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Sample records for typical high typical

  1. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the start of steam release. (authors)

  2. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  3. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  4. Analysis of high-pressure boiloff situation during an MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.

    1986-01-01

    An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) is recognized as one of the boiling water reactor (BWR) accident sequences potentially leading to core damage. Of all the various ATWS initiating events, the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) closure ATWS is the most severe, because of its relatively high frequency of occurrence and its challenge to the residual heat removal and containment integrity systems. Although under investigation for quite a long period of time, different aspects of this type of transient are still being analyzed. The final outcome of these studies should be a well-defined set of recommendations for the plant operator to mitigate an ATWS accident. The objective of this paper is to provide a best estimate analysis of the MSIV closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark-1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which as a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The one-dimensional capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.

  5. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling Citation Details In-Document...

  6. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  7. NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set May 1, 2008 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released an updated typical meteorological year (TMY) data set derived from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Data Base update. The TMY3 data and user's manual are available at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/tmy3. The new data sets update and expand the TMY2 data sets released by NREL in 1994. The TMY3 data

  8. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  9. Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Typical Oak Ridge cemesto ... Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus

  10. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The ...

  12. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Excel file and dataset for VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in ...

  13. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition - Dataset | Department of Energy 6: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Excel file and dataset for VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition File fotw#906_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline - Dataset Fact #859 February 9,

  14. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spun Off From A Government Lab" (Not) just your typical Lab spin off Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Far from Silicon Valley, Descartes Labs aims to turn a national research facility's AI research into new ways of understanding the world. July 30, 2015 Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Descartes Labs cofounders Mark

  15. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  16. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition | Department of Energy 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when purchasing vehicles. The graph below shows a three-month moving

  17. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  18. Study of multiband disordered systems using the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yi; Terletska, Hanna; Moore, C.; Ekuma, Chinedu; Tam, Ka-Ming; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-11-06

    We generalize the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation to multiband disordered systems. Using our extended formalism, we perform a systematic study of the nonlocal correlation effects induced by disorder on the density of states and the mobility edge of the three-dimensional two-band Anderson model. We include interband and intraband hopping and an intraband disorder potential. Our results are consistent with those obtained by the transfer matrix and the kernel polynomial methods. We also apply the method to KxFe2-ySe2 with Fe vacancies. Despite the strong vacancy disorder and anisotropy, we find the material is not an Anderson insulator. Moreover our resultsmore » demonstrate the application of the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation method to study Anderson localization in real materials.« less

  19. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  20. Estimating solar access of typical residential rooftops: A case study in San Jose, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen M.; Gupta, Smita; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2008-03-03

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes rooftop shading in a residential neighborhood of San Jose, CA, one of four regions analyzed in a wider study of the solar access of California homes.High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a 4 km2 residential neighborhood. Hourly shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.In the year in which surface heights were measured (2005), shadows from all sources ("total shading") reduced the insolation received by S-, SW-, and W-facing residential roofing planes in the study area by 13 - 16percent. Shadows cast by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels reduced insolation by no more than 2percent. After 30 years of simulated maximal tree growth, annual total shading increased to 19 - 22percent, and annual extraparcel shading increased to 3 - 4percent.

  1. Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.

  2. Analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS using RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.J.; Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of a typical BWR/4 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) has been performed using two advanced, best-estimate computer codes, namely, RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1. The transient was initiated by an inadvertant closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with subsequent failure to scram the reactor. However, all other safety features namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure coolant injection and the standby liquid (boron) control system were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. It has been found that both RAMONA-3B (with three-dimensional neutron kinetics) and TRAC-BD1 (with point kinetics) yielded similar results for the global parameters such as reactor power, system pressure and the suppression pool temperature. Both calculations showed that the reactor can be brought to hot shutdown in approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes with borated water mass flow rate of 2.78 kg/s (43 gpm) with 23800 ppM of boron. The suppression pool water temperature (assuming no pool cooling) at this time could be in the range of 170 to 205/sup 0/F. An additional TRAC-BD1 calculation with RAMONA-3B reactor power indicates that the thermal-hydraulic models in RAMONA-3B, although simpler than those in TRAC-BD1, can adequately represent the system behavior during the ATWS-type transient.

  3. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  4. Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

  5. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  6. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 12 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  8. SPECIAL ACQUISITION REQUIREMENTS ─ TYPICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS, PERSONAL SERVICES, AND FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT IN CONTRACTOR ... governmental functions o personal services and o Federal involvement in contractor ...

  9. Analysis of high pressure boil-off situation during MSIV closure ATWS in a typical BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.Y.; Slovik, G.C.; Saha, P.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a best-estimate analysis of the MSIV Closure ATWS in the Browns Ferry Unit 1 BWR with Mark 1 containment. The calculations have been performed using the RAMONA-3B code which has a three-dimensional neutron kinetics model coupled with one-dimensional (multi-channel core representation), four-equation, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium thermal hydraulics. The code also allows for one-dimensional neutronic core representation. The 1-D capability of the code has been employed in this calculation since a thorough sensitivity study showed that for a full ATWS, a one-dimensional (axial) neutron kinetics adequately describes the core behavior. (Note that the core steady-state symmetry in this case was preserved throughout the transient so that radial effects could be neglected.) The calculation described in the paper was started from a steady-state fuel condition corresponding to the end of Cycle 5 of the Browns Ferry reactor.

  10. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ?1 billion years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Christopher L.; Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Smol?i?, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}?{sub 1/2} J = 3/2?1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 ?m continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of ?{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} kpc{sup 2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at ?{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}?{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ?95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  11. Measured solubilities and speciations of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in a typical groundwater (J-13) from the Yucca Mountain region; Milestone report 3010-WBS 1.2.3.4.1.3.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitsche, H.; Gatti, R.C.; Standifer, E.M.

    1993-07-01

    Solubility and speciation data are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are part of predictive transport models. Results are presented from solubility and speciation experiments of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2}{sup +}, {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+}, and {sup 243}Am{sup 3+} in J-13 groundwater (from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site) at three different temperatures (25{degree}, 60{degree}, and 90{degree}C) and pH values (5.9, 7.0, and 8.5). The solubility-controlling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined. The neptunium solubility decreased with increasing temperature and pH. Plutonium concentrations decreased with increasing temperature and showed no trend with pH. The americium solutions showed no clear solubility trend with increasing temperature and increasing pH.

  12. Structure of The Dixie Valley Geothermal System, a "Typical"...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal system have been debated for some time. The primary structural model ahs been a single fault with 54 dip. New data including a detailed gravity survey,...

  13. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NPR: Particles From The Edge Of Space Shine A Light On Fukushima NPR: Particles From The Edge Of Space Shine A Light On Fukushima August, 30 2015 - It's one of the greatest, and ...

  14. Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy reve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Smith, Brennan T

    2008-02-01

    Hydroelectric power provides a cheap source of electricity with few carbon emissions. Yet, reservoirs are not operated sustainably, which we define as meeting societal needs for water and power while protecting long-term health of the river ecosystem. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue, while meeting other legal water requirements. Reservoir optimization schemes used in practice do not seek flow regimes that maximize aquatic ecosystem health. Here, we review optimization studies that considered environmental goals in one of three approaches. The first approach seeks flow regimes that maximize hydropower generation, while satisfying legal requirements, including environmental (or minimum) flows. Solutions from this approach are often used in practice to operate hydropower projects. In the second approach, flow releases from a dam are timed to meet water quality constraints on dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature and nutrients. In the third approach, flow releases are timed to improve the health of fish populations. We conclude by suggesting three steps for bringing multi-objective reservoir operation closer to the goal of ecological sustainability: (1) conduct research to identify which features of flow variation are essential for river health and to quantify these relationships, (2) develop valuation methods to assess the total value of river health and (3) develop optimal control softwares that combine water balance modelling with models that predict ecosystem responses to flow.

  15. U.S EPA Research Triangle Park Campus, Typical Office Wing

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Research Triangle Park, NC The EPA's new RTP campus includes laboratories and offices for over 2,000 people. One of the three 3-story office blocks is described here. The building sits on the shore of an artificial lake, and is part of a larger campus of federal facilities that share a central cooling plant.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: High Consequence, Automation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    team knew they needed a robot for the job and called Sandia's High Consequence, Automation, & Robotics (HCAR) team. Mighty Mouse Challenge Typically the cylinder moved back...

  17. Selective high affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeNardo, Sally (El Macero, CA); DeNardo, Gerald (El Macero, CA); Balhorn, Rodney (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-16

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  18. SPECIAL ACQUISITION REQUIREMENTS ─ TYPICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONAL SERVICES AND INHERENTLY GOVERNMENTAL FUNCITONS WHEN CONTRACTORS WORK IN THE FEDERAL WORKPLACE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -------- -------------------------------- Chapter 37.114 (December 2010) 1 FEDERAL AND CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE ROLES IN THE FEDERAL WORKPLACE: CONTRACTOR AND CONTRACTOR WORK PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION, INHERENTLY GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS, PERSONAL SERVICES, AND FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT IN CONTRACTOR PERSONNEL DECISIONS References: FAR 7.5, 37.000, 37.103, 37.104, 37.114; DEAR 937; Acquisition Guide 3.1, 9.1, 37.1, 37.2, 70.7 Overview  The purpose of this guide chapter is to aid in establishing effective

  19. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  20. High-Voltage Insulators and Components - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High-Voltage Insulators and Components Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary One of the ongoing challenges to improving performance in capacitors and other high-voltage electrical structures is to identify and reduce the factors that cause failure. High-voltage devices typically fail following excessive

  1. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  2. Status of networking for high energy physics in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1985-06-01

    Networks are used extensively for High Energy Physics in the United States. Although the networks have grown in an ad hoc manner with connections typically being made to satisfy the needs of one detector group, they now encompass to large fraction of the US HEP community in one form or another. This paper summarizes the current status and experience with networks.

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Removal ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials A Novel Machining Platform Using Ultrafast Lasers to Produce High- Precision Components. Machining is used in a variety of manufacturing applications in order to remove some material to create a fnished product. Typical examples of machining include turning operations where a workpiece is rotated against a cutting tool, milling operations where the cutting tool rotates against the

  4. High Sensitivity SPECT for Small Animals and Plants (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: High Sensitivity SPECT for Small Animals and Plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Sensitivity SPECT for Small Animals and Plants Imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes typically implement collimators in order to form the images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of

  5. Highly Asynchronous VisitOr Queue Graph Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-10-01

    HAVOQGT is a C++ framework that can be used to create highly parallel graph traversal algorithms. The framework stores the graph and algorithmic data structures on external memory that is typically mapped to high performance locally attached NAND FLASH arrays. The framework supports a vertex-centered visitor programming model. The frameworkd has been used to implement breadth first search, connected components, and single source shortest path.

  6. Relativistic klystron driven compact high gradient accelerator as an injector to an X-ray synchrotron radiation ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U. L. (1912 MacArthur St., Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90732)

    1990-01-01

    A compact high gradient accelerator driven by a relativistic klystron is utilized to inject high energy electrons into an X-ray synchrotron radiation ring. The high gradients provided by the relativistic klystron enables accelerator structure to be much shorter (typically 3 meters) than conventional injectors. This in turn enables manufacturers which utilize high energy, high intensity X-rays to produce various devices, such as computer chips, to do so on a cost effective basis.

  7. Is the misalignment of the Local Group velocity and the dipole generated by the 2MASS Redshift Survey typical in {lambda} cold dark matter and the halo model of galaxies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdogdu, Pirin; Lahav, Ofer

    2009-08-15

    We predict the acceleration of the Local Group generated by the 2MASS Redshift Survey within the framework of {lambda} cold dark matter and the halo model of galaxies. We show that as the galaxy fluctuations derived from the halo model have more power on small scales compared with the mass fluctuations, the misalignment angle between the CMB velocity vector and the 2MASS Redshift Survey dipole is in reasonable agreement with the observed 21 deg. This statistical analysis suggests that it is not necessary to invoke a hypothetical nearby galaxy or a distant cluster to explain this misalignment.

  8. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowners expectations for high quality lighting.

  9. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J.; Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G.

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  10. Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nanoscale Morphological and Chemical Changes of High Voltage Lithium-Manganese Rich NMC Composite Cathodes with Cycling Friday, August 29, 2014 Renewable energy is critical for the future of humankind. One bottleneck is energy storage because the harvest and consumption of energy are typically separated in time and/or location. Hence, efficient, low-cost, safe and durable batteries are

  11. Method for producing high dielectric strength microvalves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Reichmuth, David S.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2006-04-04

    A microvalve having a cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, polymer monolith for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. The microvalve contains a porous fluorinated polymer monolithic element whose pores are filled with an electrically insulating, high dielectric strength fluid, typically a perfluorinated liquid. This combination provides a microvalve that combines high dielectric strength with extremely low electrical conductivity. These microvalves have been shown to have resistivities of at least 100 G.OMEGA. and are compatible with solvents such as water at a pH between 2.7 and 9.0, 1-1 propanol, acetonitrile, and acetone.

  12. High Yield Method to Produce LGO from Biomass - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Yield Method to Produce LGO from Biomass Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Levoglucosenone (LGO) is a highly dehydrated sugar typically derived from cellulose. It is an important, non-petroleum building block chemical with potential uses in a wide range of industrial processes. For example, it can be converted to 1,6-hexanediol to be utilized in the production of polyurethanes and polyesters. Conventionally, LGO is derived

  13. Introduction to Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Momentum behind zero energy building design and construction is increasing, presenting a tremendous opportunity for advancing energy performance in the commercial building industry. At the same time, there is a lingering perception that zero energy buildings must be cost prohibitive or limited to showcase projects. Fortunately, an increasing number of projects are demonstrating that high performance can be achieved within typical budgets. This factsheet highlights replicable, recommended strategies for achieving high performance on a budget, based on experiences from past projects.

  14. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  15. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  16. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  17. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Preliminary Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2011-08-01

    This paper summarizes the potential market for process heat produced by a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), the environmental benefits reduced CO2 emissions will have on these markets, and the typical economics of projects using these applications. It gives examples of HTGR technological applications to industrial processes in the typical co-generation supply of process heat and electricity, the conversion of coal to transportation fuels and chemical process feedstock, and the production of ammonia as a feedstock for the production of ammonia derivatives, including fertilizer. It also demonstrates how uncertainties in capital costs and financial factors affect the economics of HTGR technology by analyzing the use of HTGR technology in the application of HTGR and high temperature steam electrolysis processes to produce hydrogen.

  18. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A

    2014-11-18

    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  19. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  20. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1996-05-21

    Disclosed is a diagnostic detector head harp used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires, typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit formed on a ceramic substrate. A method to fabricate harps to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit disposed on the ceramic substrate connects electrically between the detector wires and diagnostic equipment which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires by the high energy particle beams. 6 figs.

  1. High density harp or wire scanner for particle beam diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritsche, Craig T. (Overland Park, KS); Krogh, Michael L. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1996-05-21

    A diagnostic detector head harp (23) used to detect and characterize high energy particle beams using an array of closely spaced detector wires (21), typically carbon wires, spaced less than 0.1 cm (0.040 inch) connected to a hybrid microcircuit (25) formed on a ceramic substrate (26). A method to fabricate harps (23) to obtain carbon wire spacing and density not previously available utilizing hybrid microcircuit technology. The hybrid microcircuit (25) disposed on the ceramic substrate (26) connects electrically between the detector wires (21) and diagnostic equipment (37) which analyzes pulses generated in the detector wires (21) by the high energy particle beams.

  2. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  3. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of thousands of hours of LED operation. Once the LED phosphor lifetime specifications are met, these nanocrystals will enable white LEDs for solid state lighting to simultaneously have increased efficiency and improved light quality, in addition to enabling the creation of custom light spectrums. These improvements to white LEDs will help accelerate the adoption of SSL, leading to large savings in US and worldwide energy costs.

  4. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC)

  5. Preparation of high porosity xerogels by chemical surface modification.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Ravindra (51 Michelle Dr. Apt. A 11, Lancaster, PA 17603); Smith, Douglas M. (1412 Marquette Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (14 Eagle Nest Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122)

    1996-01-01

    This invention provides an extremely porous xerogel dried at vacuum-to-below supercritical pressures but having the properties of aerogels which are typically dried at supercritical pressures. This is done by reacting the internal pore surface of the wet gel with organic substances in order to change the contact angle of the fluid meniscus in the pores during drying. Shrinkage of the gel (which is normally prevented by use of high autoclave pressures, such that the pore fluid is at temperature and pressure above its critical values) is avoided even at vacuum or ambient pressures.

  6. Methods of vitrifying waste with low melting high lithia glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  7. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  8. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Ruth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinberg, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodrich, Katherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Brett R [DARTMUTH UNIV.

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  9. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-07-07

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  10. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desmare, Gabriel W. (Amarillo, TX); Cates, Dillard M. (Amarillo, TX)

    2002-05-14

    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  11. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, Neil C. (Chicago, IL); Warner, Barry T. (South Holland, IL); Smaga, John A. (Lemont, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  12. High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding High resolution PFPE-based molding techniques for nanofabrication of high pattern density sub-20 nm features: A fundamental materials approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Samulski, Edward [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Lopez, Renee [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Ruiz, Ricardo [Hitachi; DeSimone, Joseph [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Described herein is the development and investigation of PFPE-based elastomers for high resolution replica molding applications. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface energies (<25 mN/m). Using practically relevant large area master templates, we show that the resolution of the molds is strongly dependant upon the elastomeric mold modulus. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nano-grating structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  13. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  14. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J. (UMR-MUST); (IIT)

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  15. Cerium-Based Magnets: Novel High Energy Permanent Magnet Without Critical Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Ames Laboratory will develop a new class of permanent magnets based on the more commonly available element cerium for use in both EVs and renewable power generators. Cerium is 4 times more abundant and significantly less expensive than the rare earth element neodymium, which is frequently used in todays most powerful magnets. Ames Laboratory will combine other metal elements with cerium to create a new magnet that can remain stable at the high temperatures typically found in electric motors. This new magnetic material will ultimately be demonstrated in a prototype electric motor, representing a cost-effective and efficient alternative to neodymium-based motors.

  16. Selectable resistance-area product by dilute highly charged ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A. C.; Gillaspy, J. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2007-08-13

    Considerable effort worldwide has been invested in producing low resistance-area (RA) product magnetic tunnel junction sensors for future hard drive read heads. Here the authors present a method of producing tunnel barriers with a selectable RA value spanning orders of magnitude. A single process recipe is used with only the dose of highly charged ions (HCIs) varied. The HCIs reduce the tunnel barrier integrity, providing enhanced conduction that reduces the overall RA product. The final RA product is selected by appropriate choice of the HCI density; e.g., 100 HCIs/{mu}m{sup 2} typically results in the RA product being reduced by a factor of 100.

  17. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W. ); Sims, R.E. )

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ring'' the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  18. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W.; Sims, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ``ring`` the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  19. CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search CdTe portfolio offers commercial ready high efficiency solar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication MktgSummary CdTe.pdf (117 KB) Schematic illustration of a typical CdTe superstrate thin-film PV device. In this design, the layers of the device are deposited onto a glass &quot;superstrate&quot; that allows sunlight to enter. The sunlight passes through the

  20. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  1. Neutron scattering at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yethiraj, M.; Fernandez-Baca, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Since its beginnings in Oak Ridge and Argonne in the late 1940`s, neutron scattering has been established as the premier tool to study matter in its various states. Since the thermal neutron wavelength is of the same order of magnitude as typical atomic spacings and because they have comparable energies to those of atomic excitations in solids, both structure and dynamics of matter can be studied via neutron scattering. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) provides an intense source of neutrons with which to carry out these measurements. This paper summarizes the available neutron scattering facilities at the HFIR.

  2. CVEN 6960 master's project, investigation of a cooling coil in high humidity conditions. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloop, R.E.

    1993-12-10

    The primary purpose of this project is to validate the HVAC*2 Toolkit calculations for a cooling coil in high humidity conditions. A total of 19 experimental runs at different entering air temperature and humidity conditions were performed at the Joint Center for Energy Management HVAC Laboratory that exposed a cooling coil to temperature and humidity conditions that are typically found in the southern United States. The inlet conditions and manufacturer's coil rating data was used as input to the HVAC*2 Toolkit simple cooling coil subroutine (CCSIM). The predicted results from the toolkit were then compared to the experimental results.

  3. In-tank pretreatment of high-level tank wastes: The SIPS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Barletta, R.

    1996-03-01

    A new approach, termed SIPS (Small In-Tank Processing System), that enables the in-tank processing and separation of high-level tank wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) streams that are suitable for vitrification, is described. Presently proposed pretreatment systems, such as enhanced sludge washing (ESW) and TRUEX, require that the high-level tank wastes be retrieved and pumped to a large, centralized processing facility, where the various waste components are separated into a relatively small, radioactively concentrated stream (HLW), and a relatively large, predominantly non-radioactive stream (LLW). In SIPS, a small process module, typically on the order of 1 meter in diameter and 4 meters in length, is inserted into a tank. During a period of approximately six months, it processes the solid/liquid materials in the tank, separating them into liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small diameter (typically 3 cm o.d.) pipes. The SIPS concept appears attractive for pretreating high level wastes, since it would: (1) process waste in-situ in the tanks, (2) be cheaper and more reliable than a larger centralized facility, (3) be quickly demonstrable at full scale, (4) have less technical risk, (5) avoid having to transfer unstable slurries for long distances, and (6) be simple to decommission and dispose of. Further investigation of the SIPS concept appears desirable, including experimental testing and development of subscale demonstration units.

  4. Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, Caspar; Hermant, Laurent; Malbec, Louis-Marie; Bruneaux, Gilles; Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper

    2010-05-01

    Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

  5. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleland, M. R.; Galloway, R. A.; DeSanto, L.; Jongen, Y.

    2009-03-10

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron registered system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic mass analyzer inserted between the ion source and the acceleration tube will select the protons and reject heavier ions. A sorption pump near the ion source will minimize the flow of neutral hydrogen gas into the acceleration tube. For BNCT, a lithium target for generating epithermal neutrons is being developed that will be capable of dissipating the high power (>40 kW) of the proton beam. For NRA, special targets will be used to generate gamma rays with suitable energies for exciting nuclides typically present in explosive materials. Proton accelerators with such high-current and high-power capabilities in this energy range have not been developed previously.

  6. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data transmission in place of NSA Type 1 devices.

  7. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covrig, S. D.

    2013-11-07

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 ?A rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 ?A beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  8. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-08-05

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS.

  9. High-Resolution PFPE-based Molding Techniques for Nanofabrication of High-Pattern Density, Sub-20 nm Features: A Fundamental Materials Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Stuart S.; Retterer, Scott; Lopez, Rene; Ruiz, Ricardo; Samulski, Edward T.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-04-14

    Several perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based elastomers for high-resolution replica molding applications are explored. The modulus of the elastomeric materials was increased through synthetic and additive approaches while maintaining relatively low surface tension values (<25 mN/m). Using large area (>4 in.{sup 2}) master templates, we experimentally show the relationship between mold resolution and material properties such as modulus and surface tension for materials used in this study. A composite mold approach was used to form flexible molds out of stiff, high modulus materials that allow for replication of sub-20 nm post structures. Sub-100 nm line grating master templates, formed using e-beam lithography, were used to determine the experimental stability of the molding materials. It was observed that as the feature spacing decreased, high modulus PFPE tetramethacrylate (TMA) composite molds were able to effectively replicate the nanograting structures without cracking or tear-out defects that typically occur with high modulus elastomers.

  10. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-20

    REBa2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (Jc) above 20 MA/cm2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher thanmore » the Jc typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in Jc (ratio of Jc at 30 K, 3 T to the Jc at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 1011 cm–2 as well as 2–3nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high Jc films.« less

  11. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  12. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Kenneth R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  13. High Dose Neutron Irradiation Performance of Dielectric Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimishakavi, Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO2/SiO2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al2O3/SiO2 mirrors reduced to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the Al2O3/SiO2 specimens showed SiO2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO2/SiO2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror, though less evident in HfO2/SiO2 system. The ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.

  14. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seguin, Rich; Woyak, Jeremy; Costyk, David; Hambrick, Josh; Mather, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  15. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  16. Versatile, high-sensitivity faraday cup array for ion implanters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Patterson, Robert G. (Dublin, CA)

    2003-01-01

    An improved Faraday cup array for determining the dose of ions delivered to a substrate during ion implantation and for monitoring the uniformity of the dose delivered to the substrate. The improved Faraday cup array incorporates a variable size ion beam aperture by changing only an insertable plate that defines the aperture without changing the position of the Faraday cups which are positioned for the operation of the largest ion beam aperture. The design enables the dose sensitivity range, typically 10.sup.11 -10.sup.18 ions/cm.sup.2 to be extended to below 10.sup.6 ions/cm.sup.2. The insertable plate/aperture arrangement is structurally simple and enables scaling to aperture areas between <1 cm.sup.2 and >750 cm.sup.2, and enables ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications by incorporation of UHV-compatible materials.

  17. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  18. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  19. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ki Ha (Lafayette, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  20. Highly ionized physical vapor deposition plasma source working at very low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stranak, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Hippler, R.; Cada, M.; Hubicka, Z.; Tichy, M.

    2012-04-02

    Highly ionized discharge for physical vapor deposition at very low pressure is presented in the paper. The discharge is generated by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) which assists with ignition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. The magnetron gun (with Ti target) was built into the single-turn coil RF electrode of the ECWR facility. ECWR assistance provides pre-ionization effect which allows significant reduction of pressure during HiPIMS operation down to p = 0.05 Pa; this is nearly more than an order of magnitude lower than at typical pressure ranges of HiPIMS discharges. We can confirm that nearly all sputtered particles are ionized (only Ti{sup +} and Ti{sup ++} peaks are observed in the mass scan spectra). This corresponds well with high plasma density n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, measured during the HiPIMS pulse.

  1. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  2. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  3. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in. deep that showed significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructures favorable to increased fracture toughness and fatigue performance. The final tasks of the project demonstrated that the FSP concept can be applied to a relevant part geometry by fabricating diesel piston crowns with FSP regions applied selectively to the edge of the bowl rim. This area of the piston typically suffers from conditions at high PCP that cause severe thermal fatigue issues. It is expected that, given the data from coupon testing, the durability of pistons modified by FSP will allow much higher fatigue lifetime and potentially also greater resistance to elevated stress-level effects on fatigue.

  4. Automated Manufacturing of High Efficiency Modules: Final Subcontract Technical Status Report, 21 March 2005 - 31 August 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.; Jester, T.; Bunea, G.

    2008-02-01

    SunPower Corp. describes its research to develop low-cost, next-generation SunPower modules with 30-year warranties and at least 50% higher energy production per area relative to today's typical multicrystalline Si modules.

  5. The Role of Lithium Conditioning in Achieving High Performance, Long Pulse H-mode Discharges in the NSTX and EAST Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maingi, Rajesh; Mansfield, D. K.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Z.; Bell, M. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the role of lithium wall conditioning on the achievement of high performance, long pulse discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is documented. Common observations include recycling reduction and elimination of ELMs. In NSTX, lithium conditioning typically resulted in ELM-free operation with impurity accumulation, which was ameliorated e.g. with pulsed 3D fields to trigger controlled ELMs. Active lithium conditioning in EAST discharges has overcome this problem, producing an ELM-free Hmode with controlled density and impurities.

