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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Sigma Mesa: Background elemental concentrations in soil and vegetation, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1979, soil and vegetation samples were collected on Sigma Mesa to provide background data before construction on the mesa. Elemental data are presented for soil, grass, juniper, pinon pine, and oak. None of the data looks out of the ordinary. The purpose of the sampling program was to acquire, before any disturbance, a set of data to be used as background for future impact analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Brooks, G.H. Jr.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

BACKGROUND  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emergency Medical Coordination Emergency Medical Coordination Memorandum of Agreement at Brookhaven National Laboratory DOE/IG-0594 March 2003 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 March 3 1,2003 FROM: Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Report on Inspection of "Emergency Medical Coordination Memorandum of Agreement at Brookhaven National Laboratory" BACKGROUND Because of possible exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials and the potential for industrial accidents at Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the Department has established formalized agreements with local emergency medical providers. These arrangements are generally documented through memoranda of agreements (MOAs). These documents detail the m u

3

Background  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Format for the one pager: Report Statement/Recommendation Format for the one pager: Report Statement/Recommendation Background Pros/Cons discussion We would like to see good drafts by noon. 3/30/01. 11 circulate them as soon as I get them in. Any questions, give me a call. 456-7874 Charlie ___ ___ _8171 DOE015-1514 Martin, Adrienne ^ From: Anderson, Margot / / Sent: Thursday, March 29, 2001 723 PM To: 'Andrew D. Lundquisltovp.eop.gov%intemet' Subject: RE: 1 spoke with Charlie and we got it fixed. Thanksl -Original Message- From: Andrew D. Lundquist@ovp.eop.gov%intemet Imailto:Andrew D. Lundquistovp.eop.gov] Sent: Thursday March 29, 2001 7:18 PM To: Anderson. Margot Cc: Kelliher, Joseph; Kolevar, Kevin; Charles M. Smthovp.egov%htemet; Juleanna FR GOovsWeovp.eop.gov%intemet 'kmurphyiosec.doc.gov%intemet 'dina.eisOdo.treas.gov%intemer;

4

Background  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patent Rights in the New Patent Rights in the New Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union for Inventions made by NIS institutes' employeess in the course of or under agreements entered into pursuant to the Fiscal Year 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act (P.L. 103- 87). W(C) 94-001 Background The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the drastic reductions in defense spending by the NIS have created an extremely difficult situation for the scientists and engineers who are responsible for the former Soviet Union's defense technology base. It is estimated that there are several tens of thousands of such scientists and engineers; they possess critical technical knowledge about weapons of mass destruction and are underemployed and undercompensated, and consequently, could contribute to

5

Background  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

explains the potential health hazards associated with air quality related to the removal and storage of explains the potential health hazards associated with air quality related to the removal and storage of mill tailings and other contaminated materials. Background From 1942 to 1960, uranium ore was processed at the Monticello mill in southeast Utah. When the mill was closed, approximately 2.3 million cubic yards of low-level radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soil, and other miscellaneous debris remained on the site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office, in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Utah, is conducting the cleanup of the millsite and more than 400 area homes and businesses contaminated with mill tailings. The purpose of the cleanup is to minimize risks to the public and the

6

Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are members of the superfamily of pore loop cation channels that are activated by the binding of cGMP or cAMP. The channels are important cellular switches which transduce changes in intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides into changes of the membrane potential and the Ca 2+ concentration. CNG channels play a central role in the signal transduction pathways of vision and olfaction. We have studied the physiological significance of a particular member of the CNG channel family, CNGB1. The two splicing variants of CNGB1, termed CNGB1a and CNGB1b, assemble with CNGA1 and CNGA2/4 to form the native tetrameric CNG channels of rod photoreceptors and olfactory neurons, respectively. retinitis pigmentosa [1]. Using a combination of electrophysiologcal

Martin Biel; Stylianos Michalakis; Xiangang Zong; Elvir Becirovic

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Homobuffer thickness effect on the background electron carrier concentration of epitaxial ZnO thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrates using plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. ZnO homobuffer layers grown at a lower temperature were introduced to improve the crystallinity of the top ZnO thin films. Thicker homobuffer layers lead to better crystallinity of the subsequent epitaxial ZnO thin films due to the strain relaxation effect. Residual background electron carrier concentration in these undoped ZnO thin films first decreases, then increases as the buffer layer thickness increases from {approx}1 to 30 nm, with a minimum electron concentration of {approx}1x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} occurring in ZnO homobuffer of {approx}5 nm. These results demonstrate that the optimized ZnO homobuffer thickness to achieve both good ZnO crystallinity and low residual electron concentration is determined by the relative electron carrier concentration ratios and mobility ratios between the buffer and epi-ZnO layers.

Yang, Z.; Zhou, H. M.; Li, L.; Zhao, J. Z.; Liu, J. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Quantum Structures Laboratory, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Chen, W. V.; Yu, P. K. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Bolivia Background  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

‹ Countries Bolivia Last Updated: August 23, 2012 Background The energy sector is of political and economic significance to Bolivia, which is a ...

9

Legal Background  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Legal Background Legal Background Book 1 . . Project Rulison :.Contract: . . AEC, Austral Oil Company, and CER Geonuclear Corporation, . . . . , . . . . , . . February 1969 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. PROJECT RULISON CONTRACT NO. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA REPRESENTED BY THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION and THE DEPARTMENT. OF THE INTERIOR and AUSTRAL OIL COMPANY INCORPORATED and CER GEONUCLEAR CORPORATION Prepared by OFFICE OF THE CHIEF COUNSEL NEVADA OPERATIONS OFFICE FEBRUARY 1969 This page intentionally left blank UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION . NEVADA OPERATIONS OFFICE TABLE OF CONTENTS VII VIII XV XVI XVII SUBJECT - PAGE Definitions 2 Description of Project ~ulisdn 3

10

CMVRTC: Background  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

newsletters newsletters contacts tools latest news 12.05.2013 Next Quarterly meeting scheduled for February 19, 2014 (10 a.m. - 12 p.m. ET). read more ... More information CMVRTC Showcase Events CMVRTC Poster Sessions Related Projects Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Medium Truck Duty Cycle Fuel Tax Evasion Other technical director For more information, please contact Gary Capps, Technical Director, at cappsgj@ornl.gov or (865) 946-1285. Background Introduction Vision cmvrtc poster Benefits Technology Transfer Introduction The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) launched the Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor (CMVRTC) on August 7, 2007, in partnership with the Tennessee Departments of Safety and Transportation, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the

11

Low background techniques in XMASS  

SciTech Connect

The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

12

Muon Collider Backgrounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

then, further improvements to the final focus have reduced the backgrounds by about an order of magnitude. Although challenging, in many ways the predicted background levels are...

13

Development of Generic Background  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kentucky Guidance for Ambient Background Assessment Kentucky Guidance for Ambient Background Assessment January 8, 2004 Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet Introduction This guidance document is intended to assist in comparing site data and background data for sites undergoing environmental assessment. These procedures provide a simplified statistical procedure for determining if the site data is part of the background population. It also provides generic statewide background values for inorganic chemicals that may be used in lieu of collecting site-specific background samples. The statistical procedures may be used for site- specific data or the generic statewide values in Tables 1 and 2. This guidance does not preclude other appropriate statistical comparisons from being made, but rather a simplified screening

14

Energy conservation in typical Asian countries  

SciTech Connect

Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

Yang, M. [International Inst. for Energy Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand); Rumsey, P. [Supersymmetry USA, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background: The photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen has drawn properties In order to develop better materials for solar energy applications, in-depth photoelectrochemical simulated solar irradiance. Hydrogen production experiments are conducted in a sealed aluminum cell

Raftery, Dan

16

Unitarity and singular backgrounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and the Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

Nikos Brouzakis; Mariano Quiros

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

17

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos S. L. Soares

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

18

Production and Handling Slide 42: Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage Yard Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage Yard...

19

A Prototype Radon Filter for Air A typical, recurring problem in low-background physics is the contamination of sensitive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). 4.1.5 Early attempts Swing systems are used extensively in industrial air separation processes. The charcoal has been initially washed with water to rid it of dust, and then put in an oven to dry

20

Literature Review of Background Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) continuously move through the environment, often via atmospheric transport. The subsequent deposition of particulates containing PAHs along with other sources of PAHs, such as natural vegetative decay, result in "background" PAHs in surficial soils. Even in pristine areas, surface and near surface soils can contain detectable levels of PAHs. This study provides data on the concentrations and distributions of background PAHs observed in environmental media. Such inf...

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Paducah Background Factsheet | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background Factsheet Paducah Background Factsheet Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions, May 15, 2012 Paducah Background...

22

How much electricity does a typical nuclear power plant generate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much electricity does a typical nuclear power plant generate? ... tariff, and demand charge data? How is electricity used in U.S. homes?

23

An Integrated Strategy for Whole Ecological Utilization of Typical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of typical industrial solid wastes, such as titanium-bearing blast furnace slag, high-silicon iron tailing and boron-enriched slag as well as oil shale.

24

Nuclear outages back within typical range since July following ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. nuclear generator outages were above the levels of the previous four years in the second quarter of 2011 but have returned to more typical ...

25

Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Web-based Tool for Converting Carbon Dioxide Isotope Measurements into Standardized delta–13–C and delta–18–O Values. ...

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

26

Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BOOK: The Superalloys: Fundamentals and Applications R. C. Reed, Cambridge ... New Messages, Rating, WEB RESOURCE: Handbook of Materials Selection

27

Background:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TABLE OF CONTENTS Recommended Browsers for iSupplier Portal Recommended Microsoft Internet Explorer Browser Settings (MSIE) Recommended Firefox Browser Settings Recommended...

28

Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the International City/County Management Association (IChz4). PTI’s mission is to bring technology to local governments. Through collective research and development efforts in its member jurisdictions, PTI creates and adrances technology-based products, services, and enterprises for all cities and counties. Four active task forces, each composed of members of PTI’s Urban Consortium WC)-which represents fifty of the nation’s largest and most progressive cities and urban counties--drive PTI’s research and commercialization efforts. One of these task forces is the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), which was established to address critical energy needs of urban America.

D Emonstration; Economic; A Nalysis Of; U Rban; C Onsortium

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the environment, and methodologies for tracing life-cycle costs to a ... Global investments in sustainable energy (including wind, solar, and ...

30

BACKGROUND  

Usually results in lowered chemical durability as measured ... F or more inf rmation about the science you see here, please contact: John McCloy, Ph.D.

31

BACKGROUND  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fax: 301/670-9884. Email: dominique@aeptec.com. John Dunfield. Microvision, Inc. 2203 Airport Way S., Ste. 100. Seattle, WA 98134 USA. ...

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

32

Background  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patent Rights in the New Independent States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union for Inventions made by NIS institutes' employeess in the course of or under agreements entered into...

33

Typicality ranking via semi-supervised multiple-instance learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the existing methods for natural scene categorization only consider whether a sample is relevant or irrelevant to a particular concept. However, for the samples relevant to a certain concept, their typicalities or relevancy scores to the concept ... Keywords: multiple-instance learning, natural scene categorization, semi-supervised learning, typicality ranking

Jinhui Tang; Xian-Sheng Hua; Guo-Jun Qi; Xiuqing Wu

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAR Background Report MAR Background Report: Indigenous Protest in Brazil Hundreds of indigenous people demonstrated at the National Congress in Brasilia, capital of Brazil, following the announcement in the 1990s in the midst of extensive protests in Brazil and around the world. On February 8, an indigenous

Milchberg, Howard

35

Background on Quantum Key Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Background on Quantum Key Distribution. ... If someone, referred to by cryptographers as Eve, tries to eavesdrop on the transmission, she will not ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

Angola Background - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

‹ Countries Angola Last Updated: January 3, 2013 (Notes) Revised: January 8, 2013 (revision) full report Background Angola is the second-largest oil producer in Sub ...

37

Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PNNL-88603 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012...

38

Energy-Efficient Lighting The typical American family spends more  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) saves you money in the long run with lower energy bills. CFLs are significant Typical incandescent 75-watt light bulb Compact Fluorescent 18-watt light bulb Purchase cost $0.60 $ 5 that incandescent bulbs use becomes heat while only 10 percent becomes light. CFLs create less heat because more

39

Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Signatures of Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption for Typical AHUs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analysis is performed to investigate the signatures of different parameters on the heating and cooling energy consumption of typical air handling units (AHUs). The results are presented in graphic format. HVAC simulation engineers can use these graphs to make quick and rational decisions during the model calibration, identify faulty parameters, and develop optimized operation and control schedules. An application example is given as well in the paper.

