National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for typical background concentrations

  1. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2010 Background Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to ...

  2. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FY 2013 FY-2014 Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Cost Verification Background The Cost Verification Process for the Slice...

  3. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Background Highway construction workers, airport maintenance personnel, and film crews use small, portable lighting systems known as "mobile lighting." Traditionally, mobile...

  4. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background The 17 element group known as rare earth elements (REEs) provides significant value to our national security, energy independence, environmental future, and economic growth. The REE Program is focused on developing technologies for the recovery of REEs from Coal and Coal By-Products. Rare Earth Elements Background Infographic of Rare Earth Element's technology uses REE application infographic (click to view larger) While comprising just 17 elements of the periodic table, the group

  5. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2010 Background Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell catalysts must become more durable, effcient, and inexpensive before they are practical and cost-effective. Most fuel cells use platinum or platinum alloys as catalysts, but the limited supply of platinum is a potential barrier to widespread fuel cell use. Innovative Edge Sandia

  6. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background People in the Pacific Northwest are concerned about what happens at Hanford. The involvement of our citizens is important to Hanford cleanup, because it helps the TPA agencies make better long-term decisions that incorporate public values. The Plan helps identify how the public can become involved in Hanford cleanup decision making. Due to changing technologies and outreach methods, the current Plan is outdated. The Plan, first issued in 1990 and last revised in 2002, was developed

  7. Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    explains the potential health hazards associated with air quality related to the removal and storage of mill tailings and other contaminated materials. Background From 1942 to 1960, uranium ore was processed at the Monticello mill in southeast Utah. When the mill was closed, approximately 2.3 million cubic yards of low-level radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soil, and other miscellaneous debris remained on the site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office, in

  8. Origin of background electron concentration in InxGa1-xN alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pantha, B. N.; Wang, H.; Khan, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2011-08-15

    The origin of high background electron concentration (n) in InxGa1-xN alloys has been investigated. A shallow donor was identified as having an energy level (ED1) that decreases with x (ED1 = 16 meV at x = 0 and ED1 = 0 eV at x ~ 0.5) and that crossover the conduction band at x ~ 0.5. This shallow donor is believed to be the most probable cause of high n in InGaN. This understanding is consistent with the fact that n increases sharply with an increase in x and becomes constant for x > 0.5. A continuous reduction in nmore » was obtained by increasing the V/III ratio during the epilayer growth, suggesting that nitrogen vacancy-related impurities are a potential cause of the shallow donors and high background electron concentration in InGaN« less

  9. The concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and poloychlorinated biphenyls in field mice collected from regional background areas. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, Philip R.

    2015-12-18

    Field mice are effective indicators of contaminant presence. This paper reports the concentrations of various radionuclides, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, perchlorate, and dioxin/furans in field mice (mostly deer mice) collected from regional background areas in northern New Mexico. These data, represented as the regional statistical reference level (the mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level), are used to compare with data from field mice collected from areas potentially impacted by Laboratory operations, as per the Environmental Surveillance Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. Carbon-13 isotopic abundance and concentration of atmospheric methane for background air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, C.M.; Sepanski; Morris, L.J.

    1995-03-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) may become an increasingly important contributor to global warming in future years. Its atmospheric concentration has risen, doubling over the past several hundred years, and additional methane is thought to have a much greater effect on climate, on a per molecule basis, than additional C0{sub 2} at present day concentrations (Shine et al. 1990). The causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} have been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of quantitative knowledge of the fluxes (i.e., net emissions) from the numerous anthropogenic and natural sources. The goal of CH{sub 4} isotopic studies is to provide a constraint (and so reduce the uncertainties) in estimating the relative fluxes from the various isotopically distinct sources, whose combined fluxes must result in the measured atmospheric isotopic composition, after the fractionating effect of the atmospheric removal process is considered. In addition, knowledge of the spatial and temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH{sub 4}, along with estimates of the fluxes from some of the major sources, makes it possible to calculate growth rates for sources whose temporal emissions trends would be difficult to measure directly.

  11. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Legal Background Book 1 . . Project Rulison :.Contract: . . AEC, Austral Oil Company, and CER Geonuclear Corporation, . . . . , . . . . , . . February 1969 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. PROJECT RULISON CONTRACT NO. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA REPRESENTED BY THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION and THE DEPARTMENT. OF THE INTERIOR and AUSTRAL OIL COMPANY INCORPORATED and CER GEONUCLEAR

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

  13. LTS Background - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background About Us LTS Home Page LTS Project Management LTS Transition and Timeline LTS Execution LTS Background LTS Information Management LTS Fact Sheets Briefings LTS In The...

  14. ARM - Campaign Backgrounders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RSS for Publications Information Materials Annual Reports Program Fact Sheets Campaign Backgrounders Education and Outreach Posters Brochures Research Highlights Summaries...

  15. Extragalactic Background Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Yoshiyuki Inoue 1 , Susumu Inoue...

  16. ARM - Methane Background Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Background Information What is Methane? Why Do We Use Methane? How is Methane Made? Where Do We Find Methane? Can Methane Be Dangerous? Does Methane Contribute to Climate Change? What is Methane?

  17. More About Inversions Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Inversions Background Inversions occur in fluids when a more dense fluid lies beneath a less dense fluid. In the atmosphere, the density is linked to temperature variations with warmer air lying atop colder air. Sounding Analysis - Inversions (Activity) Objective To evaluate radiosonde soundings for inversions. Materials  Soundings for the same date and synoptic time (provided or obtained online) Important Points to Understand The soundings here appear on a Stuve diagram. Because the

  18. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  19. ARM - Radar Backgrounder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CenterRadar Backgrounder Media Contact Hanna Goss hanna-dot-goss-at-pnnl-dot-gov @armnewsteam Field Notes Blog Topics Field Notes107 AGU 3 AMIE 10 ARM Aerial Facility 2 ARM Mobile Facility 1 6 ARM Mobile Facility 2 47 ARM Mobile Facility 3 1 BAECC 1 BBOP 4 ENA 1 GOAMAZON 7 MAGIC 15 MC3E 17 PECAN 3 SGP 7 STORMVEX 29 TCAP 3 Search News Search Blog News Center All Categories What's this? Social Media Guidance News Center All Categories Features and Releases Facility News Field Notes Blog Events

  20. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology, all of which support its national security mission. Sandia & EMCORE Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency S a n d i a S t r a t e g i c P a...

  1. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the establishment of the Nevada Test Site (now known as the Nevada National Security Site - NNSS) in 1951, thousands of people from around the world continue to visit this vast outdoor laboratory. Larger than the state of Rhode Island, the site features artifacts and archaeological sites from the early settlers, as well as the many relics remaining from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear rocket experiments, and a variety of other defense, environmental, and energy-related programs. Taking a Tour The

  2. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Recommended Browsers for iSupplier Portal Recommended Microsoft Internet Explorer Browser Settings (MSIE) Recommended Firefox Browser Settings Recommended...

  3. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AGENCY RECORD OF DECISION: AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO FIRM POWER SALES AGREEMENT WITH PORT TOWNSEND PAPER CORPORATION, CONTRACT NO. 11PB-12330 AUTHENTICATED June 28, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS...

  4. BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The safe and environmentally conscious performance of work is a fundamental core value of the Hanford Advisory Board. The Department of Energy (DOE) in seeking to move...

  5. Background

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting) Semi-annual report For the period of October 2003 to April 2004 Authored by Conan O'Rourke and Yutao Zhou for United States Department of Energy March 2006 DOE Award Number DE-FG26-02NT41472 Lighting Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 21 Union Street Troy, NY 12180 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

  6. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iSUPPLIER PORTAL ACCESS SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Oracle PO Team mlbritt Page 1 10/28/2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS Recommended Browsers for iSupplier Portal Recommended Microsoft Internet Explorer Browser Settings (MSIE) Recommended Firefox Browser Settings Recommended Safari Browser Settings SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND TROUBLESHOOTING HINTS Recommended Browsers for iSupplier Portal BROWSER WINDOWS XP SP2 & WINDOWS XP SP3 WINDOWS VISTA & WINDOWS VISTA SP1 MAC OS X V10.3.9 MAC OS X V10.4.7 OR HIGHER

  7. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marketing and operating arrangement efforts. Flexible contracts responding to the pricing and unbundling forces emerging with the opening of the wholesale power market will...

  8. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by large bluff bodies upstream of the turbine, e.g. piers, commonly found in river and tidal channels. Vincent S. Neary, Ph.D., P. E. Email: nearyvs@ornl.gov http:...

  9. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data, and Approach Used in the EBT for the Amendment ... 1 b. IP Rate and Revenue Forecast Used in the EBT for the Amendment ... 2 c. BPA expects to have...

  10. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 5 2. The Agreement will guarantee a revenue stream based on the IP rate, the statutorily defined rate for DSI sales....

  11. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling Citation Details In-Document...

  12. BEDES Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background BEDES Background The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification data dictionary is a response to the need for a standardized system of terms and definitions for building energy performance data. By providing a set of common terms and definitions, BEDES will provide the framework on which to build interoperable data schemas and software tools which reduce the time and expense currently invested in sharing data. HISTORY BEDES was originally developed for internal use to improve

  13. Paducah Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background Paducah Background Click image for interactive historical timeline of the Paducah Site. Click image for interactive historical timeline of the Paducah Site. In October 1950, the United States Atomic Energy Commission selected a former World War II munitions plant near Paducah, Kentucky, known as Kentucky Ordnance Works, as the site for the second of three planned uranium enrichment plants in the United States. The other two enrichment plants were located near Portsmouth, Ohio and Oak

  14. Portsmouth Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background Portsmouth Background Portsmouth Site construction - The location in Piketon, Ohio, was chosen in August 1952 to complement the federal government's gaseous diffusion program. Portsmouth Site construction - The location in Piketon, Ohio, was chosen in August 1952 to complement the federal government's gaseous diffusion program. Construction of the site quickly began in 1952. The effort was impressive, and when completed, included nearly 23,000 construction workers logging 69 million

  15. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  16. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  17. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic

  18. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  19. Gearbox Typical Failure Modes, Detection, and Mitigation Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation was given at the AWEA Operations & Maintenance and Safety Seminar and focused on what the typical gearbox failure modes are, how to detect them using detection techniques, and strategies that help mitigate these failures.

  20. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  1. Solar Background Document 5 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 Solar Background Document 5 Graph illustrating Chinese Development Bank financing to Chinese solar companies. PDF icon Solar Background Document 5.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 7 National Solar Jobs Census 2014 Solar Background Document 4

  2. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  3. NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set May 1, 2008 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released an updated typical meteorological year (TMY) data set derived from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Data Base update. The TMY3 data and user's manual are available at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/tmy3. The new data sets update and expand the TMY2 data sets released by NREL in 1994. The TMY3 data

  4. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  5. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  6. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  7. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  8. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  9. Initial Beta-Gamma Nuclear Detector Background Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.

    2011-09-12

    Detection of underground nuclear explosions and, more recently, nuclear reactor events is of great national interest. These measurements are most often made by determining the concentration of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere. Currently there are several ground-based systems capable of making radioxenon gas measurements. The measurement is often close to the detection limit, so understanding the parameters and features that limit the measurement is very important. A preliminary study of the detection limit has been performed using a ?-? Quad detector designed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The initial study has concentrated on the measuring the ambient radioactive background. By making several background measurements while varying the detector, shielding it is possible to identify whether the ambient background is internal or external to the detector. Furthermore, internal background contributions can be potentially reduced by selecting alternative low-background materials, while external background can be reduced by increasing the active or passive shielding present. By reducing the background contributions, it is possible to improve the detection limit and therefore the likelihood of positively identifying a nuclear test.

  10. Widget:Background-Image | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edit History Widget:Background-Image Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database pages use this widget to load device images as CSS background rather than...

  11. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly Reports Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Background Information for Independent...

  12. Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Typical Oak Ridge cemesto ... Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus Typical Oak Ridge cemesto houses and city bus

  13. Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

    1997-09-01

    An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Paducah Background Factsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Background Factsheet Paducah Background Factsheet Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions, May 15, 2012 PDF icon Paducah Background Factsheet_0.pdf More Documents & Publications Excess Uranium Inventory Management Plan 2008 2014 Review of the Potential Impact of DOE Excess Uranium Inventory On the Commercial Markets Quantification of the Potential Impact on Commercial Markets of Introduction of the Enrichment Services Component of DOE Low

  15. Solar Background Document 2 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Solar Background Document 2 Media reports and other independent analysts which pointed to Solyndra as a very promising, innovative company. PDF icon Solar Background Document 2.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-1638: Final Environmental Assessment Solar Background Document 3 Special Report: 11-0078-I

  16. Solar Background Document 3 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3 Solar Background Document 3 A list of private sector investment in Solyndra. PDF icon Solar Background Document 3.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 2 Special Report: 11-0078-I Before the House Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations

  17. Solar Background Document 7 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 Solar Background Document 7 Chart comparing global solar market in 2009 with the market today, illustrating the changing market conditions that Solyndra faced after receiving a loan guarantee. PDF icon Solar Background Document 7.pdf More Documents & Publications Northeast U.S. Solar Policy: Sunny, With a Chance of...FIT? From: Solar Background Document 2

  18. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Southwest Concentrating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Photos of various concentrating solar power systems. NREL, working through SunLab, supports the U.S. Department of Energy's...

  19. High frequency background quantization of gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.

    1982-06-01

    Considering background quantization of gravitational fields, it is generally assumed that the classical background satisfies Einstein's gravitational equations. However, there exist arguments showing that, for high frequency (quantum) fluctuations, this assumption has to be replaced by a condition describing the back reaction of fluctuations on the background. It is shown that such an approach leads to limitations for the quantum procedure which occur at distances larger than Planck's elementary length 1 = (Gh/c/sup 3/)/sup 1/2/.

  20. Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 Solar Background Document 6 Graph illustrating solar cell production in the United States and China from 2002 to 2010. PDF icon Solar Background Document 6.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 4 "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012) Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014)

  1. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly Reports Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Background Information for Independent Review Team. ...

  2. Solar Background Document 1 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Solar Background Document 1 A timeline outlining the Energy Department's extensive review of the Solyndra Solar loan guarantee application from 2006 to 2009. PDF icon Solar Background Document 1.pdf More Documents & Publications Special Report: 11-0078-I Before the House Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Credit Committee Recommendation Regarding Solyndra

  3. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-07-01

    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

  4. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2008-05-06

    This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

  6. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  7. Lighting Choices - White Background | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Choices - White Background Image icon All of these lightbulbs-CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving incandescents-meet the new energy standards that take effect from 2012-2014. More...

  8. Network Requirements Workshop - Documents and Background Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Network Requirements Reviews » Documents and Background Materials Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR

  9. EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS We present a new model of the

  10. TEC Working Group Background | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Background TEC Working Group Background Through the TEC/WG, DOE interacted with representatives of organizations at the state, tribal, and local levels to obtain input for program needs assessment, development and management, and to enhance their capability to carry out transportation emergency preparedness and safety activities specifically related to radioactive materials shipments. TEC membership included representatives from national, state, tribal and local government organizations, labor,

  11. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mott, James [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0?) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0??? is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ?? events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the ?Bq/m{sup 3} range.