  6. Monitoring microbe-induced physical property changes using high-frequency acoustic waveform data: Toward the development of a microbial megascope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Kenneth Hurst

    2002-05-20

    A laboratory investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of microbe generated gas bubbles in controlled, saturated sediment columns utilizing a novel technique involving acoustic wave propagation. Specifically, the effect of denitrifying bacteria on saturated flow conditions was evaluated in light of the stimulated production of N{sub 2} gas and the resulting plugging of the pore throats. The propagation of high frequency acoustic waves through the sediment columns was used to locate those regions in the column where gas accumulation occurred. Over a period of six weeks, regions of gas accumulation resulted in the attenuation of acoustic wave energies with the decreases in amplitude typically greater than one order of magnitude.

  7. Status report on high fidelity reactor simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmiotti, G.; Smith, M.; Rabiti, C.; Lewis, E.; Yang, W.; Leclere,M.; Siegel, A.; Fischer, P.; Kaushik, D.; Ragusa, J.; Lottes, J.; Smith, B.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents the effort under way at Argonne National Laboratory toward a comprehensive, integrated computational tool intended mainly for the high-fidelity simulation of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The main activities carried out involved neutronics, thermal hydraulics, coupling strategies, software architecture, and high-performance computing. A new neutronics code, UNIC, is being developed. The first phase involves the application of a spherical harmonics method to a general, unstructured three-dimensional mesh. The method also has been interfaced with a method of characteristics. The spherical harmonics equations were implemented in a stand-alone code that was then used to solve several benchmark problems. For thermal hydraulics, a computational fluid dynamics code called Nek5000, developed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division for coupled hydrodynamics and heat transfer, has been applied to a single-pin, periodic cell in the wire-wrap geometry typical of advanced burner reactors. Numerical strategies for multiphysics coupling have been considered and higher-accuracy efficient methods proposed to finely simulate coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic reactor transients. Initial steps have been taken in order to couple UNIC and Nek5000, and simplified problems have been defined and solved for testing. Furthermore, we have begun developing a lightweight computational framework, based in part on carefully selected open source tools, to nonobtrusively and efficiently integrate the individual physics modules into a unified simulation tool.

  8. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  9. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  10. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hembree, Charles E.; Mar, Alan; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  11. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  12. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  13. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, J.B.; Chan, T.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.

  14. High-stability compact atomic clock based on isotropic laser cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esnault, Francois-Xavier; Holleville, David; Rossetto, Nicolas; Guerandel, Stephane; Dimarcq, Noel [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS UPMC, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2010-09-15

    We present a compact cold-atom clock configuration where isotropic laser cooling, microwave interrogation, and clock signal detection are successively performed inside a spherical microwave cavity. For ground operation, a typical Ramsey fringe width of 20 Hz has been demonstrated, limited by the atom cloud's free fall in the cavity. The isotropic cooling light's disordered properties provide a large and stable number of cold atoms, leading to a high signal-to-noise ratio limited by atomic shot noise. A relative frequency stability of 2.2x10{sup -13{tau}-1/2} has been achieved, averaged down to 4x10{sup -15} after 5x10{sup 3} s of integration. Development of such a high-performance compact clock is of major relevance for on-board applications, such as satellite-positioning systems. As a cesium clock, it opens the door to a new generation of compact primary standards and timekeeping devices.

  15. HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

    2005-02-01

    This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

  16. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  17. Microwave characterization of high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, D.W.; Gray, E.R.; Arendt, P.N.; Beery, J.G.; Bennett, B.L.; Brown, D.R.; Houlton, R.J.; Jahan, M.S.; Klapetzky, A.J.; Maez, M.A.; Raistrick, I.D.; Reeves, G.A.; Rusnak, B.

    1989-01-01

    Thick (10-15 {mu}m) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films have been deposited onto yttria-stabilized zirconia and Ag substrates by d.c. magnetron sputtering techniques. Direct deposition onto 1'' diameter yttria-stabilized zirconia yields films with typical 22 GHz surface resistance (R{sub s}) values of 5.2 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} and 52 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} at 10 K and 77 K, respectively. For comparison, R{sub s} of Cu at this same frequency is 10 m{Omega} at 4 K and 22 m{Omega} at 77 K. Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films have also been deposited onto 1'' diameter Ag substrates using Au/Cu, Cu, and BaF{sub 2} buffer layers. The lowest R{sub s} values were obtained on films with a BaF{sub 2} buffer layer, typical values being 7.8 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} and 30.6 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} (measured at 22 GHz) at 10 K and 77 K, respectively. Larger films (1.5'' diameter) with similar R{sub s} values were prepared using this same technique, demonstrating that the fabrication process can be scaled to larger surface areas. These films are promising for radiofrequency cavity applications because they are thick (50-75 times the London penetration depth), have relatively large surface areas, are fabricated on metallic substrates, and have R{sub s} values that are competitive with Cu at 77 K and are lower than Cu at 4 K. Because they are polycrystalline and unoriented, it is anticipated that their R{sub s} values can be lowered by improving the processing technique. High-quality films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} have been electron-beam deposited onto 1'' LaGaO{sub 3} and 1.5'' LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The 1'' sample is characterized by R{sub s} values of 0.2 {plus minus} 0.1 m{Omega} at 4 K and 18.6 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} at 77 K. The 4-K value is only 2-4 times higher than Nb. The 1.5'' sample has R{sub s} values (measured at 18 GHz) of 0.93 {plus minus} 2 m{Omega} and 71 {plus minus} 3 m{Omega} at 10 K and 77 K, respectively. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  18. High reliability plastic packaging for microelectronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, J.N.; Peterson, D.W.; Hsia, A.H.; Tuck, M.

    1997-07-01

    Goal was Assembly Test Chips (ATCs) which could be used for evaluating plastic encapsulation technologies. Circuits were demonstrated for measuring Au-Al wirebond and Al metal corrosion failure rates during accelerated temperature and humidity testing. The test circuits on the ATC02.5 chip were very sensitive to extrinsic or processing induced failure rates. Accelerated aging experiments were conducted with unpassivated triple track Al structures on the ATC02.6 chip; the unpassivated tracks were found to be very sensitive to particulate contamination. Some modifications to existing circuitry were suggested. The piezoresistive stress sensing circuitry designed for the ATC04 test chip was found suitable for determining the change in the state of mechanical stress at the die when both initial and final measurements were made near room temperature (RT). Attempt to measure thermal stress between RT and a typical polymer glass transition temperature failed because of excessive die resistor- substrate leakage currents at the high temperature end; suitable circuitry changes were developed to overcome this problem. One temperature and humidity experiment was conducted with Sandia developed static radom access memory parts to examine non-corrosion CMOS failures; this objective was not achieved, but corrosion failure at the metal to Si contacts on the die surface could be detected. This 2-year effort resulted in new designs for test circuits which could be used on an advanced ATC for reliability assessment in Defense Programs electronics development projects.

  19. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  20. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhl, James Eugene (Albuquerque, NM); Warpinski, Norman Raymond (Albuquerque, NM); Whetten, Ernest Blayne (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  1. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phasesmore » as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.« less

  2. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  3. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  4. Detailed high-accuracy megavoltage transmission measurements: A sensitive experimental benchmark of EGSnrc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, E. S. M.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: There are three goals for this study: (a) to perform detailed megavoltage transmission measurements in order to identify the factors that affect the measurement accuracy, (b) to use the measured data as a benchmark for the EGSnrc system in order to identify the computational limiting factors, and (c) to provide data for others to benchmark Monte Carlo codes. Methods: Transmission measurements are performed at the National Research Council Canada on a research linac whose incident electron parameters are independently known. Automated transmission measurements are made on-axis, down to a transmission value of {approx}1.7%, for eight beams between 10 MV (the lowest stable MV beam on the linac) and 30 MV, using fully stopping Be, Al, and Pb bremsstrahlung targets and no fattening filters. To diversify energy differentiation, data are acquired for each beam using low-Z and high-Z attenuators (C and Pb) and Farmer chambers with low-Z and high-Z buildup caps. Experimental corrections are applied for beam drifts (2%), polarity (2.5% typical maximum, 6% extreme), ion recombination (0.2%), leakage (0.3%), and room scatter (0.8%)-the values in parentheses are the largest corrections applied. The experimental setup and the detectors are modeled using EGSnrc, with the newly added photonuclear attenuation included (up to a 5.6% effect). A detailed sensitivity analysis is carried out for the measured and calculated transmission data. Results: The developed experimental protocol allows for transmission measurements with 0.4% uncertainty on the smallest signals. Suggestions for accurate transmission measurements are provided. Measurements and EGSnrc calculations agree typically within 0.2% for the sensitivity of the transmission values to the detector details, to the bremsstrahlung target material, and to the incident electron energy. Direct comparison of the measured and calculated transmission data shows agreement better than 2% for C (3.4% for the 10 MV beam) and typically better than 1% for Pb. The differences can be explained by acceptable photon cross section changes of Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.4%. Conclusions: Accurate transmission measurements require accounting for a number of influence quantities which, if ignored, can collectively introduce errors larger than 10%. Accurate transmission calculations require the use of the most accurate data and physics options available in EGSnrc, particularly the more accurate bremsstrahlung angular sampling option and the newly added modeling of photonuclear attenuation. Comparison between measurements and calculations implies that EGSnrc is accurate within 0.2% for relative ion chamber response calculations. Photon cross section uncertainties are the ultimate limiting factor for the accuracy of the calculated transmission data (Monte Carlo or analytical).

  5. Note: A short-pulse high-intensity molecular beam valve based on a piezoelectric stack actuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Joalland, Baptiste; Shi, Yuanyuan; Kamasah, Alexander; Oldham, James M.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2014-11-15

    Solenoid and piezoelectric disk valves, which are widely used to generate molecular beam pulses, still suffer from significant restrictions, such as pulse durations typically >50 μs, low repetition rates, and limited gas flows and operational times. Much of this arises owing to the limited forces these actuators can achieve. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a new pulsed valve based on a high-force piezoelectric stack actuator. We show here that operation with pulse durations as low as 20 μs and repetition rates up to 100 Hz can be easily achieved by operating the valve in conjunction with a commercial fast high-voltage switch. We outline our design and demonstrate its performance with molecular beam characterization via velocity map ion imaging.

  6. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  7. New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M. )

    1993-01-01

    This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

  8. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  10. Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphries, David E. (El Cerrito, CA); Hong, Seok-Cheol (Seoul, KR); Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A. (Berkeley, CA); Pollard, Martin J. (El Cerrito, CA); Cozzarelli, Nicholas R. (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-06

    The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

  11. Annular core for Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, R.F.; Baxter, A.M.; Stansfield, O.M.; Vollman, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    The active core of the 350 MW(t) MHTGR is annular in configuration, shaped to provide a large external surface-to-volume ratio for the transport of heat radially to the reactor vessel in case of a loss of coolant flow. For a given fuel temperature limit, the annular core provides approximately 40% greater power output over a typical cylindrical configuration. The reactor core is made up of columns of hexagonal blocks, each 793-mm high and 360-mm wide. The active core is 3.5 m in o.d., 1.65 m in i.d., and 7.93-m tall. Fuel elements contain TRISO-coated microspheres of 19.8% enriched uranium oxycarbide and of fertile thorium oxide. The core is controlled by 30 control rods which enter the inner and outer side reflectors from above.

  12. High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

    2011-08-01

    To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

  13. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  14. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  15. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-11-15

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to {approx}7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10{sup 12} ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  16. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  17. High Efficiency Engine Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Kruiswyk

    2010-07-13

    Caterpillar's Product Development and Global Technology Division carried out a research program on waste heat recovery with support from DOE (Department of Energy) and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The objective of the program was to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that would demonstrate a minimum 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over a base heavy-duty on-highway diesel truck engine. The base engine for this program was a 2007 C15 15.2L series-turbocharged on-highway truck engine with a LPL (low-pressure loop) exhaust recirculation system. The focus of the program was on the development of high efficiency turbomachinery and a high efficiency turbocompound waste heat recovery system. The focus of each area of development was as follows: (1) For turbine stages, the focus was on investigation and development of technologies that would improve on-engine exhaust energy utilization compared to the conventional radial turbines in widespread use today. (2) For compressor stages, the focus was on investigating compressor wheel design parameters beyond the range typically utilized in production, to determine the potential efficiency benefits thereof. (3) For turbocompound, the focus was on the development of a robust bearing system that would provide higher bearing efficiencies compared to systems used in turbocompound power turbines in production. None of the turbocharger technologies investigated involved addition of moving parts, actuators, or exotic materials, thereby increasing the likelihood of a favorable cost-value tradeoff for each technology. And the turbocompound system requires less hardware addition than competing bottoming cycle technologies, making it a more attractive solution from a cost and packaging standpoint. Main outcomes of the program are as follows: (1) Two turbine technologies that demonstrated up to 6% improvement in turbine efficiency on gas stand and 1-3% improvement in thermal efficiency in on-engine testing. (2) A compressor technology that demonstrated 1.5% improvement in compressor efficiency on gas stand compared to production available compressors. (3) A power turbine with high efficiency bearing system that demonstrated excellent rotordynamic stability throughout the required speed range, up to 60,000 rpm. (4) A predicted improvement (using engine simulation) in engine thermal efficiency of 7% at the peak torque design point, when combining the technologies developed in this program.

  18. Key issues of ultraviolet radiation of OH at high altitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuhuai; Wan, Tian; Jiang, Jianzheng; Fan, Jing

    2014-12-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) emissions radiated by hydroxyl (OH) is one of the fundamental elements in the prediction of radiation signature of high-altitude and high-speed vehicle. In this work, the OH A{sup 2}?{sup +}?X{sup 2}? ultraviolet emission band behind the bow shock is computed under the experimental condition of the second bow-shock ultraviolet flight (BSUV-2). Four related key issues are discussed, namely, the source of hydrogen element in the high-altitude atmosphere, the formation mechanism of OH species, efficient computational algorithm of trace species in rarefied flows, and accurate calculation of OH emission spectra. Firstly, by analyzing the typical atmospheric model, the vertical distributions of the number densities of different species containing hydrogen element are given. According to the different dominating species containing hydrogen element, the atmosphere is divided into three zones, and the formation mechanism of OH species is analyzed in the different zones. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and the Navier-Stokes equations are employed to compute the number densities of the different OH electronically and vibrationally excited states. Different to the previous work, the trace species separation (TSS) algorithm is applied twice in order to accurately calculate the densities of OH species and its excited states. Using a non-equilibrium radiation model, the OH ultraviolet emission spectra and intensity at different altitudes are computed, and good agreement is obtained with the flight measured data.

  19. High-performance, transparent conducting oxides based on cadmium stannate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wu, X.; Mulligan, W.P.; Webb, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss the modeling of thin films of transparent conducting oxides and we compare the predictions with the observed properties of cadmium stannate. Thin films of this material were deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The Drude free-carrier model is used to model the optical and electrical properties. The model demonstrates the need for high mobilities. The free-carrier absorbance in the visible spectrum is used as a comparative figure-of-merit for cadmium stannate and tin oxide. This shows that free-carrier absorbance is much less in cadmium stannate than in tin oxide. X-ray diffraction shows that annealed films consist of a single-phase spinel structure. The post-deposition annealing sequence is shown to be crucial to forming a single phase, which is vital for optimal optical and electrical properties. The films are typically high mobility (up to 65 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) and have carrier concentrations as high as 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. Resistivities are as low as 1.3 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, the lowest values reported for cadmium stannate. Atomic force microscopy indicates that the root-mean-square surface roughness is approximately {+-}15A. Cadmium stannate etches readily in both hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, which is a commanding advantage over tin oxide. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Noise modeling from high-permeability shields using Kirchhoff equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandin, Henrik J; Volegov, Petr L; Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Schultz, Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields (DC or rf) based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have rf shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems arbitrary shapes and complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies the knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as the knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for any geometrically shaped shield and multiple sensor systems. The approach uses a fraction of the processing power of other approaches and with a multiple sensor system our approach not only calculates the noise for each sensor but it also calculates the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show the algorithm and examples where it can be implemented.

  1. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  2. Field Testing of Thermoplastic Encapsulants in High-Temperature Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Moseley, John M.; Shah, Qurat A.; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Inoue, Masanao; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Samuels, Sam L.; Vanderpan, Crystal E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently there has been increased interest in using thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules, but concerns have been raised about whether these would be mechanically stable at high temperatures in the field. This has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. We constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials, of which only two were formulated to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with thermal insulation on the back side in Mesa, Arizona, in the summer (hot-dry), and an identical module set was exposed in environmental chambers. High-precision creep measurements (20 ?m) and electrical performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials operating in the melt or rubbery state during outdoor deployment, no significant creep was seen because of their high viscosity, lower operating temperature at the edges, and/or the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants with age despite the absence of a crosslinking agent. Only an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant formulated without a peroxide crosslinking agent crept significantly. When the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced creep further and was not detectable even for the EVA without peroxide. Because of the propensity of some polymeric materials to crosslink as they age, typical thermoplastic encapsulants would be unlikely to result in creep in the vast majority of installations.

  3. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo

    2011-04-01

    This work evaluates the suitability of iron aluminide coatings for use in high temperature fossil fuel combustion environments, such as boiler applications. The coatings are applied using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques. Iron aluminide coatings, with the nominal composition of Fe3Al, were applied to various high temperature structural materials (316 Stainless Steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel and Inconel 600) that typically lack inherent resistance to environmental degradation found in fossil fuel combustion atmospheres. Coating/substrate combinations were subjected to thermal cycling to evaluate the effect of HVOF parameters, coating thickness, substrate material and substrate surface roughness on the resistance to coating delamination and cracking. It was found that substrate surface roughness had a profound influence on the performance of a given substrate/coating system and that surface preparation techniques will need to be tailored to the specific substrate material. Also, higher particle velocity during HVOF thermal spray deposition of the iron aluminide coatings tended to result in better-performing coating/substrate systems with less delamination at the coating/substrate interface. Some combinations of HVOF parameters, coating thickness and substrate materials were found to perform extremely well even at temperatures up to 900oC. However, in some cases, substantial reactions at the interface were observed.

  4. High throughput parallel backside contacting and periodic texturing for high-efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Claus; Blue, Craig A.; Ott, Ronald D.

    2014-08-19

    Disclosed are configurations of long-range ordered features of solar cell materials, and methods for forming same. Some features include electrical access openings through a backing layer to a photovoltaic material in the solar cell. Some features include textured features disposed adjacent a surface of a solar cell material. Typically the long-range ordered features are formed by ablating the solar cell material with a laser interference pattern from at least two laser beams.

  5. High-Performance Phylogeny Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiffani L. Williams

    2004-11-10

    Under the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Computational Biology, I have been afforded the opportunity to study phylogenetics--one of the most important and exciting disciplines in computational biology. A phylogeny depicts an evolutionary relationship among a set of organisms (or taxa). Typically, a phylogeny is represented by a binary tree, where modern organisms are placed at the leaves and ancestral organisms occupy internal nodes, with the edges of the tree denoting evolutionary relationships. The task of phylogenetics is to infer this tree from observations upon present-day organisms. Reconstructing phylogenies is a major component of modern research programs in many areas of biology and medicine, but it is enormously expensive. The most commonly used techniques attempt to solve NP-hard problems such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, typically by bounded searches through an exponentially-sized tree-space. For example, there are over 13 billion possible trees for 13 organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics that quickly analyze large amounts of data accurately will revolutionize the biological field. This final report highlights my activities in phylogenetics during the two-year postdoctoral period at the University of New Mexico under Prof. Bernard Moret. Specifically, this report reports my scientific, community and professional activities as an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellow in Computational Biology.

  6. DUST EXTINCTION BIAS IN THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: HIGH COLUMN DENSITY, LOW-REDSHIFT GRBs ARE MORE HEAVILY OBSCURED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall, E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: pja@raunvis.hi.is [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-08-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft-X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N{sub H{sub X}}) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low-to-moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low-to-moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars that the increase in column density with redshift is unlikely to be related to metals in the intergalactic medium or intervening absorbers. Instead we show that the origin of the apparent increase with redshift is primarily due to dust extinction bias: GRBs with high X-ray absorption column densities found at z {approx}< 4 typically have very high dust extinction column densities, while those found at the highest redshifts do not. It is unclear how such a strongly evolving N{sub H{sub X}}/A{sub V} ratio would arise, and based on current data, remains a puzzle.

  7. Graphene Oxide Interlayers for Robust, High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Ian P.; Lou, Sylvia J.; Cote, Laura J.; Loser, Stephen; Kadleck, Cameron J.; Xu, Tao; Szarko, Jodi M.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Johns, James E.; Huang, Jiaxing; Yu, Luping; Chen, Lin X.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2012-02-07

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials have recently garnered significant attention as enablers of high power conversion efficiency (PCE), low-cost, mechanically flexible solar cells. Nevertheless, further understanding-based materials developments will be required to achieve full commercial viability. In particular, the performance and durability of many current generation OPVs are limited by poorly understood interfacial phenomena. Careful analysis of typical OPV architectures reveals that the standard electron-blocking layer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), is likely a major factor limiting the device durability and possibly performance. Here we report that a single layer of electronically tuned graphene oxide is an effective replacement for PEDOT:PSS and that it significantly enhances device durability while concurrently templating a performance-optimal active layer {pi}-stacked face-on microstructure. Such OPVs based on graphene oxide exhibit PCEs as high as 7.5% while providing a 5x enhancement in thermal aging lifetime and a 20x enhancement in humid ambient lifetime versus analogous PEDOT:PSS-based devices.

  8. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  9. Water frac applications in high island 384 field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claiborne, E.B. Jr.; Saucier, R.; Wilkinson, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    A frac pack technique using water, herein referred to as a water frac, has been developed for use in wells where the goal is to achieve effective sand control at minimal cost while bypassing wellbore skin thus increasing well productivities. This increased productivity is accomplished by a properly designed, length limited, hydraulic fracture, created and propped with non-damaging fluid/prop that provides a highly conductive flow path through the wellbore damaged zone, in conjunction with a proper gravel packed completion. The process is applicable to intervals comprised of multiple pay zones by using a multi-stage water frac technique. The entire process of creating and packing the fracture(s) and gravel packing is accomplished using a properly defined gel free brine. The multi-stage water frac process has been applied and evaluated in the High Island 384 Field. Job evaluations herein illustrate the process. The process has also been applied using uncrosslinked gelled fluids in this field as well, with the evaluations to date indicating the water frac results to be superior. Comparisons with larger sized frac packs in a similar area also indicate the water fracs to be equal or superior to the frac packs in well performance. In the following, the process of a water frac will be described, typical field pumping techniques will be provided and field applications and results will be presented.

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Key Challenges * Application Examples - Typical requests - Specific projects * Lessons Learned * Observations Future Needs Agenda Proven capability for handling high...

  11. Electron tunneling spectroscopy study of electrically active traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jie Cui, Sharon; Ma, T. P.; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Nath, Digbijoy; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-11-25

    We investigate the energy levels of electron traps in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by the use of electron tunneling spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of a typical spectrum, obtained in a wide gate bias range and with both bias polarities, suggests the existence of electron traps both in the bulk of AlGaN and at the AlGaN/GaN interface. The energy levels of the electron traps have been determined to lie within a 0.5?eV band below the conduction band minimum of AlGaN, and there is strong evidence suggesting that these traps contribute to Frenkel-Poole conduction through the AlGaN barrier.

  12. Direct first-principles simulation of a high-performance electron emitter: Lithium-oxide-coated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yoshi-miyamoto@aist.go.jp; Miyazaki, Takehide [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); JST, ALCA, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-09-28

    We examined the field emission properties of lithium(Li)/oxygen(O)-co-terminated diamond (001) surface [C(001)-LiO] through real-time electron dynamics simulation under an applied field. The current emitted from this surface was found to be more than four-fold that emitted by an H-terminated (001) surface, the latter being a typical negative electron affinity system. This high performance is attributed to the Li layer, which bends the potential wall of O-induced electron pockets down in the direction of vacuum, thus facilitating electron emission. Detailed analysis of the emitted electrons and the profile of the self-consistent potential elucidated that the role of O atoms changes from an electron barrier on OH-terminated diamond surfaces to an outlet for electron emission on C(001)-LiO.

  13. Device and method for electron beam heating of a high density plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator produces a high voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target plasma is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region within the high density plasma target.

  14. First high-convergence cryogenic implosion in a near-vacuum hohlraum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berzak Hopkins, L.  F.; Meezan, N.  B.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Mackinnon, A.  J.; Ho, D.  D.; Hohenberger, M.; Jones, O.  S.; Kyrala, G.; Milovich, J.  L.; et al

    2015-04-29

    Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density carbon), which shortens the drive duration needed to achieve high convergence: a measured 40% higher hohlraum efficiency than typical gas-filled hohlraums, which requires less laser energy going into the hohlraum, and an observed better symmetry control than anticipated by standard hydrodynamics simulations. The first series of near-vacuum hohlraum experiments culminated inmore » a 6.8 ns, 1.2 MJ laser pulse driving a 2-shock, high adiabat (α ~ 3.5) cryogenic DT layered high density carbon capsule. This resulted in one of the best performances so far on the NIF relative to laser energy, with a measured primary neutron yield of 1.8 X 10¹⁵ neutrons, with 20% calculated alpha heating at convergence ~27X.« less

  15. First high-convergence cryogenic implosion in a near-vacuum hohlraum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berzak Hopkins, L.  F.; Meezan, N.  B.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Mackinnon, A.  J.; Ho, D.  D.; Hohenberger, M.; Jones, O.  S.; Kyrala, G.; Milovich, J.  L.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.  E.; Ross, J.  S.; Benedetti, L.  R.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D.; Cerjan, C.; Church, J.; Clark, D.; Döppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Eckart, M.; Edgell, D.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D.  N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Haan, S.; Hamza, A.; Hartouni, E.  P.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H.  W.; Hinkel, D.; Hoover, D.; Huang, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kroll, J.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A.; McNaney, J.; Merrill, F.; Moody, J.; Nikroo, A.; Patel, P.; Robey, H.  F.; Rygg, J.  R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Sepke, S.; Stadermann, M.; Stoeffl, W.; Thomas, C.; Town, R.  P. J.; Volegov, P.  L.; Wild, C.; Wilde, C.; Woerner, E.; Yeamans, C.; Yoxall, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Landen, O.  L.; Hsing, W.; Edwards, M.  J.

    2015-04-29

    Recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] demonstrate that utilizing a near-vacuum hohlraum (low pressure gas-filled) is a viable option for high convergence cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) layered capsule implosions. This is made possible by using a dense ablator (high-density carbon), which shortens the drive duration needed to achieve high convergence: a measured 40% higher hohlraum efficiency than typical gas-filled hohlraums, which requires less laser energy going into the hohlraum, and an observed better symmetry control than anticipated by standard hydrodynamics simulations. The first series of near-vacuum hohlraum experiments culminated in a 6.8 ns, 1.2 MJ laser pulse driving a 2-shock, high adiabat (α ~ 3.5) cryogenic DT layered high density carbon capsule. This resulted in one of the best performances so far on the NIF relative to laser energy, with a measured primary neutron yield of 1.8 X 10¹⁵ neutrons, with 20% calculated alpha heating at convergence ~27X.