Wei, G.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis Photo of numerous parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors tracking the sun. Cooling towers and other generator equipment are in the midst of the troughs, and two water tanks are in the background. The Solar Electric Generating Station IV power plant in California consists of many parallel rows of parabolic trough collectors that track the sun. The cooling towers can be seen with the water plume rising into the air, and white water tanks are in the background. Credit: Sandia National Laboratory / PIX 14955 Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear

42

Cosmic Microwave Background Project at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

43

A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of windows in buildings similar to the typical buildings. (author)

Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Is the Sun Embedded in a Typical Interstellar Cloud?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical properties and kinematics of the partially ionized interstellar material near the Sun are typical of warm diffuse clouds in the solar vicinity. The interstellar magnetic field at the heliosphere and the kinematics of nearby clouds are naturally explained in terms of the S1 superbubble shell. The interstellar radiation field at the Sun appears to be harder than the field ionizing ambient diffuse gas, which may be a consequence of the low opacity of the tiny cloud surrounding the heliosphere. The spatial context of the Local Bubble is consistent with our location in the Orion spur.

P. C. Frisch

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

45

Meteorology: typical meteorological data for selected stations in Ghana  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

data for selected stations in Ghana data for selected stations in Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations> (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

46

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in Sri  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

47

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

48

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions

49

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

50

Meteorology: typical meteorological year data for selected stations in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Each TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. Solar radiation is modeled using the NREL METSTAT model, with surface observed cloud cover being the principal model input. The container file contains one TMY file for each selected station in the region, plus documentation files and a TMY data reader file for use with Microsoft Excel. (Purpose): Simulations (Supplemental Information): A TMY consists of months selected from individual years and concatenated to form a complete year. The intended use is for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Because of the selection criteria, these TMYs are not appropriate for simulations of wind energy conversion systems. A TMY provides a standard for hourly data for solar radiation and other meteorological elements that permit performance comparisons of system types and configurations for one or more locations. A TMY is not necessarily a good indicator of conditions over the next year, or even the next 5 years. Rather, it represents conditions judged to be typical over a long period of time, such as 30 years. Because they represent typical rather than extreme conditions, they are not suited for designing systems and their components to meet the worst-case conditions occurring at a location.

51

APS USER TRAINING HISTORY Background  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USER TRAINING HISTORY USER TRAINING HISTORY Background The User Program Division Director has delegated to the CATs the authority to authorize the conduct of experiments because the CATs have accepted responsibility for: * identifying and evaluating the hazards posed by the experiment, * specifying controls appropriate to the hazards, and * verifying that controls are in place. One form of hazard control frequently made mandatory by law and laboratory policy is worker knowledge. The accepted means of verifying that a worker has the required knowledge is ensuring that the worker has completed appropriate training. With CAT input, the APS has developed the APS User Training History. This web-based tool enables designated CAT personnel to examine data characterizing ES&H training courses

52

Low background aspects of GERDA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio?impurities coming from the liquid argon the stainless steel cryostat and the front?end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222 Rn . The main source of 222 Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio?pure components for front?end electronics resulted in the development of a pre?amplifier with a total activity of less than 1? mBq ? 228 Th .

Hardy Simgen; The GERDA collaboration

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Sun. A typical star in the solar neighborhood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Sun is used as the fundamental standard in chemical abundance studies, thus it is important to know whether the solar abundance pattern is representative of the solar neighborhood. Albeit at low precision (0.05 - 0.10 dex) the Sun seems to be a typical solar-metallicity disk star, at high precision (0.01 dex) its abundance pattern seems abnormal when compared to solar twins. The Sun shows a deficiency of refractory elements that could be due to the formation of terrestrial planets. The formation of giant planets may also introduce a signature in the chemical composition of stars. We discuss both planet signatures and also the enhancement of neutron-capture elements in the solar twin 18 Sco.

Melendez, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Determination of selected elements in SRM 1548a typical diet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron activation analysis (NAA), including instrumental NAA (INAA) and radiochemical NAA, is one of the primary analytical techniques used for the certification of elemental content in biological standard reference materials (SRMs) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). SRM 1548a, which is a freeze-dried mixture of typical diet composite based on foods consumed in the United States was analyzed for aluminum, calcium, chlorine, potassium, manganese, and sodium by INAA. This analysis is a part of an ongoing effort to improve the quality of the SRMs by understanding and minimizing all known sources of errors or interferences in NAA. To perform highly accurate INAA, the system was calibrated using multiple primary standards. Homogeneity was also measured for these six elements in 12 samples of SRM 1548a in 250-mg sample sizes. The control samples were used to internally evaluate and cross-check the NAA method.

Tandon, L. [North American Scientific, North Hollywood, CA (United States); Garrity, K.M.; Becker, D.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Predicting aerodynamic characteristic of typical wind turbine airfoils using CFD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted into the capabilities and accuracy of a representative computational fluid dynamics code to predict the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of typical wind-turbine airfoils. Comparisons of the computed pressure and aerodynamic coefficients were made with wind tunnel data. This work highlights two areas in CFD that require further investigation and development in order to enable accurate numerical simulations of flow about current generation wind-turbine airfoils: transition prediction and turbulence modeling. The results show that the laminar-to turbulent transition point must be modeled correctly to get accurate simulations for attached flow. Calculations also show that the standard turbulence model used in most commercial CFD codes, the k-e model, is not appropriate at angles of attack with flow separation. 14 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

Wolfe, W.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ochs, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Aerospace Engineering Dept.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Concentrating Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) are a promising alternative to flat-plate photovoltaics in high direct normal irradiance (DNI) environments. The technology’s basic operating characteristics offer significant upside compared with other solar technologies: higher system efficiencies of upwards of 30%+; higher capacity factors, generated through two-axis tracking, exceeding 30% in ideal locations; lower cellular degradation from heat compared to flat-plate PV; lower water requirements; and reduced footpri...

2010-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

57

Determining Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Background in Sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sediment remediation challenges at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites include defining sediment remedial zones, establishing risk-based remedial goals for specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determining background conditions in what are often highly industrialized waterways. This technical update describes the various tools and approaches developed over approximately the past decade to determine site-specific background PAH concentrations in sediments attributable to ...

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

58

Motion detection in complex and dynamic backgrounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the detection of moving objects, background subtraction methods are widely used. In case the background changes, we need to update the background in real-time for the reliable detection of foreground objects. An adaptive Gaussian mixture model (GMM) ...

Daeyong Park; Junbeom Kim; Jaemin Kim; Seongwon Cho; Sun-Tae Chung

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solar Background Document 5 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 Solar Background Document 5 Graph illustrating Chinese Development Bank financing to Chinese solar companies. Solar Background Document 5.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar...

60

Solar Background Document 7 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Background Document 7 Solar Background Document 7 Chart comparing global solar market in 2009 with the market today, illustrating the changing market conditions that Solyndra...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

POLARIZATION OF THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galactic Synchrotron Radiation at 33 GHz NOIiWNPQaa s x s sthe Cosmic Background Radiation Philip Michael Lubin Spacethe Cosmic Background Radiation. The ground-based experiment

Lubin, Philip Lubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background Document 6 Graph illustrating solar cell production in the United States and China from 2002 to 2010. Solar Background Document 6.pdf More Documents & Publications Solar...

63

Vapor concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

Bayly, John G. (Deep River, CA); Booth, Ronald J. (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Imprint of Sterile Neutrinos in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos is suggested by the current status of solar and atmospheric neutrinos together with the LSND experiment. In typical four-flavor scenarios, neutrinos would contribute to a cosmic hot dark matter component and to an increased radiation content at the epoch of matter-radiation equality. These effects leave their imprint in sky maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) and may thus be detectable with the precision measurements of the upcoming MAP and PLANCK missions.

Steen Hannestad; Georg Raffelt

1998-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

Oldenborg, R. C. (Richard C.); Tiee, J. J. (Joe J.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Wilson, C. W. (Carl W.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

TEC Working Group Background | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background Background TEC Working Group Background Through the TEC/WG, DOE interacted with representatives of organizations at the state, tribal, and local levels to obtain input for program needs assessment, development and management, and to enhance their capability to carry out transportation emergency preparedness and safety activities specifically related to radioactive materials shipments. TEC membership included representatives from national, state, tribal and local government organizations, labor, industry and professional groups. Members meet semiannually to participate in plenary sessions, breakout work sessions, and in more specialized Topic Groups. To learn more about the history and background of TEC, please see the following documents: TEC Charter TEC Work Plan

67

TEC Working Group Background | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TEC Working Group Background TEC Working Group Background TEC Working Group Background Through the TEC/WG, DOE interacted with representatives of organizations at the state, tribal, and local levels to obtain input for program needs assessment, development and management, and to enhance their capability to carry out transportation emergency preparedness and safety activities specifically related to radioactive materials shipments. TEC membership included representatives from national, state, tribal and local government organizations, labor, industry and professional groups. Members meet semiannually to participate in plenary sessions, breakout work sessions, and in more specialized Topic Groups. To learn more about the history and background of TEC, please see the following documents:

68

Background Links | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Background Links Home > About Us > Our Programs > Defense Programs > Future Science & Technology Programs > Office of Advanced Simulation and Computing Institutional Research...

69

4.6.1.1. Background & Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

4. Process Modeling 4.6. Case Studies in Process Modeling 4.6.1. Load Cell Calibration 4.6.1.1. Background & Data. Description ...

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Second National Climate Assessment: Background and Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

information on the background and process materials that were used to produce the report: An Agenda for Climate Science Impacts Primary Sources of Information Data Sets References...

71

‹ Countries Russia Background - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

‹ Countries Russia Last Updated: September 18, 2012 full report Background Russia holds the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second-largest coal reserves, and

72

ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration govMeasurementsTrace gas concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Trace gas concentration The amount per unit volume of trace gases other than carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapor, typically measured in conjunction with in situ aerosol measurements, e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO : Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

73

Top-k typicality queries and efficient query answering methods on large databases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding typical instances is an effective approach to understand and analyze large data sets. In this paper, we apply the idea of typicality analysis from psychology and cognitive science to database query answering, and study the novel problem of answering ... Keywords: Efficient query answering, Top-k query, Typicality analysis

Ming Hua; Jian Pei; Ada W. Fu; Xuemin Lin; Ho-Fung Leung

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Recent experience with backgrounds at the SLC  

SciTech Connect

During the 1990 SLC/Mark II runs, machine backgrounds visible in the new vertex detectors were studied. These detectors had active elements at radii from 3 to 17 cm and were subjected to backgrounds unique to linear colliders. We describe recent progress in identifying sources and developing control techniques. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Jacobsen, R.; Band, H.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.; Brown, K.; Burke, D.; Coupal, D.; DeStaebler, H.; Fujino, D.; Hearty, C.; Hertzbach, S.; Jaros, J.; Maruyama, T.; Tauchi, T.; Toge, N.; Turk, J.; Wagner, S.; Zeitlin, C.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background  

SciTech Connect

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite`s t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set).

Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Preliminary background ozone concentrations in the mountain and coastal areas of Bulgaria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Govedartsi Valley on the northwest slope of Rila Mountain in southwest Bulgaria (Donev et al. 1996, 1998. These two wind regimes impact diel O3 con- centration patterns as discussed by Donev et al. (1996). A second part of Rila Mountain (Zeller et al. 1992, 1997; Donev et al. 1996, 1998, 1999), the highest mountain

79

An Algorithm for Lidar Mapping of Aerosol Concentrations in a Varying Atmospheric Background Density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm for the determination of the number density profiles of a specific aerosol as a function of time and space is developed and discussed. The algorithm is applicable to atmospheric conditions in which a varying density particulate ...

Moshe Kleiman; Smadar Egert; Ariel Cohen

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

William Detmold; Brian C. Tiburzi; Andre Walker-Loud

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

First National Climate Assessment: Background and Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Process Print E-mail Workshops of the First National Climate Assessment In February 1997, the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the Office of Science and...

82

Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields  

SciTech Connect

We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields.

