. Water Energy Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Featured Publication Featured Publication Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Report June 2014 Read more Water &amp; Energy Water & Energy Explore an info graphic about the water-energy nexus and the trends that affect it Read more ABOUT THE WATER-ENERGY NEXUS Present day water and energy systems are interdependent. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation. Energy is required to extract, treat and deliver water for human uses. These

  9. Safe Drinking Water Act and Regulations (EPA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Safe Drinking Water Act is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water.

  10. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE Renewable Energy Ready Home Table of ... Assumptions of the RERH Solar Water Heating Specification ...

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management ...

  12. Coordinating Energy Efficiency With Water Conservation Services...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinating Energy Efficiency With Water Conservation Services Coordinating Energy Efficiency With Water Conservation Services Better Buildings Residential Network Program ...

  13. Landscaping Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Landscaping Water Conservation This colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn would use. | Photo courtesy of Jim Knopf. This colorful water-conserving landscape requires only one-quarter the water a bluegrass lawn would use. | Photo courtesy of Jim Knopf. You can design a landscape that conserves water as well as energy. For tips on how to incorporate energy- and water-saving techniques into your landscaping, explore the Energy

  14. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the

  15. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  16. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  17. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  18. Residential Water Heaters Webinar | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Residential Water Heaters Webinar Residential Water Heaters Webinar PDF icon 20110224_residential_water_heater_webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters 2014-10-14 Issuance: Test Procedures and Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Solar Water Heaters; Request for Information Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

  19. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C.; Mostofi, Arash A.

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 , highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup ?4}?e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  20. Norm removal from frac water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, James Manio; Matis, Hope; Kostedt, IV, William Leonard

    2014-11-18

    A method for treating low barium frac water includes contacting a frac water stream with a radium selective complexing resin to produce a low radium stream, passing the low radium stream through a thermal brine concentrator to produce a concentrated brine; and passing the concentrated brine through a thermal crystallizer to yield road salt.

  1. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  2. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  3. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt whole-house building simulations.

  4. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  5. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  6. Legacy Site Decontamination Experience as Applied to the Urban Radiological Dispersal Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, J.L.; MacKinney, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    Pursuant to the National Response Plan, Nuclear/Radiological Incident Annex [1], the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assigned lead agency responsibility for decontamination and clean-up efforts following a domestic terrorist event involving a radiological dispersal device (RDD). An RDD incident in a modern city environment poses many of the same issues and problems traditionally faced at 'legacy' clean up projects being performed across our country. However there are also many aspects associated with an urban RDD clean-up that have never been faced in legacy site remediation. For example, the demolition and destructive technologies widely used in legacy remediation would be unacceptable in the case of historically or architecturally significant properties or those with prohibitively high replacement cost; contaminated properties will likely belong to numerous small private entities whose business interests are at stake; reducing the time required to decontaminate and return a city to normal use cannot be overemphasized due to its tremendous economic and political impact. The mission of the EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) includes developing the best technology and tools needed for field personnel to achieve their goals should that event occur. To that end, NHSRC has been exploring how the vast experience within the legacy site remediation community could be tapped to help meet this need, and to identify gaps in decontamination technology. This paper articulates much of what has been learned over the past year as a result of efforts to identify these technology and procedural needs to address the urban RDD. This includes comparing and contrasting remediation techniques and methodologies currently used in nuclear facility and site cleanup with those that would be needed following an urban RDD event. Finally, this presentation includes an appeal to the radiological decontamination community to come forward with ideas and technologies for consideration to help meet this nationally significant need. (authors)

  7. Developing a Water Management Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Efficiency Developing a Water Management Plan Developing a Water Management Plan Developing a Water Management Plan A successful water management program ...

  8. Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's...

  9. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Gotthold, David W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Frost, Anthony P.; Bratton, Wesley

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 Ci/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-m-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to accommodate the large surface area of the membranes and the energy needed to evaporate the water and pass through the membranes as compared to the currently used combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process.