  16. High-Performance Palladium Based Membrane for Hydrogen Separation and Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hopkins

    2012-01-31

    The mission of the DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies'™Hydrogen Fuels R&D effort is to research, develop, and validate technologies for producing, storing, and delivering hydrogen in an efficient, clean, safe, reliable, and affordable manner. A key program technical milestone for hydrogen technology readiness is to produce hydrogen from diverse, domestic resources at $2.00-$3.00 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) delivered, untaxed. Low-cost, high-temperature hydrogen separation membranes represent a key enabling technology for small-scale distributed hydrogen production units. Availability of such membranes with high selectivity and high permeability for hydrogen will allow their integration with hydrocarbon reforming and water gas shift reactions, potentially reducing the cost of hydrogen produced. Pd-metal-based dense membranes are known for their excellent hydrogen selectivity and permeability characteristics, however, utilization of these membranes has so far been limited to small scale niche markets for hydrogen purification primarily due to the relatively high cost of Pd-alloy tubes compared to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) units. This project was aimed at development of thin-film Pd-alloy membranes deposited on Pall Corporation's DOE-based AccuSep® porous metal tube substrates to form a composite hydrogen separation membrane for these applications. Pall's composite membrane development addressed the typical limitations of composite structures by developing robust membranes capable of withstanding thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from high temperature (400C), high pressure (400 psi steam methane reformer and 1000 psi coal) operations and thermal cycling involved in conventional hydrogen production. In addition, the Pd-alloy membrane composition was optimized to be able to offer the most stability in the typical synthesis gas environments produced by reforming of natural gas and bio-derived liquid fuels (BILI) validating the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the technology demonstrated. Results from this research added technology and product design information that offers the potential to significantly advance the commercial viability of hydrogen production.

  17. FIRST RESULTS FROM Pan-STARRS1: FAINT, HIGH PROPER MOTION WHITE DWARFS IN THE MEDIUM-DEEP FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonry, J. L.; Flewelling, H. A.; Deacon, N. R.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hodapp, K. W.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kilic, M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Price, P. A.

    2012-01-20

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey has obtained multi-epoch imaging in five bands (Pan-STARRS1 g{sub P1}, r{sub P1}, i{sub P1}, z{sub P1}, and y{sub P1}) on 12 'Medium-Deep fields', each of which spans a 3.{sup 0}3 circle. For the period between 2009 April and 2011 April these fields were observed 50-200 times. Using a reduced proper motion diagram, we have extracted a list of 47 white dwarf (WD) candidates whose Pan-STARRS1 astrometry indicates a non-zero proper motion at the 6{sigma} level, with a typical 1{sigma} proper motion uncertainty of 10 mas yr{sup -1}. We also used astrometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (when available) and USNO-B to assess our proper motion fits. None of the WD candidates exhibits evidence of statistically significant parallaxes, with a typical 1{sigma} uncertainty of 8 mas. Twelve of these candidates are known WDs, including the high proper motion (1.''7 yr{sup -1}) WD LHS 291. We confirm seven more objects as WDs through optical spectroscopy. Based on the Pan-STARRS1 colors, ten of the stars are likely to be cool WDs with 4170 K high proper motion WDs that are part of the old thick disk and halo.

  18. DOE Announces Webinars on Successful Project Financing Mechanisms, the High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator, and More

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts.

  19. DOE Announces Webinars on High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Tribal Renewable Energy, and More

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts.

  20. DOE Announces Webinars on High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Davis-Bacon Act Compliance, and More

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts.

  1. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the work conducted by the Building Science Corporation (BSC) Building America Research Team's 'Energy Efficient Housing Research Partnerships' project. Based on past experience in the Building America program, they have found that combinations of materials and approaches---in other words, systems--usually provide optimum performance. No single manufacturer typically provides all of the components for an assembly, nor has the specific understanding of all the individual components necessary for optimum performance.

  2. Why high-frequency pulse tubes can be tipped

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Gregory W092710; Backhaus, Scott N

    2010-01-01

    The typical low-frequency pulse-tube refrigerator loses significant cooling power when it is tipped with the pulse tube's cold end above its hot end, because natural convection in the pulse tube loads the cold heat exchanger. Yet most high-frequency pulse-tube refrigerators work well in any orientation with respect to gravity. In such a refrigerator, natural convection is suppressed by sufficiently fast velocity oscil1ations, via a nonlinear hydrodynamic effect that tends to align the density gradients in the pulse tube parallel to the oscillation direction. Since gravity's tendency to cause convection is only linear in the pulse tube's end-to-end temperature difference while the oscillation's tendency to align density gradients with oscillating velocity is nonlinear, it is easiest to suppress convection when the end-to-end temperature difference is largest. Simple experiments demonstrate this temperature dependence, the strong dependence on the oscillating velocity, and little dependence on the magnitude or phase of the oscillating pressure. In some circumstances in this apparatus, the suppression of convection is a hysteretic function of oscillating velocity. In some other circumstances, a time-dependent convective state seems more difficult to suppress.

  3. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-10-13

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  4. Cryogenic System for a High Temperature Superconducting Power Transmission Cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, J.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Martin, R.; Sinha, U.; Stovall, J.P.

    1999-07-12

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems for power transmission are under development that will use pressurized liquid nitrogen to provide cooling of the cable and termination hardware. Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been operating a prototype HTS cable system that contains many of the typical components needed for a commercial power transmission application. It is being used to conduct research in the development of components and systems for eventual commercial deployment. The cryogenic system was built by Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, Pennsylvania, and can circulate up to 0.35 kg/s of liquid nitrogen at temperatures as low as 67 K at pressures of 1 to 10 bars. Sufficient cooling is provided for testing a 5-m-long HTS transmission cable system that includes the terminations required for room temperature electrical connections. Testing of the 5-m HTS transmission cable has been conducted at the design ac conditions of 1250 A and 7.5 kV line to ground. This paper contains a description of the essential features of the HTS cable cryogenic system and performance results obtained during operation of the system. The salient features of the operation that are important in large commercial HTS cable applications will be discussed.

  5. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  6. New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells. Subcontract report, 1 June 1987--31 January 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

  7. Atomic arrangement at ZnTe/CdSe interfaces determined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonef, Bastien; Rouvire, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Grard, Lionel; Mariette, Henri; Andr, Rgis; Bougerol, Catherine; Grenier, Adeline

    2015-02-02

    High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments reveal the presence of an intermediate layer at the interface between two binary compounds with no common atom, namely, ZnTe and CdSe for samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy under standard conditions. This thin transition layer, of the order of 1 to 3 atomic planes, contains typically one monolayer of ZnSe. Even if it occurs at each interface, the direct interface, i.e., ZnTe on CdSe, is sharper than the reverse one, where the ZnSe layer is likely surrounded by alloyed layers. On the other hand, a CdTe-like interface was never observed. This interface knowledge is crucial to properly design superlattices for optoelectronic applications and to master band-gap engineering.

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  9. Field Testing of Thermoplastic Encapsulants in High-Temperature Installations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; Moseley, John M.; Shah, Qurat A.; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Inoue, Masanao; Doi, Takuya; et al

    2015-11-01

    Recently there has been increased interest in using thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules, but concerns have been raised about whether these would be mechanically stable at high temperatures in the field. This has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. We constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass thin-film mock modules using different encapsulant materials, of which only two were formulated to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with thermal insulation on the back side in Mesa, Arizona, in the summer (hot-dry), and an identicalmore » module set was exposed in environmental chambers. High-precision creep measurements (±20 μm) and electrical performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials operating in the melt or rubbery state during outdoor deployment, no significant creep was seen because of their high viscosity, lower operating temperature at the edges, and/or the formation of chemical crosslinks in many of the encapsulants with age despite the absence of a crosslinking agent. Only an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant formulated without a peroxide crosslinking agent crept significantly. When the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet reduced creep further and was not detectable even for the EVA without peroxide. Because of the propensity of some polymeric materials to crosslink as they age, typical thermoplastic encapsulants would be unlikely to result in creep in the vast majority of installations.« less

  10. High-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on spherically bent crystals for investigations of femtosecond laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Price, D.F.; Shepherd, R.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Letardi, T.; Grilli, A.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1998-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, laser-produced plasmas have become very interesting laboratory sources to study spectroscopically due to their very high densities and temperatures, and the high laser-induced electromagnetic fields present. Typically, these plasmas are of very small volume and very low emissivity. Thus, studying these near point source plasmas requires advanced experimental techniques. We present a new spectrometer design called the focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-2D) based on a spherically bent crystal which provides simultaneous high spectral ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}10{sup 4}) and spatial resolution ({approx}10thinsp{mu}m) as well as high luminosity (high collection efficiency). We described in detail the FSSR-2D case in which a small, near point source plasma is investigated. An estimate for the spectral and spatial resolution for the spectrometer is outlined based on geometric considerations. Using the FSSR-2D instrument, experimental data measured from both a 100 fs and a nanosecond pulse laser-produced plasma are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; et al

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams inmore »the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.« less

  12. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.

  13. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  14. Nanoscale wear and kinetic friction between atomically smooth surfaces sliding at high speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajauria, Sukumar Canchi, Sripathi V. Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2015-02-23

    The kinetic friction and wear at high sliding speeds is investigated using the head-disk interface of hard disk drives, wherein the head and the disk are less than 10?nm apart and move at sliding speeds of 510?m/s relative to each other. While the spacing between the sliding surfaces is of the same order of magnitude as various AFM based fundamental studies on friction, the sliding speed is nearly six orders of magnitude larger, allowing a unique set-up for a systematic study of nanoscale wear at high sliding speeds. In a hard disk drive, the physical contact between the head and the disk leads to friction, wear, and degradation of the head overcoat material (typically diamond like carbon). In this work, strain gauge based friction measurements are performed; the friction coefficient as well as the adhering shear strength at the head-disk interface is extracted; and an experimental set-up for studying friction between high speed sliding surfaces is exemplified.

  15. Empirical assessment of the detection efficiency of CR-39 at high proton fluence and a compact, proton detector for high-fluence applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Waugh, C. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Orozco, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Hohenberger, M.; Sangster, T. C.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Landen, O. L.; Zacharias, R. A.; Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and under ideal conditions these detectors have 100% detection efficiency for ~0.58 MeV protons. When the fluence of incident particles becomes too high, overlap of particle tracks leads to under-counting at typical processing conditions (5 h etch in 6N NaOH at 80 C). Short etch times required to avoid overlap can cause under-counting as well, as tracks are not fully developed. Experiments have determined the minimum etch times for 100% detection of 1.74.3-MeV protons and established that for 2.4-MeV protons, relevant for detection of DD protons, the maximum fluence that can be detected using normal processing techniques is ?3 106 cm-2. A CR-39-based proton detector has been developed to mitigate issues related to high particle fluences on ICF facilities. Using a pinhole and scattering foil several mm in front of the CR-39, proton fluences at the CR-39 are reduced by more than a factor of ~50, increasing the operating yield upper limit by a comparable amount.

  16. Empirical assessment of the detection efficiency of CR-39 at high proton fluence and a compact, proton detector for high-fluence applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Waugh, C. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Orozco, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sinenian, N.; et al

    2014-04-14

    CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and under ideal conditions these detectors have 100% detection efficiency for ~0.5–8 MeV protons. When the fluence of incident particles becomes too high, the overlap of particle tracks leads to under-counting at typical processing conditions (5h etch in 6N NaOH at 80°C). Short etch times required to avoid overlap can cause under-counting as well, as tracks are not fully developed. Experiments have determined the minimum etch times for 100% detection of 1.7–4.3-MeV protons and established that for 2.4-MeV protons, relevant for detectionmore » of DD protons, the maximum fluence that can be detected using normal processing techniques is ≲3 ×106 cm-2. A CR-39-based proton detector has been developed to mitigate issues related to high particle fluences on ICF facilities. Using a pinhole and scattering foil several mm in front of the CR-39, proton fluences at the CR-39 are reduced by more than a factor of ~50, increasing the operating yield upper limit by a comparable amount.« less

  17. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a limited set of advanced inverter functions.

  18. Hydrogen Reactivity on Highly-hydroxylated TiO2(110) Surfaces Prepared via Carboxylic Acid Adsorption and Photolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Deskins, N. Aaron; Wang, Zhitao; Henderson, Michael A.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2012-02-27

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, photo stimulated desorption, and density functional theory studies have probed the formation and reactivity of highly-hydroxylated rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, which were prepared via a novel, photochemical route using trimethyl acetic acid (TMAA) dissociative adsorption and subsequent photolysis at 300 K. Deprotonation of TMAA molecules upon adsorption produces both surface bridging hydroxyls (OHb) and bidentate trimethyl acetate (TMA) species with a saturation coverage of near 0.5 monolayer (ML). Ultra-violet light irradiation selectively removes TMA species, producing a highly-hydroxylated surface with up to ~0.5 ML OHb coverage. At high coverages, the OHb species typically occupy second-nearest neighbor sites along the bridging oxygen row locally forming linear (21) structures of different lengths, although the surface is less ordered on a long scale. The annealing of the highly-hydroxylated surface leads to hydroxyl recombination and H2O desorption with ~100% yield, thus ruling out the diffusion of H into the bulk that has been suggested in the literature. In agreement with experimental data, theoretical results show that the recombinative H2O desorption is preferred over both H bulk diffusion and H2 desorption processes.

  19. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  20. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac applications; for instance, it could be employed to both accelerate the beam and to stabilize the superbunch mode of operation in circular track machines.

  1. High-Purity Germanium Spectroscopy at Rates in Excess of 10^{6} Events/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanDevender, Brent A.; Dion, Michael P.; Fast, James E.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Wilen, Christopher D.; Wood, Lynn S.; Wright, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    AbstractIn gamma spectroscopy, a compromise must be made between energy resolution and event-rate capability. Some foreseen nuclear material safeguards applications require a spectrometer with energy resolution typical of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, operated at rates up to and exceeding 106 events per second. We report the performance of an HPGe spectrometer adapted to run at such rates. Our system consists of a commercial semi-coaxial HPGe detector, a modified high-voltagerail, resistive-feedback, charge-sensitive preamplifier and a continuous waveform digitizer. Digitized waveforms are analyzed offline with a novel time-variant trapezoidal filter algorithm. Several time-invariant trapezoidal filters are run in parallel and the slowest one not rejected by instantaneous pileup conditions is used to measure each pulse height. We have attained full-widthat- half-maximum energy resolution of less than 8 keV measured at 662 keV with 1:08*106 per second incoming event rate and 38% throughput. An additional constraint on the width of the fast trigger filter removes a significant amount of edge pileup that passes the first pileup cut, reducing throughput to 26%. While better resolution has been reported by other authors, our throughput is over an order of magnitude higher than any other reported HPGe system operated at such an event rate.

  2. High-performance deep ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO quantum dot assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Xu, Chunxiang E-mail: jghu@yzu.edu.cn; Hu, Jingguo E-mail: jghu@yzu.edu.cn

    2014-09-14

    A high-performance ZnO quantum dots (QDs)-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector has been successfully fabricated via the self-assembly of QDs on the Au interdigital electrode. The broadened band gap in ZnO QDs makes the device has the highly selective response for the deep UV detection. The unique QD-QD junction barriers similar to back-to-back Schottky barriers dominate the conductance of the QD network and the UV light-induced barrier-height modulation plays a crucial role in enhancing the photoresponsivity and the response speed. Typically, the as-fabricated device exhibits the fast response and recovery times of within 1 s, the deep UV selectivity of less than 340 nm, and the stable repeatability with on/off current ratio over 10, photoresponsivity of 5.0410A/W, and photocurrent gain of 1.910, demonstrating that the ZnO QD network is a superior building block for deep UV photodetectors.

  3. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.423.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 79% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 79% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 35 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  5. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borriello, Enrico; Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Universitt Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Chakraborty, Sovan [Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Fhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Mnchen (Germany); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fr Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lisi, Eligio, E-mail: enrico.borriello@desy.de, E-mail: sovan@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: eligio.lisi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de [INFNSezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within 1? fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models.

  6. Highly Aligned Carbon Fiber in Polymer Composite Structures via Additive Manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tekinalp, Halil L; Kunc, Vlastimil; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M; Duty, Chad E; Love, Lonnie J; Naskar, Amit K; Blue, Craig A; Ozcan, Soydan

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructuremore » and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. This phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.« less

  7. Targeting 100! Advanced Energy Efficient Building Technologies for High Performance Hospitals: Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burpee, Heather; Loveland, Joel; Helmers, Aaron

    2015-09-02

    This research, Targeting 100!, provides a conceptual framework and decision-making structure at a schematic design level of precision for hospital owners, architects and engineers to radically reduce energy use in hospitals. Following the goals of Architecture 2030 and The 2030 Challenge, it offers access to design strategies and the cost implications of those strategies for new hospitals to utilize 60% less energy. The name, Targeting 100!, comes from the 2030 Challenge energy reduction goal for hospitals; a 60% energy use reduction from typical acute care hospital targets approximately 100 KBtu/SF Year, thus the name Targeting 100!. Targeting 100! was developed through funding partnerships with the US Department of Energy and the Northwest Energy Efficiencys BetterBricks Initiative. The technical team was led by the University of Washington Integrated Design Lab supported by deep collaboration with Solarc Architecture and Engineering, TBD Cost Consultants, and NBBJ Architecture. Through extensive research and design development, Targeting 100! provides a framework for developing high performance healthcare projects today and into the future. An online tool houses a Targeting 100! knowlegebase and roadmap. It can be accessed at: www.idlseattle.com/t100. The webtool is structured from high-level overview materials to detailed library with modeling inputs and outputs, providing a comprehensive report of the background, data, and outcomes from the project.

  8. In situ Formation of Highly Conducting Covalent Au-C Contacts for Single-Molecule Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Z.L.; Hybertsen, M.; Skouta, R.; Vazquez, H.; Widawsky, J.R.; Schneebeli, S.; Chen, W.; Breslow, R.; Venkataraman, L.

    2011-06-01

    Charge transport across metal-molecule interfaces has an important role in organic electronics. Typically, chemical link groups such as thiols or amines are used to bind organic molecules to metal electrodes in single-molecule circuits, with these groups controlling both the physical structure and the electronic coupling at the interface. Direct metal-carbon coupling has been shown through C60, benzene and {pi}-stacked benzene but ideally the carbon backbone of the molecule should be covalently bonded to the electrode without intervening link groups. Here, we demonstrate a method to create junctions with such contacts. Trimethyl tin (SnMe{sub 3})-terminated polymethylene chains are used to form single-molecule junctions with a break-junction technique. Gold atoms at the electrode displace the SnMe{sub 3} linkers, leading to the formation of direct Au-C bonded single-molecule junctions with a conductance that is {approx}100 times larger than analogous alkanes with most other terminations. The conductance of these Au-C bonded alkanes decreases exponentially with molecular length, with a decay constant of 0.97 per methylene, consistent with a non-resonant transport mechanism. Control experiments and ab initio calculations show that high conductances are achieved because a covalent Au-C sigma ({sigma}) bond is formed. This offers a new method for making reproducible and highly conducting metal-organic contacts.

  9. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nibur, Kevin A.

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  10. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  11. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P. D.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Nappo, F.; Nava, L.; Japelj, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Oates, S.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gafton, E.; Ghisellini, G.; Gnedin, N.; Goldoni, P.; Gorosabel, J.; Libbrecht, T.; Malesani, D.; Salvaterra, R.; Thone, C. C.; Vergani, S. D.; Xu, D.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-09-09

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is xHI ? 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded in a very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ? 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. Furthermore, the possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely.

  12. Highly Aligned Carbon Fiber in Polymer Composite Structures via Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Velez-Garcia, Gregorio M [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, diverging from traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting and machining materials, can handle complex shapes with great design flexibility without the typical waste. Although this technique has been mainly used for rapid prototyping, interest is growing in using this method to directly manufacture actual parts of complex shape. To use 3D-printing additive manufacturing in wide spread applications, the technique and the feedstock materials require improvements to meet the mechanical requirements of load-bearing components. Thus, we investigated the short fiber (0.2 mm to 0.4 mm) reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites as a feedstock for 3D-printing in terms of their processibility, microstructure and mechanical performance; and also provided comparison with traditional compression molded composites. The tensile strength and modulus of 3D-printed samples increased ~115% and ~700%, respectively. 3D-printer yielded samples with very high fiber orientation in printing direction (up to 91.5 %), whereas, compression molding process yielded samples with significantly less fiber orientation. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships revealed that although the relatively high porosity is observed in the 3D-printed composites as compared to those produced by the conventional compression molding technique, they both exhibited comparable tensile strength and modulus. This phenomena is explained based on the changes in fiber orientation, dispersion and void formation.

  13. Energy-Efficient, High-Color-Rendering LED Lamps Using Oxyfluoride and Fluoride Phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, A.; Radkov, E; Henderson, C; Her, J; Srivastava, A; Karkada, N; Kishore, M; Kumar, N; Aesram, D; et al.

    2010-01-01

    LED lamps using phosphor downconversion can be designed to replace incandescent or halogen sources with a 'warm-white' correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2700-3200 K and a color rendering index (CRI) greater than 90. However, these lamps have efficacies of {approx}70% of standard 'cool-white' LED packages (CCT = 4500-6000 K; CRI = 75-80). In this report, we describe structural and luminescence properties of fluoride and oxyfluoride phosphors, specifically a (Sr,Ca){sub 3}(Al,Si)O{sub 4}(F,O):Ce{sup 3+} yellow-green phosphor and a K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}:Mn{sup 4+} red phosphor, that can reduce this gap and therefore meet the spectral and efficiency requirements for high-efficacy LED lighting. LED lamps with a warm-white color temperature (3088 K), high CRI (90), and an efficacy of {approx}82 lm/W are demonstrated using these phosphors. This efficacy is {approx}85% of comparable cool-white lamps using typical Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}-based phosphors, significantly reducing the efficacy gap between warm-white and cool-white LED lamps that use phosphor downconversion.

  14. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  15. The high-redshift gamma-ray burst GRB 140515A

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Melandri, A.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P. D.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R.; Nappo, F.; Nava, L.; Japelj, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Oates, S.; Campana, S.; et al

    2015-09-09

    High-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer several advantages when studying the distant Universe, providing unique information about the structure and properties of the galaxies in which they exploded. Spectroscopic identification with large ground-based telescopes has improved our knowledge of this kind of distant events. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of the high-zSwift GRB GRB 140515A (z = 6.327). The best estimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium towards the burst is xHI ≤ 0.002. The spectral absorption lines detected for this event are the weakest lines ever observed in GRB afterglows, suggesting that GRB 140515A exploded in amore » very low-density environment. Its circum-burst medium is characterised by an average extinction (AV ~ 0.1) that seems to be typical of z ≥ 6 events. The observed multi-band light curves are explained either with a very hard injected spectrum (p = 1.7) or with a multi-component emission (p = 2.1). In the second case a long-lasting central engine activity is needed in order to explain the late time X-ray emission. Furthermore, the possible origin of GRB 140515A in a Pop III (or in a Pop II star with a local environment enriched by Pop III) massive star is unlikely.« less

  16. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  17. INCONEL 690 CORROSION IN WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT) HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS MELTS RICH IN ALUMINUM & BISMUTH & CHROMIUM OR ALUMINUM/SODIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; FENG Z; GAN H; PEGG IL

    2009-11-05

    Metal corrosion tests were conducted with four high waste loading non-Fe-limited HLW glass compositions. The results at 1150 C (the WTP nominal melter operating temperature) show corrosion performance for all four glasses that is comparable to that of other typical borosilicate waste glasses, including HLW glass compositions that have been developed for iron-limited WTP streams. Of the four glasses tested, the Bi-limited composition shows the greatest extent of corrosion, which may be related to its higher phosphorus content. Tests at higher suggest that a moderate elevation of the melter operating temperature (up to 1200 C) should not result in any significant increase in Inconel corrosion. However, corrosion rates did increase significantly at yet higher temperatures (1230 C). Very little difference was observed with and without the presence of an electric current density of 6 A/inch{sup 2}, which is the typical upper design limit for Inconel electrodes. The data show a roughly linear relationship between the thickness of the oxide scale on the coupon and the Cr-depletion depth, which is consistent with the chromium depletion providing the material source for scale growth. Analysis of the time dependence of the Cr depletion profiles measured at 1200 C suggests that diffusion of Cr in the Ni-based Inconel alloy controls the depletion depth of Cr inside the alloy. The diffusion coefficient derived from the experimental data agrees within one order of magnitude with the published diffusion coefficient data for Cr in Ni matrices; the difference is likely due to the contribution from faster grain boundary diffusion in the tested Inconel alloy. A simple diffusion model based on these data predicts that Inconel 690 alloy will suffer Cr depletion damage to a depth of about 1 cm over a five year service life at 1200 C in these glasses.

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    areas, typically have: - low median household incomes - high unemployment - high poverty (see "Designations" section in website's FAQs) 6 www.sba.gov There are 4 kinds of ...

  19. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  20. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (?nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100?pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  1. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolishedmore » by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.« less

  2. Playa basin development, southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavson, T.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Holliday, V.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1992-01-01

    More than 20,000 playa basins have formed on fine-grained eolian sediments of the Quaternary Blackwater Draw and Tertiary Ogallala Formations on the High Plains of TX and NM. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the development of playa basins: (1) subsidence due to dissolution of underlying Permian bedded salt, (2) dissolution of soil carbonate and piping of clastic sediment into the subsurface, (3) animal activity, and (4) deflation. Evidence of eolian processes includes lee dunes and straightened shorelines on the eastern and southern margins of many playas. Lee dunes, which occur on the eastern side of ca 15% of playa basins and contain sediment deflated from adjacent playas, are cresentic to oval in plain view and typically account for 15--40% of the volume of the playa basin. Quaternary fossil biotas and buried calcic soils indicate that grasslands and semi-arid to aid climatic conditions prevailed as these basins formed. Evidence of fluviolacustrine processes in playa basins includes centripetal drainage leading to fan deltas at playa margins and preserved deltaic and lacustrine sediments. Playa basins expanded as fluvial processes eroded basin slopes and carried sediment to the basin floor where, during periods of minimal vegetation cover, loose sediment was removed by deflation. Other processes that played secondary roles in the development of certain playa basins include subsidence induced by dissolution of deeply buried Permian salt, dissolution of soil carbonate and piping, and animal activity. Two small lake basins in Gray County, TX, occur above strata affected by dissolution-induced subsidence. Dissolution of soil carbonate was observed in exposures and cores of strata underlying playa basins. Cattle, and in the past vast numbers of migrating buffalo, destroy soil crusts in dry playas, making these sediments more susceptible to deflation, and carry sediment out of flooded playas on their hooves.

  3. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the author describes an innovative method of measuring high-frequency electric fields using a toroid. For typical geophysical applications the new sensor will detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from 1.0 MHz. This window, in particular the lower frequency range between 1.0 to 100 MHz, has not been used for existing electromagnetic or radar systems to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be used successfully in this depth range if the ground is resistive but most soils are, in fact, conductive (0.01 to 1.0 S/m) rendering GPR inefficient. Other factors controlling the resolution of GPR system for small objects is the spatial averaging inherent in the electric dipole antenna and the scattering caused by soil inhomogeneities of dimensions comparable to the wavelength (and antenna size). For maximum resolution it is desirable to use the highest frequencies but the scattering is large and target identification is poor. Time-varying magnetic fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroid. The electric field at the center of the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroid one can easily and accurately determine the electric field. The new sensor will greatly simplify the cumbersome procedure involved with GPR measurements with its center frequency less than 100 MHz. The overall size of the toroidal sensor can be as small as a few inches. It is this size advantage that will not only allow easy fabrication and deployment of multi-component devices either on the surface or in a borehole, but it will render greatly improved resolution over conventional systems.