William Detmold, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Microsoft Word - Appendix A_Background.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Background Information, Remedial Action Histories, Background Information, Remedial Action Histories, Present Site Conditions U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan July 2005 Doc. No. S0079000 Page A-iii Contents A1.1 Location and Property Ownership ................................................................................1 A1.2 Physiography and Topography.....................................................................................4 A1.3 Hydrogeology ...............................................................................................................5 A1.3.1 Regional ...........................................................................................................5 A1.3.2 Chemical Plant .................................................................................................5

84

COBE Observations of the Cosmic Infrared Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Diffuse InfraRed Background Experiment on COBE measured the total infrared signal seen from space at a distance of 1 astronomical unit from the Sun. Using time variations as the Earth orbits the Sun, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by the interplanetary dust cloud [zodiacal light]. By correlating the DIRBE signal with the column density of atomic hydrogen measured using the 21 cm line, it is possible to remove most of the foreground signal produced by interstellar dust, although one must still be concerned by dust associated with H_2 (molecular gas) and H II (the warm ionized medium). DIRBE was not able to determine the CIRB in the 5-60 micron wavelength range, but did detect both a far infrared background and a near infrared background. The far infrared background has an integrated intensity of about 34 nW/m^2/sr, while the near infrared and optical extragalactic background has about 59 nW/m^2/sr. The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on COBE has been used to constrain the long wavelength tail of the far infrared background but a wide range of intensities at 850 microns are compatible with the FIRAS data. Thus the fraction of the CIRB produced by SCUBA sources has large uncertainties in both the numerator and the denominator.

E. L. Wright

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

85

Energy Basics: Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

86

Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

Kurtz, S.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

87

Radiation shielding for underground low-background experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design task of creating an efficient radiation shield for the new COBRA double-beta decay experiment led to a comprehensive study of commercially available shielding materials. The aim was to find the most efficient combination of materials under the constraints of an extreme low-background experiment operating in a typical underground laboratory. All existing shield configurations for this type of experiment have been found to perform sub-optimally in comparison to the class of multilayered configurations proposed in this study. The method used here to create a specific shield configuration should yield a close to optimal result when applied to any experiment utilising a radiation shield. In particular, the survey of single material response to a given radiation source turns out to give a guideline for the construction of efficient multilayer shields.

D. Y Stewart; P. F. Harrison; B. Morgan; Y. A. Ramachers

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Minimum-mirror-area single-stage solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

A means of generating a comcentrating mirror of minimum size for a given average flux-concentration output is outlined. The method is useful for acceptance angles typical of those required for tilting and tracking solar concentrators and can result in substantial cost savings when expensive mirrors (i.e.,glass) are used. Comparisons are made with compound parabolic concentrators.

Mills, D.; Harting, E.; Giutronich, J.E.; Cellich, W.; Morton, A.; Walker, I.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A study of the effects of well and fracture design in a typical Marcellus shale well.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The problem with typical Marcellus shale wells is the lack of information that has beenaccumulated and the amount of information that is commercially available to… (more)

Schweitzer, Ross T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

National Climate Assessment: Background and Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Process Print E-mail Background and Process Print E-mail Please view the links below to find out more about the background and process of the National Climate Assessment: National Climate Assessment Development & Advisory Committee Charter ( PDF) National Climate Assessment Proposed 2013 Report Outline [updated on 12/08/2011] (PDF) Strategy On May 20th, 2011 the National Climate Assessment released the following two strategy documents: National Climate Assessment Strategy Summary National Climate Assessment Engagement Strategy Federal Register Notices November 18, 2013 National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) Notice of Open Meeting pdf | html A Notice by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on 10/29/2013 This notice sets forth the schedule of a forthcoming meeting of the DoC NOAA National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC).

91

Monitored Retrievable Storage Background | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Monitored Retrievable Storage Background Monitored Retrievable Storage Background Monitored Retrievable Storage Background `The U.S. Government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an Integral part of the Federal system for safe and permanent disposal of the nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The MRS will accept shipments of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, temporarily store the spent fuel above ground, and stage shipments of it to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. The law authorizing the MRS provides an opportunity for a State or an Indian Tribe to volunteer to host the MRS. The law establishes the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator, who Is 10 seek a State or an Indian Tribe

92

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Background  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mission and Goals Mission and Goals Organization Chart and Contacts Background U.S. DRIVE Partnership Budget Timeline Program Activities Advisory Panels External Coordination U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > About > Background Printable Version Background In the early 1970s, concern over our growing dependence on imported petroleum, coupled with concerns about our deteriorating air quality due to emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, spurred the Federal government to act. The timeline below provides policy and programmatic highlights for federally supported hydrogen and fuel cell R&D over the last three decades. Federal Support for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R&D Some of the following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader.

93

Background compensation for a radiation level monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

Keefe, D.J.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Strange Metallic Behavior in Anisotropic Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We continue our analysis on conductivity in the anisotropic background by employing the D-brane probe technique, where the D-branes play the role of charge carriers. The DC and AC conductivity for massless charge carriers are obtained analytically, while interesting curves for the AC conductivity are also plotted. For massive charge carriers, we calculate the DC and AC conductivities in the dilute limit and we fix the parameters in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory so that the background exhibits the same scaling behaviors as those for real-world strange metals. The DC conductivity at finite density is also computed.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Park, Chanyong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Strange Metallic Behavior in Anisotropic Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We continue our analysis on conductivity in the anisotropic background by employing the D-brane probe technique, where the D-branes play the role of charge carriers. The DC and AC conductivity for massless charge carriers are obtained analytically, while interesting curves for the AC conductivity are also plotted. For massive charge carriers, we calculate the DC and AC conductivities in the dilute limit and we fix the parameters in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory so that the background exhibits the same scaling behaviors as those for real-world strange metals. The DC conductivity at finite density is also computed.

Bum-Hoon Lee; Da-Wei Pang; Chanyong Park

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

96

LRL background measurements program for ICBM discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Several proposals have been made for discriminating between Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) and decoys. Primary fundamental particles or high energy electromagnetic radiation can be scattered from or can activate the targets. The secondary radiation is observed by directional detectors that are positioned close-by and the information is transmitted to control centers on the ground. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory proposes a program for measurements of the natural space radiations. Eventually, the space backgrounds must be measured before a satisfactory discrimination system can be perfected. Past and scheduled background measurements are described and a measurement program is proposed.

1960-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

Dish/Engine Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The dish/engine system is a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology that produces relatively small amounts of electricity compared to other CSP technologies—typically in the range of 3 to 25...

98

Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

technologies-typically in the range of 3 to 25 kilowatts. Dishengine systems use a parabolic dish of mirrors to direct and concentrate sunlight onto a central engine that...

99

Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

Kurtz, S.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

100

Survey Background and Technical Information on CBECS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Survey Background and Technical Information Survey Background and Technical Information Survey Background and Technical Information Survey Background The commercial sector encompasses a vast range of building types- service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as certain buildings that would not be considered "commercial" in a traditional economic sense, such as public and private schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Excluded from the sector are the goods-producing industries: manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry and fisheries, and construction. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 2003 CBECS was the eighth survey in the series begun in 1979. From 1979 to 1986, the survey was known as the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, or NBECS.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yale ME Turbine Test cell instructions Background: The Turbine Technologies Turbojet engine combustion gas backflow into the lab space. Test Cell preparation: 1. Turn on Circuit breakers # 16 of the turbine and check a few items: o Open keyed access door on rear of Turbine enclosure o Check Jet A fuel

Haller, Gary L.

102

Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

Kurtz, S.

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figures A typical wet steam Rankine cycle on a temperature-A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

First National Climate Assessment: Background and Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Process Print E-mail Background and Process Print E-mail Workshops of the First National Climate Assessment In February 1997, the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the Office of Science and Technology Policy initiated a series of Regional Climate Change Workshops with the goal of starting the process of examining the vulnerabilities of regions of the United States to climate variability and climate change. What was initially intended to be three or four workshops developed into a series of twenty, covering every state and territory of the United States. The workshops span from May 1997 to September 1998 and represented the first step in conducting a regional assessment. Each workshop was sponsored by one or more government agencies,and was carried out by coordinators from local institutions. For details on each workshop, including its geographic coverage, see:

105

Radioactive Background Evaluation by Atom Counting  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new method of measuring 85Kr background levels by direct counting of impurity atoms. The beta-decay of 85Kr is a significant radioactive background for experiments that use liquified noble gases to search for dark matter and measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux. While there are several proposed methods for reducing Kr levels in these experiments, an independent technique is needed for measuring very low Kr levels. By selectively exciting Kr atoms to a metastable state, capturing them in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), and detecting fluorescence from the trapped atoms, individual Kr atoms can be counted with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This approach offers both higher sensitivity and shorter measurement times than more conventional techniques, with an estimated sensitivity of 3 x 10-14 in only 3 hours of integration.

Orzel, Chad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States); McKinsey, Daniel [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A background free double beta decay experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is a high-pressure 136Xe emitter for which the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is to use the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of their higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An alternative solution could be the development of double decay emitters with lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

Ioannis Giomataris

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

108

Observation of the submillimeter cosmic background spectrum  

SciTech Connect

An experimental measurement of the spectrum of the submillimeter cosmic background radiation is described. The experiment consists of measuring the night sky emission at an altitude of 39 km, correcting for the atmospheric molecular line emission, and placing limits on the contamination from sources of continuum radiation such as the apparatus itself and the earth. The observations were made on 24 July 1974 using a fully calibrated liquid-helium-cooled balloon- borne spectrophotometer. Important features of the apparatus include a cooled antenna, a polarizing interferometer, and a germanium bolometric detector. The characterization of the spectrophotometer includes the large angle response and emission of the antenna. The calibration of the instrument and corrections to the observed sky spectrum are based on measurements made during the flight. A simple model of the molecular line emission is used to determine the atmospheric contribution. The resulting spectrum covers the frequency range from 4 to 17 cm$sup -1$ and establishes that the cosmic background radiation follows the high frequency quantum cutoff for a 3K blackbody. A blackbody temperature of 2.99/sub -.$sub 14$/$sup +$.$sup 07$/K is deduced from our data. The present status of the cosmic background observations, which span more than three decades in frequency, is analyzed and it is concluded that they are all consistent with a blackbody temperature of 2.90 +- .04K (+- 1 SIGMA). This firmly supports the Big Bang cosmological model of the universe. (auth)

Woody, D.P.

1975-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

109

Linear Concentrator Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is...

110

To Look or Not to Look? Typical and Atypical Development of Oculomotor Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to inhibit saccades toward suddenly appearing peripheral stimuli (prosaccades) and direct them to contralateral locations instead (antisaccades) is a crucial marker of eye movement control. Typically developing infants as young as 4-month-olds ...

Gaia Scerif; Annette Karmiloff-smith; Ruth Campos; Mayada Elsabbagh; Jon Driver; Kim Cornish

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

DOE Vendor Communication Plan I. Background  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vendor Communication Plan Vendor Communication Plan I. Background On February 2, 2011, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) issued a memorandum entitled "Myth-Busting: Addressing Misconceptions to Improve Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process." In addition to identifying and refuting common misconceptions about vendor engagement, the memorandum directed agencies to develop high-level vendor communication plans to discuss how each agency will reduce unnecessary barriers, publicize communication opportunities, and prioritize engagement opportunities for high-risk, complex programs or those that fail to attract new vendors during re-competitions.

112

Cosmic string collision in cosmological backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

The collisions of cosmic string loops and the dynamics of junction formations in expanding backgrounds are studied. The key parameter controlling the dynamics of junction formation, the cosmic strings zipping and unzipping, is the relative size of the loops compared to the Hubble radius at the time of collision. We study analytically and numerically these processes for large superhorizon size loops, for small subhorizon size loops as well as for loops with the radii comparable to the Hubble radius at the time of collision.

Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Mo'allem University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khosravi, Shahram [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Mo'allem University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Decoherence in the cosmic background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the possibility of detecting nontrivial quantum phenomena in observations of the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR), for example, if the Universe could be found in a coherent superposition of two states corresponding to different CBR temperatures. Such observations are sensitive to scalar primordial fluctuations but insensitive to tensor fluctuations, which are therefore converted into an environment for the former. Even for a free inflaton field minimally coupled to gravity, scalar-tensor interactions induce enough decoherence among histories of the scalar fluctuations as to render them classical under any realistic probe of their amplitudes.

Mariano Franco; Esteban Calzetta

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Superconducting Hair on Charged Black String Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Behaviour of Dirac fermions in the background of a charged black string penetrated by an Abelian Higgs vortex is elaborated. One finds the evidence that the system under consideration can support fermion fields acting like a superconducting cosmic string in the sence that a nontrivial Dirac fermion field can be carried by the system in question. The case of nonextremal and extremal black string vortex systems were considered. The influence of electric and Higgs charge, the winding number and the fermion mass on the fermion localization near the black string event horizon was studied. It turned out that the extreme charged black string expelled fermion fields more violently comparing to the nonextremal one.

Lukasz Nakonieczny; Marek Rogatko

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

115

Emergence of oscillons in an expanding background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a (1+1) dimensional scalar field theory that supports oscillons, which are localized, oscillatory, stable solutions to nonlinear equations of motion. We study this theory in an expanding background and show that oscillons now lose energy, but at a rate that is exponentially small when the expansion rate is slow. We also show numerically that a universe that starts with (almost) thermal initial conditions will cool to a final state where a significant fraction of the energy of the universe--on the order of 50%--is stored in oscillons. If this phenomenon persists in realistic models, oscillons may have cosmological consequences.