  12. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  13. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  14. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  15. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  16. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuesta, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A. S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A. S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y -D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Combs, D. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Detwiler, J. A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Doe, P. J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Egorov, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Dept. of Physics; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fast, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Finnerty, P. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Fraenkle, F. M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giovanetti, G. K. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Goett, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gruszko, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Guiseppe, V. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gusev, K. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Hallin, A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hazama, R. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Dept. of Physics; Hegai, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Henning, R. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Hoppe, E. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Howe, M. A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Keeter, K. J. [Black Hills State Univ., Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M. F. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Kochetov, O. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S. I. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Leviner, L. E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Loach, J. C. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  17. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands ...

  18. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The ...

  19. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Excel file and dataset for VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in ...

  20. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  1. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  2. Microsoft Word - Appendix A_Background.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Background Information, Remedial Action Histories, Present Site Conditions U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan July 2005 Doc. No. S0079000 Page A-iii Contents A1.1 Location and Property Ownership ................................................................................1 A1.2 Physiography and Topography.....................................................................................4 A1.3 Hydrogeology

  3. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  4. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  5. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  6. Background Links | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background Links | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  7. APPLICANT BACKGROUND SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APPLICANT BACKGROUND SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS The information from this survey is used to help ensure that agency personnel practices meet the requirements of Federal law. Your responses are voluntary. Please answer each of the questions to the best of your ability. Please print entries in pencil or pen. Use only capital letters. Read each item thoroughly before completing the appropriate code number in each box. PRIVACY INFORMATION General The information is provided pursuant

  8. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  9. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  10. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  11. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray?induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing LaboratoryAndrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 ?s) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic vetofield measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux from man-made sources like 252Cf or Am-Be was removed.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Ozone Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ozone Concentration The atmospheric concentration or volume mixing ratio (mole fraction) of Ozone Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements,

  13. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  14. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  15. Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... Sandia Pilot Program to Assist Small Clean-Energy Companies Concentrating Solar ...

  16. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  17. Development of criteria used to establish a background environmental monitoring station

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Snyder, Sandra F.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2015-03-02

    It is generally considered necessary to measure concentrations of contaminants-of-concern at a background location when conducting atmospheric environmental surveillance. This is because it is recognized that measurements of background concentrations can enhance interpretation of environmental monitoring data. Despite the recognized need for background measurements, there is little published guidance available that describes how to identify an appropriate atmospheric background monitoring location. This paper develops generic criteria that can guide the decision making process for identifying suitable locations for background atmospheric monitoring station. Detailed methods for evaluating some of these criteria are also provided and a case study for establishment ofmore » an atmospheric background surveillance station as part of an environmental surveillance program is described. While the case study focuses on monitoring for radionuclides, the approach is equally valid for any airborne constituent being monitored. The case study shows that implementation of the developed criteria can result in a good, defensible choice for a background atmospheric monitoring location.« less

  18. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrato...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana ...

  19. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition - Dataset | Department of Energy 6: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition - Dataset Excel file and dataset for VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition File fotw#906_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of Vehicle Miles of Travel and the Price of Gasoline - Dataset Fact #859 February 9,

  20. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spun Off From A Government Lab" (Not) just your typical Lab spin off Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Far from Silicon Valley, Descartes Labs aims to turn a national research facility's AI research into new ways of understanding the world. July 30, 2015 Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A Government Lab" Descartes Labs cofounders Mark

  1. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  2. Comparison of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soil around Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, S.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Chapman, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements were used to estimate concentrations of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles to depths of 21 cm at on-site and off-site locations around the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at regional background locations east of the Front Range between Colorado`s borders with New Mexico and Wyoming. Concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the same samples. Concentrations of {sup 241}Am in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm decreased in an easterly direction from more than 5.3 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} 5 to 7 km away at a rate that was nearly proportional to the inverse square of distance. Deposits of {sup 137}Cs were ubiquitous, averaging 0.12 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm, but were unevenly distributed around Rocky Flats and the regional background locations. Deviations from the uniform exponential rate at which soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs typically decreased with depth, {minus}0.25 cm{sup {minus}1} at undisturbed sites, enabled the authors to determine that about 10% of their sampling sites had been disturbed by erosion, tillage, or other factors. The mean rate at which {sup 239,240}Pu decreased with depth was about the same, {minus}0.23 cm{sup {minus}1}, throughout the study area. Soil concentrations of {sup 241}Am decreased with depth at a similar mean rate of {minus}0.22 cm{sup {minus}1} at locations close to the 903 pad where measurements were robust. Ratios between {sup 241}Am or {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs proved more useful for delineating the extent and pattern of contamination from Rocky Flats than did activity concentrations in soil.

  3. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  4. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  5. Joined concentric tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Methane concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane concentration The amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  7. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  8. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  9. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  10. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  13. The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for thecosmic infrared background. I. Limits and detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot,G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-01-06

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mu m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 mu m(nu l nu<64 nW m-2 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level) and at 240 mu m (nu l nu < 28 nW m-1 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 mum data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 mu m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 mu m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of nu l nu = 25 +- 7 and 14 +- 3 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 and 240 mu m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 mu m, 10.3 nW m-2sr-1, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter.

  14. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opposition | Department of Energy 906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when purchasing vehicles. The graph below shows a three-month moving

  15. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  16. Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed Gamma-Rays From Gamma-Ray Bursts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on...

  17. Dynamic domain walls in a Maxwell-dilaton background (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic domain walls in a Maxwell-dilaton background Motivated by the well-known Chamblin-Reall solutions of n-dimensional background ...

  18. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance ...

  19. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South

  20. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  1. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  2. concentrating solar power plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating solar power plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  3. CONTENTS Concentrated Gas Hydrate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrated Gas Hydrate Deposits in the Kumano Forearc Basin, Nankai Trough, Japan .....1 Recent Advances in NETL's Laboratory Studies of Hydrate- Bearing Sediments .......................5 Initial Interpretation of Results from the Iġnik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Exchange Field Trial .. 10 A Fresh Look at the Mediterranean and Black Sea Basins: Potential for High-Quality Hydrate Reservoirs .....................15 Announcements .......................19 * United Nations Hydrate Report Published

  4. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  5. Study of multiband disordered systems using the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yi; Terletska, Hanna; Moore, C.; Ekuma, Chinedu; Tam, Ka-Ming; Berlijn, Tom; Ku, Wei; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-11-06

    We generalize the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation to multiband disordered systems. Using our extended formalism, we perform a systematic study of the nonlocal correlation effects induced by disorder on the density of states and the mobility edge of the three-dimensional two-band Anderson model. We include interband and intraband hopping and an intraband disorder potential. Our results are consistent with those obtained by the transfer matrix and the kernel polynomial methods. We also apply the method to KxFe2-ySe2 with Fe vacancies. Despite the strong vacancy disorder and anisotropy, we find the material is not an Anderson insulator. Moreover our resultsmore » demonstrate the application of the typical medium dynamical cluster approximation method to study Anderson localization in real materials.« less

  6. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  7. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  8. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  9. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1

  10. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will

  11. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concentrator Optics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Concentrator Optics Place: Marburg, Germany Zip: 35037 Product: A Germany-based company engaged in the design and production...

  12. Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC; Role of the Background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Kuprash, O. E.; Magas, V. K.

    2011-07-15

    We discuss two topical problems of diffraction dissociation at the LHC, namely the role of the background and the elastic contribution.

  13. Neutron Spallation Measurements And Impacts On Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-low background experiments, such as neutrinoless double beta decay, carried out deep underground to escape cosmic ray backgrounds can nonetheless be limited in sensitivity by cosmogenically induced signals. This limit can either be produced directly during operation from cosmic muon events in the detector volume, or can be produced by radioactive decay of cosmogenically generated radionuclides created while the detector materials were above ground. An accurate knowledge of the production of the latter source of background is of paramount importance in order to be able to interpret the results of low-background experiments.

  14. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research ESnet is currently supporting the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) and Sandia National Laboratories in their...

  15. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta ... Sponsoring Org: DOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 73; ...

  16. No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Man-Made Radioactivity For Los Alamos area No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area Two aerial flyovers found that radioisotopes and their associated...

  17. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Astroparticle physics with a customized ...

  18. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    c.l.) was obtained on the cosmicray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were also compared to Geant4 simulations....

  19. A Path to High-Concentration Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path to High-Concentration Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Nanorod Lumophores and Micro-Silicon Solar Cells Scientific Achievement We fabricated and modeled luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) incorporating micro-silicon solar cells and tunable CdSe/CdS nanorod lumophores, demonstrating a practical path to operation in the high-concentration regime. Significance and Impact LSCs enable non-tracking concentration of both direct sunlight and diffuse light onto high- efficiency solar cells,

  20. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  1. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Akerib, D. S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Arajo, H. M. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Bailey, A. J. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Balajthy, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bernard, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Cahn, S. B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Carmona-Benitez, M. C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Chan, C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chapman, J. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chiller, A. A. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Chiller, C. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Coffey, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Currie, A. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); de Viveiros, L. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Dobi, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dobson, J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Druszkiewicz, E. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Edwards, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Faham, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fiorucci, S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Flores, C. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gaitskell, R. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Gehman, V. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghag, C. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, K. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilchriese, M. G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hertel, S. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Horn, M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, D. Q. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ihm, M. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, R. G. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knoche, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Larsen, N. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lee, C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Lindote, A. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, M. I. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Malling, D. C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mannino, R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); McKinsey, D. N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Mei, D. -M. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Mock, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Moongweluwan, M. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Morad, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Murphy, A. St.J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Nehrkorn, C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nelson, H. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Neves, F. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Ott, R. A. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Pangilinan, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Parker, P. D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pease, E. K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pech, K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Phelps, P. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Reichhart, L. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Shutt, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Silva, C. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850 level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  2. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  3. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  4. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  5. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  6. Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on cosmology from the cosmic microwave background power spectrum of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey We explore extensions to the ΛCDM cosmology using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the recent SPT-SZ survey, along

  7. Modeling a Typical Winter-time Dust Event over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalenderski, S.; Stenchikov, G.; Zhao, Chun

    2013-02-20

    We used WRF-Chem, a regional meteorological model coupled with an aerosol-chemistry component, to simulate various aspects of the dust phenomena over the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea during a typical winter-time dust event that occurred in January 2009. The model predicted that the total amount of emitted dust was 18.3 Tg for the entire dust outburst period and that the two maximum daily rates were ~2.4 Tg/day and ~1.5 Tg/day, corresponding to two periods with the highest aerosol optical depth that were well captured by ground- and satellite-based observations. The model predicted that the dust plume was thick, extensive, and mixed in a deep boundary layer at an altitude of 3-4 km. Its spatial distribution was modeled to be consistent with typical spatial patterns of dust emissions. We utilized MODIS-Aqua and Solar Village AERONET measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) to evaluate the radiative impact of aerosols. Our results clearly indicated that the presence of dust particles in the atmosphere caused a significant reduction in the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface during the dust event. We also found that dust aerosols have significant impact on the energy and nutrient balances of the Red Sea. Our results showed that the simulated cooling under the dust plume reached 100 W/m2, which could have profound effects on both the sea surface temperature and circulation. Further analysis of dust generation and its spatial and temporal variability is extremely important for future projections and for better understanding of the climate and ecological history of the Red Sea.

  8. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  9. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature power spectrum using data from the recently completed South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) ...

  10. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic...

  11. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  12. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0-decay...

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glossary] (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  14. Parity Violation Constraints Using Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectra from 2006 and 2007 Observations by the QUaD Polarimeter (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Parity Violation Constraints Using Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Spectra from 2006 and 2007 Observations by the QUaD Polarimeter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parity Violation Constraints Using Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Spectra from 2006 and 2007 Observations by the QUaD Polarimeter Authors: Wu, E.Y.S. ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Harvard U. /Stanford U., Phys.

  15. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  16. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 23, 2016 Title: Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino

  17. Background | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Background High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical and Computational Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Mission Background HEP Accelerator R&D Expertise Connecting Accelerator R&D to User Needs Workshop Reports Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees Community Resources Contact Information High Energy

  18. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Resources with Additional Information * Videos 'George Smoot, ... has been awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for physics. He shares the award with John C. Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The citation reads "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award. 'Smoot has

  19. Ion Beam Neutralization by a Tenuous Background Plasma ---- Inventors Igor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kaganovich and William Berdanier | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Ion Beam Neutralization by a Tenuous Background Plasma ---- Inventors Igor Kaganovich and William Berdanier The neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications for accelerators, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. This invention shows that for intense ion beam pulses, a background plasma with a low relative density can be used to effectively

  20. Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing September 14, 2011 - 12:04am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs This morning, the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations is holding a hearing to discuss Solyndra Solar, the California-based solar manufacturer that declared bankruptcy last week. Jonathan Silver, Executive Director of the Department's Loan Programs Office, will be

  1. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans | Department of Energy Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Report is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist Federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and

  2. Home Energy Score Research and Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Background Home Energy Score Research and Background With the goal of addressing the significant, and yet untapped, potential for saving energy in existing homes, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, developed the Home Energy Score as a low cost and reliable method for estimating the energy use of a home and motivating investment in efficiency improvements. The Home Energy Score

  3. BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear

  4. Markets for concentrating solar power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    The report describes the markets for concentrating solar power. As concentrating solar power technologies advance into the early stages of commercialization, their economic potential becomes more sharply defined and increasingly tangible.

  5. Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light Achieving 30X Concentration Work w as p erformed a t L BL a nd U IUC Bronstein, N .D.; Y ao, Y .; X u, L .; O 'Brien, E .; P owers, A...

  6. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  7. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and ... In the future, troughs may be integrated with existing or new ...

  8. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- CBECS Survey Background and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Information Estimation of Standard Errors Sampling error is the difference between the survey estimate and the true population value due to the use of a random sample to estimate the population. This difference arises because a random subset, rather than the whole population, is observed. The typical magnitude of the sampling error is measured by the standard error of the estimate. The standard error is the root-mean-square difference between the estimate based on a particular

  9. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  10. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  11. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  12. Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von

    2015-06-23

    We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a “reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.