  4. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma; Benz, Zachary

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandias simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandias current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Benzene from Painting with Epoxy and Other High Performance Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JAHN, STEVEN

    2005-04-20

    Following the discovery of trace benzene in paint products, an assessment was needed to determine potential for benzene exposures to exceed the established ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV) during painting operations. Sample data was collected by area industrial hygienists for benzene during routine maintenance and construction activities at Savannah River Site. A set of available data from the IH database, Sentry, was analyzed to provide guidance to the industrial hygiene staff and draw conclusions on the exposure potential during typical painting operations.

  6. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles θ (i.e., when the dispersion δθ≥0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for δθ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow θ distribution (when δθ∼0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  7. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  8. Encoding technique for high data compaction in data bases of fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega, J.; Cremy, C.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.

    1996-12-01

    At present, data requirements of hundreds of Mbytes/discharge are typical in devices such as JET, TFTR, DIII-D, etc., and these requirements continue to increase. With these rates, the amount of storage required to maintain discharge information is enormous. Compaction techniques are now essential to reduce storage. However, general compression techniques may distort signals, but this is undesirable for fusion diagnostics. We have developed a general technique for data compression which is described here. The technique, which is based on delta compression, does not require an examination of the data as in delayed methods. Delta values are compacted according to general encoding forms which satisfy a prefix code property and which are defined prior to data capture. Several prefix codes, which are bit oriented and which have variable code lengths, have been developed. These encoding methods are independent of the signal analog characteristics and enable one to store undistorted signals. The technique has been applied to databases of the TJ-I tokamak and the TJ-IU torsatron. Compaction rates of over 80{percent} with negligible computational effort were achieved. Computer programs were written in ANSI C, thus ensuring portability and easy maintenance. We also present an interpretation, based on information theory, of the high compression rates achieved without signal distortion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  10. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  11. Method for manufacturing compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with improved DC and high frequency performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zolper, John C.; Sherwin, Marc E.; Baca, Albert G.

    2000-01-01

    A method for making compound semiconductor devices including the use of a p-type dopant is disclosed wherein the dopant is co-implanted with an n-type donor species at the time the n-channel is formed and a single anneal at moderate temperature is then performed. Also disclosed are devices manufactured using the method. In the preferred embodiment n-MESFETs and other similar field effect transistor devices are manufactured using C ions co-implanted with Si atoms in GaAs to form an n-channel. C exhibits a unique characteristic in the context of the invention in that it exhibits a low activation efficiency (typically, 50% or less) as a p-type dopant, and consequently, it acts to sharpen the Si n-channel by compensating Si donors in the region of the Si-channel tail, but does not contribute substantially to the acceptor concentration in the buried p region. As a result, the invention provides for improved field effect semiconductor and related devices with enhancement of both DC and high-frequency performance.

  12. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  13. SHAM: High-level seismic tests of piping at the HDR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Costello, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the second phase of vibrational/earthquake investigations at the HDR (Heissdampfreaktor) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, high-level simulated seismic tests (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the VKL (Versuchskreislauf) in-plant piping system with two servohydraulic actuators, each capable of generating 40 tons of force. The purpose of these experiments was to study the behavior of piping subjected to seismic excitation levels that exceed design levels manifold and may result in failure/plastification of pipe supports and pipe elements, and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. The performance of six different dynamic pipe support systems was compared in these tests and the response, operability, and fragility of dynamic supports and of a typical US gate valve were investigated. Data obtained in the tests are used to validate analysis methods. Very preliminary evaluations lead to the observation that, in general, failures of dynamic supports (in particular snubbers) occur only at load levels that substantially exceed the design capacity. Pipe strains at load levels exceeding the design level threefold are quite small, and even when exceeding the design level eightfold are quite tolerable. Hence, under seismic loading, even at extreme levels and in spite of multiple support failures, pipe failure is unlikely. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  14. Nanocomposite thin films for high temperature optical gas sensing of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2013-04-02

    The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream at temperatures greater than about 500.degree. C. utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. At high temperatures, blue shift of the plasmon resonance optical absorption peak indicates the presence of H.sub.2. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.

  15. Tuning magnetic disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors using high fields to 89 Tesla

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crooker, Scott A; Samarth, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent and ongoing studies at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos using the new '100 Tesla Multi-Shot Magnet', which is presently delivering fields up to {approx}89 T during its commissioning. We discuss the first experiments performed in this magnet system, wherein the linewidth of low-temperature photoluminescence spectra was used to directly reveal the degree of magnetic alloy disorder 'seen' by excitons in single Zn{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.08}Se quantum wells. The magnetic potential landscape in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is typically smoothed when the embedded Mn{sup 2+} spins align in an applied field. However, an important (but heretofore untested) prediction of current models of compositional disorder is that magnetic alloy fluctuations in many DMS compounds should increase again in very large magnetic fields approaching 100 T. We observed precisely this increase above {approx}70 T, in agreement with a simple model of magnetic alloy disorder.

  16. Rarefaction windows in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmucci, Maria; Britun, Nikolay; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony; Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons

    2013-09-21

    The velocity distribution function of the sputtered particles in the direction parallel to the planar magnetron cathode is studied by spatially- and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a short-duration (20 ?s) high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. The experimental evidence for the neutral and ionized sputtered particles to have a constant (saturated) velocity at the end of the plasma on-time is demonstrated. The velocity component parallel to the target surface reaches the values of about 5 km/s for Ti atoms and ions, which is higher that the values typically measured in the direct current sputtering discharges before. The results point out on the presence of a strong gas rarefaction significantly reducing the sputtered particles energy dissipation during a certain time interval at the end of the plasma pulse, referred to as rarefaction window in this work. The obtained results agree with and essentially clarify the dynamics of HiPIMS discharge studied during the plasma off-time previously in the work: N. Britun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131504 (2011)

  17. Gas breakdown driven by L band short-pulse high-power microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yiming; Yuan Chengwei; Qian Baoliang

    2012-12-15

    High power microwave (HPM) driven gas breakdown is a major factor in limiting the radiation and transmission of HPM. A method that HPM driven gas breakdown could be obtained by changing the aperture of horn antenna is studied in this paper. Changing the effective aperture of horn antenna can adjust the electric field in near field zone, leading to gas breakdown. With this method, measurements of air and SF{sub 6} breakdowns are carried out on a magnetically insulated transmission-line oscillators, which is capable of generating HPM with pulse duration of 30 ns, and frequency of 1.74 GHz. The typical breakdown waveforms of air and SF{sub 6} are presented. Besides, the breakdown field strengths of the two gases are derived at different pressures. It is found that the effects of air and SF{sub 6} breakdown on the transmission of HPM are different: air breakdown mainly shortens the pulse width of HPM while SF{sub 6} breakdown mainly reduces the peak output power of HPM. The electric field threshold of SF{sub 6} is about 2.4 times larger than that of air. These differences suggest that gas properties have a great effect on the transmission characteristic of HPM in gases.

  18. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 μs rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 μs achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore » rate, the 50 μs rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  19. Strong gravitational lensing as a tool to investigate the structure of jets at high energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnacka, Anna; Geller, Margaret J.; Benbow, Wystan; Dell'antonio, Ian P.

    2014-06-20

    The components of blazar jets that emit radiation span a factor of 10{sup 10} in scale. The spatial structure of these emitting regions depends on the observed energy. Photons emitted at different sites cross the lens plane at different distances from the mass-weighted center of the lens. Thus there are differences in magnification ratios and time delays between the images of lensed blazars observed at different energies. When the lens structure and redshift are known from optical observations, these constraints can elucidate the structure of the source at high energies. At these energies, current technology is inadequate to resolve these sources, and the observed light curve is thus the sum of the images. Durations of ?-ray flares are short compared with typical time delays; thus both the magnification ratio and the time delay can be measured for the delayed counterparts. These measurements are a basis for localizing the emitting region along the jet. To demonstrate the power of strong gravitational lensing, we build a toy model based on the best studied and the nearest relativistic jet M87.

  20. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  1. High-stability cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope based on a closed-cycle cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackley, Jason D.; Kislitsyn, Dmitry A.; Beaman, Daniel K.; Nazin, George V.; Ulrich, Stefan

    2014-10-15

    We report on the design and operation of a cryogenic ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) coupled to a closed-cycle cryostat (CCC). The STM is thermally linked to the CCC through helium exchange gas confined inside a volume enclosed by highly flexible rubber bellows. The STM is thus mechanically decoupled from the CCC, which results in a significant reduction of the mechanical noise transferred from the CCC to the STM. Noise analysis of the tunneling current shows current fluctuations up to 4% of the total current, which translates into tip-sample distance variations of up to 1.5 picometers. This noise level is sufficiently low for atomic-resolution imaging of a wide variety of surfaces. To demonstrate this, atomic-resolution images of Au(111) and NaCl(100)/Au(111) surfaces, as well as of carbon nanotubes deposited on Au(111), were obtained. Thermal drift analysis showed that under optimized conditions, the lateral stability of the STM scanner can be as low as 0.18 /h. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy measurements based on the lock-in technique were also carried out, and showed no detectable presence of noise from the closed-cycle cryostat. Using this cooling approach, temperatures as low as 16 K at the STM scanner have been achieved, with the complete cool-down of the system typically taking up to 12 h. These results demonstrate that the constructed CCC-coupled STM is a highly stable instrument capable of highly detailed spectroscopic investigations of materials and surfaces at the atomic scale.

  2. A high performance DAC /DDS daughter module for the RHIC LLRF platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, T.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.S.; Yuan, S.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC LLRF upgrade is a flexible, modular system. Output signals are generated by a custom designed XMC card with 4 high speed digital to analog (DAC) converters interfaced to a high performance field programmable gate array (FPGA). This paper discusses the hardware details of the XMC DAC board as well as the implementation of a low noise rf synthesizer with digital IQ modulation. This synthesizer also provides injection phase cogging and frequency hop rebucketing capabilities. A new modular RHIC LLRF system was recently designed and commissioned based on custom designed XMC cards. As part of that effort a high speed, four channel DAC board was designed. The board uses Maxim MAX5891 16 bit DACs with a maximum update rate of 600 Msps. Since this module is intended to be used for many different systems throughout the Collider Accelerator complex, it was designed to be as generic as possible. One major application of this DAC card is to implement digital synthesizers to provide drive signals to the various cavities at RHIC. Since RHIC is a storage ring with stores that typically last many hours, extremely low RF noise is a critical requirement. Synchrotron frequencies at RHIC range from a few hertz to several hundred hertz depending on the species and point in the acceleration cycle so close in phase noise is a major concern. The RHIC LLRF system uses the Update Link, a deterministic, high speed data link that broadcasts the revolution frequency and the synchronous phase angle. The digital synthesizers use this data to generate a properly phased analog drive signal. The synthesizers must also provide smooth phase shifts for cogging and support frequency shift rebucketing. One additional feature implemented in the FPGA is a digital waveform generator (WFG) that generates I and Q data pairs based on a user selected amplitude and phase profile as a function of time.

  3. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L. G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 9.4 High Performance Buildings

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Case Study, The Solaire, New York, New York (Apartments/Multi-Family) Building Design Floor Area: 357,000 SF Units: 293 Maximum Occupancy: 700 Floors: 27 Site Size: 0.38 Acres Typical Occupancy(1): 578 Black-Water Treatment Facility (2) Shell Windows Material: Double Glazed, Low-e, Thermal Breaks with Insulated Spacers Operable Windows Fixed Windows Visual Transminttance 0.68 0.68 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient 0.35 0.35 U-Factor 0.47 0.41 Wall/Roof Material R-Value Exterior Walls: Insulated

  5. The q-profile effect on high-order harmonic q = 1 tearing mode generation during sawtooth crashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Zhengxiong; Wei Lai; Wang Xiaogang

    2012-06-15

    The effect of q-profiles on the excitation of high-order harmonic q=1 tearing modes during sawtooth crashes is investigated by a collisionless fluid model with the electron inertia term in Ohm's law. It is found that for a flat q-profile in the core region, the high-order harmonics, such as m/n=2/2 and/or m/n=3/3 modes, comparable to or stronger than the m/n=1/1 component, can be excited during tokamak sawteeth. The stronger the magnetic shear on the q=1 surface is, the more unstable the higher-m modes are. For smoothly monotonously increased q-profiles, a lower q value on the plasma edge tends to easily excite higher-m harmonics at the same level as the m = 1 mode simultaneously. The spatial characteristics of the eigenmodes in the cases with the typical q-profiles are also discussed. In addition, the basic feature of the magnetic island structures in the nonlinear evolution is numerically obtained, which is consistent qualitatively with the experimentally reconstructed phenomenon.

  6. High resolution short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer for copper K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujala, N. G.; Barrea, R. A.; Karanfil, C.

    2011-06-15

    We have developed a compact short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer (BCLA) for Cu speciation studies of biological systems with specific applications to cancer biology. The system provides high energy resolution and high background rejection. The system is composed of an aluminum block serving as a log spiral bender for a 15 micron thick Silicon 111 crystal and a set of soller slits. The energy resolution of the BCLA--about 14 eV at the Cu K{alpha} line-- allows resolution of the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} and CuK{alpha}{sub 2} lines. The system is easily aligned by using a set of motorized XYZ linear stages. Two operation modes are available: incident energy scans (IES) and emission energy scans (EES). IES allows scanning of the incident energy while the BCLA system is maintained at a preselected fixed position - typically CuK{alpha}{sub 1} line. EES is used when the incident energy is fixed and the analyzer is scanned to provide the peak profile of the emission lines of Cu.

  7. Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers (FHX) in Ultra-High Energy Efficient Research Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Piljae; Hughes, Patrick; Liu, Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    The more widespread use of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems has been hindered by their high first cost, which is mainly driven by the cost of the drilling and excavation for installation of ground heat exchangers (GHXs). A new foundation heat exchanger (FHX) technology was proposed to reduce first cost by placing the heat exchanger into the excavations made during the course of construction (e.g., the overcut for the basement and/or foundation and run-outs for water supply and the septic field). Since they reduce or eliminate the need for additional drilling or excavation, foundation heat exchangers have the potential to significantly reduce or eliminate the first cost premium associated with GSHPs. Since December 2009, this FHX technology has been demonstrated in two ultra-high energy efficient new research houses in the Tennessee Valley, and the performance data has been closely monitored as well. This paper introduces the FHX technology with the design, construction and demonstration of the FHX and presents performance monitoring results of the FHX after one year of monitoring. The performance monitoring includes hourly maximum and minimum entering water temperature (EWT) in the FHX compared with the typical design range, temperature difference (i.e., T) across the FHX, and hourly heat transfer rate to/from the surrounding soil.

  8. SIPS: A small modular process unit for the in-tank pretreatment of high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Barletta, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of the U.S. weapons production program, there are now hundreds of large tanks containing highly radioactive wastes. Safe disposal of these wastes requires their processing and separations into a small volume of highly radioactive waste (HLW) and a much larger volume of low-level waste (LLW). The HLW waste would then be vitrified and transported to a geologic repository. To date, the principal approach proposed for the separation envisions a large, centralized process facility. The small in-tank processing system (SIPS) is a proposed new, small modular concept for the in-tank processing and separation of wastes into HLW and LLW output streams suitable for vitrification. Instead of pumping the retrieved tank wastes as a solid/liquid slurry over long distances to a centralized process facility, SIPS would employ a small process module, typically {approximately}1 m in diameter and 4 m long, which would be inserted into the tank. Over a period of {approx} 6 months, the module would process the solid/liquid materials in the tank, producing separated liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small-diameter ({approx}3-cm outside diameter) pipes. The SIPS module would be serviced by five auxiliary small pipes - a water feed pipe, a water feed pipe containing micron-size ferromagnetic particles, a nitric acid ({approx}3 M) feed pipe, and input/out pipes to hydraulically load/unload ion exchange beads.

  9. A Fission Gas Release Model for High-Burnup LWR ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Yun; Yi Yuan; Kazimi, Mujid S.; Ballinger, Ronald G.; Pilat, Edward E.

    2002-06-15

    Fission gas release in thoria-urania fuel has been investigated by creating a specially modified FRAPCON-3 code. Because of the reduced buildup of {sup 239}Pu and a flatter distribution of {sup 233}U, the new model THUPS (Thoria-Urania Power Shape) was developed to calculate the radial power distribution, including the effects of both plutonium and {sup 233}U. Additionally, a new porosity model for the rim region was introduced at high burnup. The mechanisms of fission gas release in ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel are expected to be essentially similar to those of UO{sub 2} fuel; therefore, the general formulations of the existing fission gas release models in FRAPCON-3 were retained. However, the gas diffusion coefficient was adjusted to a lower level to account for the smaller observed release fraction in the thoria-based fuel. To model the accelerated fission gas release at high burnup properly, a new athermal fission gas release model was introduced. The modified version of FRAPCON-3 was calibrated using the measured fission gas release data from the light water breeder reactor. Using the new model to calculate the gas release in typical pressurized water reactor hot pins gives data that indicate that the ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel will have considerably lower fission gas release above a burnup of 50 MWd/kg HM.

  10. Structural and electronic response of U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} to high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriques, M. S.; Prchal, J.; Havela, L.; Raison, P.; Heathman, S.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Gonalves, A. P.

    2015-03-21

    Structural, magnetic, and electrical properties have been studied on a U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} single crystal under hydrostatic pressure. The orthorhombic crystal structure is found to be stable up to 30 GPa, the highest applied pressure, but the compressibility is strongly anisotropic. Contrary to typical uranium intermetallics for which the softest lattice direction is along the shortest inter-uranium links, in U{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} the lattice is compressed most in a perpendicular direction for the high pressure range. The elastic properties are modified considerably in the vicinity of 1?GPa when the b axis is transformed from least compressible to most compressible. The bulk modulus is found to be about 150?GPa. The anomalies in the elastic properties are reflected in the electronic properties that consistently indicate a change of the magnetic ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic. Both types of order exhibit a gap in the magnon spectrum; however, it is twice as high for the ferromagnetic state. The magnetoresistance reveals field-induced transitions of different origins in the antiferromagnetic state along the easy and hard magnetization directions.

  11. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  12. Device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive fast liners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner which is generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner.

  13. Fast-ion transport in q{sub min}>2, high-? steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Bass, E. M.; Luce, T. C.; Pace, D. C.; Solomon, W. M.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Podesta, M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; Park, J. M.; Kim, K.; Turco, F.

    2015-05-15

    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high ? steady-state operating scenarios with high-q{sub min} confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing ?{sub N} and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q{sub min}>2 that target the typical range of q{sub 95}= 57 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvn eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable ?{sub N}. In contrast, similar plasmas except with q{sub min} just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q{sub min}>3 plasmas to higher ?{sub P} with q{sub 95}= 1112 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-q{sub min} scenario, the high ?{sub P} cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ??{sub fast}, and this reduces the drive for Alfvnic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, ?{sub N}, and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q{sub 95}, high-q{sub min} plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvn eigenmodes.

  14. 3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring; Joe Hartvigsen

    2007-06-01

    3D CFD Model of High Temperature H2O/CO2 Co-Electrolysis Grant Hawkes1, James OBrien1, Carl Stoots1, Stephen Herring1 Joe Hartvigsen2 1 Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, grant.hawkes@inl.gov 2 Ceramatec Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a planar solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to simultaneously address the research and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of planar solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for syn-gas production from CO2 and steam. Various runs have been performed under different run conditions to help assess the performance of the SOE. This paper presents CFD results of this model compared with experimental results. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to produce syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. A strong interest exists in the large-scale production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam to be reformed into a usable transportation fuel. If biomass is used as the carbon source, the overall process is climate neutral. Consequently, there is a high level of interest in production of syn-gas from CO2 and steam electrolysis. With the price of oil currently around $60 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of syn-gas production from CO2 and water, with no consumption of fossil fuels, and no production of greenhouse gases. Thermal CO2-splitting and water splitting for syn-gas production can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis, using high-temperature nuclear process heat and electricity. A high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-syn-gas conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%.

  15. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many ?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability we??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDD??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detector??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  16. High-rate Plastic Deformation of Nanocrystalline Tantalum to Large Strains: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, R E

    2009-02-05

    Recent advances in the ability to generate extremes of pressure and temperature in dynamic experiments and to probe the response of materials has motivated the need for special materials optimized for those conditions as well as a need for a much deeper understanding of the behavior of materials subjected to high pressure and/or temperature. Of particular importance is the understanding of rate effects at the extremely high rates encountered in those experiments, especially with the next generation of laser drives such as at the National Ignition Facility. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the high-rate deformation of nanocrystalline tantalum to investigate the processes associated with plastic deformation for strains up to 100%. We use initial atomic configurations that were produced through simulations of solidification in the work of Streitz et al [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, (2006) 225701]. These 3D polycrystalline systems have typical grain sizes of 10-20 nm. We also study a rapidly quenched liquid (amorphous solid) tantalum. We apply a constant volume (isochoric), constant temperature (isothermal) shear deformation over a range of strain rates, and compute the resulting stress-strain curves to large strains for both uniaxial and biaxial compression. We study the rate dependence and identify plastic deformation mechanisms. The identification of the mechanisms is facilitated through a novel technique that computes the local grain orientation, returning it as a quaternion for each atom. This analysis technique is robust and fast, and has been used to compute the orientations on the fly during our parallel MD simulations on supercomputers. We find both dislocation and twinning processes are important, and they interact in the weak strain hardening in these extremely fine-grained microstructures.

  17. MODELING OF HIGH SPEED FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING USING A LAGRANGIAN FINITE ELEMENT APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Woodward, C.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2013-09-03

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining steels of very high strength, while also being very flexible in terms of controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding (RSW) if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low so that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that are too high, in the range of 11-14 kN. Therefore, in the current work tool speeds of 3000 rpm and higher were employed, in order to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. The FSSW process was modeled using a finite element approach with the Forge software package. An updated Lagrangian scheme with explicit time integration was employed to model the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate [3]. The modeling approach can be described as two-dimensional, axisymmetric, but with an aspect of three dimensions in terms of thermal boundary conditions. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field which was two dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed using a virtual rotational velocity component from the tool surface. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to model the evolution of material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures and the movement of the joint interface with reasonable accuracy for the welding of a dual phase 980 steel.

  18. High energy arcing fault fires in switchgear equipment : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Brown, Jason W.; Wyant, Francis John

    2008-10-01

    In power generating plants, switchgear provide a means to isolate and de-energize specific electrical components and buses in order to clear downstream faults, perform routine maintenance, and replace necessary electrical equipment. These protective devices may be categorized by the insulating medium, such as air or oil, and are typically specified by voltage classes, i.e. low, medium, and high voltage. Given their high energy content, catastrophic failure of switchgear by means of a high energy arcing fault (HEAF) may occur. An incident such as this may lead to an explosion and fire within the switchgear, directly impact adjacent components, and possibly render dependent electrical equipment inoperable. Historically, HEAF events have been poorly documented and discussed in little detail. Recent incidents involving switchgear components at nuclear power plants, however, were scrupulously investigated. The phenomena itself is only understood on a very elementary level from preliminary experiments and theories; though many have argued that these early experiments were inaccurate due to primitive instrumentation or poorly justified methodologies and thus require re-evaluation. Within the past two decades, however, there has been a resurgence of research that analyzes previous work and modern technology. Developing a greater understanding of the HEAF phenomena, in particular the affects on switchgear equipment and other associated switching components, would allow power generating industries to minimize and possibly prevent future occurrences, thereby reducing costs associated with repair and downtime. This report presents the findings of a literature review focused on arc fault studies for electrical switching equipment. The specific objective of this review was to assess the availability of the types of information needed to support development of improved treatment methods in fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plant applications.

  19. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built Lab Homes located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The baseline Lab Home B was retrofitted with standard double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the experimental Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

  20. High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

  1. Effects of high temperature and flow blockage on the reflood behavior of a 4-rod bundle. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, M.; Dhir, V.K.

    1981-11-01

    It is usual in reactor safety analysis to assume that blocking or deforming the reactor core decreases the heat removal. This simplistic approach may not only penalize reactor power, but must be investigated experimentally to determine the real extent, if any. The experiments reported here examine quenching and heat removal in a blocked four-rod bundle. The local heat transfer in the blockage region is enhanced, despite the flow diversion away from the blockage. Additionally, data and correlations are given which compare the quenching rate of steel pins (typical of experiments) with Zircaloy (typical of reactor cladding). The Zircaloy bundle quenches faster when correlated on a local basis because of its smaller heat capacity. Additional work is under way to explain and correlate the intriguing results in more detail.

  2. cet20121127-doe_dayabay.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forward - Gives rise to very high IOCPU ratios - Typical HEP OO code (C++, Python, Java) - Analysis Blinding: * AD mass (Measured at fill) * Neutrino Flux (Derived from NPP...

  3. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project summary: Drilling into large aperture open fractures (LAFs) typically yield production wells with high productivity and ...

  4. Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach Robotic high-throughput screening methods typically used in the pharmaceutical industry are being applied by Halotechnics to map out phase diagrams in order to define low ...

  5. Geothermal Technologies Office 2015 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the REE content of geothermal fluids is very limited, * Challenging to analyze due to low concentrations of REE with high concentrations of interfering elements typical of...

  6. Electronics Engineer | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and troubleshoot existing systems. Technologies typically include analog front-end signal conditioning with digital processing processors interconnected by high-speed data...

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the process of dynamical downscaling by avoiding massive intermediate model outputs at high frequency that are typically required for offline regional downscaling. The inline...

  8. Two-Way Integration of WRF and CCSM for Regional Climate Simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the process of dynamical downscaling by avoiding massive intermediate model outputs at high frequency that are typically required for offline regional downscaling. The inline...

  9. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the process of dynamical downscaling by avoiding massive intermediate model outputs at high frequency that are typically required for offline regional downscaling The inline...

  10. Structure of Pentacene Monolayers on Amorphous Silicon Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    typical deposition parameters we use to produce high-performance TFTs. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) with synchrotron light offers the unique opportunity to study the...

  11. HP Supercomputer at NREL Garners Top Honor - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to high finance to the movement of nanoparticles and celestial objects-and to analyze big data almost everywhere. All of these calculations heat things up. A typical...

  12. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    than typical this year, due to hurricane damage experienced last fall and to high maintenance activities. In addition to normal maintenance, some refineries had to catch up on...

  13. ternay-pd-alloys-pall | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at high temperature and pressure from gasified coal in the presence of typical contaminants. Goals for the project include creating an advanced palladium alloy for optimum hydrogen...

  14. Automated Testing Instrument for Verification of Complex Computational...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    software of complex, low, medium and high speed, Real-Time Instrumentation, Acquisition, Control and Protection systems is typically time consuming and costly. When these systems...