Farhi, E.; Guth, A. H.; Iqbal, N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Graham, N. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Rosales, R. R. [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stamatopoulos, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Theoretical Overview of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The theoretical basis for the prediction of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background is very well developed. Very low amplitude density and temperature perturbations produce small gravitational effects, leading to an anisotropy that is a combination of temperature fluctuations at the surface of last scattering and gravitational redshifts both at last scattering and along the path to the observer. All of the primary anisotropy can be handled by linear perturbation theory, which allows a very accurate calculation of the predicted anisotropy from different models of the Universe.

E. L. Wright

2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

117

Parabolic concentrating collector: a tutorial  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tutorial overview of point-focusing parabolic collectors is presented. Optical and thermal characteristics of such collectors are discussed. Data representing typical achievable collector efficiencies are presented and the importance of balancing collector cost with concentrator quality is argued through the development of a figure of merit for the collector. The impact of receiver temperature on performance is assessed and the general observation made that temperatures much in excess of 1500 to 2000/sup 0/F can actually result in decreased performance. Various types of two-axis tracking collectors are described, including the standard parabolic deep dish, Cassegrainian and Fresnel, as well as two forms of fixed mirrors with articulating receivers. The present DOE program to develop these devices is briefly discussed, as are present and projected costs for these collectors. Pricing information is presented for the only known commercial design available on the open market.

Truscello, V.C.

1979-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

Caldwell, Karin D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chu, Tun-Jen (Salt Lake City, UT); Pitt, William G. (Orem, UT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

Electromagnetic polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in background fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study the quark mass dependence of observables with lattice QCD, the lattice will provide a crucial test of our understanding of low-energy QCD, which will be timely in light of ongoing experiments, such as at COMPASS and HI gamma S.

W. Detmold, B.C. Tiburzi, A. Walker-Loud

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to...

123

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use...

124

Concentrating Solar Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

Not Available

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Notices Background The National Wildlife Refuge System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

89 Federal Register 89 Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 223 / Friday, November 20, 2009 / Notices Background The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee) (Administration Act), as amended by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, requires us to develop a CCP for each national wildlife refuge. The purpose for developing a CCP is to provide refuge managers with a 15-year plan for achieving refuge purposes and contributing toward the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to outlining broad management direction on conserving wildlife and their habitats, CCPs identify wildlife-

126

Gamma ray astrophysics, the extragalactic background light, and new physics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Very high energy gamma-rays are expected to be absorbed by the extragalactic background light over cosmological distances via the process of electron-positron pair production. However, recent observations of cosmologically distant emitters by ground based gamma-ray telescopes might be indicative of a higher-than-expected degree of transparency of the universe. One mechanism to explain this observation is the oscillation between photons and axion-like-particles (ALPs). Here we explore this possibility, focusing on photon-ALP conversion in the magnetic fields in and round gamma-ray sources and in the magnetic field of the Milky Way, where some fraction of the ALP flux is converted back into photons. We show that this mechanism can be efficient in allowed regions of the ALP parameter space, as well as in typical configurations of the Galactic Magnetic Field. As case example, we consider the spectrum observed from a HESS source. We also discuss features of this scenario which could be used to distinguish it from standard or other exotic models.

Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Photo of the Week: Not Your Typical Jet Engine | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Not Your Typical Jet Engine Not Your Typical Jet Engine Photo of the Week: Not Your Typical Jet Engine November 23, 2012 - 11:57am Addthis As part of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, the U.S. conducted extensive research showing that nuclear fission could power an aircraft. The research involved a series of Heat Transfer Reactor Experiments (HTREs), which tested if different types of jet engines could be run by nuclear power. In 1955, however, the project was cancelled, and a safe, operational prototype aircraft was never developed. In this 1988 photo, the two HTRE reactors are shown in transport to Idaho National Laboratory's EBR-1 visitor center, where they remain today. | Photo courtesy of Idaho National Laboratory. As part of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program, the U.S. conducted

128

Linear Concentrator Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Linear Concentrator Systems Linear Concentrator Systems Jump to: navigation, search Introduction Linear concentrating collector fields consist of a large number of collectors in parallel rows that are typically aligned in a north-south orientation to maximize both annual and summertime energy collection. With a single-axis sun-tracking system, this configuration enables the mirrors to track the sun from east to west during the day, ensuring that the sun reflects continuously onto the receiver tubes. Parabolic Trough Systems The predominant CSP systems currently in operation in the United States are linear concentrators using parabolic trough collectors. In such a system, the receiver tube is positioned along the focal line of each parabola-shaped reflector. The tube is fixed to the mirror structure and

129

BS in General Science, with various specializations possible Typical Program of Study1 4 year  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BS in General Science, with various specializations possible Typical Program of Study1 ­ 4 year Fall Quarter Winter Quarter Spring Quarter Freshman Science (5) Science (5) Science (5) Math (5) Math (5) Core (5) Core (5)2 Core (5) Core (5) Sophomore Science (5) Science (5) Science (5) Science (5

Carter, John

130

../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css background-image: url(../images/background.gif);  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/maroon_fusion.css body { background-image: url(../images/background.gif); ../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/ maroon_fusion.css body { background-color: #3e5c5f; ../fusion/templates/mapguide/maroon/css/ maroon_fusion.css #ToolbarVertical { background: #500000; maroon_fusion.css #Toolbar { background

Ahmad, Sajjad

131

NERSC Continues Tradition of Cosmic Microwave Background Data...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tradition of Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis with the Planck Cluster NERSC Continues Tradition of Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis with the Planck...

132

Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Docket No. EO-05-01. As supporting documentation for "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant: Modeling Unit 1 Emissions in a Cycling Mode" this memo documents the fact that the observed 24-hour SO2 background concentrations during periods when meteorological conditions produce the highest impacts from Unit 1. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report More Documents & Publications Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant"

133

Concentration with uniform flux  

SciTech Connect

A modification of a parabolic cylinder concentrator is developed to procedure uniform flux. The controlling surface equation is given. A three-dimensional ray-trace technique is used to obtain the shape of the image at the focal plane of a thin slice of the mirror. Also, the concentration distribution for uniform flux is given. 1 references, 7 figures.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The Particle Adventure | How do we interpret our data? | Typical detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical detector components Typical detector components The reason that detectors are divided into many components is that each component tests for a special set of particle properties. These components are stacked so that all particles will go through the different layers sequentially. A particle will not be evident until it either interacts with the detector in a measurable fashion, or decays into detectable particles. The interaction of various particles with the different components of a detector: *Neutrinos are not shown on this chart because they rarely interact with matter, and can only be detected by missing matter and energy. Just so you know, the pion ( ) is a charged meson.* A few important things to note: Charged particles, like electrons and protons, are detected both in the tracking chamber and the electromagnetic calorimeter.

135

Evaluation of the typical meteorological years for solar heating and cooling system studies. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of an evaluation of the weather data set, generated at Sandia Laboratories, known as the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Data. The purpose of the evaluation is to determine how well the TMY data represent actual long-term weather data in affecting the performance of solar heating and cooling systems. The two data sets are compared through detailed SHAC simulation.

Freeman, T. L.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrators Concentrators California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | April 18, 2013 | Ganapathi * Mirror module development has been approached with the goal of being applicable to all types of CSP systems * Several heliostat design options being considered to address driving requirements: * Facets that are compliant to winds > 35 mph * Deep structures for optimizing structural efficiency * Pointing accuracy achieved with mechanism design * Simple precision components * Easy on-site assembly with pre-fab components * Structural foam properties and strengthening trades being conducted to reduce overall costs with FEM models Goal: Typical costs for a concentrator (heliostat or parabolic dish) can range between 40-50% of the total costs. To meet SunShot

137

Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Detecting of Coal Gas Weak Signals Using Lyapunov Exponent under Strong Noise Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In coal gas monitoring system, the early detecting of gas concentration is key technique for preventing the gas explosion because the coal gas signals are very weak under strong noise background in mining digging laneway. In this paper, the coal gas ... Keywords: Coal gas, weak signals, coal mine underground, Lyapunov exponent, Duffing chaotic oscillator

Ma Xian-Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Concentrator silicon cell research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project continued the developments of high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cells with the goal of achieving a cell efficiency in the 26 to 27 percent range at a concentration level of 150 suns of greater. The target efficiency was achieved with the new PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally diffused) cell structure, but only at low concentration levels around 20 suns. The PERL structure combines oxide passivation of both top and rear surfaces of the cells with small area contact to heavily doped regions on the top and rear surfaces. Efficiency in the 22 to 23 percent range was also demonstrated for large-area concentrator cells fabricated with the buried contact solar cell processing sequence, either when combined with prismatic covers or with other innovative approaches to reduce top contact shadowing. 19 refs.

Green, M.A.; Wenham, S.R.; Zhang, F.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Solar Photovoltaic Lab.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Organic photovoltaics and concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

Mapel, Jonathan King

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Concentrator-quality evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of a reflecting solar concentrator depends, of course, on its surface reflectance, but there are other important factors. Among these are sun-tracking errors, surface-slope errors, and surface irregularities. It is appropriate to use statistics to describe and analyze these non-deterministic factors. A scheme for specifying the quality of a solar concentrator that includes all these effects is described and illustrated. It is believed that this procedure is optimum in the sense that it requires a minimum of measurements to obtain a complete enough description of a concentrator to determine its optical performance under any operating geometry. The specification scheme is, therefore, suitable for use in general systems analysis studies involving solar concentrators.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Joined concentric tubes  

SciTech Connect

Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research and Background to someone by E-mail Research and Background to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Home Energy Score Research and Background on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Home Energy Score Get Involved Partners Research & Background

144

PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTABILITY WITH DEEP SMALL-SKY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We use the Bayesian estimation on direct T - Q - U cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization maps to forecast errors on the tensor-to-scalar power ratio r, and hence on primordial gravitational waves, as a function of sky coverage f{sub sky}. This map-based likelihood filters the information in the pixel-pixel space into the optimal combinations needed for r detection for cut skies, providing enhanced information over a first-step linear separation into a combination of E, B, and mixed modes, and ignoring the latter. With current computational power and for typical resolutions appropriate for r detection, the large matrix inversions required are accurate and fast. Our simulations explore two classes of experiments, with differing bolometric detector numbers, sensitivities, and observational strategies. One is motivated by a long duration balloon experiment like Spider, with pixel noise {proportional_to}{radical}(f{sub sky}) for a specified observing period. This analysis also applies to ground-based array experiments. We find that, in the absence of systematic effects and foregrounds, an experiment with Spider-like noise concentrating on f{sub sky} {approx} 0.02-0.2 could place a 2{sigma}{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 0.014 boundary ({approx}95% confidence level), which rises to 0.02 with an l-dependent foreground residual left over from an assumed efficient component separation. We contrast this with a Planck-like fixed instrumental noise as f{sub sky} varies, which gives a Galaxy-masked (f{sub sky} = 0.75) 2{sigma}{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 0.015, rising to Almost-Equal-To 0.05 with the foreground residuals. Using as the figure of merit the (marginalized) one-dimensional Shannon entropy of r, taken relative to the first 2003 WMAP CMB-only constraint, gives -2.7 bits from the 2012 WMAP9+ACT+SPT+LSS data, and forecasts of -6 bits from Spider (+ Planck); this compares with up to -11 bits for CMBPol, COrE, and PIXIE post-Planck satellites and -13 bits for a perfectly noiseless cosmic variance limited experiment. We thus confirm the wisdom of the current strategy for r detection of deeply probed patches covering the f{sub sky} minimum-error trough with balloon and ground experiments.

Farhang, M.; Bond, J. R.; Netterfield, C. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Dore, O. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Photovoltaic solar concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

146

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concentration concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol concentration A measure of the amount of aerosol particles (e.g. number, mass, volume) per unit volume of air. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights) TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

147

Study of alpha background in a dark matter detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alpha background, specifically from radon and its progeny in the uranium and thorium chains, has been a major issue in dark matter detectors. This work focuses on alpha background presence in the DMTPC experiment by examining ...

Yegoryan, Hayk

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

Schmitt, Randal L. (Tijeras, NM); Hargis, Jr., Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

Background division, a suitable technique for moving object detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nowadays, background model does not have any robust solution and constitutes one of the main problems in surveillance systems. Researchers are working in several approaches in order to get better background pixel models. This is a previous step to apply ...