  13. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Authors: Hou, Z. ; et al. Publication Date: 2012-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1156457 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-PUB-13-072-A arXiv eprint

  14. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Germanium detector (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector Authors: Aalseth, C. E. [1] ; Amman, M. [2] ; Avignone, F.T. III [3] ; Back, H.O. [4] ; Barabash, A.S. [5] ; Barbeau, P.S. [6] ; Bergevin, M. [2] ; Burritt [7] ; Busch, M. [8] ; Capps, Gregory L [9] ; Chan, Y-D [2] ;

  15. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Engineering Services The Network OSCARS Fasterdata IPv6 Network IPv6 Implementation Checklist ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers ESnet IPv6 History ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Network Performance Tools The ESnet Engineering Team Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net

  16. NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schefer, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

  17. Analyses of High Pressure Molten Debris Dispersion for a Typical PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osamu KAawabata; Mitsuhiro Kajimoto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    In such severe core damage accident, as small LOCAs with no ECCS injection or station blackout, in which the primary reactor system remains pressurized during core melt down, certain modes of vessel failure would lead to a high pressure ejection of molten core material. In case of a local failure of the lower head, the molten materials would initially be ejected into the cavity beneath the pressure vessel may subsequently be swept out from the cavity to the containment atmosphere and it might cause the early containment failure by direct contact of containment steel liner with core debris. When the contribution of a high-pressure scenario in a core damage frequency increases, early conditional containment failure probability may become large. In the present study, the verification analysis of PHOENICS code and the combining analysis with MELCOR and PHOENICS codes were performed to examine the debris dispersion behavior during high pressure melt ejection. The PHOENICS code which can treat thermal hydraulic phenomena, was applied to the verification analysis for melt dispersion experiments conducted by the Purdue university in the United States. A low pressure melt dispersion experiment at initial pressure 1.4 MPas used metal woods as a molten material was simulated. The analytical results with molten debris dispersion mostly from the model reactor cavity compartment showed an agreement with the experimental result, but the analysis result of a volumetric median diameter of the airborne debris droplets was estimated about 1.5 times of the experimental result. The injection rates of molten debris and steam after reactor vessel failure for a typical PWR plant were analyzed using the MELCOR code. In addition, PHOENICS was applied to a 3D analysis for debris dispersion with low primary pressure at the reactor vessel failure. The analysis result showed that almost all the molten debris were dispersed from the reactor vessel cavity compartment by about 45 seconds after the start of steam release. (authors)

  18. ARM - Measurement - Black carbon concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsBlack carbon concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Black carbon concentration The concentration of carbon in its very absorbing, elemental, non-organic, non-oxide form (e.g. graphite). Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  19. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  20. Continuous flow dielectrophoretic particle concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-04-17

    A continuous-flow filter/concentrator for separating and/or concentrating particles in a fluid is disclosed. The filter is a three-port device an inlet port, an filter port and a concentrate port. The filter separates particles into two streams by the ratio of their dielectrophoretic mobility to their electrokinetic, advective, or diffusive mobility if the dominant transport mechanism is electrokinesis, advection, or diffusion, respectively.Also disclosed is a device for separating and/or concentrating particles by dielectrophoretic trapping of the particles.

  1. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  2. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University‟s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth‟s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project‟s first two years of experimentation.

  3. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan; Belikov, Alexander V.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2012-11-01

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  4. Observation of objects under intense plasma background illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzhinsky, R. O.; Savransky, V. V.; Zemskov, K. I.; Isaev, A. A.; Buzhinsky, O. I.

    2010-12-15

    Experiments on the observation of a brightness-amplified image of an object through a masking arc discharge are presented. The copper-vapor laser active medium was used as an image brightness amplifier. It is shown that the image quality does not worsen under plasma background illumination.

  5. NNSA to Conduct Background Radiation Testing | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Background Radiation Testing | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our

  6. Mineralogical characterization of saprolite at the FRC background site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Brooks, Scott C

    2008-12-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) including five contaminated sites and a clean background area was established in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program. This study investigates the mineralogy and mineralogical pathways of saprolite at the FRC background site to provide a fundamental basis for the remediation strategy for contaminated sites. The background site is underlain interbedded shales, siltstones, and limestones with nearly identical characteristics to the contaminated sites. Bulk samples of saprolite were collected by hand picking approximately at 1 m depth (C horizon) from the soil surface. The soil pH of 4.3 and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 10.5 cmol/kg measured are in the range of the typical shallow depth saprolite layer in this area. Total Fe by citrate-bicarbonate-dithionate (CBD) and ammonium oxalate extractable (amorphous) were 17.6 and 0.61 g/kg, respectively. Total Mn extracted by NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl was 0.17 g/kg. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicate that quartz, illite, and microcline (K-feldspar) are the dominant minerals, occupying 95% of mineral composition. The saprolite samples analyzed have shown characteristics of oxic conditions overall, and the degrees of weathering for three sampling locations were various, most for S1 and least for S3, likely influenced either by the flow channels developed through saprolite or by seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater table. The source of the manganese oxide that observed from the site is likely to be Mn-rich muscovite in the shale or Mn-rich biotite in the blackish band in the limestone. The results such as abundant Mn and Fe contents identified encouraging prospects for conducting remediation projects in FRC sites.

  7. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  8. Monolithic microfluidic concentrators and mixers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frechet, Jean M.; Svec, Frantisek; Yu, Cong; Rohr, Thomas

    2005-05-03

    Microfluidic devices comprising porous monolithic polymer for concentration, extraction or mixing of fluids. A method for in situ preparation of monolithic polymers by in situ initiated polymerization of polymer precursors within microchannels of a microfluidic device and their use for solid phase extraction (SPE), preconcentration, concentration and mixing.

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power Facilities Concentrating Solar Power Facilities Florida Hawaii Southwest U.S.

  10. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  11. Virasoro conformal blocks and thermality from classical background fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.

    2015-11-30

    We show that in 2d CFTs at large central charge, the coupling of the stress tensor to heavy operators can be re-absorbed by placing the CFT in a non-trivial background metric. This leads to a more precise computation of the Virasoro conformal blocks between heavy and light operators, which are shown to be equivalent to global conformal blocks evaluated in the new background. We also generalize to the case where the operators carry U(1) charges. The refined Virasoro blocks can be used as the seed for a new Virasoro block recursion relation expanded in the heavy-light limit. Furthermore, we commentmore » on the implications of our results for the universality of black hole thermality in AdS3 , or equivalently, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for CFT2 at large central charge.« less

  12. RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Miller, N.; Perley, R. A.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V.

    2012-10-10

    We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

  13. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  14. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1984-01-06

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  15. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-10-27

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  16. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  17. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1986-03-04

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle. 8 figs.

  18. Method for Reducing Background Clutter in a Camera Image - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method for Reducing Background Clutter in a Camera Image Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (832 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed an eye-safe, robust, lightweight, and low-cost 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad

  19. Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions At the direction of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, over many months, the Energy Department (DOE) has been working closely with Energy Northwest (ENW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and USEC Inc. (USEC) to develop a plan to address the challenges at USEC's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) that advances America's national security interests, protects taxpayers, and provides benefits for TVA and the Bonneville

  20. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade.

  1. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement...

  4. PROBING THE UNIVERSE'S TILT WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Conventional interpretation of the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole is that all of it is produced by local peculiar motions. Alternative explanations requiring part of the dipole to be primordial have received support from measurements of large-scale bulk flows. A test of the two hypotheses is whether other cosmic dipoles produced by collapsed structures later than the last scattering coincide with the CMB dipole. One background is the cosmic infrared background (CIB) whose absolute spectrum was measured to {approx}30% by the COBE satellite. Over the 100-500 {mu}m wavelength range its spectral energy distribution can provide a probe of its alignment with the CMB. This is tested with the COBE FIRAS data set which is available for such a measurement because of its low noise and frequency resolution which are important for Galaxy subtraction. Although the FIRAS instrument noise is in principle low enough to determine the CIB dipole, the Galactic foreground is sufficiently close spectrally to keep the CIB dipole hidden. A similar analysis is performed with DIRBE, which-because of the limited frequency coverage-provides a poorer data set. We discuss strategies for measuring the CIB dipole with future instruments to probe the tilt and apply it to the Planck, Herschel, and the proposed Pixie missions. We demonstrate that a future FIRAS-like instrument with instrument noise a factor of {approx}10 lower than FIRAS would make a statistically significant measurement of the CIB dipole. We find that the Planck and Herschel data sets will not allow a robust CIB dipole measurement. The Pixie instrument promises a determination of the CIB dipole and its alignment with either the CMB dipole or the dipole galaxy acceleration vector.

  5. FINGERPRINTS OF GALACTIC LOOP I ON THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the ''radio loops'' in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where emission by dust dominates. This suggests the mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation from dust grains enriched by metallic iron or ferrimagnetic molecules. This new foreground we have identified is present at high galactic latitudes, and potentially dominates over the expected B-mode polarization signal due to primordial gravitational waves from inflation.

  6. Central Plateau Principles Public Involvement Advice DETAILED BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    v0, 12/9/14 Central Plateau Principles Public Involvement Advice DETAILED BACKGROUND Cleanup of Hanford's Central Plateau is expected to take another four decades or longer, and cost tens of billions of dollars. The Central Plateau includes the 200 East and 200 West Areas with all of Hanford's High-Level Nuclear Waste Tank Farms, processing plants, sites where over a million gallons of High-Level Nuclear Waste has leaked from Single Shell Tanks (SSTs), and billions of gallons of waste was

  7. UBS AG, LONDON BRANCH Order No. EA-261 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On April 11, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from UBS AG, London Branch (UBS) for authorization to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico. UBS, a Swiss corporation formed in 1998 by the merger of Union Bank of

  8. UBS AG, LONDON BRANCH Order No. EA-263 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On April 11, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from UBS, AG London Branch (UBS) for authorization to transmit electric energy from the Untied States to Mexico and to Canada. UBS, a Swiss corporation formed in 1998 by the merger of Union

  9. Search for Linear Polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lubin, P. M.; Smoot, G. F.

    1978-10-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (3 deg K blackbody) radiation. These ground-based measurements are made at 9 mm wavelength. We find no evidence for linear polarization, and set an upper limit for a polarized component of 0.8 m deg K with a 95% confidence level. This implies that the present rate of expansion of the Universe is isotropic to one part in 10{sup 6}, assuming no re-ionization of the primordial plasma after recombination

  10. Exelon Generation Company, LLC Order No. EA-249 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Exelon Generation Company, LLC Order No. EA-249 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On August 20, 2001, Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. Exelon proposes to purchase surplus

  11. ENMAX Energy Marketing Inc. Order No. EA-264 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ENMAX Energy Marketing Inc. Order No. EA-264 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On February 20, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from ENMAX Energy Marketing, Inc. (ENMAX) to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada. ENMAX is an Alberta corporation having its

  12. Arontis Solar Concentrator AB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arontis Solar Concentrator AB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Arontis Solar Concentrator AB Place: Harnosand, Sweden Zip: SE-871 31 Product: Developer of a medium-concentrating,...

  13. Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Gorenstein, M. V.; Smoot, G. F.

    1980-05-01

    We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (.089 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup 1�}. The measurements how clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360{+ or -}50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2{+ or -}0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+ or -}8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypotheses of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

  14. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  15. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot, G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  16. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Concentrating Solar Power:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE Opportunities Funding Opportunity Announcement: Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE...

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics August 20, 2013 - 5:02pm Addthis The dish/engine system is a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology that produces relatively small amounts of electricity compared to other CSP technologies-typically in the range of 3 to 25 kilowatts. Dish/engine systems use a parabolic dish of mirrors to direct and concentrate sunlight onto a central engine that produces electricity. The two major parts of

  18. Plasma tomographic reconstruction from tangentially viewing camera with background subtraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odstr?il, M.; Mlyn?, J.; Weinzettl, V.; H?ek, P.; Verdoolaege, G.; Berta, M.

    2014-01-15

    Light reflections are one of the main and often underestimated issues of plasma emissivity reconstruction in visible light spectral range. Metallic and other specular components of tokamak generate systematic errors in the optical measurements that could lead to wrong interpretation of data. Our analysis is performed at data from the tokamak COMPASS. It is a D-shaped tokamak with specular metallic vessel and possibility of the H-mode plasma. Data from fast visible light camera were used for tomographic reconstruction with background reflections subtraction to study plasma boundary. In this article, we show that despite highly specular tokamak wall, it is possible to obtain a realistic reconstruction. The developed algorithm shows robust results despite of systematic errors in the optical measurements and calibration. The motivation is to obtain an independent estimate of the plasma boundary shape.

  19. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre', Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  20. Intersecting nonextreme p-branes and linear dilaton background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2005-08-15

    We construct the general static solution to the supergravity action containing gravity, the dilaton and a set of antisymmetric forms describing the intersecting branes delocalized in the relative transverse dimensions. The solution is obtained by reducing the system to a set of separate Liouville equations (the intersection rules implying the separability); it contains the maximal number of free parameters corresponding to the rank of the differential equations. Imposing the requirement of the absence of naked singularities, we show that the general configurations are restricted to two and only two classes: the usual asymptotically flat intersecting branes, and the intersecting branes some of which are asymptotically flat and some approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. In both cases the configurations are black. These are supposed to be relevant for the description of the thermal phase of the QFT's in the corresponding Domain-Wall/QFT duality.

  1. Far Infrared Spectrometry of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Mather, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    I describe two experiments to measure the cosmic background radiation near 1 mm wavelength. The first was a ground-based search for spectral lines, made with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and an InSb detector. The second is a measurement of the spectrum from 3 to 18 cm{sup -1}, made with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a polarizing Michelson interferometer, cooled in liquid helium, and operated with a germanium bolometer. I give the theory of operation, construction details, and experimental results. The first experiment was successfully completed but the second suffered equipment malfunction on its first flight. I describe the theory of Fourier transformations and give a new understanding of convolutional phase correction computations. I discuss for infrared bolometer calibration procedures, and tabulate test results on nine detectors. I describe methods of improving bolometer sensitivity with immersion optics and with conductive film blackening.

  2. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

  3. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  4. Electrokinetic concentration of charged molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K. (Berkeley, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Garguilo, Michael G. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.

  5. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron interaction cross sections for boron. While corrections to the data files themselves are simple to implement and distribute, it is quite possible, however, that coding changes may be required in G4beamline or even in GEANT4 to fully correct nuclear interactions. Regardless, these studies are ongoing and future results will be reflected in updated releases of G4beamline.

  6. THE COSMIC NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND. II. FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R.; Iliev, Ilian T.

    2010-02-20

    The near-infrared background (NIRB) is one of a few methods that can be used to observe the redshifted light from early stars at a redshift of 6 and above, and thus it is imperative to understand the significance of any detection or nondetection of the NIRB. Fluctuations of the NIRB can provide information on the first structures, such as halos and their surrounding ionized regions in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We combine, for the first time, N-body simulations, radiative transfer code, and analytic calculations of luminosity of early structures to predict the angular power spectrum (C{sub l} ) of fluctuations in the NIRB. We study in detail the effects of various assumptions about the stellar mass, the initial mass spectrum of stars, the metallicity, the star formation efficiency (f{sub *}), the escape fraction of ionizing photons (f{sub esc}), and the star formation timescale (t{sub SF}), on the amplitude as well as the shape of C{sub l} . The power spectrum of NIRB fluctuations is maximized when f{sub *} is the largest (as C{sub l} {proportional_to} f {sup 2}{sub *}) and f{sub esc} is the smallest (as more nebular emission is produced within halos). A significant uncertainty in the predicted amplitude of C{sub l} exists due to our lack of knowledge of t{sub SF} of these early populations of galaxies, which is equivalent to our lack of knowledge of the mass-to-light ratio of these sources. We do not see a turnover in the NIRB angular power spectrum of the halo contribution, which was claimed to exist in the literature, and explain this as the effect of high levels of nonlinear bias that was ignored in the previous calculations. This is partly due to our choice of the minimum mass of halos contributing to NIRB ({approx}2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), and a smaller minimum mass, which has a smaller nonlinear bias, may still exhibit a turnover. Therefore, our results suggest that both the amplitude and shape of the NIRB power spectrum provide important information regarding the nature of sources contributing to the cosmic reionization. The angular power spectrum of the IGM, in most cases, is much smaller than the halo angular power spectrum, except when f{sub esc} is close to unity, t{sub SF} is longer, or the minimum redshift at which the star formation is occurring is high. In addition, low levels of the observed mean background intensity tend to rule out high values of f{sub *} {approx}> 0.2.