  15. Modeling the Structural Response from a Propagating High Explosive Using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margraf, J

    2012-06-12

    This report primarily concerns the use of two massively parallel finite element codes originally written and maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ALE3D is an explicit hydrodynamics code commonly employed to simulate wave propagation from high energy scenarios and the resulting interaction with nearby structures. This coupled response ensures that a structure is accurately applied with a blast loading varying both in space and time. Figure 1 illustrates the radial outward propagation of a pressure wave due to a center detonated spherical explosive originating from the lower left. The radial symmetry seen in this scenario is lost when instead a cylindrocal charge is detonated. Figure 2 indicates that a stronger, faster traveling pressure wave occurs in the direction of the normal axis to the cylinder. The ALE3D name is derived because of the use of arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian elements in which the mesh is allowed to advect; a process through which the mesh is modified to alleviate tanlging and general mesh distortion often cuased by high energy scenarios. The counterpart to an advecting element is a Lagrange element, whose mesh moves with the material. Ideally all structural components are kept Lagrange as long as possible to preserve accuracy of material variables and minimize advection related errors. Advection leads to mixed zoning, so using structural Lagrange elements also improves the visualization when post processing the results. A simplified representation of the advection process is shown in Figure 3. First the mesh is distorted due to material motion during the Lagrange step. The mesh is then shifted to an idealized and less distorted state to prevent irregular zones caused by the Lagrange motion. Lastly, the state variables are remapped to the elements of the newly constructed mesh. Note that Figure 3 represents a purely Eulerian mesh relaxation because the mesh is relocated back to the pre-Lagrange position. This is the case when the material flows through a still mesh. This is not typically done in an ALE3D analysis, especially if Lagrange elements exist. Deforming Lagrange elements would certainly tangle with a Eulerian mesh eventually. The best method in this case is to have an advecting mesh positioned as some relaxed version of the pre and post Lagrange step; this gives the best opportunity of modeling a high energy event with a combination of Lagrange and ALE elements. Dyne3D is another explicit dynamic analysis code, ParaDyn being the parallel version. ParaDyn is used for predicting the transient response of three dimensional structures using Lagrangian solid mechanics. Large deformation and mesh tangling is often resolved through the use of an element deletion scheme. This is useful to accommodate component failure, but if it is done purely as a means to preserve a useful mesh it can lead to problems because it does not maintain continuity of the material bulk response. Whatever medium exists between structural components is typically not modeled in ParaDyn. Instead, a structure either has a known loading profile applied or given initial conditions. The many included contact algorithms can calculate the loading response of materials if and when they collide. A recent implementation of an SPH module in which failed or deleted material nodes are converted to independent particles is currently being utilized for a variety of spall related problems and high velocity impact scenarios. Figure 4 shows an example of a projectile, given an initial velocity, and how it fails the first plate which generates SPH particles which then interact with and damage the second plate.

  16. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph; Scovel, Christina A.

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code, run a simulation, and generate a comparison plot showing simulated and experimental velocity gauge data. These scripts are then applied to several series of experiments and to several HE burn models. The same systematic approach is applicable to other types of material models; for example, equations of state models and material strength models.

  17. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for stick built structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Manufactured Housing Institute. The results of this research can lead to savings in annual losses of life and property by providing validated information to enable the advancement of code requirements and by developing engineering software that can predict and optimize wind resistance.

  18. Line-driven winds revisited in the context of Be stars: ?-slow solutions with high k values

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silaj, J.; Jones, C. E.; Cur, M.

    2014-11-01

    The standard, or fast, solutions of m-CAK line-driven wind theory cannot account for slowly outflowing disks like the ones that surround Be stars. It has been previously shown that there exists another family of solutionsthe ?-slow solutionsthat is characterized by much slower terminal velocities and higher mass-loss rates. We have solved the one-dimensional m-CAK hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds for this latter solution, starting from standard values of the line force parameters (?, k, and ?), and then systematically varying the values of ? and k. Terminal velocities and mass-loss rates that are in good agreement with those found in Be stars are obtained from the solutions with lower ? and higher k values. Furthermore, the equatorial densities of such solutions are comparable to those that are typically assumed in ad hoc models. For very high values of k, we find that the wind solutions exhibit a new kind of behavior.

  19. High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, T.L.; D'arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

  20. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Douglas Way

    2001-07-31

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H2 separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({approx}1 mm) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H2 separation, and resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 4}0 alloy membranes on porous supports for H{sub 2} separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H{sub 2} flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H{sub 2} flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems.

  1. Comparison of the high-pressure behavior of the cerium oxides Ce2O3 and CeO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lipp, M. J.; Jeffries, J. R.; Cynn, H.; Park Klepeis, J. -H.; Evans, W. J.; Mortensen, D. R.; Seidler, G. T.; Xiao, Y.; Chow, P.

    2016-02-09

    We studied the high-pressure behavior of Ce2O3 using angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction to 70 GPa and compared with that of CeO2. Up to the highest pressure Ce2O3 remains in the hexagonal phase (space group 164, P ¯32/m1) typical for the lanthanide sesquioxides. We did not observe a theoretically predicted phase instability for 30 GPa. The isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative for the quasihydrostatic case are B0 = 111 ± 2 GPa, B'0 = 4.7 ± 0.3, and for the case without pressure-transmitting medium B0 = 104 ±4 GPa, B'0 = 6.5 ± 0.4. Starting from ambient-pressure magnetic susceptibility measurementsmore » for both oxides in highly purified form,we find that the Ce atom in Ce2O3 behaves like a trivalent Ce3+ ion (2.57μB per Ce atom) in contrast to previously published data. Since x-ray emission spectroscopy of the Lγ (4d3/2 → 2p1/2) transition is sensitive to the 4f -electron occupancy, we also followed the high-pressure dependence of this line for both oxides up to 50 GPa. We observed no change of the respective line shape, indicating that the 4f -electron configuration is stable for both materials. We posit from this data that the 4f electrons do not drive the volume collapse of CeO2 from the high-symmetry, low-pressure fluorite structure to the lower-symmetry orthorhombic phase.« less

  2. Measuring and tuning energy efficiency on large scale high performance computing platforms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laros, James H., III

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the importance of power in the field of High Performance Computing, whether it be as an obstacle, expense or design consideration, has never been greater and more pervasive. While research has been conducted on many related aspects, there is a stark absence of work focused on large scale High Performance Computing. Part of the reason is the lack of measurement capability currently available on small or large platforms. Typically, research is conducted using coarse methods of measurement such as inserting a power meter between the power source and the platform, or fine grained measurements using custom instrumented boards (with obvious limitations in scale). To collect the measurements necessary to analyze real scientific computing applications at large scale, an in-situ measurement capability must exist on a large scale capability class platform. In response to this challenge, we exploit the unique power measurement capabilities of the Cray XT architecture to gain an understanding of power use and the effects of tuning. We apply these capabilities at the operating system level by deterministically halting cores when idle. At the application level, we gain an understanding of the power requirements of a range of important DOE/NNSA production scientific computing applications running at large scale (thousands of nodes), while simultaneously collecting current and voltage measurements on the hosting nodes. We examine the effects of both CPU and network bandwidth tuning and demonstrate energy savings opportunities of up to 39% with little or no impact on run-time performance. Capturing scale effects in our experimental results was key. Our results provide strong evidence that next generation large-scale platforms should not only approach CPU frequency scaling differently, but could also benefit from the capability to tune other platform components, such as the network, to achieve energy efficient performance.

  3. Observation of high iron charge states at low energies in solar energetic particle events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Z.; Mbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Connell, J. J.; Popecki, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Mason, G. M.

    2014-04-10

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states (Q {sub Fe}) ? 10-14 at low energies E ? 0.1 MeV nuc{sup 1}, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of (Q {sub Fe}) up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc{sup 1} in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q {sub Fe} > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14 for low energy SEPs. Here we report results from a survey of all 89 SEP events observed with Advanced Composition Explorer Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA) in 1998-2000 for iron charge states augmented at low energy with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory CELIAS suprathermal time-of-flight (STOF). Nine SEP events with (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures ?2 MK up to ?4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.

  4. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    We have searched {approx}8200 deg{sup 2} for high proper motion ({approx}0.''5-2.''7 year{sup -1}) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3{pi} Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 {identical_to} WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 {+-} 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year{sup -1} proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 {+-} 45 mas (5.8{sup +2.0} {sub -1.2} pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate ({approx}10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  5. Methods of calculating the post-closure performance of high-level waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.

    1989-02-01

    This report is intended as an overview of post-closure performance assessment methods for high-level radioactive waste repositories and is designed to give the reader a broad sense of the state of the art of this technology. As described here, ''the state of the art'' includes only what has been reported in report, journal, and conference proceedings literature through August 1987. There is a very large literature on the performance of high-level waste repositories. In order to make a review of this breadth manageable, its scope must be carefully defined. The essential principle followed is that only methods of calculating the long-term performance of waste repositories are described. The report is organized to reflect, in a generalized way, the logical order to steps that would be taken in a typical performance assessment. Chapter 2 describes ways of identifying scenarios and estimating their probabilities. Chapter 3 presents models used to determine the physical and chemical environment of a repository, including models of heat transfer, radiation, geochemistry, rock mechanics, brine migration, radiation effects on chemistry, and coupled processes. The next two chapters address the performance of specific barriers to release of radioactivity. Chapter 4 treats engineered barriers, including containers, waste forms, backfills around waste packages, shaft and borehole seals, and repository design features. Chapter 5 discusses natural barriers, including ground water systems and stability of salt formations. The final chapters address optics of general applicability to performance assessment models. Methods of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are described in Chapter 6, and natural analogues of repositories are treated in Chapter 7. 473 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. High-frequency acoustic sensors for operation in a gaseous medium. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kino, G.S.

    1990-12-31

    Photothermal microscopy is a technique for measuring thermal properties on a small scale by using focused laser beams as heat sources and as temperature probes. Typically used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials, its main advantage is its ability to measure types of flaws that are not visible optically or acoustically. Because of the optical nature of photothermal microscopy, sub-micron resolutions can be obtained in many of these thermal measurements. The greatest limitation of these systems is their relatively poor signal-to-noise ratios and, consequently, slow imaging speeds. To circumvent this problem, a variety of approaches to the detection of thermal waves has been pursued in recent years. This thesis compares the relative merits of a common class of techniques that rely on direct observation of physical changes in the heated sample, including a novel approach to interferometric measurement of the thermal expansion. It is found that the optimum approach depends not only on the physical properties of the sample being studies, but also upon the resolution of the experiment and the damage threshold of the specimen. Finally, this dissertation describes the applications of photothermal microscopy to the study of the anisotropic thermal properties of the new high-{Tc} superconductors. By adding a high-vacuum cryostat to the microscope, the authors have been able to study the influence of the superconducting transition on the thermal conductivity. The measurements of the anisotropic thermal conductivity demonstrate that the heat flow along the superconducting planes is enhanced below the transition, and that no such enhancement exists in the non-superconducting direction. Material examined was Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O.

  7. Development of Criteria for Flameholding Tendencies within Premixer Passages for High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Elliot; McDonell, Vincent

    2015-03-31

    Due to increasingly stringent air quality requirements stationary power gas turbines have moved to lean-premixed operation, which reduces pollutant emissions but can result in flashback. Flashback can cause serious damage to the premixer hardware. Curtailing flashback can be difficult with hydrocarbon fuels and becomes even more challenging when hydrogen is used as the fuel. The two main approaches for coping with flashback are either to design a combustor that is resistant to flashback, or to design a premixer that will not anchor a flame if flashback occurs. Even with a well-designed combustor flashback can occur under certain circumstances, thus it is necessary to determine how to avoid flameholding within the premixer passageways of a gas turbine. To this end, an experiment was designed that would determine the flameholding propensities at elevated pressures and temperatures of three different classes of geometric features commonly found in gas turbine premixers, with both natural gas and hydrogen fuel. Experiments to find the equivalence ratio at blow off were conducted within an optically accessible test apparatus with four flameholders: 0.25 and 0.50 inch diameter cylinders, a reverse facing step with a height of 0.25 inches, and a symmetric airfoil with a thickness of 0.25 inches and a chord length of one inch. Tests were carried out at temperatures between 300 K and 750 K, at pressures up to 9 atmospheres. Typical bulk velocities were between 40 and 100 m/s. The effect of airfoils angle of rotation was also investigated. Blow off for hydrogen flames was found to occur at much lower adiabatic flame temperatures than natural gas flames. Additionally it was observed that at high pressures and high turbulence intensities, reactant velocity does not have a noticeable effect on the point of blow off due in large part to corresponding increases in turbulent flame speed. Finally a semi empirical correlation was developed that predicts flame extinction for both natural gas and hydrogen flames.

  8. Lessons Learned in the Update of a Safety Limit for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David Howard

    2009-01-01

    A recent unreviewed safety question (USQ) regarding a portion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) transient decay heat removal analysis focused on applicability of a heat transfer correlation at the low flow end of reactor operations. During resolution of this issue, review of the correlations used to establish the safety limit (SL) on reactor flux-to-flow ratio revealed the need to change the magnitude of the SL at the low flow end of reactor operations and the need to update the hot spot fuel damage criteria to incorporate current knowledge involving parallel channel flow stability. Because of the original safety design strategy for the reactor, resolution of the issues for the flux-to-flow ratio involved reevaluation of all key process variable SLs and limiting control settings (LCSs) using the current version of the heat transfer analysis code for the reactor. Goals of the work involved updating and upgrading the SL analysis where necessary, while preserving the safety design strategy for the reactor. Changes made include revisions to the safety design criteria at low flows to address the USQ, update of the process- and analysis input-variable uncertainty considerations, and upgrade of the safety design criteria at high flow. The challenges faced during update/upgrade of this SL and LCS are typical of the problems found in the integration of safety into the design process for a complex facility. In particular, the problems addressed in the area of instrument uncertainties provide valuable lessons learned for establishment and configuration control of SLs for large facilities.

  9. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  10. Evaluating the Relationship between Slabbing of Cr2O3/MgO Refractories Used in Steelmaking and Spalling of High Chrome Oxide Refractories Used in Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.P.; Thomas, H.; Kwong, K.-S.

    2006-10-01

    Because of its excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature properties, chrome oxide refractories have been used in a number of severe service environments, including steelmaking and gasification. Refractory failure of Cr2O3/MgO or MgO/Cr2O3 refractories in steelmaking can involve a phenomena called slabbing, peeling, or chemical spalling. A similar failure mechanism exists in the high chrome oxide materials used in gasification. Gasifiers contain the reaction between a carbon feedstock, water, and oxygen under reducing conditions; producing H2 and CO used in chemicals or as fuel for power plants. A slagging gasifier typically operates between 1250- 1575C, and with pressures between 300-1000 psi. Gasification refractory failure is by chemical dissolution and/or by spalling. Spalling is caused by slag penetration of the porous refractory surface and by expansion differences between the penetrated/non-penetrated areas, and is exacerbated by thermal cycling. Similarities between slabbing of steelmaking refractories and spalling of gasification refractories will be discussed.

  11. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucher, Jason; Ritenour, Andrew; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2013-04-29

    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  12. SPLAT II: An Aircraft Compatible, Ultra-Sensitive, High Precision Instrument for In-Situ Characterization of the Size and Composition of Fine and Ultrafine Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Yang, Juan; Choi, Eric Y.; Imre, Dan G.

    2009-05-01

    The properties of aerosols depend on the size and internal compositions of the individual particles. The vast majority of atmospheric aerosols are smaller than 200 nm, yet the single particle mass spectrometers, the only instruments that can characterize the size and internal compositions of individual particles, typically detect these small particles with extremely low efficiencies. In this paper we describe a new instrument called SPLAT II that provides unparalleled sensitivity to small particles, detecting 100% of particles that are larger than 125 nm and 40% of 100 nm particles. This instrument also brings an increase by a factor of 10 in temporal resolution, sizing up to 500 particles per second and characterizing the composition of up to 100 of them. SPLAT II uses a two-laser, two-step process to evaporate the particles and generate ions, producing high quality, reproducible mass spectra of the refractive and non-refractive aerosol fractions to yield the complete compositions of individual particles. The instrument control board provides for size dependent delays for lasers triggers to eliminate a size dependent hit rate. The mass spectra are recorded with 14-bit vertical resolution and analyzed using custom software packages. The instruments high sizing resolution and sensitivity makes it possible to combine it with the differential mobility analyzer(s) and measure particle size, composition, density, dynamic shape factor, hygroscopicity, and fractal dimension.

  13. The moving group targets of the seeds high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks: Results and observations from the first three years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Turner, Edwin L.; Janson, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Carson, J.; Biller, B.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hashimoto, J.; Matsuo, T.; Dressing, C.; Moro-Martn, A.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Abe, L.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ?10{sup 5} at 1'' and ?10{sup 6} beyond 2'' around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic MGs. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that five, ? Pictoris (?20 Myr), AB Doradus (?100 Myr), Columba (?30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium (?30 Myr), and TW Hydrae (?10 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these MGs. For all of our targets, we combine proposed MG membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca II HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, ? And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.

  14. Method of making gas diffusion layers for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frisk, Joseph William (Oakdale, MN); Boand, Wayne Meredith (Lino Lakes, MN); Larson, James Michael (Saint Paul, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for making a gas diffusion layer for an electrochemical cell comprising the steps of: a) combining carbon particles and one or more surfactants in a typically aqueous vehicle to make a preliminary composition, typically by high shear mixing; b) adding one or more highly fluorinated polymers to said preliminary composition by low shear mixing to make a coating composition; and c) applying the coating composition to an electrically conductive porous substrate, typically by a low shear coating method.

  15. High e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    e ne rgy data s am ple ● NuMI beam events provide an useful calibration sample ● Collected over 70K candidates before shutdown The highest energy events are prim arily from kaon decays. Two sam ples at high energy provide normalization and shape inform ation for kaon backgrounds to oscillation analysis: ● ν e events passing oscillation event selection cuts ● ν µ induced CCQE, CCπ+events Reconstructed neutrino energy EνQE(GeV) ν from other particles ν from pions ν from Kaons -

  16. The Search for High Energy Extended Emission by Fermi-LAT from Swift-Localized Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC; Racusin, J.L.; /NASA, Goddard

    2012-05-01

    The brighter Fermi-LAT bursts have exhibited emission at energies >0.1 GeV that persists as late as {approx}2 ks after the prompt phase has nominally ended. This so-called 'extended emission' could arise from continued activity of the prompt burst mechanism or it could be the start of a high energy afterglow component. The high energy extended emission seen by the LAT has typically followed a t{sup -}{gamma} power-law temporal decay where {gamma} {approx} 1.2-1.7 and has shown no strong indication of spectral evolution. In contrast, the prompt burst emission generally displays strong spectral variability and more complex temporal changes in the LAT band. This differing behavior suggests that the extended emission likely corresponds to an early afterglow phase produced by an external shock. In this study, we look for evidence of high energy extended emission from 145 Swift-localized GRBs that have occurred since the launch of Fermi. A majority of these bursts were either outside of the LAT field-of-view or were otherwise not detected by the LAT during the prompt phase. However, because of the scanning operation of the Fermi satellite, the long-lived extended emission of these bursts may be detectable in the LAT data on the {approx}few ks time scale. We will look for emission from individual bursts and will perform a stacking analysis in order to set bounds on this emission for the sample as a whole. The detection of such emission would have implications for afterglow models and for the overall energy budget of GRBs.

  17. Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G.; Maas, U.

    2009-01-15

    The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

  18. Temperature and Material Flow Prediction in Friction-Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Friction-stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining advanced high-strength steel, with its flexibility in controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8 kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that are too high, in the range of 1114 kN. Therefore, in the current work, tool speeds of 5000 rpm were employed to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. Si3N4 tools were used for the welding experiments on 1.2-mm DP 980 steel. The FSSW process was modeled with a finite element approach using the Forge* software. An updated Lagrangian scheme with explicit time integration was employed to predict the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field that is two-dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed by a novel approach, where the rotational velocity component imparted to the sheet by the tool surface was included in the thermal boundary conditions. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to compute the material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures to within percent, and the position of the joint interface to within 10 percent, of the experimental results.

  19. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  20. Device Architecture Simplification of Laser Pattering in High-Volume Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication using Intensive Computation for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grupp Mueller, Guenther; Herfurth, Hans; Dunham, Scott; Xu, Baomin

    2013-11-15

    Prices of Si based solar modules have been continuously declining in recent years. Goodrich is pointing out that a significant portion of these cost reductions have come about due to ?economies of scale? benefits, but there is a point of diminishing returns when trying to lower cost by simply expanding production capacity [1]. Developing innovative high volume production technologies resulting in an increase of conversion efficiency without adding significant production cost will be necessary to continue the projected cost reductions. The Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (F-PACE) is seeking to achieve this by closing the PV efficiency gap between theoretical achievable maximum conversion efficiency - 29% for c-Si - and the current typical production - 18.5% for a typical full area back contact c-Si Solar cell ? while targeting a module cost of $0.50/Watt . The research conducted by SolarWorldUSA and it?s partners within the FPACE framework focused on the development of a Hybrid metal-wrap-through (MWT) and laser-ablated PERC solar cell design employing a extrusion metallization scheme to achieve >20% efficient devices. The project team was able to simulate, develop and demonstrate the technologies necessary to build p-type MWT PERC cells with extruded front contacts. Conversion efficiencies approaching 20% were demonstrated and a path for further efficiency improvements identified. A detailed cost of ownership calculation for such a device was based on a NREL cost model and is predicting a $/Watt cost below 85 cents on a 180 micron substrate. Several completed or planned publications by SolarWorldUSA and our partners are based on the research conducted within this project and are adding to a better understanding of the involved technologies and materials. Several aspects and technologies of the proposed device have been assessed in regards to technical effectiveness and economic feasibility. It has been shown in a pilot demonstration with wafer thicknesses down to 120 micron that further wafer thickness reduction is only economically viable if handling and contact formation limitations are addressed simultaneously. Furthermore the project partners assessed and demonstrated the feasibility of processing wafers with vias connecting front and back sides through a PERC cell process and aligning and connecting those vias with a non-contact metallization. A close cooperation between industry and institutes of higher education in the Pacific Northwest as shown in this project is of direct benefit to the public and is contributing to the education of the next generation of PV engineers and scientist.

  1. High-Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA)

    2004-11-16

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  2. High Performance Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Hourglass Electrodynamic Funnel And Internal Ion Funnel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA)

    2005-11-22

    A method and apparatus enabling increased sensitivity in ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments which substantially reduces or eliminates the loss of ions in ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes utilizing a device for transmitting ions from an ion source which allows the transmission of ions without significant delay to an hourglass electrodynamic ion funnel at the entrance to the drift tube and/or an internal ion funnel at the exit of the drift tube. An hourglass electrodynamic funnel is formed of at least an entry element, a center element, and an exit element, wherein the aperture of the center element is smaller than the aperture of the entry element and the aperture of the exit elements. Ions generated in a relatively high pressure region by an ion source at the exterior of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel are transmitted to a relatively low pressure region at the entrance of the hourglass funnel through a conductance limiting orifice. Alternating and direct electrical potentials are applied to the elements of the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby drawing ions into and through the hourglass electrodynamic funnel thereby introducing relatively large quantities of ions into the drift tube while maintaining the gas pressure and composition at the interior of the drift tube as distinct from those at the entrance of the electrodynamic funnel and allowing a positive gas pressure to be maintained within the drift tube, if desired. An internal ion funnel is provided within the drift tube and is positioned at the exit of said drift tube. The advantage of the internal ion funnel is that ions that are dispersed away from the exit aperture within the drift tube, such as those that are typically lost in conventional drift tubes to any subsequent analysis or measurement, are instead directed through the exit of the drift tube, vastly increasing the amount of ions exiting the drift tube.

  3. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  4. Early Oak Ridge Trailer Home | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Early Oak Ridge Trailer Home A typical trailer home

  5. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 4

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 Northern Pass Project Drawings of Typical Structure Configurations

  6. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 6

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Northern Pass Project Drawing of Typical Converter Terminal

  7. Time-Resolved Quantitative Measurement of OH HO2 and CH2O in Fuel Oxidation Reactions by High Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haifeng; Rotavera, Brandon; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-08-01

    Combined with a Herriott-type multi-pass slow flow reactor, high-resolution differential direct absorption spectroscopy has been used to probe, in situ and quantitatively, hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) and formaldehyde (CH 2 O) molecules in fuel oxidation reactions in the reactor, with a time resolution of about 1 micro-second. While OH and CH 2 O are probed in the mid-infrared (MIR) region near 2870nm and 3574nm respectively, HO 2 can be probed in both regions: near-infrared (NIR) at 1509nm and MIR at 2870nm. Typical sensitivities are on the order of 10 10 - 10 11 molecule cm -3 for OH at 2870nm, 10 11 molecule cm -3 for HO 2 at 1509nm, and 10 11 molecule cm -3 for CH 2 O at 3574nm. Measurements of multiple important intermediates (OH and HO 2 ) and product (CH 2 O) facilitate to understand and further validate chemical mechanisms of fuel oxidation chemistry.

  8. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  9. Design of a smart, survivable sensor system for enhancing the safe and secure transportation of hazardous or high-value cargo on railroads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.R.; Rey, D.; Faas, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    An application of smart sensor technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use in the safe and secure transportation of high value of hazardous materials is proposed for a railroad application. The Green Box would be capable of surviving most typical railroad accidents. In an accident, the system would send a distress signal notifying authorities of the location and condition of the cargo; permitting them to respond in the most effective manner. The concept proposes a strap-on sensor package, the Green Box, that could be attached to any railroad car or cargo container. Its primary purpose is to minimize the number, severity and consequences of accidents and to reduce losses due to theft. The system would also be capable of recognizing component failure conditions, notifying the operators and logging sensor data for use in directing preventative maintenance. The modular implementation, which facilitates system integration in a number of applications including the Advanced Train Control System (ACTS), is discussed. The methodology for determining the environmental specification for accident survivability is presented. A test plan for evaluating hardware performance in both normal operating and accident conditions is described.

  10. TWO UPPER LIMITS ON THE ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN EFFECT, WITH DIFFERING IMPLICATIONS: WASP-1 HAS A HIGH OBLIQUITY AND WASP-2 IS INDETERMINATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Hirano, Teruyuki; Johnson, John Asher; Paul Butler, R.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Narita, Norio; Sato, Bun'ei; Enya, Keigo; Fischer, Debra

    2011-09-01

    We present precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements of WASP-1 and WASP-2 throughout transits of their giant planets. Our goal was to detect the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, the anomalous RV observed during eclipses of rotating stars, which can be used to study the obliquities of planet-hosting stars. For WASP-1, a weak signal of a prograde orbit was detected with {approx}2{sigma} confidence, and for WASP-2 no signal was detected. The resulting upper bounds on the RM amplitude have different implications for these two systems because of the contrasting transit geometries and the stellar types. Because WASP-1 is an F7V star, and such stars are typically rapid rotators, the most probable reason for the suppression of the RM effect is that the star is viewed nearly pole-on. This implies that the WASP-1 star has a high obliquity with respect to the edge-on planetary orbit. Because WASP-2 is a K1V star, and is expected to be a slow rotator, no firm conclusion can be drawn about the stellar obliquity. Our data and our analysis contradict an earlier claim that WASP-2b has a retrograde orbit, thereby revoking this system's status as an exception to the pattern that cool stars have low obliquities.