Walter Izquierdo-Guerra; Edel García-Reyes

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A compound parabolic concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) for solar energy applications is presented in this work. A prototype was built and its thermal performance was determined. Operating temperatures of the order of 150 /sup 0/C with a reasonable efficiency can be attained by means of a fixed CPC.

Manrique, J.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Role of Background in the CERCLA Cleanup Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background in the CERCLA Cleanup Program Background in the CERCLA Cleanup Program U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Office of Emergency and Remedial Response April 26, 2002 OSWER 9285.6-07P OSWER 9285.6-07P page 2 of 13 Table of Contents Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 3 of 13 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 4 of 13 Definitions of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 5 of 13 Consideration of Background in Risk Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 6 of 13 Consideration of Background in Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 7 of 13 Consideration of Background in Risk Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 8 of 13 Hypothetical Case Examples .

152

Typical Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and operatioal support Typical Consultants/Vendors used by EOTA for Subject Matter Expert and operatioal support Vendor's Name Contact/Rep Address Work Phone 615 Music Productions, Inc. Steve Hayes or Laura Palmer 1030 16th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212 616-244-6515 Adams, James F. James Adams 1217 Brookshire Dr., Bedford, TX 76021 214-674-6868 Adobe Systems Inc. N/A 2750 Barrett Lakes Blvd., Kennesaw, GA 30144 800-833-6687 Atlantech Resellers Inc, DBA CablesAndKits.com Craig Haynie 4555 Atwater Ct Ste ! Buford, GA 21075 877-633-2629 Albuquerque Printing Co Albert Padilla 3838 Bogan Ave.NE, Albq. 87109 505-872-2200 AlphaTRAC, Inc. John Ciolek 8670 Wolff Ct Ste 120 Westminster, CO 80031 303-428-5670 Amazon.com CSR

153

6.4.4.1.1. Data Set of Monthly CO2 Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 6.4.4.1. Sample Data Sets 6.4.4.1.1. Data Set of Monthly CO2 Concentrations. Source and Background, This data set contains ...

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Derived Concentration Technical Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

196-2011 196-2011 April 2011 DOE STANDARD DERIVED CONCENTRATION TECHNICAL STANDARD U.S. Department of Energy AREA ENVR Washington, D.C. 20585 Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/standard.html DOE-STD-1196-2011 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Derived Concentration Technical Standard was a collaborative effort sponsored by the DOE Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, with support from Department subject matter experts (SMEs) in the field of radiation protection. This standard, which complements DOE Order (O) 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, was developed taking

155

Concentrating Solar Thermal Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After nearly 20 years of commercial dormancy, concentrating solar thermal (CST) power development and investment activity is heating up globally. Encouraged by volatile energy prices, carbon markets, and renewable-friendly policies, an increasing number of established companies, newcomers, utilities, and government agencies are planning to deploy CST systems to tap the technologies' improving conversion efficiencies and low-cost electricity production potential. This renewable energy technology perspecti...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analysis of background distributions of metals in the soil at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (CAP), the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environmental Restoration Program conducted an evaluation of naturally occurring metals in soils at the facility. The purpose of the evaluation was to provide a basis for determining if soils at specific locations contained elevated concentrations of metals relative to ambient conditions. Ambient conditions (sometimes referred to as 'local background') are defined as concentrations of metals in the vicinity of a site, but which are unaffected by site-related activities (Cal-EPA 1997). Local background concentrations of 17 metals were initially estimated by LBNL using data from 498 soil samples collected from borings made during the construction of 71 groundwater monitoring wells (LBNL 1995). These concentration values were estimated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) guidance that was available at that time (USEPA 1989). Since that time, many more soil samples were collected and analyzed for metals by the Environmental Restoration Program. In addition, the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal-EPA) subsequently published a recommended approach for calculating background concentrations of metals at hazardous waste sites and permitted facilities (Cal-EPA 1997). This more recent approach differs from that recommended by the USEPA and used initially by LBNL (LBNL 2002). The purpose of the 2002 report was to apply the recommended Cal-EPA procedure to the expanded data set for metals that was available at LBNL. This revision to the 2002 report has been updated to include more rigorous tests of normality, revisions to the statistical methods used for some metals based on the results of the normality tests, and consideration of the depth-dependence of some sample results. As a result of these modifications, estimated background concentrations for some metals have been slightly revised from those presented in the original 2002 report. In cases where estimated background concentrations were reduced, site data were reviewed to assess whether significant changes to results of the RCRA CAP findings would result. This assessment indicated that no significant changes in RCRA CAP findings would result from the revisions.

Diamond, David; Baskin, David; Brown, Dennis; Lund, Loren; Najita, Julie; Javandel, Iraj

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

University of Wisconsin-Madison The Financial and Economic Crisis Interpreted in a CC-LM Model 1. Background: Typical Financial Crisis Source: Mishkin 2. Theory: Interaction between Financial Sector and Real Sector (CC-LM)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider an economy where bank credit is imperfectly substitutable for bond finance, as in Bernanke and Blinder (1988), augmented by allowing the credit supply to depend on a shift variable, the "riskiness " of the marginal investment project. Banks hold liabilities of deposits. On 1 the asset side, the banks hold loans, reserves and either domestic government debt. Loan demand is given by: L d = L ( ?, i, y) (1) Loan supply is given by: L s = ? ( p, i, Z) D(

Menzie D. Chinn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Water Vapor, Condensed Water, and Crystal Concentration in Orographically Influenced Cirrus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from measurements made with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) in cirriform clouds containing crystals with dimensions typically less than 30 ?m. Independent measurements of crystal number concentration and cloud water ...

Johan Ström; Jost Heintzenberg

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclones with Concentric Eyewalls as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years of data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission satellite’s Precipitation Radar are analyzed to determine the typical vertical structure of the concentric eyewalls of tropical cyclones undergoing eyewall replacement. The vertical ...

Deanna A. Hence; Robert A. Houze Jr.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Microsoft PowerPoint - Powerpoint_Background.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

g g Radiation Radiation Radiation is everywhere Cosmic Inhaled Radon Inhaled Radon Bodies Plants Bodies Radioactive Elements We live in a sea of radiation... Rocks BACKGROUND RADIATION BACKGROUND RADIATION The average background radiation per person is 370 millirems per person is 370 millirems (mrem) per year. This varies widely depending on where someone lives and their someone lives, and their occupation, health and lifestyle. Background Radiation g Most background radiation is g natural. It is part of nat re It is part of nature. It has always been here. y People have always lived with it. Radiation comes from space- sun and cosmic rays Because this type of radiation is somewhat shielded by the atmosphere, y p the dose is higher at higher altitudes Background Radiation Exposure at Different Elevations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of concentrating N/sup 15/ in a liquid is described. Gaseous nitric oxide and at least one liquid selected from the group consisting of the aqueous oxyacids and oxides of nitrogen, wherein the atomic ratio of oxygen to nitrogen is greater than unity, are brought into intimate contact to cause an enrichment of the liquid and a depletion of the gas in N/sup 15/. The liquid is, thereafter, reacted with sulfur dioxide to produce a gas contuining nitric oxide. The gas contuining nitric oxide is then continuously passed in countercurrent contact with the liquid to cause further enrichment of the liquid.

Taylor, T.I.; Spindel, W.

1960-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Characterization of Photovoltaic Concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper will describe the resources at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for performing characterization of photovoltaic (PV) materials designed for operation under concentrated light. NREL has the capability to measure devices ranging from very small, unencapsulated research cells to reasonably sized, environmentally protected modules. Data gathering and interpretation are also ongoing areas of revision and improvement. The main goal of the current research is to reduce the measurement uncertainty to the lowest practical value. At present, the state of the art is limited at a ?5% level in measuring efficiency accurately.

Kiehl, J.; Emery, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Concentric Black Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new supersymmetric solutions of five-dimensional minimal supergravity that describe concentric black rings with an optional black hole at the common centre. Configurations of two black rings are found which have the same conserved charges as a single rotating black hole; these black rings can have a total horizon area less than, equal to, or greater than the black hole with the same charges. A numerical investigation of these particular black ring solutions suggests that they do not have closed timelike curves.

Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jan B. Gutowski

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

164

World Oil Transit Chokepoints Background - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

‹ Countries World Oil Transit Chokepoints Last Updated: August 22, 2012 full report Background World oil chokepoints for maritime transit of oil are a critical part ...

165

Background | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Frontier Intensity Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theoretical Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Mission Background HEP Accelerator R&D Expertise...

166

‹ Countries East China Sea Background - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

‹ Countries East China Sea Last Updated: September 25, 2012 Background Although the East China Sea may have abundant oil and natural gas resources, unresolved

167

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

169

Universal solar concentrator panel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar concentrator device. It comprises: a solar energy receiver; and a flat solar energy reflector arranged to reflect solar energy to the receiver, the reflector including a substantially square-shaped frame limiting an inner space, individual flat reflective panels arranged in the space in a first group or rows extending in a first direction and a second group of rows extending in a second direction substantially transverse to the first direction and so that each of the panels is turnable about three mutually perpendicular axes, and means for mounting the panels so that they are turnable about the axes. The mounting means including first means which connect the panels in the rows extending in one of the directions so that the panels in each of the rows extending in the one direction are jointly turnable about a first one of the axes, second means for mounting each of the panels so that in each of the rows extending in the one direction each of the panels is turnable about a second one of the axes, and third means for mounting each panel in each of the rows extending in the one direction so that each of the panels is turnable about a third one of the axes. This patent also describes a solar concentrator device, wherein the receiver includes a box forming an inner chamber, a plurality of photovoltaic cells sealed with a clear plastic and accommodated in the chamber, and water filling the chamber and surrounding the photovoltaic cells.

Bagno, R.G.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

170

Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

Hinterberger, Henry (Batavia, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Total Dissolved Methylmercury Concentrations in Two Headwater Streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methylmercury (MeHg) is the only form of mercury whose concentrations increase with trophic level in aquatic food webs. As a consequence, a direct causal link exists between the levels of MeHg dissolved in water, where it typically accounts for only 10% of the total mercury, and in fish tissues, where it typically accounts for more than 90% of the total mercury. This link makes dissolved MeHg a critical indicator of an ecosystempotential to attain high fish mercury levels and makes its accurate measureme...

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

172

Background Long history of research and education in "nuclear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). #12;Master Programme in Nuclear Engineering · Coupling education ­ research (reactor physics#12;Background · Long history of research and education in "nuclear engineering" at Chalmers. · "Nuclear engineering" = multi-disciplinary research area. #12;Background Establishment of the Sustainable

Lemurell, Stefan

173

AGN models for the X and gamma-ray backgrounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origin of the X-ray background spectral intensity has been a long standing problem in high energy astrophysics research. Deep X-ray surveys carried out with ROSAT and ASCA combined with the broad band spectral results of Ginga and BeppoSAX satellites strongly support the hypothesis that the bulk of the X-ray background is due to the integrated contribution of discrete sources (mainly AGNs). At higher energies the unexpected findings of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory indicate that also the gamma-ray background is likely to be due to AGNs. I will discuss AGN--based models for the high energy backgrounds and how future observations will improve our understanding of the X and gamma-ray backgrounds and of the physics and evolution of AGNs.

Andrea Comastri

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

174

Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results May 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Deb Gill U.S. DOE Carlsbad Field Office (575) 234-7270 CARLSBAD, N.M. - New Mexico State University"s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth"s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project"s first two years of experimentation. The March 2011 edition of Health Physics printed an article titled "Exploring Biological Effects of Low Level Radiation from the Other Side of Background," summarizing some initial data taken from LBRE and from a sister experiment conducted at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

175

Gravitational Waves from Light Cosmic Strings: Backgrounds and Bursts with Large Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mean spectrum and burst statistics of gravitational waves produced by a cosmological population of cosmic string loops are estimated using analytic approximations, calibrated with earlier simulations. Formulas are derived showing the dependence of observables on the string tension, in the regime where newly-formed loops are relatively large, not very much smaller than the horizon. Large loops form earlier, are more abundant, and generate a more intense stochastic background and more frequent bursts than assumed in earlier background estimates, enabling experiments to probe lighter cosmic strings of interest to string theory. Predictions are compared with instrument noise from current and future experiments, and with confusion noise from known astrophysical gravitational wave sources such as stellar and massive black hole binaries. In these large-loop models, current data from millisecond pulsar timing already suggests that the tension is less than about $10^{-10}$, a typical value expected in strings from brane inflation. LISA will be sensitive to stochastic backgrounds created by strings as light as $G\\mu\\approx 10^{-15}$, at frequencies where it is limited by confusion noise of Galactic stellar populations; however, for those lightest detectable strings, bursts are rarely detectable.