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: background tests and thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Graef, L.L.; Pavn, D.; Basilakos, Spyros E-mail: leilagraef@usp.br E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-10-01

    A cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, it is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the GibbonsHawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current 'quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.

  9. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-07-16

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T>160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors.

  10. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  11. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, David R. (Star City, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  12. Experiments with background gas in a vacuum arc centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.

    1996-04-01

    Since promising isotope separation results were first reported by Krishnan et al. in 1981, a range of vacuum arc centrifuge experiments have been conducted in laboratories around the world. The PCEN (Plasma CENtrifuge) vacuum arc centrifuge at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research has been used for isotope separation studies with cathode materials of carbon and magnesium and also to investigate the performance in terms of the rotational velocity attained for different cathode materials. Here, a vacuum arc centrifuge has been operated with an initial filling gas of either argon or hydrogen for pressures ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}1} Pa. The angular velocity {omega} of the plasma has been determined by cross-correlating the signals from potential probes, and the electron temperature T has been deduced from Langmuir probe data. At high gas pressures and early times during the 14 ms plasma lifetime, high-frequency nonuniformities frequently observed in the vacuum discharge disappear, suggesting that the associated instability is suppressed. Under the same conditions, nonuniformities rotating with much lower angular velocities are observed in the plasma. Temperatures are reduced in the presence of the background gas, and the theoretical figure of merit for separation proportional to {omega}{sup 2}/T is increased compared to its value in the vacuum discharge for both argon and hydrogen gas fillings.

  13. Performance model assessment for multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Riley, Daniel M.; McConnell, Robert.; Sahm, Aaron; Crawford, Clark; King, David L.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Foresi, James S.

    2010-03-01

    Four approaches to modeling multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic system performance are assessed by comparing modeled performance to measured performance. Measured weather, irradiance, and system performance data were collected on two systems over a one month period. Residual analysis is used to assess the models and to identify opportunities for model improvement. Large photovoltaic systems are typically developed as projects which supply electricity to a utility and are owned by independent power producers. Obtaining financing at favorable rates and attracting investors requires confidence in the projected energy yield from the plant. In this paper, various performance models for projecting annual energy yield from Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems are assessed by comparing measured system output to model predictions based on measured weather and irradiance data. The results are statistically analyzed to identify systematic error sources.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 12 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  15. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara; Burnley, Pamela; Hausrath, Elisabeth; Haber, Daniel; Adcock, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar » Concentrating Solar Power Basics Concentrating Solar Power Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 suns. This system can be used for large fields connected to the utility grid, hydrogen generation, or water pumping. Credit: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464 Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto

  17. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  18. Real-Time Airborne Gamma-Ray Background Estimation Using NASVD with MLE and Radiation Transport for Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.

  19. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

  20. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50% Efficient Solar Cells PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50% Efficient Solar Cells Funding ...

  1. Concentrating Technologies LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Owens Crossroads, Alabama Zip: 35763 Product: Developer of concentrating photovoltaic technology (CPV). References: Concentrating Technologies LLC1 This article is a...

  2. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Laboratory Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To research, develop, and test a variety of concentrating solar power technologies, NREL features the following laboratory capabilities: Concentrated Solar Radiation Facility Large ...

  3. Sandia Energy - Concentrating Solar Power Technical Management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Technical Management Position Home Renewable Energy Energy Facilities News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Job Listing National Solar Thermal Test...

  4. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  5. Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS) Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS)...

  6. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  7. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  8. The Design of an Ultra-Low Background Thermosyphon for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Busch, Matthew; Daniels, Randy; Fast, James E.; Green, Matthew P.; Reid, Douglas J.

    2013-05-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is an ultra-low background neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???) experiment that will deploy up to 40 kg of high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a detector array with less than 1 event/ton-year in a 4 keV region of interest around the 0??? signal. HPGe diodes, when used as ionizing radiation detectors, need to be maintained at a temperature close to that of liquid nitrogen (77 K). This work describes the R&D results of a cryogenic system capable of meeting the requirements of low background and the cooling capacity required to successfully operate such a detector system. The MJD germanium detector modules will operate at liquid nitrogen temperature to provide adequate cooling for a full range of HPGe impurity concentrations. This paper shows the experimental results obtained using a two-phase horizontal thermosyphon using liquid nitrogen as the MJDs cooling system. The cold test shows that the proposed thermosyphon has sufficient cooling power to handle the heat load of an MJD module. Results for the temperature gradient across the thermosyphon, cooling capacity, and design considerations demonstrate that the thermosyphon can effectively remove the calculated heat load of each module of the experiment. The thermosyphon will be bolted to a cold plate from which detector strings will hang. The thermal conductivity of a mockup of the MJD bolted thermal joint is experimentally determined to be below 0.1 K/W.

  9. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show

  10. NREL: Learning - Concentrating Solar Power Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. However, a new generation of power plants with concentrating solar power systems uses the sun as a heat source. The three main types of concentrating solar power systems are: linear concentrator, dish/engine, and power tower systems. Linear concentrator systems collect the sun's energy

  11. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  13. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  14. Temporal trends in and influence of wind on PAH concentrations measured near the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes, D.R.; Basu, I.; Sweet, C.W.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    This paper reports on temporal trends in gas- and particle-phase PAH concentrations measured at three sites in the Great Lakes' Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network: Eagle Harbor, near Lake Superior, Sleeping Bear Dunes, near Lake Michigan, and Sturgeon Point, near Lake Erie. While gas-phase concentrations have been decreasing since 1991 at all sites, particle-phase concentrations have been decreasing only at Sleeping Bear Dunes. To determine whether these results represent trends in background levels or regional emissions, the average concentrations are compared to those found in urban and rural studies. In addition, the influence of local wind direction on PAH concentrations is investigated, with the assumption that dependence on wind direction implies regional sources. Using these two methods, it is found that PAH concentrations at Eagle Harbor and Sleeping Bear Dunes represent regional background levels but that PAH from the Buffalo Region intrude on the background levels measured at the Sturgeon Point site. At this site, wind from over Lake Erie reduces local PAH concentrations.

  15. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrin, S.; Dafni, T.; Gmez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  16. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  17. Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers: Results of background trace metals study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, M.M.; Overdier, J.T.; Armstrong, D.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Webb, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Levels of total and filtrable Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in 41 Wisconsin rivers draining watersheds of distinct homogeneous characteristics (land use/cover, soil type, surficial geology) were quantified. Levels, fluxes, and yields of trace metals are interpreted in terms of principal geochemical controls. The study samples were also used to evaluate the capability of modern ICP-MS techniques for ``background`` level quantification of metals. Order-of-magnitude variations in levels of a given metal between sites was measured. This large natural variance reflects influences of soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOC), ionic strength, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on metal levels. Significant positive correlations between DOC levels and filtrable metal concentrations were observed, demonstrating the important role that DOC plays in metal speciation and behavior. Systematic, chemically consistent, differences in behavior between the metals is evident with partition coefficients (K,) and fraction in particulate forms ranking in the order: Al > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd > Cu. Total metal yields correlate well with SPM yields, especially for highly partitioned elements, whereas filtrable metal yields reflect the interplay of partitioning and water yield. The State of Wisconsin will use these data in a re-evaluation of regulatory limits and in the development of water effects ratio criteria.

  18. Investigation of Technetium Redox Cycling in FRC Background Sediments using EXAFS and Gamma Camera Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, J.R.; McBeth, J.M.; Lear, G.; Morris, K.; Burke, I.T.; Livens, F.R.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R.

    2006-04-05

    Technetium-99 is a priority pollutant at numerous DOE sites, due to its long half-life (2.1 x 105 years), high mobility as Tc(VII) in oxic waters, and bioavailability as a sulfate analogue. {sup 99}Tc is far less mobile under anaerobic conditions, forming insoluble Tc(IV) precipitates. As anaerobic microorganisms can reduce soluble Tc(VII) to insoluble Tc(IV), microbial metabolism may have the potential to treat sediments and waters contaminated with Tc. Baseline studies of fundamental mechanisms of Tc(VII) bioreduction and precipitation (reviewed by Lloyd et al., 2005, in press) have generally used pure cultures of metal-reducing bacteria, in order to develop conceptual models for the biogeochemical cycling of {sup 99}Tc. There is, however, comparatively little known about interactions of metal-reducing bacteria with environmentally relevant trace concentrations of {sup 99}Tc, against a more complex biogeochemical background provided by mixed microbial communities in aquifer sediments. The objective of this project is to probe the site specific biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of {sup 99}Tc at the US DOE Field Research Center Site (FRC; Oak Ridge, Tennessee). This information is required for the rational design of in situ bioremediation strategies for technetium-contaminated subsurface environments. We are using a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, microbiological and spectroscopic techniques to determine the solubility and phase associations of {sup 99}Tc in FRC sediments, and characterize the underpinning biogeochemical controls.

  19. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Docket No. EO-05-01. As supporting...

  20. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  1. HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS DURING STORAGE OF 3013 OXIDE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.; Askew, N.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-03-14

    As part of a surveillance program intended to ensure the safe storage of plutonium bearing nuclear materials in the Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS), samples of these materials are shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. These samples are in the form of solids or powders which will have absorbed moisture. Potentially flammable hydrogen gas is generated due to radiolysis of the moisture. The samples are shipped for processing after chemical analysis. To preclude the possibility of a hydrogen deflagration or detonation inside the shipping containers, the shipping times are limited to ensure that hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of every layer of confinement is below the lower flammability limit of 4 volume percent (vol%). This study presents an analysis of the rate of hydrogen accumulation due to radiolysis and calculation of allowable shipping times for typical KAMS materials.

  2. POTENTIAL DIMETHYLMERCURY CONCENTRATION IN WATER & ORGANIC CONDENSATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2004-12-28

    This document bounds potential dimethylmercury concentration in water or organic condensate that might form in ventilation systems or cooler tank regions. Dimethylmercury concentrations were extremely low and would be below drinking water standards in the water condensate.

  3. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_chen.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) Concentrated Thermoelectric Power Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC )

  4. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use of relatively inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar

  5. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Projects Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    navigation to main content. NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Projects: Solar Paces SolarPACES Snapshot SolarPACES, an international program of the International Energy Agency, furthers collaborative development, testing, and marketing of concentrating solar power plants. Activities include testing large-scale systems and developing advanced technologies, components, instrumentation, and analysis techniques. Three ongoing Tasks are Concentrating Solar Electric

  6. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects Offering Low LCOE Opportunities | Department of Energy Funding Opportunity Announcement: Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE Opportunities Funding Opportunity Announcement: Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE Opportunities Funding Number: DE-FOA-0001186 Funding Amount: $25,000,000 Description The Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE Opportunities (CSP: APOLLO) funding opportunity announcement (FOA) seeks

  7. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage | Department of Energy Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage The Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New

  8. In-Situ Characterization of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Interstitial, and background Particles using Single Particle Mass Spectrometer, SPLAT II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Earle, Michael; Easter, Richard C.; Korolev, Alexei; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter; Macdonald, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Strapp, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol indirect effect remains the most uncertain aspect of climate change modeling because proper test requires knowledge of individual particles sizes and compositions with high spatial and temporal resolution. We present the first deployment of a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) that is operated in a dual data acquisition mode to measure all the required individual particle properties with sufficient temporal resolution to definitively resolve the aerosol-cloud interaction in this exemplary case. We measured particle number concentrations, asphericity, and individual particle size, composition, and density with better than 60 seconds resolution. SPLAT II measured particle number concentrations between 70 particles cm-3and 300 particles cm-3, an average particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. Found that most particles are composed of oxygenated organics, many of which are mixed with sulfates. Biomass burn particles some with sulfates were prevalent, particularly at higher altitudes, and processed sea-salt was observed over the ocean. Analysis of cloud residuals shows that with time cloud droplets acquire sulfate by the reaction of peroxide with SO2. Based on the particle mass spectra and densities we find that the compositions of cloud condensation nuclei are similar to those of background aerosol but, contain on average ~7% more sulfate, and do not include dust and metallic particles. A comparison between the size distributions of background, activated, and interstitial particles shows that while nearly none of the activated particles is smaller than 115 nm, more than 80% of interstitial particles are smaller than 115 nm. We conclude that for this cloud the most important difference between CCN and background aerosol is particle size although having more sulfate also helps.

  9. Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.

  10. Analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS using RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1 codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.J.; Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of a typical BWR/4 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) has been performed using two advanced, best-estimate computer codes, namely, RAMONA-3B and TRAC-BD1. The transient was initiated by an inadvertant closure of all Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with subsequent failure to scram the reactor. However, all other safety features namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure coolant injection and the standby liquid (boron) control system were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. It has been found that both RAMONA-3B (with three-dimensional neutron kinetics) and TRAC-BD1 (with point kinetics) yielded similar results for the global parameters such as reactor power, system pressure and the suppression pool temperature. Both calculations showed that the reactor can be brought to hot shutdown in approximately twenty to twenty-five minutes with borated water mass flow rate of 2.78 kg/s (43 gpm) with 23800 ppM of boron. The suppression pool water temperature (assuming no pool cooling) at this time could be in the range of 170 to 205/sup 0/F. An additional TRAC-BD1 calculation with RAMONA-3B reactor power indicates that the thermal-hydraulic models in RAMONA-3B, although simpler than those in TRAC-BD1, can adequately represent the system behavior during the ATWS-type transient.

  11. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  12. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  13. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Research A collage of Concentrating Solar Power photographs. The first photo shows a dish-engine solar system. The second is of a SAIC Stirling dish collector. And the third photo shows a SkyTrough solar concentrator located on a mesa top. NREL collaborates with industry to further the research and development (R&D) of concentrating solar power (CSP) plant and solar thermal technologies. NREL's projects in concentrating solar power focus on components R&D and

  14. Background F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F rom 1951 to 1992, the United States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below, or within the water tablethe very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from

  15. CAMD Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMD's Research Funding Impact CAMD is a synchrotron facility supporting the science and engineering research of the LSU faculty as well as other State and Regional stakeholders....