  11. MAXI INVESTIGATION INTO THE LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY ?-RAY BLAZAR Mrk 421

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isobe, Naoki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Sato, Ryosuke; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Masaaki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Kawamuro, Taiki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueno, Shiro; Matsuoka, Masaru [ISS Science Project Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro [MAXI team, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, Hitoshi, E-mail: n-isobe@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    The archetypical very-high-energy ?-ray blazar Mrk 421 was monitored for more than three years with the Gas Slit Camera on board Monitor of All Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and its long-term X-ray variability was investigated. The MAXI light curve in the 3-10 keV range was transformed into the periodogram in the frequency range f = 1 10{sup 8}-2 10{sup 6} Hz. The artifacts on the periodogram, resulting from data gaps in the observed light curve, were extensively simulated for variations with a power-law-like power spectrum density (PSD). By comparing the observed and simulated periodograms, the PSD index was evaluated as ? = 1.60 0.25. This index is smaller than that obtained in the higher-frequency range (f ? 1 10{sup 5} Hz), namely, ? = 2.14 0.06 in the 1998 ASCA observation of the object. The MAXI data impose a lower limit on the PSD break at f {sub b} = 5 10{sup 6} Hz, consistent with the break of f {sub b} = 9.5 10{sup 6} Hz suggested from the ASCA data. The low-frequency PSD index of Mrk 421 derived with MAXI falls well within the range of typical values among nearby Seyfert galaxies (? = 1-2). The physical implications from these results are briefly discussed.

  12. HIGH-ENERGY X-RAYS FROM J174545.5-285829, THE CANNONBALL: A CANDIDATE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH SgrA EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2013-12-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v {sub proj} ? 500kms{sup 1}) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located ?2' north-east from SgrA*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a ? ? 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 10{sup 34} erg s{sup 1}. The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the SgrA East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  13. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  14. Development of models and online diagnostic monitors of the high-temperature corrosion of refractories in oxy/fuel glass furnaces : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Gupta, Amul; Walsh, Peter M.; Rice, Steven F.; Velez, Mariano; Allendorf, Mark D.; Pecoraro, George A.; Nilson, Robert H.; Wolfe, H. Edward; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Bugeat, Benjamin American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Spear, Karl E.; Marin, Ovidiu American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Ghani, M. Usman

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-year effort to understand the mechanisms and develop models that predict the corrosion of refractories in oxygen-fuel glass-melting furnaces. Thermodynamic data for the Si-O-(Na or K) and Al-O-(Na or K) systems are reported, allowing equilibrium calculations to be performed to evaluate corrosion of silica- and alumina-based refractories under typical furnace operating conditions. A detailed analysis of processes contributing to corrosion is also presented. Using this analysis, a model of the corrosion process was developed and used to predict corrosion rates in an actual industrial glass furnace. The rate-limiting process is most likely the transport of NaOH(gas) through the mass-transport boundary layer from the furnace atmosphere to the crown surface. Corrosion rates predicted on this basis are in better agreement with observation than those produced by any other mechanism, although the absolute values are highly sensitive to the crown temperature and the NaOH(gas) concentration at equilibrium and at the edge of the boundary layer. Finally, the project explored the development of excimer laser induced fragmentation (ELIF) fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of gas-phase alkali hydroxides (e.g., NaOH) that are predicted to be the key species causing accelerated corrosion in these furnaces. The development of ELIF and the construction of field-portable instrumentation for glass furnace applications are reported and the method is shown to be effective in industrial settings.

  15. In-situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of silicon nanocrystal nucleation in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, T. C.-J. Wu, L.; Lin, Z.; Jia, X.; Puthen-Veettil, B.; Zhang, T.; Conibeer, G.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Kauffmann, Y.; Rothschild, A.

    2014-08-04

    Solid-state nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix was observed at temperatures as low as 450?C. This was achieved by aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with real-time in-situ heating up to 600?C. This technique is a valuable characterization tool especially with the recent interest in Si nanostructures for light emitting devices, non-volatile memories, and third-generation photovoltaics which all typically require a heating step in their fabrication. The control of size, shape, and distribution of the Si nanocrystals are critical for these applications. This experimental study involves in-situ observation of the nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix fabricated through radio frequency co-sputtering. The results show that the shapes of Si nanocrystals in amorphous SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrices are irregular and not spherical, in contrast to many claims in the literature. Furthermore, the Si nanocrystals are well confined within their layers by the amorphous SiO{sub 2}. This study demonstrates the potential of in-situ HRTEM as a tool to observe the real time nucleation of Si nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} bilayered matrix. Furthermore, ideas for improvements on this in-situ heating HRTEM technique are discussed.

  16. Effect of electron density profile on power absorption of high frequency electromagnetic waves in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi Yanbin; Liu Yue [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Considering different typical electron density profiles, a multi slab approximation model is built up to study the power absorption of broadband (0.75-30 GHz) electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized nonuniform magnetized plasma layer. Based on the model, the power absorption spectra for six cases are numerically calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the absorption strongly depends on the electron density fluctuant profile, the background electron number density, and the collision frequency. A potential optimum profile is also analyzed and studied with some particular parameters.

  17. Method for measuring changes in light absorption of highly scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Johnson, Tamara M. (Los Alamos, NM); Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The noninvasive measurement of variations in absorption that are due to changes in concentrations of biochemically relevant compounds in tissue is important in many clinical settings. One problem with such measurements is that the pathlength traveled by the collected light through the tissue depends on the scattering properties of the tissue. It is demonstrated, using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, that for an appropriate separation between light-delivery and light-collection fibers, the pathlength of the collected photons is insensitive to scattering parameters for the range of parameters typically found in tissue. This is important for developing rapid, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate methods for measuring absorption changes in tissue.

  18. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

    1992-10-13

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800--1200 C), for example 1000 C, than are typically required (1400 C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250 C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4[times]10[sup [minus]2](ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300 C. 1 figure.

  19. High-energy X-rays give industry affordable way to optimize cast iron |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory (a) 2-inch casting block and 2-mm-diam rod that is cut out of the sample via electrical discharge machining. (b) A typical slice of tomographic image obtained in this study. (c) An unetched metallography image of the same region in (b) under optical microscope. (d) Reconstructed 3-D model of the graphite particles in (b), showing that the 2-D features observed in (b) and (c) belong to a coral tree-like structure with flat, rounded branches that span ∼200 μm in

  20. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: A Technology of Low Coal Rate and High Productivity of RHF Ironmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Kao Lu

    2002-09-15

    An economical and environment-friendly ironmaking process based on heating the chemiexecy self-sufficient green balls of iron ore and coal in a hearth furnace is being developed with financial support from AISI members and DOE. DRI, which is hot (1400 C), dense (3.2 g/cm) and of high degree of metallization (95%), has been produced in laboratory and in a pilot plant in Genoa, Italy. Products of such quality have been made from American and Brazilian ores, BOF sludge, EAF dust/BOF sludge mixtures and millscale. The removal of zinc and lead from green balls by this process is essentially complete. In comparison with typical blast furnace operation, the new technology with a melter would have a lower total coal rate by 200kg.THM. The elimination of cokemaking and high temperature agglomeration steps, and a simpler gas handling system would lead to lower capital and operating costs. In comparison with commercial RHF practice it is different in atmosphere (fully oxidized at 1600 to 1650 C), in bed height (120 mm instead of 20-25 mm) and in pellet composition (much less coal but of higher VM). The combined effect leads to three times higher furnace productivity, lower coal consumption and superior DRI quality. The risk of re-oxidation (slag formation) and dusty operation are practiexecy eliminated. The process is stable, tolerant and independent of the size, shape and movement of the hearth. However, materials handling (e.g., discharge of hot DRI) and the exact energy savings have to be established in a larger furnace, straight or rotary, and in a continuous mode of operation.

  1. Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot, Alan J. E-mail: jwu@ku.edu; Malek, Gary A.; Lu, Rongtao; Han, Siyuan; Wu, Judy Z. E-mail: jwu@ku.edu; Yu, Haifeng; Zhao, Shiping

    2014-07-15

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ?1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.

  2. Separation of metallic residues from the dissolution of a high-burnup BWR fuel using nitrogen trifluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Smith, Frances N.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2014-02-10

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) was used to fluorinate the metallic residue from the dissolution of a high burnup, boiling water reactor fuel (?70 MWd/kgU). The metallic residue included the noble metal phase (containing ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, technetium, and molybdenum), and smaller amounts of zirconium, selenium, tellurium, and silver. Exposing the noble metal phase to 10% NF3 in argon between 400 and 550?C, removed molybdenum and technetium near 400?C as their volatile fluorides, and ruthenium near 500?C as its volatile fluoride. The events were thermally and temporally distinct and the conditions specified are a recipe to separate these transition metals from each other and from the noble metal phase nonvolatile residue. Depletion of the volatile fluorides resulted in substantial exothermicity. Thermal excursion behavior was recorded under non-adiabatic, isothermal conditions that typically minimize heat release. Physical characterization of the metallic noble phase and its thermal behavior are consistent with high kinetic velocity reactions encouraged by the nanoparticulate phase or perhaps catalytic influences of the mixed platinum metals with nearly pure phase structure. Post-fluorination, only two phases were present in the residual nonvolatile fraction. These were identified as a nano-crystalline, metallic palladium cubic phase and a hexagonal rhodium trifluoride (RhF3) phase. The two phases were distinct as the sub-m crystallites of metallic palladium were in contrast to the RhF3 phase, which grew from the parent nano-crystalline noble-metal phase during fluorination, to acicular crystals exceeding 20-m in length.

  3. High Accuracy U-235 Enrichment Verification Station for Low Enriched Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillard, C. R.; Hayward, J. P.; Williamson, M. R.

    2012-06-07

    The Y-12 National Security Complex is playing a role in the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor (USHPRR) Conversion program sponsored by the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction. The USHPRR program has a goal of converting remaining U.S. reactors that continue to use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The USHPRR program is currently developing a LEU Uranium-Molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel for use in the U.S. high performance research reactors.Y-12 is supporting both the fuel development and fuel fabrication efforts by fabricating low enriched U-Mo foils from its own source material for irradiation experiments and for optimizing the fabrication process in support of scaling up the process to a commercial production scale. Once the new fuel is qualified, Y-12 will produce and ship U-Mo coupons with verified 19.75% +0.2% - 0.3% U-235 enrichment to be fabricated into fuel elements for the USHPRRs. Considering this small enrichment tolerance and the transition into HEU being set strictly at 20% U-235, a characterization system with a measurement uncertainty of less than or equal to 0.1% in enrichment is desired to support customer requirements and minimize production costs. Typical uncertainty for most available characterization systems today is approximately 1-5%; therefore, a specialized system must be developed which results in a reduced measurement uncertainty. A potential system using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been procured, and tests have been conducted to verify its capabilities with regards to the requirements. Using four U-Mo enrichment standards fabricated with complete isotopic and chemical characterization, infinite thickness and peak-ratio enrichment measurement methods have been considered for use. As a result of inhomogeneity within the U-Mo samples, FRAM, an isotopic analysis software, has been selected for initial testing. A systematic approach towards observing effects on FRAM's enrichment analysis has been conducted with regards to count and dead time.

  4. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as replacing, but as complimentary to conventional CT, to be used in specific applications.

  5. Rotation of highly excited nuclei: Mass dependence of rotational damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Million, B.; Frattini, S.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Camera, F.; Blasi, N.; Lo Bianco, G.; Pignanelli, M.; Vigezzi, E.; Herskind, B.; Doessing, T.; Bergstroem, M.; Varmette, P.; Toermaenen, S.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Napoli, D. R.; Matsuo, M.

    1999-11-16

    The {gamma}-decay of the continuum has been measured in two mass regions. The excitation function of the continuum decay as well as spectral shape and fractional Doppler shifts are discussed for both {sup 114}Te and {sup 164}Yb compound nuclei, and show the typical features of rotational collective motion. Moreover, in both cases an upper limit of {gamma}{sub rot} is given and the number of decay-paths is determined from the fluctuation analysis method. Simulations based on microscopic calculations of the rotational damping model reproduce quite well the experimental findings for both N{sub path} and the scaling of {gamma}{sub rot} as a function of the mass number.

  6. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Douglas Way

    2003-01-01

    For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating procedures for fabrication of thin Pd-Cu composite membranes at any scale.

  7. Research and Development of High-Power and High-Energy Electrochemical Storage Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2014-04-30

    The accomplishments and technology progressmade during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 05NT42403 (duration: July 11, 2005 through April 30, 2014, funded for $125 million in cost- shared research) are summarized in this Final Technical Report for a total of thirty-seven (37) collaborative programs organized by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium, LLC (USABC). The USABC is a partnership, formed in 1991, between the three U.S. domestic automakers Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors, to sponsor development of advanced high-performance batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The USABC provides a unique opportunity for developers to leverage their resources in combination with those of the automotive industry and the Federal government. This type of pre-competitive cooperation minimizes duplication of effort and risk of failure, and maximizes the benefits to the public of the government funds. A major goal of this program is to promote advanced battery development that can lead to commercialization within the domestic, and as appropriate, the foreign battery industry. A further goal of this program is to maintain a consortium that engages the battery manufacturers with the automobile manufacturers and other key stakeholders, universities, the National Laboratories, and manufacturers and developers that supply critical materials and components to the battery industry. Typically, the USABC defines and establishes consensus goals, conducts pre-competitive, vehicle-related research and development (R&D) in advanced battery technology. The R&D carried out by the USABC is an integral part of the DOEs effort to develop advanced transportation technologies that will significantly improve fuel economy, comply with projected emissions and safety regulations, and use domestically produced fuels. The USABC advanced battery development plan has the following three focus areas: 1. Existing technology validation, implementation, and cost reduction. 2. Identification of the next viable technology with emphasis on the potential to meet USABC cost and operating temperature range goals. 3. Support high-risk, high-reward battery technology R&D. Specific to the Cooperative Agreement DE- FC26-05NT42403, addressing High-Energy and High Power Energy Storage Technologies, the USABC focus was on understanding and addressing the following factors (listed in priority of effort): Cost: Reducing the current cost of lithium- ion batteries (currently about 2-3 times the FreedomCAR target ($20/kW). Low Temperature Performance: Improving the discharge power and removing lithium plating during regenerative braking. Calendar Life: Achieving 15-year life and getting accurate life prediction. Abuse Tolerance: Developing a system level tolerance to overcharge, crush, and high temperature exposure. This Final Technical Report compilation is submitted in fulfillment of the subject Cooperative Agreement, and is intended to serve as a ready-reference for the outcomes of following eight categories of projects conducted by the USABC under award from the DOEs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ) Vehicle Technologies Program: USABC DoE Final Report DoE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-95EE50425 8 Protected Information 1. Electric Vehicle (EV) (Section A of this report) 2. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Section B 3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) (Section C) 4. Low-Energy Energy Storage Systems (LEESS) (Section D) 5. Technology Assessment Program (TAP) (Section E) 6. Ultracapacitors (Section F) 7. 12 Volt Start-Stop (Section G) 8. Separators (Section H) The report summarizes the main areas of activity undertaken in collaboration with the supplier community and the National Laboratories. Copies of the individual supplier final reports are available upon request. Using project gap analysis versus defined USABC goals in each area, the report documents known technology limits and provides direction on future areas of technology and performance needs for vehicle applications. The report was developed using information such as program plans, gap analysis charts, quarterly reports and final project reports submitted by the developers. The public benefit served by this USABC program is that it continues the development of critical advanced battery technology that is needed to make electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles attractive to a wide segment of the vehicle market. This will allow for a substantial savings in petroleum fuel use as these vehicles are introduced into the nations transportation system. It will also allow a sharp reduction in automotive air pollution emissions in critical areas that are currently classified as non-attainment by the Environmental Protection Agency. This program will also help ensure the long term health and viability of the U.S. Battery and Ultracapacitor Manufacturing Industry. The goals of eight categories of projects follow and summarization of each of the projects accomplishments are in sequence of the list above.

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY, LOW EMISSIONS, SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Ward; Michael A. Petrik

    2004-07-28

    Technology Management Inc. (TMI), teamed with the Ohio Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has engineered, constructed, and demonstrated a stationary, low power, multi-module solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) prototype system operating on propane and natural gas. Under Phase I, TMI successfully operated two systems in parallel, in conjunction with a single DC-AC inverter and battery bus, and produced net AC electricity. Phase II testing expanded to include alternative and renewable fuels typically available in rural regions of Ohio. The commercial system is expected to have ultra-low pollution, high efficiency, and low noise. The TMI SOFC uses a solid ceramic electrolyte operating at high temperature (800-1000 C) which electrochemically converts gaseous fuels (hydrogen or mixed gases) and oxygen into electricity. The TMI system design oxidizes fuel primarily via electrochemical reactions and uses no burners (which pollute and consume fuel)--resulting in extremely clean exhaust. The use of proprietary sulfur tolerant materials developed by TMI allows system operation without additional fuel pre-processing or sulfur removal. Further, the combination of high operating temperatures and solid state operation increases the potential for higher reliability and efficiencies compared to other types of fuel cells. Applications for the TMI SOFC system cover a wide range of transportation, building, industrial, and military market sectors. A generic technology, fuel cells have the potential to be embodied into multiple products specific to Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program areas including: Fuel Cells and Microturbines, School Buildings, Transportation, and Bioenergy. This program focused on low power stationary applications using a multi-module system operating on a range of common fuels. By producing clean electricity more efficiently (thus using less fuel), fuel cells have the triple effect of cleaning up the environment, reducing the amount of fuel consumed and, for energy intensive manufacturers, boosting their profits (by reducing energy expenses). Compared to conventional power generation technologies such as internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and coal plants, fuel cells are extremely clean and more efficient, particularly at smaller scales.

  9. Investigations of non-linear polymers as high performance lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2015-03-22

    Off-the-shelf available engine oils contain an assortment of additives that increase the performance of base oils and maximize the overall efficiency of the machine. With ever increasing requirements for fuel efficiency, the demand for novel materials that outperform older generations is also on the rise. One approach towards increasing overall efficiency is to reduce internal friction and wear in an engine. From an additive approach, this is typically achieved by altering the bulk oil’s viscosity at high temperatures via polymers. In general, the hydrodynamic volume of polymers increase (expand) at elevated temperatures and decrease (contract/deflate) with declining temperatures and this effect is enhanced be carefully designing specific structures and architectures. The natural thinning tendency of base oil with increasing temperatures is in part mitigated by the expansion of the macromolecules added, and the overall effect is decreasing the viscosity losses at high temperatures. Traditional polymer architectures vary from linear to dendritic, where linear polymers of the same chemical composition and molecular weight to its dendritic counterpart will undergo a more significant free volume change in solution with regards to temperature changes. This advantage has been exploited in the literature towards the production of viscosity modifiers. However, one major disadvantage of linear polymers is degradation due to mechanical shear forces and high temperatures causing a shorter additive lifetime. Dendrimers on the other hand are known to demonstrate superior robustness to shear degradation when compared to their respective linear counterparts. An additional advantage of the dendritic architecture is the ability to tailor the peripheral end-groups towards influencing polymer-solvent and/or polymer-surface interactions. Comb-burst hyperbranched polymers are a hybrid of the aforementioned architectures and provide several compromises between the traditional structures including the tailoring of peripheral functional groups, conformational flexibility via lipophilic long chain linkers, and a readily available synthesis amenable to scale-up. In the following communication, the synthesis of an aryl comb-burst hyperbranched polymer will be described. Some of the challenges we had to overcome are being highlighted, such as efforts towards increasing lipophilicity of the molecule via changes in saturated carbon content, controlling polymerization conditions to control average molecular weight and degree of branching. In addition, trends in viscosity modification of the bulk oil and wear/friction studies will be discussed.

  10. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  11. Consistent use of type Ia supernovae highly magnified by galaxy clusters to constrain the cosmological parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Redlich, Matthias [Universitt Heidelberg, Zentrum fr Astronomie, Institut fr Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Broadhurst, Tom, E-mail: adizitrin@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    We discuss how Type Ia supernovae (SNe) strongly magnified by foreground galaxy clusters should be self-consistently treated when used in samples fitted for the cosmological parameters. While the cluster lens magnification of a SN can be well constrained from sets of multiple images of various background galaxies with measured redshifts, its value is typically dependent on the fiducial set of cosmological parameters used to construct the mass model. In such cases, one should not naively demagnify the observed SN luminosity by the model magnification into the expected Hubble diagram, which would create a bias, but instead take into account the cosmological parameters a priori chosen to construct the mass model. We quantify the effect and find that a systematic error of typically a few percent, up to a few dozen percent per magnified SN may be propagated onto a cosmological parameter fit unless the cosmology assumed for the mass model is taken into account (the bias can be even larger if the SN is lying very near the critical curves). We also simulate how such a bias propagates onto the cosmological parameter fit using the Union2.1 sample supplemented with strongly magnified SNe. The resulting bias on the deduced cosmological parameters is generally at the few percent level, if only few biased SNe are included, and increases with the number of lensed SNe and their redshift. Samples containing magnified Type Ia SNe, e.g., from ongoing cluster surveys, should readily account for this possible bias.

  12. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg High Energy Physics Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our ...

  13. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations to aid in the benefit-cost analysis for management decision whether to deploy the technology or to abandon the pipeline as has been done in the past. In conclusion: The ultimate objective of this study is to qualify NuVision's unplugging technology for use at Hanford. Experimental testing has been conducted using three pipeline lengths and three types of blockages. Erosion rates have been obtained and pressure data is being analyzed. An amplification of the inlet pressure has been observed along the pipeline and is the key to determining up to what pipe lengths the technology can be used without surpassing the site pressure limit. In addition, we will attempt to establish what the expected unplugging rates will be at the longer pipe lengths for each of the three blockages tested. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations so that management decisions can be made whether the technology has a reasonable chance to successfully unplug a pipeline, such as a cross site transfer line or process transfer pipeline at the Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

  14. Operation of Alcator C-Mod with high-Z plasma facing components and implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipschultz, B.; Lin, Y.; Reinke, M.L.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.S.; Marr, K.; Terry, J.L.; Wolfe, S.M.; Whyte, D.

    2006-05-15

    Studies of potential plasma facing component (PFC) materials for a magnetic fusion reactor generally conclude that tungsten is the best choice due to its low tritium (T) retention, capability to handle high heat fluxes with low erosion, and robustness to nuclear damage and activation. ITER [F. Perkins et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 2137 (1999)] may operate with all tungsten PFCs to provide the necessary operational experience for a reactor. Alcator C-Mod [I. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] operates with molybdenum (Mo) high-Z PFCs, which have very similar properties to tungsten. The experiments described herein have provided a unique comparison of operation with or without in situ boron coatings applied to the molybdenum PFCs; the latter are likely most relevant to ITER and beyond. ICRF-heated H-modes were readily achieved without boron coatings although the resultant enhancement in energy confinement was typically small (H{sub ITER,89}{approx}1). Molybdenum concentrations, n{sub Mo}/n{sub e}, rise rapidly after the H-mode transition up to 0.1%, cooling the plasma by line radiation, reducing energy confinement, and/or causing a back H/L transition. Surprisingly, the primarily molybdenum PFC surfaces retain 3.5-5.0x10{sup 20} of injected D{sub 2} molecules per discharge, corresponding to 50% of the injected gas. Plasma current disruptions, both randomly occurring over the course of a day, or planned, reduce the retained D long term. After applying boron coatings, n{sub Mo}/n{sub e} was reduced by a factor of 10-20 with H{sub ITER,89} approaching 2. A world-record volume-average plasma pressure of 1.8 atm at 5.4 T was achieved at the ITER normalized {beta}. The effects of each boronization are found to be limited in time, correlated to time-integrated input energy. Intra- and inter-discharge boronization techniques have been developed with the latter being the most successful. This initial study indicates that a low-Z coating over at least a fraction of the Mo PFCs in C-Mod is needed to reduce core molybdenum levels and achieve the best energy confinement. This, together with the larger than expected D retention, raises concerns for the performance of uncoated tungsten surfaces in ITER and beyond.

  15. HIGH-TEMPERATURE CO-ELECTROLYSIS OF H2O AND CO2 FOR SYNGAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoots, C.M.

    2006-11-01

    Worldwide, the demand for light hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline and diesel oil is increasing. To satisfy this demand, oil companies have begun to utilize oil deposits of lower hydrogen content (an example is the Athabasca Oil Sands). Additionally, the higher contents of sulfur and nitrogen of these resources requires processes such as hydrotreating to meet environmental requirements. In the mean time, with the price of oil currently over $50 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. South Africa has used synfuels to power a significant number of their buses, trucks, and taxicabs. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to investigate the feasibility of producing syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. The syngas can then be used for synthetic fuel production. This program is a combination of experimental and computational activities. Since the solid oxide electrolyte material is a conductor of oxygen ions, CO can be produced by electrolyzing CO2 sequestered from some greenhouse gas-emitting process. Under certain conditions, however, CO can further electrolyze to produce carbon, which can then deposit on cell surfaces and reduce cell performance. The understanding of the co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is also complicated by the competing water-gas shift reaction. Results of experiments and calculations to date of CO2 and CO2/H2O electrolysis will be presented and discussed. These will include electrolysis performance at various temperatures, gas mixtures, and electrical settings. Product gas compositions, as measured via a gas analyser, and their relationship to conversion efficiencies will be presented. These measurements will be compared to predictions obtained from chemical equilibrium computer codes. Better understanding of the feasibility of producing syngas using high-temperature electrolysis will initiate the systematic investigation of nuclear-powered synfuel production as a bridge to the future hydrogen economy and ultimate independence from foreign energy resources.

  16. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, US Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Manufactured Housing Institute. The results of this research can lead to savings in annual losses of life and property by providing validated information to enable the advancement of code requirements and by developing engineering software that can predict and optimize wind resistance.

  17. High-speed digitization readout of silicon photomultipliers for time of flight positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Martens, M.; Ramberg, E.; Kim, H.; Chen, C.; Kao, C.; Niessen, K.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; /SGS Thomson, Catania

    2011-02-01

    We report on work to develop a system with about 100 picoseconds (ps) time resolution for time of flight positron emission tomography [TOF-PET]. The chosen photo detectors for the study were Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM's). This study was based on extensive experience in studying timing properties of SiPM's. The readout of these devices used the commercial high speed digitizer DRS4. We applied different algorithms to get the best time resolution of 155 ps Guassian (sigma) for a LYSO crystal coupled to a SiPM. We consider the work as a first step in building a prototype TOF-PET module. The field of positron-emission-tomography (PET) has been rapidly developing. But there are significant limitations in how well current PET scanners can reconstruct images, related to how fast data can be acquired, how much volume they can image, and the spatial and temporal resolution of the generated photons. Typical modern scanners now include multiple rings of detectors, which can image a large volume of the patient. In this type of scanner, one can treat each ring as a separate detector and require coincidences only within the ring, or treat the entire region viewed by the scanner as a single 3 dimensional volume. This 3d technique has significantly better sensitivity since more photon pair trajectories are accepted. However, the scattering of photons within the volume of the patient, and the effect of random coincidences limits the technique. The advent of sub-nanosecond timing resolution detectors means that there is potentially much better rejection of scattered photon events and random coincidence events in the 3D technique. In addition, if the timing is good enough, then the origin of photons pairs can be determined better, resulting in improved spatial resolution - so called 'Time-of-Flight' PET, or TOF-PET. Currently a lot of activity has occurred in applications of SiPMs for TOF-PET. This is due to the devices very good time resolution, low profile, lack of high voltage needed, and their non-sensitivity to magnetic fields. While investigations into this technique have begun elsewhere, we feel that the extensive SiPM characterization and data acquisition expertise of Fermilab, and the historical in-depth research of PET imaging at University of Chicago will combine to make significant strides in this field. We also benefit by a working relationship with the SiPM producer STMicroelectronics (STM).

  18. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit Outsulation HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the faade retrofit, the buildings windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of 2012 compared to previous winters. This project achieved its goal of developing a system that is constructible, offers protection to the VIPs, and meets all performance targets established for the project.