Craig J. Hogan

2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

176

Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Simulations Some results for probabilistic CSP 3/29 Background Testing theory pCSP Simulations Some results Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Goal: Specification and proof methodologies for probabilistic concurrent systems Nondeterminism + Probability – why necessary? ? “Nondeterminism ” intrinsic to specification development à la CSP ? underspecified components expressed using “nondeterminism” COMP ? OPTION ? underspecified COMP more specified ? Analysis of concurrent systems requires “nondeterminism” ?- internal choice of CSP 4/29 Background Testing theory pCSP Simulations Some results Background

Matthew Hennessy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Passive gust load alleviation through bend-twist coupling of composite beams on typical commercial airplane wings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of bend-twist coupling on typical commercial airplane wings are evaluated. An analytical formulation of the orthotropic box beam bending stiffness matrix is derived by combining Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and ...

Gauthier Perron, Sébastien

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Backgrounds To Higgs Boson Searches from Asymmetric Internal Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A class of potential backgrounds for Higgs boson searches in the W W to di-lepton channel at both the Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider is presented. Backgrounds from W photon production with external conversion of the on-shell photon in detector material to an asymmetric electron-positron pair, with loss of the trailing electron or positron has been treated adequately in Higgs searches. Here we consider analogous backgrounds from the production of a W with an off-shell photon and with the internal conversion of the off-shell photon in vacuum to an asymmetric lepton-anti-lepton pair. While the former process yields almost entirely electrons or positrons, the latter can give electron, positron, muon, and anti-muon backgrounds in roughly equal amounts. We estimate that asymmetric internal conversion backgrounds are comparable to the Higgs boson signal in the standard signal region of phase space. These processes also represent potential backgrounds for new physics searches in same-sign di-lepton channels. Some data driven methods to characterize asymmetric internal conversion backgrounds are suggested.

Richard C. Gray; Can Kilic; Michael Park; Sunil Somalwar; Scott Thomas

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

180

Photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, C.J.

1991-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Scalar Wave Falloff in Asymptotically Anti-de Sitter Backgrounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conformally invariant scalar waves in black hole spacetimes which are asymptotically anti-de Sitter are investigated. We consider both the $(2+1)$-dimensional black hole and $(3+1)$-dimensional Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter spacetime as backgrounds. Analytical and numerical methods show that the waves decay exponentially in the $(2+1)$ dimensional black hole background. However the falloff pattern of the conformal scalar waves in the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter background is generally neither exponential nor an inverse power rate, although the approximate falloff of the maximal peak is weakly exponential. We discuss the implications of these results for mass inflation.

S. F. J. Chan; R. B. Mann

1996-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

182

Spinning Test Particle in Kalb-Ramond background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we explore the geodesic deviations of spinning test particles in a string inspired Einstein-Kalb Ramond background. Such a background is known to be equivalent to a spacetime geometry with torsion. We have shown here that the antisymmetric Kalb-Ramond field has significant effect on the geodesic deviation of a spinning test particle. A search for an observational evidence of such an effect in astrophysical experiments may lead to a better undestanding of the geometry of the background spacetime.

Debaprasad Maity; Soumitra SenGupta; Sourav Sur

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

Evolution of the Ionizing Background at High Redshifts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a Maximum-Likelihood analysis to constrain the value and evolution of the ionizing background for 2

Andrew Cooke; Brian Espey; Bob Carswell

1996-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

184

BACKGROUND INFORMATION New York State Data Exchange Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Provide recommendations to other state and federal environmental and public health agencies regarding between environmental and health agencies. Participating Organizations: New York State DepartmentBACKGROUND INFORMATION New York State Data Exchange Project New York State Data Exchange Project

185

Higgs boson production at hadron colliders: Signal and background processes  

SciTech Connect

We review the theoretical status of signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders. Particular emphasis is given to missing NLO results, which will play a crucial role for the Tevatron and the LHC.

David Rainwater; Michael Spira; Dieter Zeppenfeld

2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

Efficiency of background suppression for arterial spin labeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arterial spin labeling (ASL), a technique developed for the measurement of local tissue perfusion with MRI, is heavily dependent on distinguishing irrelevant static tissue signal from the labeled blood. Background suppression ...

Garcia, Dairon, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Background Stratospheric Aerosol Variations Deduced from Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) aerosol products from 1998 to 2004 have been analyzed for the tendency of changes in background stratospheric aerosol properties. The aerosol extinction coefficient E has apparently ...

Yu Liu; Xuepeng Zhao; Weiliang Li; Xiuji Zhou

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A peculiar object in M51: fuzzy star cluster or a background galaxy?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: We study a peculiar object with a projected position close to the nucleus of M51. It is unusually large for a star cluster in M51 and we therefore investigate the three most likely options to explain this object: (a) a background galaxy, (b) a cluster in the disk of M51 and (c) a cluster in M51, but in front of the disk. Methods: We use HST/ACS and HST/NICMOS broad-band photometry to study the properties of this object. Assuming the object is a star cluster, we fit the metallicity, age, mass and extinction using simple stellar population models. Assuming the object is a background galaxy, we estimate the extinction from the colour of the background around the object. We study the structural parameters of the object by fitting the spatial profile with analytical models. Results: We find de-reddened colours of the object which are bluer than expected for a typical elliptical galaxy, and the central surface brightness is brighter than the typical surface brightness of a disc galaxy. It is therefore not likely that the object is a background galaxy. Assuming the object is a star cluster in the disc of M51, we estimate an age and mass of 0.7 Gyr and 2.2 x 10^5 \\msun, respectively (with the extinction fixed to E(B-V) = 0.2). Considering the large size of the object, we argue that in this scenario we observe the cluster just prior to final dissolution. If we fit for the extinction as a free parameter, a younger age is allowed and the object is not close to final dissolution. Alternatively, the object could be a star cluster in M51, but in front of the disc, with an age of 1.4 Gyr and mass M = 1.7 x 10^5 \\msun. Its effective radius is between ~12-25 pc. This makes the object a "fuzzy star cluster", raising the issue of how an object of this age would end up outside the disc.

R. A. Scheepmaker; H. J. G. L. M. Lamers; S. S. Larsen; P. Anders

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

189

Markets for concentrating solar power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report describes the markets for concentrating solar power. As concentrating solar power technologies advance into the early stages of commercialization, their economic potential becomes more sharply defined and increasingly tangible.

Not Available

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

NREL: Awards and Honors - Triple-Junction Terrestrial Concentrator Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Triple-Junction Terrestrial Concentrator Solar Cell Triple-Junction Terrestrial Concentrator Solar Cell Developers: Dr. Jerry Olson, Dr. Sarah Kurtz, Dr. Daniel Friedman, Alan Kibbler, and Charlene Karmer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Dr. Richard King, Jim Ermer, Dmitri D. Krut, Hector Cotal, Peter Colter, Hojun Yoon, Nassar Karam, and Gregory S. Glenn, Spectrolab, Inc. The triple-junction solar cell - or TJ solar cell - generates a lot of energy from just a very little amount of material. How much energy? A 1-cm2 cell can generate as much as 35 W of power and produce as much as 86.3 kWh of electricity during a typical year under a Phoenix, AZ sun. This means that 100 to 150 of these cells could produce enough electricity to power the typical American household. This cell can do this, first, because it

191

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Southwest Concentrating Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Southwest Concentrating Solar Power 1000-MW Initiative Photos of various concentrating solar power systems. NREL, working through SunLab, supports the U.S. Department of Energy's goal to install 1,000 megawatts (MW) of new concentrating solar power systems in the southwestern United States by 2010. This level of deployment, combined with research and development to reduce technology component costs, could help reduce concentrating solar power electricity costs to $0.07/kilowatt-hour. At this cost, concentrating solar power can compete effectively in the Southwest's energy markets. To achieve the Initiative's goal, the U.S. Department of Energy is partnering with the Western Governors' Association to encourage concentrating solar power installations in Arizona, California, Colorado,

192

Energy Basics: Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

193

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power Linear...

194

DESIGN OF A THERMOSIPHON FOR COOLING LOW-BACKGROUND HPGE ARRAYS  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT A two-phase nitrogen thermosiphon was developed for the new generation of low-background high-purity germanium (HPGe) arrays. The cooling system for these arrays has to be able to handle the heat load (>20 W) presented by a large detector mass while meeting stringent requirements necessary for low-background systems. The HPGe detector modules should operate as close to liquid nitrogen temperature (<80K) as possible to provide adequate operating conditions for a full range of HPGe impurity concentrations. In addition, exceptional temperature stability (<1 K) is needed to reduce electronic gain shifts due to changes in the front-end electronics operating temperature. In order to meet the background requirements of state-of-the-art systems these arrays are enclosed in passive lead and copper shielding up to 1 m thick. In this paper we present a cooling system for low-background experiments that complies with these stringent geometrical restrictions. Active cooling was integrated via a horizontal thermosiphon that can be fabricated using ultra-pure electroformed copper. It was charged with nitrogen to 434 kPa (63 PSIA) at 292 K, which provided a fill ratio of 10%. The results showed that the thermosiphon can effectively remove in excess of 25 W of heat load.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March » March » Man-Made Radioactivity For Los Alamos area No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area Two aerial flyovers found that radioisotopes and their associated exposure rates are consistent with those expected from normal background radiation. March 19, 2013 High southwest aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory (left) and Los Alamos townsite (middle and right). High southwest aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory (left) and Los Alamos townsite (middle and right). The results are good news and the information will benefit the Lab and the community for years to come as we work toward cleanup and sustainability. Two aerial flyovers of the Los Alamos area to determine the presence of background and manmade radioactivity found that radioisotopes and their

196

BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear energy development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer's Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), is administered by the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy through the

197

Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing September 14, 2011 - 12:04am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs This morning, the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations is holding a hearing to discuss Solyndra Solar, the California-based solar manufacturer that declared bankruptcy last week. Jonathan Silver, Executive Director of the Department's Loan Programs Office, will be testifying. We've posted Jonathan's written testimony online. The testimony is very thorough and provides a good explanation of the loan process and the extensive reviews and analysis conducted by the Department between 2006 and 2009. He also explains the remarkable changes in the solar market since

199

A Stable Magnetic Background in SU(2) QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that Wu-Yang monopole-antimonopole pair is unstable under vacuum fluctuations. However, it is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole-antimonopole string configuration is stable, provided the distance between the two strings is small enough (less than a critical value). The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can indeed generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus a desired magnetic confinement of color, in QCD.

Y. M. Cho; D. G. Pak

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

200

Magnetic properties of the nucleon in a uniform background field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results for the magnetic moment and magnetic polarisability of the neutron and the magnetic moment of the proton. These results are calculated using the uniform background field method on 32^3 x 64 dynamical QCD lattices provided by the PACS-CS collaboration as part of the ILDG. We use a uniform background magnetic field quantised by the periodic spatial volume. We investigate ways to improve the effective energy plots used to calculate magnetic polarisabilities, including the use of correlation matrix techniques with various source smearings.

Thomas Primer; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Matthias Burkardt

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Background X-ray Spectrum of Radioactive Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) is commonly used with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the elemental compositions and microstructures of a variety of samples. For example, the microstructures of nuclear fuels are commonly investigated with this technique. However, the radioactivity of some materials introduces additional X-rays that contribute to the EDS background spectrum. These X-rays are generally not accounted for in spectral analysis software, and can cause misleading results. X-rays from internal conversion [1], Bremsstrahlung [2] radiation associated with alpha ionizations and beta particle interactions [3], and gamma rays from radioactive decay can all elevate the background of radioactive materials.

Shannon Yee; Dawn E. Janney

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background Fact Sheet Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions At the direction of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, over many months, the Energy Department (DOE) has been working closely with Energy Northwest (ENW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and USEC Inc. (USEC) to develop a plan to address the challenges at USEC's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) that advances America's national security interests, protects taxpayers, and provides benefits for TVA and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) electric ratepayers and business operations. BPA is ENW's sole customer, purchasing 100 percent of ENW's Columbia Generating Station's electric power as part of BPA's overall

203

Electrodiffusive model for astrocytic and neuronal ion concentration dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical neural signalling typically takes place at the time-scale of milliseconds, and is typically modeled using the cable equation. This is a good approximation for processes when ionic concentrations vary little during the time course of a simulation. During periods of intense neural signalling, however, the local extracellular K+ concentration may increase by several millimolars. Clearance of excess K+ likely depends partly on diffusion in the extracellular space, partly on local uptake by- and intracellular transport within astrocytes. This process takes place at the time scale of seconds, and can not be modeled accurately without accounting for the spatiotemporal variations in ion concentrations. The work presented here consists of two main parts: First, we developed a general electrodiffusive formalism for modeling ion concentration dynamics in a one-dimensional geometry, including both an intra- and extracellular domain. The formalism was based on the Nernst-Planck equations. It ensures (i) consistency between the membrane potential and ion concentrations, (ii) global particle/charge conservation, and (iii) accounts for diffusion and concentration dependent variations in resistivities. Second, we applied the formalism to model how astrocytes exchange ions with the ECS, and identified the key astrocytic mechanisms involved in K+ removal from high concentration regions. We found that a local increase in extracellular K\\textsuperscript{+} evoked a local depolarization of the astrocyte membrane, which at the same time (i) increased the local astrocytic uptake of K\\textsuperscript{+}, (ii) suppressed extracellular transport of K+, (iii) increased transport of K+ within astrocytes, and (iv) facilitated astrocytic relase of K+ in extracellular low concentration regions. In summary, these mechanisms seem optimal for shielding the extracellular space from excess K+.