  16. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Text of Decision March 16,1970 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. PROJECT RULlSON L .. .. ---_ ---._._ /' Text of Decision March 76, 7970 Q - CHIEF JUDGE ALFRED A. ARRAJ United States District Court Denver, Colorado With Introductory Remarks By ROBERT E. MILLER Manager k v a d a Operations ~ffice:,>:?.;, .- ,.,:-. !c- - United states Atomic Energy Commission i. This page

  17. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Summary of Property Damage Complaints andlor Claims \ P R O J E C T R U L I S O N I - S U M M A R Y O F P R O P E R T Y D A M A G E C O M P L A I N T S A N D / O R C L A I M S AS OF MARCH 31, 1970 'E: The m a t e r i a l contained h e r e i n i s n o t t o be p u b l i c l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h o u t t h e p r i o r Office ( ~ E c ) , y o @ oplc-9 - Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 -- Prepared By: % & c n U a i l b 0. Brush Approved: Las Vegas Branch General Adjustment Bureau, Inc. P r o j

  18. Audit Report - Implementation of the Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power Program, OAS-RA-L-13-01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementation of the Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power Program OAS-RA-L-13-01 November 2012 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 1, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE PROGRAM DIRECTOR, CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PROGRAM FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Administration Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Implementation of the Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power Program" BACKGROUND The

  19. Efficient Solar Concentrators: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Teledyne is developing a liquid prism panel that tracks the position of the sun to help efficiently concentrate its light onto a solar cell to produce power. Typically, solar tracking devices have bulky and expensive mechanical moving parts that require a lot of power and are often unreliable. Teledynes liquid prism panel has no bulky and heavy supporting partsinstead it relies on electrowetting. Electrowetting is a process where an electric field is applied to the liquid to control the angle at which it meets the sunlight above and to control the angle of the sunlight to the focusing lensthe more direct the angle to the focusing lens, the more efficiently the light can be concentrated to solar panels and converted into electricity. This allows the prism to be tuned like a radio to track the sun across the sky and steer sunlight into the solar cell without any moving mechanical parts. This process uses very little power and requires no expensive supporting hardware or moving parts, enabling efficient and quiet rooftop operation for integration into buildings.

  20. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge Jr, William P; Toops, Todd J; Green Jr, Johney Boyd; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  1. High efficiency and high concentration in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Luque, A.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper, the authors present the state-of-the-art of multijunction solar cells and the future prospects of this technology. Their use in terrestrial applications will likely be for concentrators operating at very high concentrations. Some trends are also discussed and the authors present a cost calculation showing that highly efficient cells under very high concentration would be able to produce electricity at costs competitive with electricity generation costs for some utilities.

  2. Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power The SunShot Initiative supports research and development of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies that reduce the cost of solar energy. CSP helps to achieve the SunShot Initiative cost targets with systems that can supply solar power on demand, even when there is no sunlight, through the use of thermal storage. Since SunShot's inception, the levelized cost of electricity for CSP has decreased about 36 percent, from $0.21 cents per

  3. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two-stream instability (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability The current and charge neutralization of charged particle beams by background plasma enable ballistic beam propagation and have a wide range of applications in inertial fusion and high energy density physics.

  4. 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conference Call Regarding Oil | Department of Energy :30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil June 23, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, Thursday, June 23 at 10:30AM ET, Senior Administration Officials will hold a background conference call regarding the ongoing oil supply disruptions in the Middle East and North Africa and the

  5. TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration ... It is a variation of current methods used on ... Applications and Industries Clean energy production ...

  6. Cyclic Concentration Measurements for Characterizing Pulsating Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2013-07-07

    Slurry mixed in vessels via pulse jet mixers has a periodic, rather than steady, concentration profile. Measurements of local concentration taken at the center of the tank at a range of elevations within the mixed region were analyzed to obtain a greater understanding of how the periodic pulse jet mixing cycle affects the local concentration. Data were obtained at the critical suspension velocity, when all solids are suspended at the end of the pulse. The data at a range of solids loadings are analyzed to observe the effect of solids concentration during the suspension and settling portions of the mixing cycle.

  7. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in its CSP deployment efforts in the following areas: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. NREL received funding from DOE for concentrating solar...

  8. National solar technology roadmap: Concentrator PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Dan

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses high-concentration (>10x) photovoltaic (PV) systems, incorporating high-efficiency III-V or silicon cells, trackers, and reflective or refractive optics.

  9. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Report - Fraunhofer ISE and NREL Analyze Status of Market and Technology February 4, 2015 The German Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems...

  10. Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems ISFOC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Institute of Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (ISFOC) Place: Puertallano, Spain Zip: 13500 Product: Part of the R&D...

  11. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  12. Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce...

  13. Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  14. OpenEI Community - Concentrated Solar Power

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    groupbig-clean-data" target"blank">read more

    Big Data Concentrated Solar Power DataAnalysis energy efficiency energy storage expert systems machine learning...

  15. Concentrated Solar Power | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Energy Efficiency. Links: Big Clean Data group on linkedin Big Data Concentrated Solar Power DataAnalysis energy efficiency energy storage expert systems machine learning...

  16. Concentrating Solar Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  17. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  18. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Concentrating Solar Power Research Home Projects Research Staff Working with Us Data & Resources Publications...

  19. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Basics Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies can be a major contributor to our nation's future need for new, clean sources of energy, particularly in the Western...

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nevada Loan Guarantee 737 Million Sep 2011 GENESIS TITLE XVII Concentrating Solar Power NextEra Energy Riverside County, California Partial Loan Guarantee 852 Million Aug 2011 ...

  1. Concentration Solar la Mancha | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar la Mancha Jump to: navigation, search Name: Concentration Solar la Mancha Place: Manzanares (Cuidad Real), Spain Zip: 13200 Product: Maker of CPV systems and systems...

  2. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  3. Measuring surfactant concentration in plating solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonivert, William D. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Livermore, CA); Hachman, John T. (Stockton, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An arrangement for measuring the concentration of surfactants in a electrolyte containing metal ions includes applying a DC bias voltage and a modulated voltage to a counter electrode. The phase angle between the modulated voltage and the current response to the modulated voltage at a working electrode is correlated to the surfactant concentration.

  4. MaGe - a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo Application Framework for Low-background Germanium Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Finnerty, P.; Henning, R.; Gehman, Victor; Johnson, Robert A.; Jordan, David V.; Kazkaz, Kareem; Knapp, Markus; Kroninger, Kevin; Lenz, Daniel; Leviner, L.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Xiang; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Mokhtarani, A.; Pandola, Luciano; Schubert, Alexis G.; Schubert, J.; Tomei, Claudia; Volynets, Oleksandr

    2011-06-13

    We describe a physics simulation software framework, MAGE, that is based on the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. MAGE is used to simulate the response of ultra-low radioactive background radiation detectors to ionizing radiation, speci?cally the MAJ ORANA and GE RDA neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. MAJ ORANA and GERDA use high-purity germanium technology to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 76 Ge isotope, and MAGE is jointly developed between these two collaborations. The MAGE framework contains simulated geometries of common objects, prototypes, test stands, and the actual experiments. It also implements customized event generators, GE ANT 4 physics lists, and output formats. All of these features are available as class libraries that are typically compiled into a single executable. The user selects the particular experimental setup implementation at run-time via macros. The combination of all these common classes into one framework reduces duplication of efforts, eases comparison between simulated data and experiment, and simpli?es the addition of new detectors to be simulated. This paper focuses on the software framework, custom event generators, and physics list.

  5. Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. ); Murdock, T.L. ); Smoot, G.F. ); Weiss, R. ); Wright, E.L. )

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

  6. DRUG TESING PANEL & CUTOFF CONCENTRATIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DRUG TESTING PANEL & CUTOFF CONCENTRATIONS Initial Test Analyte Initial Test Cutoff Concentration Confirmatory Test Analyte Confirmatory Test Cutoff Concentration Marijuana Metabolites 50 ng/mL THCA \1\ 15 ng/mL Cocaine Metabolites 150 ng/mL Benzoylecgonine 100 ng/mL Codeine 2000 ng/mL Opiate Metabolites: Codeine/Morphine \2\ 2000 ng/mL Morphine 2000 ng/mL 6-Acetylmorphine (Heroine) 10 ng/mL 6-Acetylmorphine 10 ng/mL Phencyclidine 25 ng/mL Phencyclidine 25 ng/mL Amphetamine 250 ng/mL 500

  7. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  8. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-08-24

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

  10. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Particle Receiver...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed-Novel Components to Overcome Existing Barriers Advancing concentrating solar power (CSP) systems to the target cost of 0.06 per...

  11. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including technical reports and papers, about its R&D activities in concentrating solar power, as well as related information. Below you'll find a list of selected NREL...

  12. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  13. SunShot Concentrating Solar Power Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (19.8 GW Total) Source: "Concentrating Solar Power 2011: Technology, Costs and Markets," GTM Research * greentech.com SunShot Initiative 8 The DOE SunShot Initiative is a ...

  14. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  15. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  16. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Below are news stories related to NREL Concentrating Solar Power research. Subscribe to the RSS feed RSS . Learn about RSS. May 4, 2015 Report Targets Data on Avian Issues at...

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, DOE issued the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Research and Development Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) managed by the SunShot Initiative. The following projects were selected under this competitive solicitation.

  18. Project Profile: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rohsenow-Kendall Heat Transfer Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is developing concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (CSTEGs) for CSP systems. This innovative distributed solution contains no moving parts and converts heat directly into electricity. Thermal storage can be integrated into the system, creating a reliable and flexible source of electricity.

  19. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Imminent' - News Releases | NREL Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  20. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  1. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    number concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle number concentration The total number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  2. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnerships NREL maintains partnerships to advance concentrating solar power research, development, and deployment efforts. Currently, NREL works with Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through SunLab-a partnership developed by the U.S. Department of Energy to administer its concentrating solar power R&D and analysis activities. SolarPACES Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES), an international program of the International Energy Agency, furthers

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Newsletter | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Newsletter Concentrating Solar Power Newsletter The SunShot concentrating solar power (CSP) newsletter highlights the progress made by the SunShot CSP program and its partners over the past quarter. Update your subscriptions, modify your password or e-mail address, or stop subscriptions at any time on your subscriber preferences page. You will need to use your e-mail address to log in. Stay Updated Sign up for our e-newsletter. Submit your email address below. Subscribe

  4. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  5. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacking, P.B.; Soifer, B.T. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1991-02-01

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum. 22 refs.

  6. Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hooft loop (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't Hooft loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard thermal loops, to quadratic order, in the background of a spatial 't Hooft loop We compute the simplest hard thermal loops for a spatial 't Hooft loop in the deconfined phase of a SU(N) gauge theory. We expand to quadratic order about a constant background field A{sub 0}=Q/g, where Q is a diagonal, color matrix and

  7. Next-Generation Germanium Spectrometer Background Reduction Techniques at 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-04-01

    The Majorana project, a next-generation 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment being undertaken by a large international collaboration, has the goal of measuring the neutrinoless double-beta decay rate by observing monochromatic events at 2039 keV in 500 kg of isotopically enriched 76Ge gamma-ray spectrometers. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity limit, the background in the 2037-2041 keV region must be reduced to <1 event per year in the entire germanium array. The effects of various background reduction techniques, and the combination thereof, to produce a huge 76Ge spectrometer array with virtually zero background are discussed.

  8. Domain walls in a Born-Infeld-dilaton background (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Domain walls in a Born-Infeld-dilaton background Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Domain walls in a Born-Infeld-dilaton background We study the dynamics of domain walls in the Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton theory. A dilaton is nontrivially coupled with the Born-Infeld electromagnetic field. We find three different types of solutions consistent with the dynamic domain walls. For every case, the solutions have singularity. Furthermore, in these backgrounds, we study

  9. A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF THE X-RAY AND INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUNDS. I. MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS We present an extragalactic population model of the cosmic background light to interpret the rich high-quality survey data in the X-ray and IR bands. The model incorporates star formation

  10. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE We estimate the abundance of Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on our joint model of X-ray and infrared backgrounds. At L{sub rest2-10{sub keV}} > 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, the CT

  11. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A measurement of the cosmic microwave background damping tail from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature power spectrum using data from the recently completed South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich

  12. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  13. THE BLAZAR SEQUENCE AND THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE BLAZAR SEQUENCE AND THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION IN THE FERMI ERA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE BLAZAR SEQUENCE AND THE COSMIC GAMMA-RAY...

  14. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV...

  15. Geochemistry of Background Sediment Samples at Technical Area 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric V. McDonald; Katherine Campbell; Patrick A. Longmire; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-11-01

    This report presents results of chemical analyses of 24 analytes in 16 background sediment samples collected from Ancho Canyon and Indio Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Preliminary upper tolerance limits (UTLS) for sediments are calculated from this data set but, because of the small sample size, these UTLs exceed the maximum values in the data set by up to 50'ZO and will require revision as more background sediment data are obtained.

  16. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of

  17. Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two-stream instability (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 14, 2016 Title: Defocusing of an ion beam propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability Authors: Tokluoglu, Erinc [1] ; Kaganovich, Igor D. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, USA

  18. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical

  19. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarterly Reports (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly Reports Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly Reports Abstract not provided. Authors: Lordi, V. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States) Publication Date: 2014-10-24 OSTI Identifier: 1178415 Report

  20. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK INFORMATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK INFORMATION ENSURE DATA IS LEGIBLE AND COMPLETE, THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETED BY APPLICANT LAST NAME: FIRST NAME, MIDDLE INITIAL: SSN: DOB: RACE: SEX: EYES: HT: WT: ADDRESS, CITY, AND ZIP: US CITIZENSHIP: YES NO DRIVER'S LICENSE NUMBER AND STATE OF ISSUE: AGE 18 OR OVER: YES NO EMPLOYER: Any Alias: I authorize the use of and release of my personal information to KIRTLAND AFB, NM, to accomplish a National criminal background check. I understand

  1. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana

  2. Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I.; Kontaksakis, M.; Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N.; Lazaridis, M.

    2010-11-15

    Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

  3. Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

  4. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  5. Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, F.F.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.

    1998-03-17

    A method is described for preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: (a) providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; (b) eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate; (c) eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; (d) eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and (e) eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution. 1 fig.

  6. Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beets, Arnold L. (Clinton, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Guhlke, Stefan (Bonn, DE)

    1998-01-01

    A method of preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: a. providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; b. eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate. c. eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; d. eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and e. eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution.

  7. Silicon concentrator cell-assembly development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop an improved cell assembly design for photovoltaic concentrator receivers. Efforts were concentrated on a study of adhesive/separator systems that might be applied between cell and substrate, because this area holds the key to improved heat transfer, electrical isolation and adhesion. It is also the area in which simpler construction methods offer the greatest benefits for economy and reliability in the manufacturing process. Of the ten most promising designs subjected to rigorous environmental testing, eight designs featuring acrylic and silicon adhesives and fiberglass and polyester separators performed very well.

  8. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  9. Detection of Enhancement in Number Densities of Background Galaxies due to Magnification by Massive Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, I.

    2015-10-06

    We present a detection of the enhancement in the number densities of background galaxies induced from lensing magnification and use it to test the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) inferred masses in a sample of 19 galaxy clusters with median redshift z?0.42 selected from the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. Two background galaxy populations are selected for this study through their photometric colours; they have median redshifts zmedian?0.9 (low-z background) and zmedian?1.8 (high-z background). Stacking these populations, we detect the magnification bias effect at 3.3? and 1.3? for the low- and high-z backgrounds, respectively. We fit NFW models simultaneously to all observed magnification bias profiles to estimate the multiplicative factor ? that describes the ratio of the weak lensing mass to the mass inferred from the SZE observable-mass relation. We further quantify systematic uncertainties in ? resulting from the photometric noise and bias, the cluster galaxy contamination and the estimations of the background properties. The resulting ? for the combined background populations with 1? uncertainties is 0.830.24(stat)0.074(sys), indicating good consistency between the lensing and the SZE-inferred masses. We also use our best-fit ? to predict the weak lensing shear profiles and compare these predictions with observations, showing agreement between the magnification and shear mass constraints. Our work demonstrates the promise of using the magnification as a complementary method to estimate cluster masses in large surveys.