  19. Weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique for tomosynthesis imaging of objects with high-attenuation features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levakhina, Y. M.; Mueller, J.; Buzug, T. M.; Duschka, R. L.; Vogt, F.; Barkhausen, J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a nonlinear weighting scheme into the backprojection operation within the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). It is designed for tomosynthesis imaging of objects with high-attenuation features in order to reduce limited angle artifacts. Methods: The algorithm estimates which projections potentially produce artifacts in a voxel. The contribution of those projections into the updating term is reduced. In order to identify those projections automatically, a four-dimensional backprojected space representation is used. Weighting coefficients are calculated based on a dissimilarity measure, evaluated in this space. For each combination of an angular view direction and a voxel position an individual weighting coefficient for the updating term is calculated. Results: The feasibility of the proposed approach is shown based on reconstructions of the following real three-dimensional tomosynthesis datasets: a mammography quality phantom, an apple with metal needles, a dried finger bone in water, and a human hand. Datasets have been acquired with a Siemens Mammomat Inspiration tomosynthesis device and reconstructed using SART with and without suggested weighting. Out-of-focus artifacts are described using line profiles and measured using standard deviation (STD) in the plane and below the plane which contains artifact-causing features. Artifacts distribution in axial direction is measured using an artifact spread function (ASF). The volumes reconstructed with the weighting scheme demonstrate the reduction of out-of-focus artifacts, lower STD (meaning reduction of artifacts), and narrower ASF compared to nonweighted SART reconstruction. It is achieved successfully for different kinds of structures: point-like structures such as phantom features, long structures such as metal needles, and fine structures such as trabecular bone structures. Conclusions: Results indicate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to reduce typical tomosynthesis artifacts produced by high-attenuation features. The proposed algorithm assigns weighting coefficients automatically and no segmentation or tissue-classification steps are required. The algorithm can be included into various iterative reconstruction algorithms with an additive updating strategy. It can also be extended to computed tomography case with the complete set of angular data.

  20. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-12-12

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be prepared in quantities suitable for large scale decontamination and dissolution processes involving sludges. Further studies will be required to assess specific performance in actinide ion bearing wastes.

  1. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  3. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  4. Improving proliferation resistance of high breeding gain generation 4 reactors using blankets composed of light water reactor waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Grape, S.; Haakanson, A.; Jacobson Svaerd, S.; Jansson, P.

    2013-07-01

    Fertile blankets can be used in fast reactors to enhance the breeding gain as well as the passive safety characteristics. However, such blankets typically result in the production of weapons grade plutonium. For this reason they are often excluded from Generation IV reactor designs. In this paper we demonstrate that using blankets manufactured directly from spent light water (LWR) reactor fuel it is possible to produce a plutonium product with non-proliferation characteristics on a par with spent LWR fuel of 30-50 MWd/kg burnup. The beneficial breeding and safety characteristics are retained. (authors)

  5. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for ...

  6. High efficiency and high concentration in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Luque, A.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present the state-of-the-art of multijunction solar cells and the future prospects of this technology. Their use in terrestrial applications will likely be for concentrators operating at very high concentrations. Some trends are also discussed and the authors present a cost calculation showing that highly efficient cells under very high concentration would be able to produce electricity at costs competitive with electricity generation costs for some utilities.

  7. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-risk, high-value research and development focused on energy efficiency that industry would not typically pursue without federal leadership and support by public-private partnership.

  8. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011- pg 7

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-risk, high-value research and development focused on energy efficiency that industry would not typically pursue without federal leadership and support by public-private partnership.

  9. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011- pg 3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-risk, high-value research and development focused on energy efficiency that industry would not typically pursue without federal leadership and support by public-private partnership.

  10. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011- pg 5

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    High-risk, high-value research and development focused on energy efficiency that industry would not typically pursue without federal leadership and support by public-private partnership.

  11. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Christian

    2013-03-31

    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated if not turned off for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand. The project therefore made use of recently developed non-polar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates that were made available at Kyma Technologies by crystallographic cuts from thick polar growth of GaN. This approach naturally leads to rather small pieces of substrates, cm along the long side while mm along the short one. Small size and limited volume of sample material therefore set the limits of the ensuing development work. During the course of the project we achieved green and deep green LEDs in all those crystal growth orientations: polar c-plane, non- polar a-plane, non-polar m-plane, and semipolar planes. The active region in those structures shows dramatically reduced densities of threading dislocations unless the wavelength was extended as far as 510 nm and beyond. With the appearance of such defects, the light output power dropped precipitously supporting the necessity to avoid any and all of such defects to reach the active region. Further aspects of the non-polar growth orientation proved extremely promising for the development of such structures. Chief among them is our success to achieve extremely uniform quantum wells in these various crystal orientations that prove devoid of any alloy fluctuation beyond the theoretical limit of a binominal distribution. This became very Rensselaer Wetzel DE?EE0000627 3 directly apparent in highly advanced atom probe tomography performed in collaboration at Northwestern University. Furthermore, under reduced or absence of piezoelectric polarization, green emitters in those growth geometries exhibit an unsurpassed wavelength stability over very wide excitation and drive current ranges. Such a performance had not been possible in any polar c-plane growth and now places green LEDs in terms of wavelength stability up par with typical 450 nm blue emitters. The project also incorporated enabling opportunities in the development of micro and nano- patterned substrate technologies. Originally developped as a means to enhance generated light extraction we have demonstrated that the method of nano-patterning, in contrast to micro- patterning also results in a substantial reduction of threading dislocation generation. In green LEDs, we thereby see equal contributions of enhanced light extraction and reduced defect generation to a threefold enhancement of the green light output power. These results have opened entirely new approaches for future rapid and low cost epitaxial material development by avoidance of thick defect accommodation layers. All methods developed within this project have meanwhile widely been publicized by the members o

  12. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Chobot; Debarshi Das; Tyler Mayer; Zach Markey; Tim Martinson; Hayden Reeve; Paul Attridge; Tahany El-Wardany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of energy by 10.2%. This design was achieved by: (1) performing an extensive optimization study that deter-mined the preliminary cost for all practical chain drive topologies to ensure the most competitive configuration; (2) conducting detailed analysis of chain dynamics, contact stresses, and wear and efficiency characteristics over the chain???????¢????????????????s life to ensure accurate physics-based predictions of chain performance; and (3) developing a final product design, including reliability analysis, chain replacement procedures, and bearing and sprocket analysis. Definition of this final product configuration was used to develop refined cost of energy estimates. Finally, key system risks for the chain drive were defined and a comprehensive risk reduction plan was created for execution in Phase 2.

  13. High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HPC INL Logo Home High-Performance Computing INL's high-performance computing center provides general use scientific computing capabilities to support the lab's efforts in advanced...

  14. NEUTRALIZATIONS OF HIGH ALUMINUM LOW URANIUM USED NUCLEAR FUEL SOLUTIONS CONTAINING GADOLINIUM AS A NEUTRON POISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-06-08

    H-Canyon will begin dissolving High Aluminum - Low Uranium (High Al/Low U) Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) following approval by DOE which is anticipated in CY2011. High Al/Low U is an aluminum/enriched uranium UNF with small quantities of uranium relative to aluminum. The maximum enrichment level expected is 93% {sup 235}U. The High Al/Low U UNF will be dissolved in H-Canyon in a nitric acid/mercury/gadolinium solution. The resulting solution will be neutralized and transferred to Tank 39H in the Tank Farm. To confirm that the solution generated could be poisoned with Gd, neutralized, and discarded to the Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW) system without undue nuclear safety concerns the caustic precipitation of simulant solutions was examined. Experiments were performed with three simulant solutions representative of the H-Canyon estimated concentrations in the final solutions after dissolution. The maximum U, Gd, and Al concentration were selected for testing from the range of solution compositions provided. Simulants were prepared in three different nitric acid concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 M. The simulant solutions were neutralized to four different endpoints: (1) just before a solid phase was formed (pH 3.5-4), (2) the point where a solid phase was obtained, (3) 0.8 M free hydroxide, and (4) 1.2 M free hydroxide, using 50 wt % sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The settling behavior of the neutralized solutions was found to be slower compared to previous studies, with settling continuing over a one week period. Due to the high concentration of Al in these solutions, precipitation of solids was observed immediately upon addition of NaOH. Precipitation continued as additional NaOH was added, reaching a point where the mixture becomes almost completely solid due to the large amount of precipitate. As additional NaOH was added, some of the precipitate began to redissolve, and the solutions neutralized to the final two endpoints mixed easily and had expected densities of typical neutralized waste. Based on particle size and scanning electron microscopy analyses, the neutralized solids were found to be homogeneous and less than 20 microns in size. The majority of solids were less than 4 microns in size. Compared to previous studies, a larger percentage of the Gd was found to precipitate in the partially neutralized solutions (at pH 3.5-4). In addition the Gd:U mass ratio was found to be at least 1.0 in all of the solids obtained after partial or full neutralization. The hydrogen to U (H:U) molar ratios for two accident scenarios were also determined. The first was for transient neutralization and agitator failure. Experimentally this scenario was determined by measuring the H:U ratio of the settled solids. The minimum H:U molar ratio for solids from fully neutralized solutions was 388:1. The second accident scenario is for the solids drying out in an unagitiated pump box. Experimentally, this scenario was determined by measuring the H:U molar ratio in centrifuged solids. The minimum H:U atom ratios for centrifuged precipitated solids was 250:1. It was determined previously that a 30:1 H:Pu atom ratio was sufficient for a 1:1 Gd:Pu mass ratio. Assuming a 1:1 equivalence with {sup 239}Pu, the results of these experiments show Gd is a viable poison for neutralizing U/Gd solutions with the tested compositions.

  15. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  16. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEAs statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ), prepared by the facility operator, typically with the support of the facility designer. The IAEA will verify design information over the life of the project. This design information is an important IAEA safeguards tool. Since the main interlocutor with the IAEA in each country is the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC (or Regional Regulatory Authority, e.g. EURATOM), the responsibility for conveying this design information to the IAEA falls to the State Regulatory Authority/SSAC.

  17. A study of cellulose gasification in a fluidized bed using a high-temperature solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A 4.2-meter solar furnace was used to study the gasification of cellulose with steam in a fluidized bed. The heating value of the high-temperature equilibrium products is about twenty percent higher than that of the reactants. The increase represents stored solar energy; and the product, synthesis gas, is valuable as a chemical feedstock or pipeline gas. All experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Pure tabular alumina as well as crushed automotive exhaust was used as a bed material. Microcrystalline {alpha}-cellulose, entrained in argon, entered the fluidized bed just above the distributor. Steam heated to the operating temperature in a 10 cm packed bed section below the fluidized bed. In all cases, the process ran with more steam than required to produce an equimolar mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. We used a quartz reactor between 1100 and 1430 K; a steel reactor at 1500 K and an Inconel reactor at 1600 K. Reactor inside diameter, nominally 5 cm, varied slightly; the bed height was adjusted to keep the gas residence time constant. Hydrogen production rate was measured before and after experiments with steam alone, with this amount subtracted. Equilibrium mixtures were not achieved. Catalysts improved hydrogen yields with higher than expected concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane and lighter hydrocarbons such as ethylene and acetylene. Experiments performed without catalyst at 1300 K, achieved a mixture (dry, argon-free) of 46 mole% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 14% CH{sub 4} 5% CO{sub 2} and 5% C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. An equilibrium mixture at this temperature would have contained 39% CO, 30% H{sub 2} 7% CO{sub 2} and no CH{sub 4} or C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. With the catalyst, the CO and CH{sub 4} decreased to 40% and 2% respectively, the H{sub 2} increased to 47%, and CO{sub 2} remained the same. No ethylene was formed. The hydrocarbon-rich mixtures achieved are typical of rapid-pyrolysis processes.

  18. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, ...

  19. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jayoung (Berkeley, CA); Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  20. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  1. Diagnosing isopycnal diffusivity in an eddying, idealized midlatitude ocean basin via Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Petersen, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Isopycnal diffusivity due to stirring by mesoscale eddies in an idealized, wind-forced, eddying, midlatitude ocean basin is computed using Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT). Simulation is performed via LIGHT within the Model for Prediction across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Simulations are performed at 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-km resolution, where the first Rossby radius of deformation (RRD) is approximately 30 km. Scalar and tensor diffusivities are estimated at each resolution based on 30 ensemble members using particle cluster statistics. Each ensemble member is composed of 303 665 particles distributed across five potential density surfaces. Diffusivity dependence upon modelmore » resolution, velocity spatial scale, and buoyancy surface is quantified and compared with mixing length theory. The spatial structure of diffusivity ranges over approximately two orders of magnitude with values of O(105) m2 s–1 in the region of western boundary current separation to O(103) m2 s–1 in the eastern region of the basin. Dominant mixing occurs at scales twice the size of the first RRD. Model resolution at scales finer than the RRD is necessary to obtain sufficient model fidelity at scales between one and four RRD to accurately represent mixing. Mixing length scaling with eddy kinetic energy and the Lagrangian time scale yield mixing efficiencies that typically range between 0.4 and 0.8. In conclusion, a reduced mixing length in the eastern region of the domain relative to the west suggests there are different mixing regimes outside the baroclinic jet region.« less

  2. Diagnosing isopycnal diffusivity in an eddying, idealized midlatitude ocean basin via Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Petersen, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Isopycnal diffusivity due to stirring by mesoscale eddies in an idealized, wind-forced, eddying, midlatitude ocean basin is computed using Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT). Simulation is performed via LIGHT within the Model for Prediction across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Simulations are performed at 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-km resolution, where the first Rossby radius of deformation (RRD) is approximately 30 km. Scalar and tensor diffusivities are estimated at each resolution based on 30 ensemble members using particle cluster statistics. Each ensemble member is composed of 303 665 particles distributed across five potential density surfaces. Diffusivity dependence upon model resolution, velocity spatial scale, and buoyancy surface is quantified and compared with mixing length theory. The spatial structure of diffusivity ranges over approximately two orders of magnitude with values of O(105) m2 s–1 in the region of western boundary current separation to O(103) m2 s–1 in the eastern region of the basin. Dominant mixing occurs at scales twice the size of the first RRD. Model resolution at scales finer than the RRD is necessary to obtain sufficient model fidelity at scales between one and four RRD to accurately represent mixing. Mixing length scaling with eddy kinetic energy and the Lagrangian time scale yield mixing efficiencies that typically range between 0.4 and 0.8. In conclusion, a reduced mixing length in the eastern region of the domain relative to the west suggests there are different mixing regimes outside the baroclinic jet region.

  3. Reactive sputtering of ?-ZrH{sub 2} thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hgberg, Hans Tengdelius, Lina; Eriksson, Fredrik; Broitman, Esteban; Lu, Jun; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Samuelsson, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.?% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.?% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of ?0.7?eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase ?-ZrH{sub 2} (CaF{sub 2} type structure) at H content >?55 at.?% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.57 GPa for the ?-ZrH{sub 2} films that is slightly harder than the ?5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.120.18 to compare with the range of 0.40.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure ?-ZrH{sub 2} films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of ?100120 ?? cm for the ?-ZrH{sub 2} films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 7080 ?? cm.

  4. BONA FIDE, STRONG-VARIABLE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STARS ARE FAST ROTATORS: DETECTION OF A HIGH ROTATIONAL VELOCITY IN HR CARINAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.; Moises, A. P.; Teodoro, M.; Hillier, D. J.; Barba, R.; Fernandez-Lajus, E.; Gamen, R. C.; Solivella, G.

    2009-11-01

    We report optical observations of the luminous blue variable (LBV) HR Carinae which show that the star has reached a visual minimum phase in 2009. More importantly, we detected absorptions due to Si IV lambdalambda4088-4116. To match their observed line profiles from 2009 May, a high rotational velocity of v{sub rot} approx = 150 +- 20 km s{sup -1} is needed (assuming an inclination angle of 30 deg.), implying that HR Car rotates at approx =0.88 +- 0.2 of its critical velocity for breakup (v{sub crit}). Our results suggest that fast rotation is typical in all strong-variable, bona fide galactic LBVs, which present S-Dor-type variability. Strong-variable LBVs are located in a well-defined region of the HR diagram during visual minimum (the 'LBV minimum instability strip'). We suggest this region corresponds to where v{sub crit} is reached. To the left of this strip, a forbidden zone with v{sub rot}/v{sub crit}>1 is present, explaining why no LBVs are detected in this zone. Since dormant/ex LBVs like P Cygni and HD 168625 have low v{sub rot}, we propose that LBVs can be separated into two groups: fast-rotating, strong-variable stars showing S-Dor cycles (such as AG Car and HR Car) and slow-rotating stars with much less variability (such as P Cygni and HD 168625). We speculate that supernova (SN) progenitors which had S-Dor cycles before exploding (such as in SN 2001ig, SN 2003bg, and SN 2005gj) could have been fast rotators. We suggest that the potential difficulty of fast-rotating Galactic LBVs to lose angular momentum is additional evidence that such stars could explode during the LBV phase.

  5. Study of a prototype high quantum efficiency thick scintillation crystal video-electronic portal imaging device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Gopal, Arun

    2006-08-15

    Image quality in portal imaging suffers significantly from the loss in contrast and spatial resolution that results from the excessive Compton scatter associated with megavoltage x rays. In addition, portal image quality is further reduced due to the poor quantum efficiency (QE) of current electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Commercial video-camera-based EPIDs or VEPIDs that utilize a thin phosphor screen in conjunction with a metal buildup plate to convert the incident x rays to light suffer from reduced light production due to low QE (<2% for Eastman Kodak Lanex Fast-B). Flat-panel EPIDs that utilize the same luminescent screen along with an a-Si:H photodiode array provide improved image quality compared to VEPIDs, but they are expensive and can be susceptible to radiation damage to the peripheral electronics. In this article, we present a prototype VEPID system for high quality portal imaging at sub-monitor-unit (subMU) exposures based on a thick scintillation crystal (TSC) that acts as a high QE luminescent screen. The prototype TSC system utilizes a 12 mm thick transparent CsI(Tl) (thallium-activated cesium iodide) scintillator for QE=0.24, resulting in significantly higher light production compared to commercial phosphor screens. The 25x25 cm{sup 2} CsI(Tl) screen is coupled to a high spatial and contrast resolution Video-Optics plumbicon-tube camera system (1240x1024 pixels, 250 {mu}m pixel width at isocenter, 12-bit ADC). As a proof-of-principle prototype, the TSC system with user-controlled camera target integration was adapted for use in an existing clinical gantry (Siemens BEAMVIEW{sup PLUS}) with the capability for online intratreatment fluoroscopy. Measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) were conducted to characterize the TSC spatial resolution. The measured MTF along with measurements of the TSC noise power spectrum (NPS) were used to determine the system detective quantum efficiency (DQE). A theoretical expression of DQE(0) was developed to be used as a predictive model to propose improvements in the optics associated with the light detection. The prototype TSC provides DQE(0)=0.02 with its current imaging geometry, which is an order of magnitude greater than that for commercial VEPID systems and comparable to flat-panel imaging systems. Following optimization in the imaging geometry and the use of a high-end, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera system, the performance of the TSC is expected to improve even further. Based on our theoretical model, the expected DQE(0)=0.12 for the TSC system with the proposed improvements, which exceeds the performance of current flat-panel EPIDs. The prototype TSC provides high quality imaging even at subMU exposures (typical imaging dose is 0.2 MU per image), which offers the potential for daily patient localization imaging without increasing the weekly dose to the patient. Currently, the TSC is capable of limited frame-rate fluoroscopy for intratreatment visualization of patient motion at {approx}3 frames/second, since the achievable frame rate is significantly reduced by the limitations of the camera-control processor. With optimized processor control, the TSC is expected to be capable of intratreatment imaging exceeding 10 frames/second to monitor patient motion.

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies of High Energy Density Plasma Streams Ablated from Fine Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John B.; Seyler, Charles

    2014-03-30

    Experimental and computational studies of high energy density plasma streams ablated from fine wires. Laboratory of Plasma Studies, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University. Principal Investigators: Dr. John B. Greenly and Dr. Charles E. Seyler. This report summarizes progress during the final year of this project to study the physics of high energy density (HED) plasma streams of 10^17-10^20/cm3 density and high velocity (~100-500 km/s). Such streams are produced from 5-250 micrometer diameter wires heated and ionized by a 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse on the COBRA pulsed power facility at Cornell University. Plasma is ablated from the wires and is driven away to high velocity by unbalanced JxB force. A wire, or an array of wires, can persist as an essentially stationary, continuous source of this streaming plasma for >200 ns, even with driving magnetic fields of many Tesla and peak current densities in the plasma of many MA/cm2. At the heart of the ablation stream generation is the continuous transport of mass from the relatively cold, near-solid-density wire "core" into current-carrying plasma within 1 mm of the wire, followed by the magnetic acceleration of that plasma and its trapped flux to form a directed stream. In the first two years of this program, an advancing understanding of ablation physics led to the discovery of several novel wire ablation experimental regimes. In the final year, one of these new HED plasma regimes has been studied in quantitative detail. This regime studies highly reproducible magnetic reconnection in strongly radiating plasma with supersonic and superalfvenic flow, and shock structures in the outflow. The key discovery is that very heavy wires, e.g. 250 micrometer diameter Al or 150 micrometer Cu, behave in a qualitatively different way than the lighter wires typically used in wire-array Z-pinches. Such wires can be configured to produce a static magnetic X-point null geometry that stores magnetic and thermal energy; reconnection and outflow are triggered when the current begins to decrease and the electric field reverses. The reconnecting flow is driven by both magnetic and thermal pressure forces, and it has been found to be possible to vary the configuration so that one or the other dominates. The magnetic null extends into a current sheet that is heated and radiates strongly, with supersonic outflows. This is the first study of reconnection in this HED plasma regime. This compressible, radiative regime, and the triggering mechanism, may be relevant to solar and astrophysical processes. The PERSEUS extended MHD code has been developed for simulation of these phenomena, and will continue to be used and further developed to help interpret and understand experimental results, as well as to guide experimental design. The code is well-suited to simulations of shocks, and includes Hall and electron inertia physics that appear to be of importance in a number of ablation flow regimes, and definitely in the reconnection regime when gradient scales are comparable to the ion inertial scale. During the final year, our graduate student supported by this grant completed a new version of PERSEUS with the finite volume computational scheme replaced by a discontinuous Galerkin method that gives much less diffusive behavior and allows faster run time and higher spatial resolution. Thecode is now being used to study shock structures produced in the outflow region of the reconnection regime.

  7. Special nuclear material simulation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  8. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile fatty acids of 20 and 9 g/l, respectively. Acetic and propionic acids were the main compounds found in the acids mixture. Because of the improved digestion efficiency, organic nitrogen and phosphorus were solubilised in the bulk. Their concentration, however, did not increase as expected because of the formation of salts of hydroxyapatite and struvite inside the reactor.

  9. High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Energy Physics /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High Energy Physics Investigating the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental understanding of matter, energy, space, and time. Advanced Scientific Computing Research Basic Energy Sciences Biological and Environmental Research Fusion Energy Sciences High Energy Physics Nuclear Physics Advanced Scientific Computing Research Pioneering accelerator technology to improve the intensity of

  10. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, Carl A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  11. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  12. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  13. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  14. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  15. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni3Al Alloys and Coatings Modified with Pt and Reactive Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan Mu

    2007-12-01

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000 C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455 C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain {beta}-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used {beta}-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt + Hf-modified {gamma}-Ni + {gamma}-Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}Ni{sub 3}Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures ({approx}970 C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It was also inferred that Pt enhances the diffusive flux of aluminum from the substrate to the scale/alloy interface. Relatively low levels of hafnium addition to Pt-free {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al increased the extent of external NiO formation due to non-protective HfO{sub 2} formation. Accordingly, this effect intensified with increasing Hf content from 0.2 to 0.5 at.%.

  16. Material brittle fracture owing to thermoelastic effect of high energy nuclear particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinichenko, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid arising of the overheated domain near very heavy ion path (near fast neutron collision point) in solid results in generation of cylinder (spherical) thermoelastic stress wave. The latter can exceed the material strength and cause brittle fracture at going out on the free body interface. Size and shape of an erosion zone as well as erosion rate for both sorts of primary nuclear particles are found. The role of wave attenuation is discussed. The products of erosion are of macroscopic scaly particles having the typical thickness (1 {divided_by} 5) {center_dot} 10{sup -7} cm and mass 10{sup -18} {divided_by} 10{sup -17} g. Such ion (neutron)-stimulated thermoacoustic grinding can take place in radioactive materials with fissionable addenda. The consideration of the brittle destruction under cosmic ray bombardment may be essential for equipment of deep space missions.

  17. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hash, Mark C.; Bloom, Ira D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800.degree. C.-1200.degree. C.), for example 1000.degree. C., than are typically required (1400.degree. C.) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250.degree. C. with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4.times.10.sup.-2 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250.degree. to 300.degree. C.

  18. Low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Si technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work to develop technology to deposit GaAs on Si using a nucleation layer of atomic-layer-epitaxy-grown GaAs or AlAs on Si. This ensures two-dimensional nucleation and should lead to fewer defects in the final GaAs layer. As an alternative, we also developed technology for depositing GaAs on sawtooth-patterned Si. Preliminary studies showed that this material can have a very low defect density, [approximately] 1 [times] 10[sup 5] cm[sup [minus]5], as opposed to our conventionally grown GaAs on SL which has a typical defect density of over 1 [times]10[sup 7] cm[sup [minus]2]. Using these two now methods of GaAs-on-Si material growth, we made solar cells that are expected to show higher efficiencies than those of previous cells.

  19. A high power Ka band millimeter wave generator with low guiding magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Jun; Shu Ting; Zhang Jun; Li Guolin; Zhang Zehai

    2010-08-15

    A slow wave type gigawatt millimeter wave generator is proposed in this paper. In order to increase power capacity, overmoded slow wave structures (SWSs) with larger diameter have been used. Taking advantage of the ''surface wave'' property of overmoded SWSs, the TM{sub 01} mode can be selected to be the operating mode. Calculations have also been carried out to choose a proper low operating magnetic field strength, and it agrees with particle in cell (PIC) simulations. Main structure parameters of the device are optimized by PIC simulations. A typical simulation result is that, at the beam parameters of 600 keV and 5.05 kA, and guiding magnetic field of 0.85 T, a Ka band millimeter wave with an output power of 1.05 GW is generated, yielding a conversion efficiency of about 35%.

  20. High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetaks new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetaks use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material usefacilitating cheaper production.

  1. Methods of staining target chromosomal DNA employing high complexity nucleic acid probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Ol'li-Pekka; Kallioniemi, Anne; Sakamoto, Masaru

    2006-10-03

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  2. High Tech Halloween

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Tech Halloween High Tech Halloween WHEN: Oct 30, 2015 4:00 PM - 6:30 PM WHERE: Bradbury Science Museum 1350 Central Avenue, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87544 USA CONTACT: Linda Anderman (505) 665-9196 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login High Tech Halloween Event Description High-Tech Halloween is the Bradbury Science Museum's contribution to Downtown Los Alamos' annual Trick-or-Treat on MainStreet event taking place the Friday before Halloween. At this year's High-Tech Halloween, you

  3. High temperature efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peachey, N.; Dye, R.

    1995-12-01

    With the potential for significant payoffs in chemical processing, separation science, and ``green technology``, inorganic membranes merit the increased attention they are currently receiving. Application of thin film deposition and characterization expertise at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to the fabrication of membranes has led to the development of two new membranes. The first is a zeolitic film formed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The material deposited is largely amorphous but yields an interesting microporous structure. The pores, roughly 10 to 15 A in diameter, run perpendicular to the substrate and, since the film is typically only a half micron thick, provide excellent flow rates. The PLD material has been deposited on quartz crystal microbalances (QCMS) to investigate its potential as a sensor. As such, it has shown discrimination of simple alcohol isomers. The second membrane, consisting of a composite metal structure, passes hydrogen exclusively. Currently, we are studying the possibility of incorporating the membrane in a hydrogen fuel cell using a methanol reformer.