Geir Halnes; Ivar Østby; Klas H. Pettersen; Stig W. Omholt; Gaute T. Einevoll

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

204

Planar micro-optic solar concentration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as compound parabolic concentrators and nonimagingas kaleidoscopes or compound parabolic concentrators whicha variation of the compound parabolic concentrator, however,

Karp, Jason Harris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Conditioning the gamma spectrometer for activity measurement at very high background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of a high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer in determining the fuel element burnup in a future reactor is studied. The HPGe detector is exposed by a Co60 source with varying irradiation rate from 10 kcps to 150 kcps to simulate the input counting rate in real reactor environment. A Cs137 and a Eu152 source are positioned at given distances to generate certain event rate in the detector with the former being proposed as a labeling nuclide to measure the burnup of fuel element. It is shown that both the energy resolution slightly increasing with the irradiation rate and the passthrough rate at high irradiation level match the requirement of the real application. The influence of the background is studied in different parameter sets used in the particularly developed procedure of the background subtraction. It is demonstrated that with the typical input irradiation rate and Cs137 intensity relevant to deep burnup situation, the precision of the Cs137 counting rate in the current experiment is consistently below 2.8%, indicating a promising feasibility of utilizing an HPGe detector in the burnup measurement in future bed-like reactor.

Weihua Yan; Liguo Zhang; Zhao Zhang; Zhigang Xiao

2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

206

State Agency Greenhouse Gas Reduction Report Card Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 State Agency Greenhouse Gas Reduction Report Card Background Under Section 12892), the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) is required to prepare an annual report describing state: · A list of those measures that have been adopted and implemented by the state agency with the actual GHG

207

Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic  

SciTech Connect

The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

Cronkite, E.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Al-Khwarizmi: The Father of Algebra Historical Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Al-Khwarizmi: The Father of Algebra Historical Background Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al near the Aral Sea, historians believe that al-Khwarizmi was born in the city of Baghdad in present day Iraq (Calinger, 199). While little is known about his private life, al-Khwarizmi's work

209

Arbitrary blade section design based on viscous considerations. Background information  

SciTech Connect

Background information is presented on an arbitrary blade section design method which is outlined in a joint paper. This information concerns the assumptions, the development, and the predictive capabilities of the viscous flow calculation tool used in the design procedure. General properties of laminar and turbulent, unseparated or separated compressible shear layers, necessary for the blade optimization procedure, are discussed.

Bouras, B.; Karagiannis, F.; Leoutsakos, G.; Giannakoglou, K.C.; Papailiou, K.D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Thermal Turbomachinery Lab.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Simulation of Control Options for HVAC Management of a Typical Office Julien CAILLET julien.caillet@mines-paristech.fr  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of Control Options for HVAC Management of a Typical Office Building. Julien CAILLET thermal comfort and to reduce energy consumption of buildings. Among defect correction, HVAC control appears as a way of significant improvement. HVAC control is examined by using a dynamic simulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that

212

ARM - Measurement - CO2 concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

: CO2 concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is...

213

Energy Basics: Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity...

214

Cylindrical Acoustic Levitator/Concentrator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation andor concentration of aerosols and small liquidsolid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in...

215

Determining the Impact of Concrete Roadways on Gamma Ray Background Readings for Radiation Portal Monitoring Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissolution of the Soviet Union coupled with the growing sophistication of international terror organizations has brought about a desire to ensure that a sound infrastructure exists to interdict smuggled nuclear material prior to leaving its country of origin. To combat the threat of nuclear trafficking, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are deployed around the world to intercept illicit material while in transit by passively detecting gamma and neutron radiation. Portal monitors in some locations have reported abnormally high gamma background count rates. The higher background data has been attributed, in part, to the concrete surrounding the portal monitors. Higher background can ultimately lead to more material passing through the RPMs undetected. This work is focused on understanding the influence of the concrete surrounding the monitors on the total gamma ray background for the system. This research employed a combination of destructive and nondestructive analytical techniques with computer simulations to form a model that may be adapted to any RPM configuration. Six samples were taken from three different composition concrete slabs. The natural radiologcal background of these samples was determined using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector in conjunction with the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS™) and Genie™ 2000 software packages. The composition of each sample was determined using thermal and fast neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. The results from these experiments were incorporated into a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MNCP) photon transport simulation to determine the expected gamma ray count rate in the RPM due to the concrete. The results indicate that a quantitative estimate may be possible if the experimental conditions are optimized to eliminate sources of uncertainty. Comparisons of actual and simulated count rate data for 137Cs check sources showed that the model was accurate to within 15%. A comparison of estimated and simulated count rates in one concrete slab showed that the model was accurate to within 4%. Subsequent sensitivity analysis showed that if the elemental concentrations are well known, the carbon and hydrogen content could be easily estimated. Another sensitivity analysis revealed that the small fluctuations in density have a minimal impact on the gamma count rate. The research described by this thesis provides a method by which RPM end users may quantitatively estimate the expected gamma background from concrete foundations beneath the systems. This allows customers to adjust alarm thresholds to compensate for the elevated background due to the concrete, thereby increasing the probability of intercepting illicit radiological and nuclear material.

Ryan, Christopher Michael

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Process for concentrated biomass saccharification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Home Energy Score Research and Background | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Buildings » Home Energy Score » Home Energy Score Residential Buildings » Home Energy Score » Home Energy Score Research and Background Home Energy Score Research and Background Scoring Tool v.2014 In January 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released the first major update to the Home Energy Scoring Tool. After more than a year of implementation and feedback from program Partners, DOE made significant improvements to the scoring tool's calculation methodology and user interface. A newly refined scoring system will allow inefficient homes to more easily move up the scale with investments in efficiency improvements. This enhanced mobility is expected to help motivate greater action among homeowners. The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed a variety of analyses to test the updated scoring tool. Analysis

218

Charting the New Frontier of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background are a gold mine for cosmology and fundamental physics. ESA's Planck satellite should soon extract all information from the temperature vein but will be limited concerning the measurement of the degree of polarization of the anisotropies. This polarization information allows new independent tests of the standard cosmological paradigm, improves knowledge of cosmological parameters and last but not least is the best window available for constraining the physics of the very early universe, particularly the expected background of primordial gravitational waves. But exploiting this vein will be a challenge, since the sensitivity required is {\\em at least} 10 times better than what Planck might achieve at best, with the necessary matching level of control of all systematics effects, both instrumental and astrophysical (foregrounds). We here recall the cosmological context and the case for CMB polarization studies. We also briefly introduce the SAMPAN project, a des...

Bouchet, F R; Camus, P; Désert, F X; Piat, M; Ponthieu, N; Camus, Ph.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Differential Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background Laboratory Policy and Evaluation (LPE) LPE Home Staff M&O Contracts SC Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Work for Others in the Office of Science Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) DOE's Philosophy on LDRD Frequently Asked Questions Success Stories Brochures Additional Information LDRD Program Contacts Technology Transfer DOE National Laboratories Contact Information Laboratory Policy and Evaluation U.S. Department of Energy SC-32/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5447 F: (202) 586-3119 Success Stories Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page

220

Moving branes in the presence of background tachyon fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compute the boundary state associated with a moving Dp-brane in the presence of the open string tachyon field as a background field. The effect of the tachyon condensation on the boundary state is discussed. It leads to a boundary state associated with a lower-dimensional moving D-brane or a stationary instantonic D-brane. The former originates from condensation along the spatial directions and the latter comes from the temporal direction of the D-brane worldvolume. Using the boundary state, we also study the interaction amplitude between two arbitrary Dp{sub 1}- and Dp{sub 2}-branes. The long-range behavior of the amplitude is investigated, demonstrating an obvious deviation from the conventional form, due to the presence of the background tachyon field.

Rezaei, Z., E-mail: z.rezaei@aut.ac.ir; Kamani, D., E-mail: kamani@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The autocorrelation function of the soft X-ray background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first positive detection of the X-ray background fluctuations at small angular scales is reported. ROSAT PSPC archive pointed observations are used to measure fluctuations at scales of 0.03 - 0.4 deg. The pointings have been selected from an area free from galactic contamination. At separations below 0.1 deg clusters of galaxies become a substantial source of the background fluctuations. The autocorrelation function of the fluctuations in the power law approximation has a slope of ~1 for all the data but is substantially flatter (with slope of ~0.7) when pointings containing bright clusters are removed. At separations 0.3 - 0.4 deg where the ACF estimates based on the ROSAT pointings and All-Sky Survey are available, both data sets give consistent results.

Andrzej M. Soltan; Michael J. Freyberg

2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

222

Performance Oversight Group: Background and Guidelines for Presenters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oversight Group: Oversight Group: Background and Guidelines for Presenters Carl Strawbridge Office of Integrated Planning and Performance Management (formerly OPPS) Dean Hoffer Office of Project Support Services (formerly OPMO) 1 11/29/2012 Overview * Why POG? * Background on Laboratory Changes to Project Management Processes * POG Charter - Purpose - Membership - Roles & Responsibilities - Procedures * POG pilot meeting agenda, December 10 * Discussion--Guidelines for Presenters * Questions/Clarifications/Suggestions 2 11/29/2012 Why POG * Fermilab is managing a large number of major scientific capital construction projects to meet the future science agenda for the lab - May be unique in this respect within the DOE complex * Existing project support and oversight mechanisms not suitable for

223

RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION  

SciTech Connect

We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Miller, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1C1 (Canada)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Diffuse supernova neutrino background is detectable in Super-Kamiokande  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) provides an immediate opportunity to study the emission of MeV thermal neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae. The DSNB is a powerful probe of stellar and neutrino physics, provided that the core-collapse rate is large enough and that its uncertainty is small enough. To assess the important physics enabled by the DSNB, we start with the cosmic star formation history of Hopkins and Beacom (2006) and confirm its normalization and evolution by cross-checks with the supernova rate, extragalactic background light, and stellar mass density. We find a sufficient core-collapse rate with small uncertainties that translate into a variation of {+-}40% in the DSNB event spectrum. Considering thermal neutrino spectra with effective temperatures between 4-6 MeV, the predicted DSNB is within a factor 4-2 below the upper limit obtained by Super-Kamiokande in 2003. Furthermore, detection prospects would be dramatically improved with a gadolinium-enhanced Super-Kamiokande: the backgrounds would be significantly reduced, the fluxes and uncertainties converge at the lower threshold energy, and the predicted event rate is 1.2-5.6 events yr{sup -1} in the energy range 10-26 MeV. These results demonstrate the imminent detection of the DSNB by Super-Kamiokande and its exciting prospects for studying stellar and neutrino physics.

Horiuchi, Shunsaku [Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Beacom, John F. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Dwek, Eli [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Asymptotic of the largest and typical dimensions of isotypic components of tensor representations of the symmetric group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vershik and Kerov in \\cite{VK85} gave asymptotical bounds for the maximal and typical dimensions of the irreducible representations of the symmetric group. It was conjectured by Grigori Olshanski that the maximal and typical dimensions of the isotypical components of the representations in the base of Schur-Weyl duality accept similar asymptotical bounds. Using the method of Vershik and Kerov the conjecture of Grigori Olshanski is proven in this paper. More precisely, consider the tensor representation of the symmetric group on $N$ letters on the space $(C^r)^{\\tensor N}$. The isotypical components of this representation are parametrized by Young diagrams with $N$ cells and at most $r$ rows, and the relative dimensions of these components give rise to a measure on the set of such Young diagrams. Philippe Biane in \\cite{Biane2001} found the limit shape of a typical Young diagram with respect to this measure in the limit when $N$ grows and $\\sqrt{N}/r$ converges to a constant. By showing that this limit shape i...