  10. Dissecting the Gamma-Ray Background in Search of Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2014-02-01

    Several classes of astrophysical sources contribute to the approximately isotropic gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. In this paper, we use Fermi's catalog of gamma-ray sources (along with corresponding source catalogs at infrared and radio wavelengths) to build and constrain a model for the contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background from astrophysical sources, including radio galaxies, star-forming galaxies, and blazars. We then combine our model with Fermi's measurement of the gamma-ray background to derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section, including contributions from both extragalactic and galactic halos and subhalos. The resulting constraints are competitive with the strongest current constraints from the Galactic Center and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. As Fermi continues to measure the gamma-ray emission from a greater number of astrophysical sources, it will become possible to more tightly constrain the astrophysical contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background. We project that with 10 years of data, Fermi's measurement of this background combined with the improved constraints on the astrophysical source contributions will yield a sensitivity to dark matter annihilations that exceeds the strongest current constraints by a factor of ~ 5 - 10.

  11. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  12. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 g/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation (TLP) and NK cell cytotoxicity. Higher-chlorinated PCBs were positively associated with TLP in cross-section. An increase in dioxin-like PCBs was associated with a decrease in TLP over one year. We did not find strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure.

  13. Nonimaging light concentrator with uniform irradiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gee, Randy C. (Arvada, CO)

    2003-04-01

    A nonimaging light concentrator system including a primary collector of light, an optical mixer disposed near the focal zone for collecting light from the primary collector, the optical mixer having a transparent entrance aperture, an internally reflective housing for substantially total internal reflection of light, a transparent exit aperture and an array of photovoltaic cells disposed near the transparent exit aperture.

  14. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  15. Mixing liquid holding tanks for uniform concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving uniform concentration within liquid holding tanks can often times be a difficult task for the nuclear chemical process industry. This is due to the fact that nuclear criticality concerns require these tanks to be designed with high internal aspect ratios such that the free movement of fluid is greatly inhibited. To determine the mixing times required to achieve uniform concentrations within these tanks, an experimental program was conducted utilizing pencil tanks, double-pencil tanks, and annular tanks of varying geometries filled with salt-water solutions (simulant for nitric acid actinide solutions). Mixing was accomplished by air sparging and/or pump recirculation. Detailed fluid mechanic mixing models were developed --from first principles--to analyze and interpret the test results. These nondimensional models show the functionality of the concentration inhomogeneity (defined as the relative standard deviation of the true concentration within the tank) in relationship to the characteristic mixing time--among other variables. The results can be readily used to scale tank geometries to sizes other than those studied here.

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    This report has been prepared in response to section 603(b) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, (Pub. L. No. 110-140), which states that the Secretary of Energy shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of a study on methods to reduce the amount of water consumed by concentrating solar power systems.

  17. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-12-19

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  18. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  19. Comparison of microenvironmental CO concentrations in two cities for human exposure modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, W.R.; Mage, D.T.; Thomas, J. )

    1992-04-01

    The microenvironmental components of the CO concentration in two cities are compared by subtracting the ambient background concentration from personal exposures measured in Denver, Colorado, and Washington, DC. Two surrogate measures for the ambient background concentration are tested. Both improve the similarity of the means in the two cities, but the Denver standard deviations are higher than those in Washington, DC. Microenvironments containing the internal combustion engine have both higher means and standard deviations in Denver compared with Washington, DC. The Washington, DC, mean concentration for automobiles, for example, was 59% of the Denver mean (2.0 ppm versus 4.9 ppm). Washington, DC, had approximately 57% of the Denver emissions, and the difference in mean CO concentrations is roughly consistent with the lower emissions in Washington, DC, due to lower elevation. A surprising finding is that mean CO exposure levels caused by cooking with gas stoves in Washington, DC, were only 58% of the levels in Denver (1.9 ppm and 3.3 ppm, respectively). This result suggests that elevation may exert an influence on gas stove emissions that is similar to its influence on internal combustion engines. Using an averaging time model, analysis of the autocorrelation of sleeping and office microenvironments suggests that considerable serial dependency exists. The microenvironmental data and findings in this paper have important implications for constructing human exposure-activity pattern models. For future human exposure field studies, the findings emphasize the importance of measuring background values in a location that is extremely close to each microenvironment studied.

  20. Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by the phase control of its intrinsic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xi; Wang Kai; Welch, George R.; Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate the use of femtosecond laser pulse shaping for precise control of the interference between the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal and the coherent nonresonant background generated within the same sample volume. Our technique is similar to heterodyne detection with the coherent background playing the role of the local oscillator field. In our experiment, we first apply two ultrashort (near-transform-limited) femtosecond pump and Stokes laser pulses to excite coherent molecular oscillations within a sample. After a short and controllable delay, we then apply a laser pulse that scatters off of these oscillations to produce the CARS signal. By making fine adjustments to the probe field spectral profile, we vary the relative phase between the Raman-resonant signal and the nonresonant background, and we observe a varying spectral interference pattern. These controlled variations of the measured pattern reveal the phase information within the Raman spectrum.

  1. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-09-15

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  2. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  3. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) background document for universal standards. Volume B. Universal standards for wastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is establishing Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) universal standards for the listed wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Section 261.31 (40 CFR 261.31). A universal standard is a single concentration-based treatment standard established for a specific constituent; a constituent has the same treatment standard in each waste code in which it is regulated. The background document provides the Agency`s rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents for regulation under universal standards and for developing the universal standards for wastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes.

  4. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) background document for universal standards. Volume A. Universal standards for nonwastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is establishing Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) universal standards for the listed wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations Section 261.31 (40 CFR 261.31). A universal treatment standard (i.e., universal standard) is a single concentration-based treatment standard established for a specific constituent; a constituent has the same treatment standard in each waste code in which it is regulated. The background document provides the Agency`s rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents for regulation under universal standards and for developing the universal standards for nonwastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes.

  5. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  6. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  7. Magnetoresistive system with concentric ferromagnetic asymmetric nanorings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avila, J. I. Tumelero, M. A.; Pasa, A. A.; Viegas, A. D. C.

    2015-03-14

    A structure consisting of two concentric asymmetric nanorings, each displaying vortex remanent states, is studied with micromagnetic calculations. By orienting in suitable directions, both the asymmetry of the rings and a uniform magnetic field, the vortices chiralities can be switched from parallel to antiparallel, obtaining in this way the analogue of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations found in bar magnets pairs. Conditions on the thickness of single rings to obtain vortex states, as well as formulas for their remanent magnetization are given. The concentric ring structure enables the creation of magnetoresistive systems comprising the qualities of magnetic nanorings, such as low stray fields and high stability. A possible application is as contacts in spin injection in semiconductors, and estimations obtained here of magnetoresistance change for a cylindrical spin injection based device show significant variations comparable to linear geometries.

  8. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  11. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | January 15, 2013 | Ganapathi Thin Film mirror is ~40-50% cheaper and 60% lighter than SOA * Project leverages extensive space experience by JPL and L'Garde to develop a low-cost parabolic dish capable of providing 4 kW thermal. Key features: * Metallized reflective thin film material with high reflectivity (>93%) with polyurethane foam backing * Single mold polyurethane

  12. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  13. Solar concentrator with restricted exit angles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Winston, Roland

    1978-12-19

    A device is provided for the collection and concentration of radiant energy and includes at least one reflective side wall. The wall directs incident radiant energy to the exit aperture thereof or onto the surface of energy absorber positioned at the exit aperture so that the angle of incidence of radiant energy at the exit aperture or on the surface of the energy absorber is restricted to desired values.

  14. Material for a luminescent solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

  15. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Research Expertise

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Expertise NREL's research expertise in concentrating solar power technologies includes managing and supporting parabolic trough research and development (R&D); using a systems-driven modeling and analysis approach; and developing advanced components and technologies. Managing and Supporting Parabolic Trough R&D NREL has lead responsibility for managing, directing, and supporting parabolic trough R&D activities. In-house and subcontracted research and development supports the

  16. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Staff Biographies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff Biographies Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of NREL's concentrating solar power research team and staff by reading our short biographies: Victor Castillo Greg Glatzmaier Judith Gomez Matthew Gray Will Huddleston Katelyn Kessinger Zhiwen Ma Janna Martinek Mark Mehos Ty Neises Judy Netter Teri Spinuzzi Robert Tirawat Craig Turchi Michael Wagner Tim Wendelin Guangdong Zhu Photo of Victor Castillo Victor Castillo-Research Technician IV A.S. Electronics Engineering

  17. Increasing Solar Efficiency through Luminescent Solar Concentrators -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Increasing Solar Efficiency through Luminescent Solar Concentrators Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <span class="caption1"><span style="font-family: &quot;Calibri&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;;

  18. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  19. Slowing of Femtosecond Laser-Generated Nanoparticles in a Background Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rouleau, Christopher M; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B

    2014-01-01

    The slowing of Pt nanoparticles in argon background gas was characterized by Rayleigh scattering imaging using a plume of nanoparticles generated by femtosecond laser through thin film ablation (fs-TTFA) of 20 nanometers-thick Pt films. The ablation was performed at threshold laser energy fluences for complete film removal to provide a well-defined plume consisting almost entirely of nanoparticles traveling with a narrow velocity distribution, providing a unique system to unambiguously characterize the slowing of nanoparticles during interaction with background gases. Nanoparticles of ~200 nm diameter were found to decelerate in background Ar gas with pressures less than 50 Torr in goodmore » agreement with a linear drag model in the Epstein regime. Based on this model, the stopping distance of small nanoparticles in the plume was predicted and tested by particle collection in an off-axis geometry, and size distribution analysis by transmission electron microscopy. These results permit a basis to interpret nanoparticle propagation through background gases in laser ablation plumes that contain mixed components.« less

  20. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  1. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  2. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  3. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  4. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).

  5. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  6. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; et al

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energymore » channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).« less

  7. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the -Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the -Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the -Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

  8. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  9. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  10. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  11. Dielectrophoretic concentration of particles under electrokinetic flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Bettencourt, Kerry A.; Fuller, Christopher K.

    2004-09-07

    The use of dielectrophoresis to collect particles under the conditions of electrokinetically-driven flow. Dielectrophortic concentration of particles under electrokinetic flow is accomplished by interdigitated electrodes patterned on an inner surface of a microfluid channel, a DC voltage is applied across the ends to the channel, and an AC voltage is applied across the electrodes, and particles swept down the channel electrokinetically are trapped within the field established by the electrodes. The particles can be released when the voltage to the electrodes is released.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress U.S. Department of Energy This report is being disseminated by the Department of Energy. As such, the document was prepared in compliance with Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-554) and information quality guidelines issued by the Department of Energy. Though this report

  13. Concentration and density changes at an electrode surface and the principle of unchanging total concentration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stephen W. Feldberg; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2016-02-17

    In this study, the principle of unchanging total concentration as described by Oldham and Feldberg [J. Phys. Chem. B, 103, 1699 (1999)] is invoked to analyze systems comprising a redox pair (Xz11 and Xz22) plus one or more non-electroactive species (Xz33,Xz44...Xzjmaxjmax) where Xzjj is the jth species with charge zj and concentration; cj. The principle states that if the diffusion coefficients for all species are identical and mass transport is governed by the Nernst-Planck expression, the total concentration does not change during any electrochemical perturbation, i.e.: Σjmaxj=1[Xzjj]=Σjmaxj=1 cj = SP With this principle we deduce the electrochemically induced difference betweenmore » the surface and bulk concentrations for each species. Those concentration differences are translated into density differences which are a function of the density of the solvent and of the concentration differences, molecular masses and the standard partial molar volumes of all species. Those density differences in turn can induce convection that will ultimately modify the observed current. However, we did not attempt to quantify details of the natural convection and current modification produced by those density differences.« less

  14. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  15. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Oritz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Marlow, William H. (College Station, TX)

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  16. Touschek Background and Lifetime Studies for the SuperB Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boscolo, M.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sullivan, M.; Paoloni, E.; /INFN, Pisa

    2010-08-26

    The novel crab waist collision scheme under test at the DA{Phi}NE Frascati {Phi}-factory finds its natural application to the SuperB project, the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} flavour factory at very high luminosity with relatively low beam currents and reduced backgrounds. The SuperB accelerator design requires a careful choice of beam parameters to reach a good trade-off between different effects. We present here simulation results for the Touschek backgrounds and lifetime obtained for both the low and high energy rings for different machine designs. A first set of horizontal collimators has been studied to stop Touschek particles. A study of the distributions of the Touschek particle losses at the interaction region into the detectors for further investigations is underway.

  17. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  18. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  19. New acceptor centers of the background impurities in p-CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plyatsko, S. V. Rashkovetskyi, L. V.

    2013-07-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence data are used to study the redistribution of the background impurities and host components of p-CdZnTe single crystals with a resistivity of 1-50 {Omega} cm upon their interaction with infrared laser radiation. The effect of widening of the band gap and the formation of new acceptor centers in response to laser-stimulated changes in the system of intrinsic defects are established. The activation energy of the new acceptor centers is determined.

  20. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-05-13

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

  1. DOE Data ID Service Background | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific and Technical Information Background DataCite | Contact DOE Data ID Service In 2011, the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) joined DataCite to facilitate citing, accessing, and reusing publicly available scientific research datasets produced by DOE-funded researchers. DataCite is an international organization that supports data visibility, ease of data citation in scholarly publications, data preservation and future re-use, and data access and

  2. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3/107 Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension Elizabeth L. Malone Tom Sanquist Amy K. Wolfe Rick Diamond Christopher Payne Jerry Dion January 2011 (Updated June 2013) Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S.

  3. Low Frequency Measurement of the Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smoot, G. F.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S. D.; Witebsky, C.; Mandolesi, N.; Partridge, R. B.; Sironi, G.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.

    1983-06-01

    We have made measurements of the cosmic background radiation spectrum at 5 wavelengths (0.33, 0.9, 3, 6.3, and 12 cm) using radiometers with wavelength-scaled corrugated horn antennas having very low sidelobes. A single large-mouth (0.7 m diameter) liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference load was used for all five radiometers. The results of the observations are consistent with previous measurements and represent a significant improvement in accuracy.

  4. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-10-01

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as ship effect neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  5. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-08-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy.

  6. NEW OBSERVATION OF FAILED FILAMENT ERUPTIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CORONAL BACKGROUND FIELDS ON SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Su, J.; Lin, H.; Shibata, K.; Kurokawa, H.

    2009-05-01

    Failed filament eruptions not associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) have been observed and reported as evidence for solar coronal field confinement on erupting flux ropes. In those events, each filament eventually returns to its origin on the solar surface. In this Letter, a new observation of two failed filament eruptions is reported which indicates that the mass of a confined filament can be ejected to places far from the original filament channel. The jetlike mass motions in the two failed filament eruptions are thought to be due to the asymmetry of the background coronal magnetic fields with respect to the locations of the filament channels. The asymmetry of the coronal fields is confirmed by an extrapolation based on a potential field model. The obvious imbalance between the positive and negative magnetic flux (with a ratio of 1:3) in the bipolar active region is thought to be the direct cause of the formation of the asymmetric coronal fields. We think that the asymmetry of the background fields can not only influence the trajectories of ejecta, but also provide a relatively stronger confinement for flux rope eruptions than the symmetric background fields do.