  4. High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, A.D.A.; Jaklevic, J.M.

    1996-04-16

    A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 microliters of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded. 13 figs.

  5. High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Anthony D. A. (Berkely, CA); Jaklevic, Joseph M. (Lafayette, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the-circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate microtiter plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 .mu.l of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded.

  6. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  7. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  8. The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite The pressure evolution ...

  9. Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development Energy Storage Testing and Analysis High Power and High Energy Development 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  10. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  11. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  12. High output lamp with high brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Bass, Gary K.; Copsey, Jesse F.; Garber, Jr., William E.; Kwong, Vincent H.; Levin, Izrail; MacLennan, Donald A.; Roy, Robert J.; Steiner, Paul E.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

  13. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  14. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  15. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  16. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  17. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  18. High School Science Bowl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High School Science Bowl High School Science Bowl WHEN: Feb 07, 2015 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM WHERE: Highland High School 4700 Coal Ave SE, Albuquerque, USA CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The Science Bowl is a Jeopardy-like event for high school and middle school students who have a strong interest in mathematics and science. The competition is in the form of a round robin in the morning and double elimination after lunch. Teams consist of four students and one optional

  19. High Energy Cost Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Energy Cost Grant Program provides financial assistance for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities servicing eligible rural communities with home...

  20. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science and bioscience capabiities. Occupational Medicine will become a High Performance Sustainable Building in 2013. On the former County landfill, a photovoltaic array field...

  1. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felker, Brian (Livermore, CA); McDaniel, Michael R. (Manteca, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counterbores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counterbores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  2. High power, high frequency, vacuum flange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felker, B.; McDaniel, M.R.

    1993-03-23

    An improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counter bores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counter bores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: The Center for Cyber Defenders...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Sandia National Laboratories for high school and college students interested in Computer Science and Cyber Security. A typical Cyber Boot Camp lasts from 9:00am until 3pm...

  4. UESC Project Overview: NASA Ames Research Center

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Challenges High energy intensity at many of the center's key buildings * Median energy intensity for typical bldg. similar to ARC's (mix of lab and office) is 21.2 kWh...

  5. Microsoft Word - PR-05-0213-Northern-PikeminnowSport-Reward-Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    condition-wise, is pretty good," said Eric Winther of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. "Typically, lower water years are better for us as the river is not high...

  6. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    website in the nation, said they designed the new site to make the science of high-energy physics more accessible to the laboratory's virtual visitors. "On a typical day,...

  7. Jun Lu poster presentation 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Figure 3 Typical voltage profile of Li-air battery using PC as electrolyte Figure 4 High-resolution XRD patterns of original SPL carbon and SPL carbon after being loaded with MnO 2 ...

  8. Quarkonium Physics at a Fixed-Target Experiment Using the LHC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This provides an integrated luminosity of 0.5 fbsup -1 per year on a typical 1cm-long ... at the LHC. With such a high luminosity, one can analyse quarkonium production ...

  9. Proposed new accelerator design for homeland security x-ray applicatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a very high count-rate environment. Typical accelerators for security applications offer large but short bursts of x-rays, suitable for current-mode integrated imaging. In...

  10. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2008 (Next Release on June 25, 2008) Low Refinery Utilization and High Prices? Refinery utilization was lower than typical in first quarter 2008. Actual first-quarter 2008...

  11. New Chemistries Found for Liquid Batteries: Grid-scale approach...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    whatever is most difficult," he says - which, Sadoway points out, is a very typical attitude at MIT. Another problem with calcium is its high melting point, which would have ...

  12. Demand Response- Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response is an electricity tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers, designed to induce lower electricity use typically at times of high market prices or when grid reliability is jeopardized.

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ease movement of natural gas supplies in the area, constraints continue to limit gas flow to the region, particularly in times of high demand so typical of July and August. The...

  14. An Octahedral Coordination Complex of Iron(VI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron is the most abundant transition element on earth, and is typically found in formal oxidation states of either II or III. However, high valent Fe(IV) and Fe(V) complexes are...

  15. US ITER | About

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by the US is typical of a large AC power distribution system, consisting of transformers and switchgear at the high-voltage (400kV) and medium-voltage (22kV) levels. US...

  16. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  17. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  18. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  19. High-Performance Computing for Real-Time Grid Analysis and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-10-31

    Power grids worldwide are undergoing an unprecedented transition as a result of grid evolution meeting information revolution. The grid evolution is largely driven by the desire for green energy. Emerging grid technologies such as renewable generation, smart loads, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and distributed generation provide opportunities to generate energy from green sources and to manage energy use for better system efficiency. With utility companies actively deploying these technologies, a high level of penetration of these new technologies is expected in the next 5-10 years, bringing in a level of intermittency, uncertainties, and complexity that the grid did not see nor design for. On the other hand, the information infrastructure in the power grid is being revolutionized with large-scale deployment of sensors and meters in both the transmission and distribution networks. The future grid will have two-way flows of both electrons and information. The challenge is how to take advantage of the information revolution: pull the large amount of data in, process it in real time, and put information out to manage grid evolution. Without addressing this challenge, the opportunities in grid evolution will remain unfulfilled. This transition poses grand challenges in grid modeling, simulation, and information presentation. The computational complexity of underlying power grid modeling and simulation will significantly increase in the next decade due to an increased model size and a decreased time window allowed to compute model solutions. High-performance computing is essential to enable this transition. The essential technical barrier is to vastly increase the computational speed so operation response time can be reduced from minutes to seconds and sub-seconds. The speed at which key functions such as state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (typically every 3-5 minutes) needs to be dramatically increased so that the analysis of contingencies is both comprehensive and real time. An even bigger challenge is how to incorporate dynamic information into real-time grid operation. Today’s online grid operation is based on a static grid model and can only provide a static snapshot of current system operation status, while dynamic analysis is conducted offline because of low computational efficiency. The offline analysis uses a worst-case scenario to determine transmission limits, resulting in under-utilization of grid assets. This conservative approach does not necessarily lead to reliability. Many times, actual power grid scenarios are not studied, and they will push the grid over the edge and resulting in outages and blackouts. This chapter addresses the HPC needs in power grid analysis and operations. Example applications such as state estimation and contingency analysis are given to demonstrate the value of HPC in power grid applications. Future research directions are suggested for high performance computing applications in power grids to improve the transparency, efficiency, and reliability of power grids.

  20. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Per; Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X-PREX facility uses novel digital x-ray tomography methods to track both the translational and rotational motion of spherical pebbles, which provides unique experimental results that can be used to validate discrete element method (DEM) simulations of pebble motion. The validation effort supported by the X-PREX facility provides a means to build confidence in analysis of pebble bed configuration and residence time distributions that impact the neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and safety analysis of pebble bed reactor cores. Experimental and DEM simulation results are reported for silo drainage, a classical problem in the granular flow literature, at several hopper angles. These studies include conventional converging and novel diverging geometries that provide additional flexibility in the design of pebble bed reactor cores. Excellent agreement is found between the X-PREX experimental and DEM simulation results. This report also includes results for additional studies relevant to the design and analysis of pebble bed reactor cores including the study of forces on shut down blades inserted directly into a packed bed and pebble flow in a cylindrical hopper that is representative of a small test reactor.

  1. Criteria for Selection of Seed Motions to Envelop Design Response...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    typical of a Savannah River Site (SRS) profile * Layered alluvial site typical of the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of INL * A deep stiff site typical of the Yucca Mountain project...

  2. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, Omar C-M Ma, Charlie

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.

  3. InGaAsN: A Novel Material for High-Efficiency Solar Cells and Advanced Photonic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allerman, Andrew A.; Follstaedt, David M.; Gee, James M.; Jones, Eric D.; Kurtz, Steven R.; Modine, Norman A.

    1999-07-01

    This report represents the completion of a 6 month Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program that focused on research and development of novel compound semiconductor, InGaAsN. This project seeks to rapidly assess the potential of InGaAsN for improved high-efficiency photovoltaic. Due to the short time scale, the project focused on quickly investigating the range of attainable compositions and bandgaps while identifying possible material limitations for photovoltaic devices. InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photoluminescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Additionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured. The design, growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and processing of an In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}As{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} solar cell, with 1.0 eV bandgap, lattice matched to GaAs is described. The hole diffusion length in annealed, n-type InGaAsN is 0.6-0.8 pm, and solar cell internal quantum efficiencies >70% are obtained. Optical studies indicate that defects or impurities, from doping and nitrogen incorporation, limit cell performance.

  4. High Explosives Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Explosives Testing High Explosives Testing In the 1940s, high explosives were tested at Los Alamos. August 1, 2013 The design and testing for "Little Boy" took place at Gun Site The design and testing for "Little Boy" took place at Gun Site. RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7390/9778165821_9976c43bda_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3817/9631800990_1c130beec7

  5. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide highlights the DOE O 413.3B drivers for incorporating high performance sustainable building (HPSB) principles into Critical Decisions 1 through 4 and provides guidance for implementing the Order's HPSB requirements.

  6. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB) requirements of DOE Order 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-6.

  7. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  8. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  9. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  11. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  12. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  13. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  14. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  15. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buildings Goal 3: High Performance Sustainable Buildings Maintaining the conditions of a building improves the health of not only the surrounding ecosystems, but also the well-being of its occupants. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL The Radiological Laboratory

  16. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate knowledge of aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures is important in many applications including nuclear waste disposal and energy extraction. Sandia's Defense Waste Management Programs is equipped with a state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system that allows us to obtain high quality kinetic and equilibrium data at temperatures and pressures of interest up to 600 o C and 1,000 bars (100 MPa). This state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system includes the

  17. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  18. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  19. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi; Smith, James L.; Embury, John David

    1998-01-01

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  20. High Burnup Effects Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies...

  2. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  3. The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The high-pressure-high-temperature behavior of bassanite The pressure evolution of ...

  4. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  5. Sandia Energy - High Performance Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Computing Home Energy Research Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) High Performance Computing High Performance Computingcwdd2015-03-18T21:41:24+00:00...

  6. Sandia Energy - High Pressure Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Pressure Chemistry Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Combustion Kinetics High Pressure Chemistry High Pressure ChemistryAshley...

  7. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wells | Department of Energy High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells PDF icon fabian_ctd_ zonal_isolation_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015

  8. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon turnquist_high_temp_tools_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

  9. High-energy detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; James, Ralph B.

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  10. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM); Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  11. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  12. High resolution data acquisition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  13. High strength alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  14. High strength alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  15. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  16. PIC2011_vdwater.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are Short Baseline Oscillations? * They are typically defined as L less than a few kilometers. * However, the important oscillation variable is LE, where typically it is 1 in...

  17. Space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy free of high-energy neutral particle noise in wavelength range of 10130 on the large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianli; Morita, Shigeru; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 Gifu ; Dong, Chunfeng

    2014-04-15

    A flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer system working in wavelength range of 10130 has been constructed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for profile measurements of bremsstrahlung continuum and line emissions of heavy impurities in the central column of plasmas, which are aimed at studies on Z{sub eff} and impurity transport, respectively. Until now, a large amount of spike noise caused by neutral particles with high energies (?180 keV) originating in neutral beam injection has been observed in EUV spectroscopy on LHD. The new system has been developed with an aim to delete such a spike noise from the signal by installing a thin filter which can block the high-energy neutral particles entering the EUV spectrometer. Three filters of 11 ?m thick beryllium (Be), 3.3 ?m thick polypropylene (PP), and 0.5 ?m thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET: polyester) have been examined to eliminate the spike noise. Although the 11 ?m Be and 3.3 ?m PP filters can fully delete the spike noise in wavelength range of ? ? 20 , the signal intensity is also reduced. The 0.5 ?m PET filter, on the other hand, can maintain sufficient signal intensity for the measurement and the spike noise remained in the signal is acceptable. As a result, the bremsstrahlung profile is successfully measured without noise at 20 even in low-density discharges, e.g., 2.9 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?3}, when the 0.5 ?m PET filter is used. The iron n = 32 L? transition array consisting of FeXVII to FeXXIV is also excellently observed with their radial profiles in wavelength range of 1018 . Each transition in the L? array can be accurately identified with its radial profile. As a typical example of the method a spectral line at 17.62 is identified as FeXVIII transition. Results on absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer system, pulse height and noise count analyses of the spike noise between holographic and ruled gratings and wavelength response of the used filters are also presented with performance of the present spectrometer system.

  18. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-20

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and provides useful information on the incorporation of high performance sustainable building principles into building-related General Plant Projects and Institutional General Plant Projects at DOE sites. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-6A. Does not cancel other directives.

  19. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  20. High Impact Technology Hub

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Impact Technology Hub is a one stop shop for information associated with technology demonstrations in occupied, operational buildings. Resources posted to Hub should accelerate the selection and evaluation of technology demonstration projects and enable transparency into DOEs market stimulation and tech to market activities.

  1. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  2. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  3. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  4. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  5. Highly oxidized superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1994-09-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  6. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  7. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

  8. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  9. Analysis of New High-Q0 SRF Cavity Tests by Nitrogen Gas Doping at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palczewski, Ari D.; Geng, Rongli; Reece, Charles E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to refine systematic understanding and establish confident process control, Jefferson Lab has joined with partners to investigate and thoroughly characterize the dramatically higher Q0 of 1.3 GHz niobium cavities first reported by FNAL in 2013[1]. With partial support from the LCLS-II project, JLab has undertaken a parametric study of nitrogen doping in vacuum furnace at 800 C followed by variable depth surface removal in the 5 - 20 ?m range. Q0 above 31010 are typical at 2.0 K and 16 MV/m accelerating field. We report observations from the single cell study and current interpretations. In addition to the parametric single cell study, we also report on the ongoing serial testing of six nitrogen-doped 9-cell cavities as baseline prototypes for LCLS-II.

  10. Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast high-temperature superconductor switch for high current applications Reversible operation of a high current superconductor switch based on the quench of high-resistance second generation high temperature superconducting wire is demonstrated. The quench is induced by a burst of an ac field generated by an inductively coupled

  11. Feasibility analyses for HEU to LEU fuel conversion of the LAUE Langivin Institute (ILL) High Flux Reactor (RHF).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.; Tentner. A.; Bergeron, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-19

    The High Flux Reactor (RHF) of the Laue Langevin Institute (ILL) based in Grenoble, France is a research reactor designed primarily for neutron beam experiments for fundamental science. It delivers one of the most intense neutron fluxes worldwide, with an unperturbed thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}/s in its reflector. The reactor has been conceived to operate at a nuclear power of 57 MW but currently operates at 52 MW. The reactor currently uses a Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most worldwide research and test reactors have already started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on a mixture of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of compact high performance reactors like the RHF. This report presents the results of reactor design, performance and steady state safety analyses for conversion of the RHF from the use of HEU fuel to the use of UMo LEU fuel. The objective of this work was to show that is feasible, under a set of manufacturing assumptions, to design a new RHF fuel element that could safely replace the HEU element currently used. The new proposed design has been developed to maximize performance, minimize changes and preserve strong safety margins. Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics models of the RHF have been developed and qualified by benchmark against experiments and/or against other codes and models. The models developed were then used to evaluate the RHF performance if LEU UMo were to replace the current HEU fuel 'meat' without any geometric change to the fuel plates. Results of these direct replacement analyses have shown a significant degradation of the RHF performance, in terms of both neutron flux and cycle length. Consequently, ANL and ILL have collaborated to investigate alternative designs. A promising candidate design has been selected and studied, increasing the total amount of fuel without changing the external plate dimensions by relocating the burnable poison. In this way, changes required in the fuel element are reasonably small. With this new design, neutronics analyses have shown that performance could be maintained at a high level: 2 day decrease of cycle length (to 47.5 days at 58.3 MW) and 1-2% decrease of brightness in the cold and hot sources in comparison to the current typical operation. In addition, studies have shown that the thermal-hydraulic and shutdown margins for the proposed LEU design would satisfy technical specifications.

  12. High-performance steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsom, J.M.

    1996-03-01

    Steel is the material of choice in structures such as storage tanks, gas and oil distribution pipelines, high-rise buildings, and bridges because of its strength, ductility, and fracture toughness, as well as its repairability and recyclability. Furthermore, these properties are continually being improved via advances in steelmaking, casting, rolling, and chemistry. Developments in steelmaking have led to alloys having low sulfur, sulfide shape control, and low hydrogen. They provide reduced chemical segregation, higher fracture toughness, better through-thickness and weld heat-affected zone properties, and lower susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. Processing has moved beyond traditional practices to designed combinations of controlled rolling and cooling known as thermomechanical control processes (TMCP). In fact, chemical composition control and TMCP now enable such precise adjustment of final properties that these alloys are now known as high-performance steels (HPS), engineered materials having properties tailored for specific applications.

  13. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  14. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  15. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  16. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  17. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  18. High efficiency gas burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuetz, Mark A. (Belmont, MA)

    1983-01-01

    A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

  19. High-speed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer diagnostic for Madison symmetric torus B. H. Deng, D. L. Brower, and W. X. Ding Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 M. D. Wyman, B. E. Chapman, and J. S. Sarff Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 5 May 2006; presented on 10 May 2006; accepted 11 June 2006; published online 27 September 2006͒ A high-speed three-wave polarimeter-interferometer

  20. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  1. high renewable energy penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high renewable energy penetration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  2. high-power LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-power LEDs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. High Performance Window Attachments

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Performance Window Attachments D. Charlie Curcija Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory dccurcija@lbl.gov 510-495-2602 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Impact of Project: * Motivate manufacturers to make improvements in Window systems U-Factors, SHGC and daylighting utilization * Increase awareness of benefits from energy efficient window attachments Problem Statement: * A wide range of residential window attachments are available, but

  4. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  5. High Energy Density Microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R.M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the RF98 Workshop entitled `High Energy Density Microwaves` held in California in October, 1998. The topics discussed were predominantly accelerator{minus}related. The Workshop dealt, for the most part, with the generation and control of electron beams, the amplification of RF signals, the design of mode converters, and the effect of very high RF field gradients. This Workshop was designed to address the concerns of the microwave tube industry worldwide, the plasma physicists who deal with very high beam currents and gigawatts of RF power, and researchers in accelerator centers around the world. Papers were presented on multibeam klystrons, gyrotron development, plasmas in microwave tubes, RF breakdown, and alternatives to conventional linear coliders at 1 TeV and above. The Workshop was partially sponsored by the US Department of Energy. There were 46 papers presented at the conference,out of which 19 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  6. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  7. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  8. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  9. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  10. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-01-31

    A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

  11. High temperature detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  12. High Tc Superconductivity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by C. Kim (SSRL), D. H. Lu (Stanford), K. M. Shen (Stanford) and Z.-X. Shen (Stanford/SSRL) Extensive research efforts to study the novel electronic properties of high-Tc superconductors and their related materials by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy at a recently commissioned Beam Line 5-4 (led by Z.-X. Shen) continue to be successful, producing many important results. These results, which are highlighted by five articles recently published in Physical Review Letters and one in

  13. Manufacturing High Temperature Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing and Scale Up Challenges Joseph Hartvigsen Ceramatec, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO February 28, 2014 Antipode Assertions * Electric power generation is not the limitation - To misquote Jay Leno "Use all you want, we'll make more" - http://atomicinsights.com/2013/02/use-all-the-electricity-you-want-well-make-more.html * High electric costs come from working the demand curve from below rather than above * "Grid Storage" is a misleading

  14. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  15. High Energy QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuri Kovchegov

    2012-05-31

    The project significantly advanced our understanding of the theory of strong interactions known as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in high energy collisions of elementary particles and nuclei. QCD is one of the four fundamental forces of nature, but is understood quite poorly due to the complexity of strong interactions. This project advanced our understanding of QCD in the very high energy collisions of protons and nuclei, where densities of quarks and gluons inside the colliding particles are so high (due to high energy) that complicated nonlinear interactions between quarks and gluons become important. This regime is known as gluon (or parton) saturation. The result of the project is a significant improvement of our understanding of the physics of gluon saturation: important (running coupling) corrections to the existing description of the process (the so-called Balitsky-Kovchegov equation) have been calculated, placing the BK equation in good agreement with the experimental data on deep inelastic scattering (DIS), a process where an electron is collided with the proton to probe the proton's internal structure. Corresponding cross section for quark and gluon production in DIS and nuclear collisions have been calculated and corrected correspondingly, resulting in new and interesting predictions for the physics to be probed in heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The dense gluon systems play an important role in collisions of ultrarelativistic large nuclei, which are performed in order to create a plasma of quarks and gluons (QGP). An important question in the field is how exactly this QGP is produced in a collision of two heavy ions. The conclusion of this project is that QGP production happens due to strong coupling effects between quarks and gluons. This made theoretical description of QGP production only possible using the methods emerging from string theory. Using these methods QGP production was well understood as a result of this project. The project was mainly accomplished by analytic calculations, with occasional use of personal computers and a supercomputer to perform numerical calculations. As such it is very economic and technically effective. The benefit to public is by broadening our understanding of fundamental physics. Strong interactions are responsible for about 98$\\%$ of the visible mass in the Universe, and their understanding is vital both for understanding how the Universe works and for which physics lies beyond the known interactions of Standard Model of particle physics.

  16. High flux reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  17. High speed flywheel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrath, Stephen V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  18. High power microwave generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minich, Roger W. (Patterson, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  19. High efficiency photoionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

  20. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

  1. High Risk Plan

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Risk Plan John Bashista Melissa Rider Jeff Davis Timeline to date * OMB memo on Improving Government Acquisition issued July 29, 2009 - Review existing contracts and acquisition practices to save 7% of baseline contract spending (3.5% in FY 2010 and 3.5% in FY 2011) - Reduce high risk contracts by 10% the share of dollars obligated in FY2010 - Final plan was due and submitted on November 2, 2009 - OMB reviewed and requested revision Dec 23, 2009 - Revision submitted April 21, 2010 M&Os are

  2. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  3. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  4. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  5. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H?/O? mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N?O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N?O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N?O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in the ignition delay time was proportional to the amount of N?O added and depended on pressure and temperature conditions. A detailed chemical kinetics model was developed using kinetic mechanisms from the literature. This model predicts well the experimental data obtained during this study and from the literature. The chemical analysis using this model showed that the decrease in the ignition delay time was mainly due to the reaction N?O +M ? N? + O +M which provides O atoms to strengthen the channel O + H? ? OH + H. Ignition delay times have been measured behind reflected shock waves at 1.5, 12 and 30 atm for a mixture representative of a syngas produced from biomass (0.29659% CO / 0.29659% H? / 0.15748% CO? / 0.08924% CH? / 0.20997% H?O / 0.95013% O? in 98% Ar (mol.%)) and for the same biomass-derived syngas mixture doped with 200 ppm of NH?. The importance of the various constituents on the ignition delay time was investigated by comparing the results with data from various baseline mixtures (H?/O?/Ar, H?/CO/O?/Ar and H?/CO/O?/Ar with one of the other constituent of the syngas (i.e. CO?, H?O, CH? or NH?)). The equivalence ratio was set to 0.5 during this study. Several recent detailed kinetics mechanisms from the literature were computed against these data, with fair agreement. Results showed that the mixture composition can have an important effect on the ignition delay time, with most of the effect being due to CH? addition through the reaction CH?+OH?CH?+H?O. The ammonia impurity had very little effect on the ignition delay time over the range of conditions studied.

  6. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  7. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  8. High speed transient sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing.

  9. High speed transient sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-28

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing. 17 figs.

  10. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  11. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  12. High throughput optical scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

  13. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  14. Low-cost flexible packaging for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G. L.

    2004-06-18

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries [1,2]. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx} 50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

  15. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  16. High-␤,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ␤, improved confinement reversed-field pinch plasmas at high density M. D. Wyman, 1,a͒ B. E. Chapman, 1 J. W. Ahn, 1 A. F. Almagri, 1 J. K. Anderson, 1 F. Bonomo, 2 D. L. Brower, 3 S. K. Combs, 4 D. Craig, 1,5 D. J. Den Hartog, 1 B. H. Deng, 3 W. X. Ding, 3 F. Ebrahimi, 1 D. A. Ennis, 1 G. Fiksel, 1 C. R. Foust, 4 P. Franz, 2 S. Gangadhara, 1 J. A. Goetz, 1 R. O'Connell, 1 S. P. Oliva, 1 S. C. Prager, 1 J. A. Reusch, 1 J. S. Sarff, 1 H. D. Stephens, 1 and T. Yates 3 1 Department of Physics,

  17. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  18. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements | Department of Energy Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements Presentation given by TIAX LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery exceeding PHEV-40 requirements. PDF icon es209_rempel_2015_p.pdf More

  20. High-resolution H-band spectroscopy of Be stars with SDSS-III/apogee. I. New Be stars, line identifications, and line profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Hall, Matthew; Beaton, Rachael; Burton, Adam; Damke, Guillermo; Wilson, John; Whelan, David G.; Wisniewski, John P.; Shetrone, Matthew; Eikenberry, Steve; Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon A.; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Mszros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has amassed the largest ever collection of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R?22,500), H-band spectra for B-type emission line (Be) stars. These stars were targeted by APOGEE as telluric standard stars and subsequently identified via visual inspection as Be stars based on H i Brackett series emission or shell absorption in addition to otherwise smooth continua and occasionally non-hydrogen emission features. The 128/238 APOGEE Be stars for which emission had never previously been reported serve to increase the total number of known Be stars by ?6%. Because the H band is relatively unexplored compared to other wavelength regimes, we focus here on identification of the H-band lines and analysis of the emission peak velocity separations (?v{sub p}) and emission peak intensity ratios (V/R) of the usually double-peaked H i and non-hydrogen emission lines. H i Br11 emission is found to preferentially form in the circumstellar disks at an average distance of ?2.2 stellar radii. Increasing ?v{sub p} toward the weaker Br12Br20 lines suggests these lines are formed interior to Br11. By contrast, the observed IR Fe ii emission lines present evidence of having significantly larger formation radii; distinctive phase lags between IR Fe ii and H i Brackett emission lines further supports that these species arise from different radii in Be disks. Several emission lines have been identified for the first time including C i 16895, a prominent feature in the spectra for almost a fifth of the sample and, as inferred from relatively large ?v{sub p} compared to the Br11Br20, a tracer of the inner regions of Be disks. Emission lines at 15760 ? and 16781 ? remain unidentified, but usually appear along with and always have similar line profile morphology to Fe ii 16878. Unlike the typical metallic lines observed for Be stars in the optical, the H-band metallic lines, such as Fe ii 16878, never exhibit any evidence of shell absorption, even when the H i lines are clearly shell-dominated. The first known example of a quasi-triple-peaked Br11 line profile is reported for HD 253659, one of several stars exhibiting intra- and/or extra-species V/R and radial velocity variation within individual spectra. Br11 profiles are presented for all discussed stars, as are full APOGEE spectra for a portion of the sample.