  10. Summary of DOE/PERF water program review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Gasper, J.; Puder, M.; Leath, P.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of water research relating to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In early 2005, the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF) submitted a proposal to DOE for funding an upcoming PERF meeting that would feature water research in the petroleum industry. PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus to and a forum for the collection, exchange, and analysis of research information related to the development of technology concerning the petroleum industry, and a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. DOE agreed to provide funding to hold a review of its water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 PERF meeting. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) was asked to coordinate and host the meeting, which was referred to as the DOE/PERF Water Program Review. The program review was held on November 1-4, 2005, in Annapolis, Maryland, at the Historic Inns of Annapolis. The purpose of the program review was to provide a forum for sharing information, reviewing current programs (especially recent unpublished research), and reviewing industry and regulatory needs regarding water use and reuse issues. PERF and DOE/NETL can use this information to plan for future water-related research projects. The water program review provided a unique opportunity in several ways. First, DOE was able to have all of the contractors currently receiving DOE funds for water research present in one room at the same time. Each contractor described his or her research and was able to learn about the research being conducted by the other researchers. Second, this forum allowed representatives of many large oil and gas companies to hear about the DOE research projects and offer their reactions to DOE and the researchers. Third, most oil and gas meetings focus on either upstream (the exploration and production sector) or downstream (the refining sector) issues. Typically, there is little overlap in content between the two industry sectors. At the program review, attendees with upstream and downstream orientations were able to spend much of their time in joint sessions and could learn more about the other sector.

  11. Maintenance of solar systems--Housing and urban development demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeborne, W.E.

    1983-06-01

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) residential solar heating and cooling demonstration program provided funding support for over 600 solar projects. These projects provide the largest single data base of solar heating and cooling experience now available. These data suggest that maintenance and system operation have been mixed even though system configurations are similar throughout the program. HUD has been involved in the upgrading of one-third of the 600 solar projects and now can report that projects can be maintained with a more uniform level of effort.

  12. Stress and Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shengjun; Bass, Bennett Richard; Stevens, Gary; Kirk, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes stress analysis and fracture mechanics work performed to assess boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Various RPV nozzle geometries were investigated: 1. BWR recirculation outlet nozzle; 2. BWR core spray nozzle3 3. PWR inlet nozzle; ; 4. PWR outlet nozzle; and 5. BWR partial penetration instrument nozzle. The above nozzle designs were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-license (EOL) to require evaluation as part of establishing the allowed limits on heatup, cooldown, and hydrotest (leak test) conditions. These nozzles analyzed represent one each of the nozzle types potentially requiring evaluation. The purpose of the analyses performed on these nozzle designs was as follows: To model and understand differences in pressure and thermal stress results using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) versus a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for all nozzle types. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated; To verify the accuracy of a selected linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solution for stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for both thermal and pressure loading for all nozzle types; To assess the significance of attached piping loads on the stresses in the nozzle corner region; and To assess the significance of applying pressure on the crack face with respect to the stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack.

  13. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  14. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  15. Promising Technology: Tankless Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tankless gas water heater does not have a storage tank, as a conventional water heater does. Instead, a tankless water heater instantaneously heats water flowing over the heat exchanger coils when there is hot water demand. Because there is no tank, tankless water heaters have no standby energy losses that are associated with storage units. Another non-energy saving benefit is that a tankless water heater is much more compact.

  16. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank.| Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use --

  17. Explore Water Power Careers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Power Careers Explore Water Power Careers America's oldest and largest source of renewable power is water. To this end, the Water Power Program, part of the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office, researches, tests, evaluates, and deploys a portfolio of innovative technologies for clean, domestic power generation from resources such as hydropower, waves, and tides. America's oldest and largest source of renewable power is water. To this end, the Water Power Program, part of the Wind and

  18. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Water Heating » Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system

  19. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

    2014-08-21

    Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.