  7. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, II, D. G.; Poon, A. W.P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (??(0?)) of the isotope ??Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ??(0?)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ??Ge ??(0?)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolution performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.

  8. Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    We use hybrid simulations and simple theoretical arguments to determine when debris ions streaming relative to background ions in a collisionless, magnetized plasma couple strongly enough to generate a magnetosonic shock wave. We consider three types of configurations: one-dimensional, the two-dimensional extension of the 1-D case, and a more complex 2-D geometry that contains some effects that would be found in a laser-produced, laboratory plasma. We show that the simulation results as well as previous Russian and LLNL results reduce to a simple condition (R{sub m}/{rho}{sub d} = equal mass radius/debris ion gyroradius {ge} 0.7) for the generation of a shock wave. Strong debris interaction with the background is characterized by the formation of a magnetic pulse that steepens and speeds up as it encounters the debris ions deflected by the magnetic field. The pulse further evolves into a shock. As the earlier work has indicated, the process also involves the generation of a transverse electric field perpendicular to the flow and the magnetic field that accelerates the background ions radially outward, which in turn causes the speedup of the pulse. With electric and magnetic field probes, the UCLA laser experiments should be able to detect these signatures of coupling as well as the generation of the shock wave.

  9. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ(0ν)) of the isotope ⁷⁶Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ββ(0ν)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ⁷⁶Ge ββ(0ν)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolutionmore » performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.« less

  10. US National Climate Assessment (NCA) Scenarios for Assessing Our Climate Future: Issues and Methodological Perspectives Background Whitepaper for Participants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Richard H.; Engle, Nathan L.; Hall, John; Jacobs, Kathy; Lempert, Rob; Mearns, L. O.; Melillo, Jerry; Mote, Phil; O'Brien, Sheila; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, Alex; Sheppard, Stephen; Vallario, Robert W.; Wiek, Arnim; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This whitepaper is intended to provide a starting point for discussion at a workshop for the National Climate Assessment (NCA) that focuses on the use and development of scenarios. The paper will provide background needed by participants in the workshop in order to review options for developing and using scenarios in NCA. The paper briefly defines key terms and establishes a conceptual framework for developing consistent scenarios across different end uses and spatial scales. It reviews uses of scenarios in past U.S. national assessments and identifies potential users of and needs for scenarios for both the report scheduled for release in June 2013 and to support an ongoing distributed assessment process in sectors and regions around the country. Because scenarios prepared for the NCA will need to leverage existing research, the paper takes account of recent scientific advances and activities that could provide needed inputs. Finally, it considers potential approaches for providing methods, data, and other tools for assessment participants. We note that the term 'scenarios' has many meanings. An important goal of the whitepaper (and portions of the workshop agenda) is pedagogical (i.e., to compare different meanings and uses of the term and make assessment participants aware of the need to be explicit about types and uses of scenarios). In climate change research, scenarios have been used to establish bounds for future climate conditions and resulting effects on human and natural systems, given a defined level of greenhouse gas emissions. This quasi-predictive use contrasts with the way decision analysts typically use scenarios (i.e., to consider how robust alternative decisions or strategies may be to variation in key aspects of the future that are uncertain). As will be discussed, in climate change research and assessment, scenarios describe a range of aspects of the future, including major driving forces (both human activities and natural processes), changes in climate and related environmental conditions (e.g., sea level), and evolution of societal capability to respond to climate change. This wide range of scenarios is needed because the implications of climate change for the environment and society depend not only on changes in climate themselves, but also on human responses. This degree of breadth introduces and number of challenges for communication and research.

  11. The Dependence of Subhalo Abundance on Halo Concentration (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Dependence of Subhalo Abundance on Halo Concentration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Dependence of Subhalo Abundance on Halo Concentration Authors: Mao,...

  12. Concentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) -- A New Model for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) - A New Model for Estimating U.S. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Market Potential Preprint N. Blair, M. Mehos, W. Short, and D....

  13. Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd (previously Solel Solar Systems) Place:...

  14. Software Tools for Analysis of Concentrated Solar Power Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Codes for Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies Clifford K. Ho Prepared ... and Codes for Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power Technologies Clifford K. Ho Solar ...

  15. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell April 18, 2013 - ...

  16. Category:Concentrating Solar Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Category Edit History Category:Concentrating Solar Power Jump to: navigation, search This is the Concentrating Solar Power category. This category currently contains no pages or...

  17. Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power: Advanced Projects Offering Low LCOE Opportunities (CSP: APOLLO) Building upon the successful outcomes of the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) ...

  18. 2014 SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram Overview 2014 SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram Overview These slides correspond to a presentation given by SunShot...

  19. World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Opens in California...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Opens in California World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Opens in California February 19, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis Ivanpah,...

  20. National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development The SunShot National Laboratory...

  1. National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development This fact sheet describes the current...

  2. EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    83: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ May 3, 2010 EA-1683:...

  3. Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Solar Concentrator Efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Market Sheet (1,222 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryConcentrating Solar Power (CSP) relies on thermodynamic processes to convert concentrated light into useful...

  4. Concentrated Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage Can Help...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrated Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage Can Help Utilities' Bottom Line, Study Shows December 20, 2012 The storage capacity of concentrating solar power (CSP) can add ...

  5. Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber Measurements of IN Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) Measurements of IN Concentration Concentrations of Ice-Nucleating Aerosol (IN) as a function of Temperature and %Supersaturation Sarah Brooks and...

  6. 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Concentrating Solar Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Concentrating Solar Power The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals ...

  7. Suggestion of typical phases of in-vessel fuel-debris by thermodynamic calculation for decommissioning technology of Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, Hirotomo; Yano, Kimihiko; Kaji, Naoya; Washiya, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yoshikazu; Noguchi, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    For the decommissioning of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), the characterization of fuel-debris in cores of Units 1-3 is necessary. In this study, typical phases of the in-vessel fuel-debris were estimated using a thermodynamic equilibrium (TDE) calculation. The FactSage program and NUCLEA database were applied to estimate the phase equilibria of debris. It was confirmed that the TDE calculation using the database can reproduce the phase separation behavior of debris observed in the Three Mile Island accident. In the TDE calculation of 1F, the oxygen potential [G(O{sub 2})] was assumed to be a variable. At low G(O{sub 2}) where metallic zirconium remains, (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2} were found as oxides, and oxygen-dispersed Zr, Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U), and Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2} were found as metals. With an increase in zirconium oxidation, the mass of those metals, especially Fe{sub 3}UZr{sub 2}, decreased, but the other phases of metals hardly changed qualitatively. Consequently, (U,Zr)O{sub 2} is suggested as a typical phase of oxide, and Fe{sub 2}(Zr,U) is suggested as that of metal. However, a more detailed estimation is necessary to consider the distribution of Fe in the reactor pressure vessel through core-melt progression. (authors)

  8. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  9. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  10. Energy concentration in composite quantum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurcz, Andreas; Beige, Almut; Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Del Giudice, Emilio

    2010-06-15

    The spontaneous emission of photons from optical cavities and from trapped atoms has been studied extensively in the framework of quantum optics. Theoretical predictions based on the rotating wave approximation (RWA) are, in general, in very good agreement with experimental findings. However, current experiments aim at combining better and better cavities with large numbers of tightly confined atoms. Here we predict an energy concentrating mechanism in the behavior of such a composite quantum system which cannot be described by the RWA. Its result is the continuous leakage of photons through the cavity mirrors, even in the absence of external driving. We conclude with a discussion of the predicted phenomenon in the context of thermodynamics.

  11. Exploratory study of complexant concentrate waste processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bray, L.A.; Kurath, D.E.; Morrey, J.R.; Swanson, J.L.; Wester, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, was to determine the effect of applying advanced chemical separations technologies to the processing and disposal of high-level wastes (HLW) stored in underground tanks. The major goals of this study were to determine (1) if the wastes can be partitioned into a small volume of HLW plus a large volume of low-level waste (LLW), and (2) if the activity in the LLW can be lowered enough to meet NRC Class LLW criteria. This report presents the results obtained in a brief scouting study of various processes for separating radionuclides from Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) waste.

  12. Enclosed, off-axis solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benitez, Pablo; Grip, Robert E; Minano, Juan C; Narayanan, Authi A; Plesniak, Adam; Schwartz, Joel A

    2013-11-26

    A solar concentrator including a housing having receiving wall, a reflecting wall and at least two end walls, the receiving, reflecting and end walls defining a three-dimensional volume having an inlet, wherein a vertical axis of the housing is generally perpendicular to the inlet, a receiver mounted on the receiving wall of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell, wherein a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, at least one clip disposed on the reflecting wall an optical element received within the three-dimensional volume, the optical element including at least one tab, the tab being engaged by the clip to align the optical element with the receiver, and a window received over the inlet to enclose the housing.

  13. Modular off-axis solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P; Hall, John C

    2015-01-27

    A solar concentrator including a housing defining a vertical axis and including a receiving wall connected to a reflecting wall to define an internal volume and an opening into the internal volume, wherein the reflecting wall defines at least one primary optical element, and wherein at least a portion of the reflecting wall includes a layer of reflective material, the housing further including a cover connected to the receiving wall and the reflecting wall to seal the opening, and at least one receiver mounted on the receiving wall such that a vertical axis of the receiver is disposed at a non-zero angle relative to the vertical axis of the housing, the receiver including at least one photovoltaic cell.

  14. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  15. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  16. Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2010-09-01

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  17. MAP: Concentrating Solar Power Across the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explore our latest map, charting the location of concentrating solar power plants across the country.

  18. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  19. The Herschel cold debris disks: Confusion with the extragalactic background at 160 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gspr, Andrs; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The Herschel 'DUst around NEarby Stars' (DUNES) survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22 K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue, we carefully examine the alternative explanation that the detections arise from confusion with infrared cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground stars. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  20. Investigations of 2? decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rukhadze, Ekaterina [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horska 3a Collaboration: OBELIX Collaboration; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?{sup ?} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the 0{sup +} (1130 keV) and 2{sup +} (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

  1. Wave breaking phenomenon of lower-hybrid oscillations induced by a background inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sengupta, Sudip [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-10-15

    In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of lower hybrid modes in a cold quasi-neutral homogeneous plasma in presence of a background inhomogeneous magnetic field. Within a linear analysis, a dispersion relation with inhomogeneous magnetic field shows 'phase mixing' of such oscillations. A manifestation of 'phase mixing' is shown in 'mode coupling.' By using Lagrangian variables, an exact solution is presented in parametric form of this nonlinear time dependent problem. It is demonstrated that initially excited lower hybrid modes always break via phase mixing phenomenon in presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Breaking of such oscillations is revealed by the appearance of spikes in the plasma density profile.

  2. AES NewEnergy, Inc. Order No. EA-247 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On July 13, 2001, AES NewEnergy, Inc. (AES NewEnergy) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Mexico as a power marketer. AES NewEnergy, a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of the AES Corporation, a

  3. AES NewEnergy, Inc. Order No. EA-248 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On July 13, 2001, AES NewEnergy, Inc. (AES NewEnergy) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. AES NewEnergy, a Delaware corporation and wholly- owned subsidiary of the AES Corporation, a

  4. Extending the radial diffusion model of Falthammar to non-dipole background field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A model for radial diffusion caused by electromagnetic disturbances was published by Falthammar (1965) using a two-parameter model of the disturbance perturbing a background dipole magnetic field. Schulz and Lanzerotti (1974) extended this model by recognizing the two parameter perturbation as the leading (non--dipole) terms of the Mead Williams magnetic field model. They emphasized that the magnetic perturbation in such a model induces an electric ield that can be calculated from the motion of field lines on which the particles are frozen. Roederer and Zhang (2014) describe how the field lines on which the particles are frozen can be calculated by tracing the unperturbed field lines from the minimum-B location to the ionospheric footpoint, and then tracing the perturbed field (which shares the same ionospheric footpoint due to the frozen -in condition) from the ionospheric footpoint back to a perturbed minimum B location. The instantaneous change n Roederer L*, dL*/dt, can then be computed as the product (dL*/dphi)*(dphi/dt). dL*/Dphi is linearly dependent on the perturbation parameters (to first order) and is obtained by computing the drift across L*-labeled perturbed field lines, while dphi/dt is related to the bounce-averaged gradient-curvature drift velocity. The advantage of assuming a dipole background magnetic field, as in these previous studies, is that the instantaneous dL*/dt can be computed analytically (with some approximations), as can the DLL that results from integrating dL*/dt over time and computing the expected value of (dL*)^2. The approach can also be applied to complex background magnetic field models like T89 or TS04, on top of which the small perturbations are added, but an analytical solution is not possible and so a numerical solution must be implemented. In this talk, I discuss our progress in implementing a numerical solution to the calculation of DL*L* using arbitrary background field models with simple electromagnetic perturbations.

  5. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was reduced by an average of 60% in SAFIRE images compared to FBP. However, for edge pixels, noise magnitude ranged from 20% higher to 40% lower in SAFIRE images compared to FBP. SAFIRE images of the lung phantom exhibited distinct regions with varying noise texture (i.e., noise autocorrelation/power spectra). Conclusions: Quantum noise properties observed in uniform phantoms may not be representative of those in actual patients for nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. Anatomical texture should be considered when evaluating the performance of CT systems that use such nonlinear algorithms.

  6. Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

  7. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plans purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programsthe Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC Order No. EA-250 I. BACKGROUND

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC Order No. EA-250 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On September 14, 2001, PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC (PSEG ER&T) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. The power to be

  10. Federal Facility Compliance Act, Proposed Site Treatment Plan: Background Volume. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-24

    This Federal Facility Compliance Act Site Treatment Plan discusses the options of radioactive waste management for Ames Laboratory. This is the background volume which discusses: site history and mission; framework for developing site treatment plans; proposed plan organization and related activities; characterization of mixed waste and waste minimization; low level mixed waste streams and the proposed treatment approach; future generation of TRU and mixed wastes; the adequacy of mixed waste storage facilities; and a summary of the overall DOE activity in the area of disposal of mixed waste treatment residuals.

  11. NREL: Awards and Honors - Triple-Junction Terrestrial Concentrator...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of power and produce as much as 86.3 kWh of electricity during a typical year under a Phoenix, AZ sun. This means that 100 to 150 of these cells could produce enough electricity...

  12. National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrating Solar Power » National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research DOE supports concentrating solar power (CSP) research and development and core capabilities at its national laboratories (Program Fact Sheet) to accelerate progress toward achieving the SunShot Initiative's technoeconomic targets. These multi-year projects are funded based on a competitive

  13. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation An overview of the Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation project to transition Amonix's concentrating photovoltaic (PV) systems from low-volume to high-volume production. PDF icon Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation More Documents & Publications Solar America Initiative Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation

  14. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  15. High concentration of deuterium in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, based on theoretical calculations, new schemes to increase the deuterium density in palladium over its initial value are presented. A high deuterium concentration in palladium is needed for application to solid-state fusion. The first deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation, which consists of a cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with diffusion barrier material, and immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator, which provides a series of negative voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall on the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by current technology, theoretical calculations indicate that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. The second deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of temperature gradient effects on the deuterium solubility in palladium. A heat source at temperature T{sub 2} and a heat sink at temperature T{sub 1} (where T{sub 2} {gt} T{sub 1}) are in contact with two different parts of a palladium sample, which has been presoaked with deuterium atoms and has been coated with diffusion barrier material or has been securely locked in a metal case. The temperature gradient created in the sample from such an arrangement forces the deuterium atoms in the hot region to migrate into the cold region, resulting in higher deuterium density in the cold region.

  16. Analytical instrument with apparatus for sample concentrating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A system for analysis of trace concentrations of contaminants in air includes a portable liquid chromatograph and a preconcentrator for the contaminants to be analyzed. The preconcentrator includes a sample bag having an inlet valve and an outlet valve for collecting an air sample. When the sample is collected the sample bag is connected in series with a sorbing apparatus in a recirculation loop. The sorbing apparatus has an inner gas-permeable container containing a sorbent material and an outer gas-impermeable container. The sample is circulated through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the contaminants in the sorbent material. The sorbent material may be a liquid having the same composition as the mobile phase of the chromatograph for direct injection thereinto. Alternatively, the sorbent material may be a porous, solid body, to which mobile phase liquid is added after preconcentration of the contaminants for dissolving the contaminants, the liquid solution then being withdrawn for injection into the chromatograph.

  17. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E.; Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J.; Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M.; and others

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  18. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  19. Multi-wavelength emission from the Fermi bubbles. I. Stochastic acceleration from background plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze processes of electron acceleration in the Fermi bubbles in order to define parameters and restrictions of the models, which are suggested for the origin of these giant radio and gamma-ray structures. In the case of the leptonic origin of the nonthermal radiation from the bubbles, these electrons should be produced somehow in situ because of the relatively short lifetime of high-energy electrons, which lose their energy by synchrotron and inverse-Compton processes. It has been suggested that electrons in bubbles may be accelerated by shocks produced by tidal disruption of stars accreting onto the central black hole or a process of re-acceleration of electrons ejected by supernova remnants. These processes will be investigated in subsequent papers. In this paper, we focus on in situ stochastic (Fermi) acceleration by a hydromagnetic/supersonic turbulence, in which electrons can be directly accelerated from the background plasma. We showed that the acceleration from the background plasma is able to explain the observed fluxes of radio and gamma-ray emission from the bubbles, but the range of permitted parameters of the model is strongly restricted.

  20. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmv) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more » Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less

  1. Neutrino physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Brock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.

    2015-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?m?)(?m?) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of NeffNeff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that View the MathML sourceNeff=3.046.

  2. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Dore, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C. -L.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L.K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.

  3. ON MEASURING THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE AT REDSHIFT 0.89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, M.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Carilli, C. L.

    2013-02-20

    We report on a measurement of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation field, T {sub CMB}, at z = 0.88582 by imaging HC{sub 3}N(3 <- 2) and (5 <- 4) absorption in the foreground galaxy of the gravitationally lens magnified radio source PKS 1830-211 using the Very Long Baseline Array and the phased Very Large Array. Low-resolution imaging of the data yields a value of T {sub rot} = 5.6{sup +2.5} {sub -0.9} K for the rotational temperature, T {sub rot}, which is consistent with the temperature of the cosmic microwave background at the absorber's redshift of 2.73(1 + z) K. However, our high-resolution imaging reveals that the absorption peak position of the foreground gas is offset from the continuum peak position of the synchrotron radiation from PKS 1830-211SW, which indicates that the absorbing cloud is covering only part of the emission from PKS 1830-211, rather than the entire core-jet region. This changes the line-to-continuum ratios, and we find T {sub rot} between 1.1 and 2.5 K, which is lower than the expected value. This shows that previous T {sub rot} measurements could be biased due to unresolved structure.

  4. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, Robin; Lee, Russell

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  5. PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ANISOTROPY (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including

  6. AMMONIA CONCENTRATION IN SALTSTONE HEADSPACE SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-09-26

    The Saltstone Facility Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) is under revision to accommodate changes in the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL) from the introduction of Isopar into Tank 50. Saltstone samples were prepared with an 'MCU' type salt solution spiked with ammonia. The ammonia released from the saltstone was captured and analyzed. The ammonia concentration found in the headspace of samples maintained at 95 C and 1 atm was, to 95% confidence, less than or equal to 3.9 mg/L. Tank 50 is fed by several influent streams. The salt solution from Tank 50 is pumped to the salt feed tank (SFT) in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The premix materials cement, slag and fly ash are blended together prior to transfer to the grout mixer. The premix is fed to the grout mixer in the SPF and the salt solution is incorporated into the premix in the grout mixer, yielding saltstone slurry. The saltstone slurry drops into a hopper and then is pumped to the vault. The Saltstone Facility Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) is under revision to accommodate changes in the Composite Lower Flammability Limit (CLFL) from the introduction of Isopar{reg_sign} L into Tank 50. Waste Solidification-Engineering requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) perform testing to characterize the release of ammonia in curing saltstone at 95 C. The test temperature represents the maximum allowable temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Ammonia may be present in the salt solution and premix materials, or may be produced by chemical reactions when the premix and salt solution are combined. A final report (SRNS-STI-2008-00120, Rev. 0) will be issued that will cover in more depth the information presented in this report.

  7. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong (Los Alamos, NM); Goodwin, Peter M (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nolan, Rhiannon L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  8. Estimation of Equivalent Sea Level Cosmic Ray Exposure for Low Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Austen T.; Orrell, John L.

    2012-08-25

    While scientists at CERN and other particle accelerators around the world explore the boundaries of high energy physics, the Majorana project investigates the other end of the spectrum with its extremely sensitive, low background, low energy detector. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR aims to detect neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a rare theoretical process in which two neutrons decay into two protons and two electrons, without the emission of the two antineutrinos that are a product of a normal double beta decay. This process is only possible if and therefore a detection would prove the neutrino is a Majorana particle, meaning that it is its own antiparticle [Aaselth et al. 2004] . The existence of such a decay would also disprove lepton conservation and give information about the neutrino's mass.

  9. IS THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ASYMMETRY DUE TO THE KINEMATIC DIPOLE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naselsky, P.; Zhao, W.; Kim, J.; Chen, S.

    2012-04-10

    Parity violation found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is a crucial clue for the non-standard cosmological model or the possible contamination of various foreground residuals and/or calibration of the CMB data sets. In this paper, we study the directional properties of the CMB parity asymmetry by excluding the m = 0 modes in the definition of parity parameters. We find that the preferred directions of the parity parameters coincide with the CMB kinematic dipole, which implies that the CMB parity asymmetry may be connected with the possible contamination of the residual dipole component. We also find that such tendency is not only localized at l = 2, 3, but in the extended multipole ranges up to l {approx} 22.

  10. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  11. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajello, M.; Costamante, L.; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; Chiang, J.; Rau, A.; Escala, A.; Greiner, J.; Tueller, J.; Wall, J.V.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  12. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  13. GAMMA DETECTOR RESPONSE/SOIL CONCENTRATION CORRELATION STUDY AT THE AAR MANUFACTURING, INC. SITE, LIVONIA, MICHIGAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-03-22

    At the NRC�s request, ORAU conducted surveys of the AAR Manufacturing site during the period of September 25 through September 27, 2012. The survey activities included walkover surveys and sampling activities. Once the survey team was onsite, the NRC personnel decided to forgo survey activities in the �New Addition� and the pickling area. Areas of the planned study boundary were inaccessible due to overgrowth/large pieces of concrete covering the soil surface; therefore, the study boundary was redefined. Gamma walkover scans of the site boundary and �front yard� identified multiple areas of elevated gamma radiation. As a result, two judgmental samples were collected. Sample results were above thorium background levels The answer to the PSQ relating to the relationship between thorium concentration in soil and NaI instrument response is �Yes.� NaI instrument response can be used as a predictor of Th-232 concentration in the 0 to 1 m layer. An R2 value of 0.79 was determined for the surface soil relationship, thus satisfying the DQOs. Moreover, the regression was cross-checked by comparing the predicted Th-232 soil core concentration to the average Th-232 concentration (Section 5.3.2). Based on the cross-check, the regression equation provides a reasonable estimate for the Th-232 concentration at the judgmental locations. Consideration must be given when applying this equation to other soil areas of the site. If the contamination was heterogeneously distributed, and not distributed in a discrete layer as it was in the study area, then using the regression equation to predict Th-232 concentration would not be applicable.

  14. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  15. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle, Jacques P., E-mail: jacques.vallee@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, National Science Infrastructure portfolio, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, B.C., V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Program Review 2013 (Book) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Concentrating Solar Power Program Review Meeting booklet will be provided to attendees at the Concentrating Solar Power Review Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona on April 23-25, 2013.

  17. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  18. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutz, Ralf

    2014-09-26

    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  19. Advancing State-of-the-Art Concentrating Solar Power Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancing State-of-the-Art Concentrating Solar Power Systems Advancing State-of-the-Art Concentrating Solar Power Systems April 15, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Brayton Energy's...

  20. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  1. Energy Department Announces New Concentrating Solar Power Technology...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power Technology Investments to American Industry, Universities Energy Department Announces New ... and commercial production for clean electricity generation. ...

  2. Concentrating Solar Power Services CSP Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    providing consulting, due diligence and component testing for Solar Thermal Electricity Generation (STEG). References: Concentrating Solar Power Services (CSP...

  3. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50%

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Solar Cells | Department of Energy Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50% Efficient Solar Cells PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Concentration Photovoltaics with 50% Efficient Solar Cells Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO Amount Awarded: $8,000,000 The efficiency and concentration of III-V multi-junction solar cells are essential to reduce the cost of high concentration photovoltaic

  4. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska Title: Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska Dataset includes nitrate concentrations for polygonal active layer samples, snowmelt; ammonium concentrations for active layer samples; nitrate isotopes for active layer samples, snowmelt,

  5. National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development This fact sheet describes the current concentrating solar power projects working through the National Laboratory R&D program under the SunShot Initiative. PDF icon csp_natl_lab_rd_fact_sheet.pdf More Documents & Publications National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development Particle Receiver Integrated

  6. Material and Chemical Processing (Concentrated Solar) (4 Activities) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Material and Chemical Processing (Concentrated Solar) (4 Activities) Material and Chemical Processing (Concentrated Solar) (4 Activities) Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8 Subject Solar Summary Concentrated sunlight is a versatile and high-quality form of energy with several potential applications besides producing heat and electricity. Today, scientists are developing systems that use concentrated sunlight to

  7. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Advanced Optical Materials for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Advanced Optical Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Photo of a 1400W solar simulator. NREL researchers use a variety of equipment, including the 1400W solar simulator shown, to test optical materials. NREL works to develop durable, low-cost optical materials for concentrating solar power systems. These optical materials-which reflect, absorb, and transmit solar energy-play a fundamental role in the overall cost and efficiency of all concentrating solar power

  8. Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy new high energy gradient concentration cathode material Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp_10_amine.pdf More Documents & Publications New High Energy Gradient Concentration Cathode Material New High Energy Gradient Concentration Cathode Material New High Energy Gradient

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Facilities and Solar Potential | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrating Solar Power Facilities and Solar Potential Concentrating Solar Power Facilities and Solar Potential Concentrating Solar Power Facilities and CSP Energy Potential Gradient Click icons to filter by CSP Plant Type All Plants In Operation New in 2014 In Progress Tower and Heliostat Trough or Fresnel Parabolic Dish Concentrating Solar Energy Potential (watt hours/m²/day) 2500 4000 6000 8000 Data provided by CSP World. Map by Daniel Wood

  10. Fact Sheet: Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet: Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources

  11. National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development The SunShot National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development Fact Sheet provides a synopsis of the 12 projects funded to address the technical barriers toward achieving the technoeconomic targets of the SunShot Initiative. Significant cost and performance improvements across all major concentrating CSP

  12. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power Addthis Description From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. Text Version Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Concentrating Solar

  13. 2014 SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram Overview |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram Overview 2014 SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Subprogram Overview These slides correspond to a presentation given by SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power Program Manager Dr. Ranga Pitchumani at the 2014 SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Peer Review in Anaheim, CA. This presentation is an overview of the SunShot Initiative's concentrating solar power (CSP) research portfolio. PDF icon

  14. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and discharge temperatures between 1200 C and 600 C, which provides a constant output temperature of 900 C. The charge and discharge time are 8 hours each respectively. This design was integrated into a process flowsheet of a CSP plant and the system's economics were determined using AspenPlus and NREL's Solar Advisory Model. Storage cost is very sensitive to materials cost and was calculated to be based around $40/kWh for cobalt based mixed oxide. It can potentially decrease to $10/kWh based on reduced materials cost on a bulk scale. The corresponding calculated LCOE was between $0.22 and 0.30/kW-h. The high LCOE is a result of the high charging temperature required in this first design and the cost of cobalt oxide. It is expected that a moving bed reactor using manganese oxide will significantly improve the economics of the proposed concept.

  15. Estimation of the extragalactic background light using TeV observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Acharya, B. S.; Sahayanathan, S.; Godambe, S.; Misra, R. E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in E-mail: gsagar@barc.ernet.in

    2014-11-01

    The very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray spectral index of high-energy peaked blazars correlates strongly with its corresponding redshift, whereas no such correlation is observed in the X-ray or GeV bands. We attribute this correlation to photon-photon absorption of TeV photons with the extragalactic background light (EBL), and utilizing this we compute the allowed flux range for the EBL, which is independent of previous estimates. The observed VHE spectrum of the sources in our sample can be well approximated by a power law, and if the de-absorbed spectrum is also assumed to be a power law, then we show that the spectral shape of EBL will be ?n(?) ? klog (?/? {sub p}). We estimate the range of values for the parameters defining the EBL spectrum, k and ? {sub p}, such that the correlation of the intrinsic VHE spectrum with redshift is nullified. The estimated EBL depends only on the observed correlation and the assumption of a power-law source spectrum. Specifically, it does not depend on the spectral modeling or radiative mechanism of the sources or on any theoretical shape of the EBL spectrum obtained through cosmological calculations. The estimated EBL spectrum is consistent with the upper and lower limits imposed by different observations. Moreover, it also agrees closely with the theoretical estimates obtained through cosmological evolution models.

  16. A guide to designing future ground-based cosmic microwave background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, W. L. K.; Kuo, C. L.; Errard, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Lee, A. T.; McDonald, P.; Zahn, O.; Slosar, A.

    2014-06-20

    In this follow-up work to the high energy physics Community Summer Study 2013 (aka SNOWMASS), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage IV cosmic microwave background polarization experiment under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties of cosmological parameters in ??CDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark energy equation of state, dark matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the baryon acoustic oscillation signal as measured by Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1? constraints: ?(M {sub ?}) = 15 meV, ?(N {sub eff}) = 0.0156, dark energy figure of merit = 303, ?(p {sub ann}) = 0.00588 3 10{sup 26} cm{sup 3} s{sup 1} GeV{sup 1}, ?(? {sub K}) = 0.00074, ?(n{sub s} ) = 0.00110, ?(? {sub s}) = 0.00145, and ?(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependencies of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  17. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  18. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

  19. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ?15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  20. A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

    2014-02-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.