Mkrtchyan, Sevak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Design of light concentrators for Cherenkov telescope observatories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the largest cosmic gamma ray detector ever built in the world. It will be installed at two different sites in the North and South hemispheres and should be operational for about 30 years. In order to cover the desired energy range, the CTA is composed of typically 50-100 collecting telescopes of various sizes (from 6 to 24-m diameters). Most of them are equipped with a focal plane camera consisting of 1500 to 2000 Photomultipliers (PM) equipped with light concentrating optics, whose double function is to maximize the amount of Cherenkov light detected by the photo-sensors, and to block any stray light originating from the terrestrial environment. Two different optical solutions have been designed, respectively based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC), and on a purely dioptric concentrating lens. In this communication are described the technical specifications, optical designs and performance of the different solutions envisioned for all these light concentra...

Hénault, F; jocou, L; Khélifi, B; Manigot, P; Hormigos, S; Knodlseder, J; Olive, J F; Jean, P; Punch, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

pn-CCDs in a Low-Background Environment: Detector Background of the CAST X-ray Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 0.1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, a Wolter I type X-ray optics in combination with a prototype pn-CCD developed for ESA's XMM-Newton mission. As in other rare event searches, background suppression and a thorough shielding concept is essential to improve the sensitivity of the experiment to the best possible. In this context CAST offers the opportunity to study the background of pn-CCDs and its long term behavior in a terrestrial environment with possible implications for future space applications. We will present a systematic study of the detector background of the pn-CCD of CAST based on the data acquired since 2002 including preliminary results of our background simulations.

M. Kuster; S. Cebrian; A. Rodriquez; R. Kotthaus; H. Braeuninger; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; D. Kang; G. Lutz; L. Strueder

2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System Basics August 20, 2013 - 5:02pm Addthis The dish/engine system is a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology that produces relatively small amounts of electricity compared to other CSP technologies-typically in the range of 3 to 25 kilowatts. Dish/engine systems use a parabolic dish of mirrors to direct and concentrate sunlight onto a central engine that produces electricity. The two major parts of the system are the solar concentrator and the power conversion unit. Solar Concentrator Illustration of a dish/engine power plant. Sunlight is shown reflecting off the large dish-shaped concentrator and onto the mounted power conversion unit to generate electricity that is fed into the power grid. The system looks similar to a large satellite television receiver dish.

230

ARM - Measurement - Organic Carbon Concentration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration govMeasurementsOrganic Carbon Concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Organic Carbon Concentration The concentration of carbon bound in organic compounds. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments ACSM : Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Field Campaign Instruments AEROSCARBON : Aerosol Carbon Analyzer AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datastreams AOS : Aerosol Observing System Datastreams

231

Carbothermic Reduction of Niobium Concentrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Ferro Niobium is produced by aluminothermic reduction of the ... However, the niobium concentrate has impurities, such as phosphorus, lead and tin, ... Phase Transformation of Andalusite-Mullite and Its Fiber Reinforcement to ...

232

Concentrated solar power on demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

Codd, Daniel Shawn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

FY 2013 FRPC DATA REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS I. Background  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FY 2013 FRPC DATA REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS I. Background Executive Order 13327, "Federal Real Property Asset Management" was created to promote the efficient and economical use of the Federal Government's real property assets. The E.O. established the interagency Federal Real Property Council (FRPC), established the role of the Senior Real Property Officer, and mandated the creation of a centralized real property database. This document provides instructions for populating the required data in FIMS so that the Department can report in accordance with the FY 2013 FRPC reporting requirements.

234

A detection of bright features in the microwave background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the characterization of bright, compact features in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) detected during the June 1992 and June 1994 balloon flights of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM1-92 and MSAM1-94, respectively). Spectral flux densities are determined for each feature at 5.7, 9.3, and 16.5 cm^{-1}. No viable counterparts for these features were found in source catalogs at 5 GHz or at 100 \\mum. The measured spectrum of each feature is consistent with a temperature fluctuation in the CMBR. The existence of these features is consistent with adiabatic fluctuation models of anisotropy in the CMBR.

Kowitt, M S; Cottingham, D A; Fixsen, D J; Inman, C A; Meyer, S; Page, L A; Puchalla, J L; Ruhl, J E; Silverberg, R F

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Collapsing Inhomogeneous Dust Fluid in the Background of Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work, gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous spherical star model, consisting of inhomogeneous dust fluid (dark matter) in the background of dark energy is considered. The collapsing process is examined first separately for both dark matter and dark energy and then under the combined effect of dark matter and dark energy with or without interaction. The dark energy is considered in the form of perfect fluid and both marginally and non-marginally bound cases are considered for the collapsing model. Finally dark energy in the form of anisotropic fluid is investigated and it is found to be similar to ref. [12

Tanwi Bandyopadhyay; Subenoy Chakraborty

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing industry - background information for proposed standards  

SciTech Connect

A Standard of Performance for the control of emissions from wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing facilities is being proposed under authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. This standard would apply to new, modified, or reconstructed wool fiberglass insulation manufacturing lines that utilize the rotary spin forming process and that commence construction on or after the date of proposal of the regulation. This document contains background information and environmental and economic impact assessments of the regulatory alternatives considered in developing the proposed standard. 79 references, 280 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Upper Limits on a Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of Omega_0<8.4e-4 in the 69-156 Hz band is ~10^5 times lower than the previous result in this frequency range.

Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

On uncertainties associated with expected backgrounds in planned experiments  

SciTech Connect

The expected numbers of events of several backgrounds in experiment are estimated from Monte Carlo experiments. In the analysis we take into account an integrated luminosity of Monte Carlo experiments. The expected number of events allows to construct the distribution of probabilities of number of events which in real experiment may be observed (in accordance with formulae in [1]). The formulae allow to take into account statistical uncertainty of corresponding Monte Carlo experiment. The influence of systematics is determined by additional Monte Carlo experiments with expected number of events.

Bityukov, Sergey; Smirnova, Vera [Institute for high energy physics, 142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Krasnikov, Nikolai [Institute for nuclear research RAS, Prospect 60-letiya Octyabrya, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

239

Discriminating between a Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background and Instrument Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The detection of a stochastic background of gravitational waves could significantly impact our understanding of the physical processes that shaped the early Universe. The challenge lies in separating the cosmological signal from other stochastic processes such as instrument noise and astrophysical foregrounds. One approach is to build two or more detectors and cross correlate their output, thereby enhancing the common gravitational wave signal relative to the uncorrelated instrument noise. When only one detector is available, as will likely be the case with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), alternative analysis techniques must be developed. Here we show that models of the noise and signal transfer functions can be used to tease apart the gravitational and instrument noise contributions. We discuss the role of gravitational wave insensitive "null channels" formed from particular combinations of the time delay interferometry, and derive a new combination that maintains this insensitivity for unequal arm length detectors. We show that, in the absence of astrophysical foregrounds, LISA could detect signals with energy densities as low as $\\Omega_{\\rm gw} = 6 \\times 10^{-13}$ with just one month of data. We describe an end-to-end Bayesian analysis pipeline that is able to search for, characterize and assign confidence levels for the detection of a stochastic gravitational wave background, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using simulated data from the third round of Mock LISA Data Challenges.

Matthew R. Adams; Neil J. Cornish

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (.089 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup 1?}. The measurements how clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360{+ or -}50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2{+ or -}0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+ or -}8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypotheses of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

Gorenstein, M. V.; Smoot, G. F.

1980-05-00T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands available for deploying of large-scale concentrating solar power plants in the southwestern United States. Each of the following seven states, as well as the southwestern U.S. region, has two maps: the left and right maps represent analyses excluding land with slopes >1% and >3%, respectively. Lower-resolution jpg versions are available below; much higher-resolution pdf files, suitable for plotting large-scale posters, can be requested. You can also access an unfiltered direct-normal solar radiation map of the southwestern United States. Download Adobe Reader. Southwestern U.S.

242

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other...

243

Contaminant distributions at typical U.S. uranium milling facilities and their effect on remedial action decisions  

SciTech Connect

Past operations at uranium processing sites throughout the US have resulted in local contamination of soils and ground water by radionuclides, toxic metals, or both. Understanding the origin of contamination and how the constituents are distributed is a basic element for planning remedial action decisions. This report describes the radiological and nonradiological species found in ground water at a typical US uranium milling facility. The report will provide the audience with an understanding of the vast spectrum of contaminants that must be controlled in planning solutions to the long-term management of these waste materials.

Hamp, S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Jackson, T.J. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dotson, P.W. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

ENMAX Energy Marketing Inc. Order No. EA-264 I. BACKGROUND  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENMAX Energy Marketing Inc. ENMAX Energy Marketing Inc. Order No. EA-264 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On February 20, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from ENMAX Energy Marketing, Inc. (ENMAX) to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada. ENMAX is an Alberta corporation having its principal place of business at Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ENMAX is a power marketer and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of ENMAX Energy Corporation, which in turn is a wholly owned subsidiary of ENMAX Corporation. ENMAX currently participates in the wholesale trading of

245

Carbon Sequestration, Media Background Briefing, June 16, 2003  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Media Background Briefing June 16, 2003 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Scott Klara Carbon Sequestration Product Manager The Fossil Energy Situation Fossil Fuels World's Dominant Energy Source United States 99 QBtu/yr; 85% Fossil Energy World 382 Quads/yr; 86% Fossil Energy Word Data from EIA96. Does not include non-grid-connected biomass. U.S. Data from Table 2 of EIA REA 97 & AEO 2002 Table A2 0.9% Coal 25% Coal 25% Oil 39% Gas 22% Nuclear 6% 7% 7% Coal 22% Gas 24% Nuclear 8% Oil 38% 4% Hydro Solar, Wind, Geo Biomass 3% 0.6% World - 1999 12.8 Trillion kWh - 63% Fossil Energy United States - 1999 3.2 Trillion kWh - 69% Fossil Energy Source: EIA International Energy Outlook 2001 Edison Electric Institute 2001 Renewables Oil Fossil Fuels World's Dominant Electricity Source

246

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis technique for blind component separation to polarised astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarised signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foregrounds and instrumental noise. We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated accordingly to the nominal performances of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the Planck satellite; the sky signal is modeled as a superposition of CMB, generated by a Gaussian, nearly scale invariant cosmological perturbation spectrum, and the existing simulated polarisation templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$ modes can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while $B$ modes can be detected, up to their turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$ if cosmological tensor amplitude...

Baccigalupi, C; De Zotti, G; Smoot, G F; Burigana, C; Maino, D; Bedini, L; Salerno, E

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Non-Gaussianity and the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review in a pedagogical way the present status of the impact of non-Gaussianity (NG) on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We first show how to set the initial conditions at second-order for the (gauge invariant) CMB anisotropies when some primordial NG is present. However, there are many sources of NG in CMB anisotropies, beyond the primordial one, which can contaminate the primordial signal. We mainly focus on the NG generated from the post-inflationary evolution of the CMB anisotropies at second-order in perturbation theory at large and small angular scales, such as the ones generated at the recombination epoch. We show how to derive the equations to study the second-order CMB anisotropies and provide analytical computations to evaluate their contamination to primordial NG (complemented with numerical examples). We also offer a brief summary of other secondary effects. This review requires basic knowledge of the theory of cosmological perturbations at the linear level.

N. Bartolo; S. Matarrese; A. Riotto

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

248

UBS AG, LONDON BRANCH Order No. EA-263 I. BACKGROUND  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On April 11, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from UBS, AG London Branch (UBS) for authorization to transmit electric energy from the Untied States to Mexico and to Canada. UBS, a Swiss corporation formed in 1998 by the merger of Union Bank of Switzerland and Swiss Bank Corporation, is a power marketer that does not own or control any electric generation or transmission facilities nor does it have any franchised service territory in the United States. The designation "London Branch" indicates the principal booking location of the company's energy trading business; UBS

249

Explanatory Notes Explanatory Notes The EIA-782 Surveys Background  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Explanatory Notes Explanatory Notes The EIA-782 Surveys Background The EIA-782 surveys were implemented in 1983 to fulfill the data requirements necessary to meet En- ergy Information Administration (EIA) legislative mandates and user community data needs. The re- quirements include petroleum product price, market distribution, demand (or sales), and product supply data, which are needed for a complete evaluation of petroleum market performance. The EIA-782 series includes the Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'/Gas Plant Operators' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Re- port"; Form EIA-782B, "Resellers'/Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report"; and Form EIA- 782C, "Monthly Report of Prime Supplier Sales of Petroleum Products Sold for Local Consumption."

250

Exelon Generation Company, LLC Order No. EA-249 I. BACKGROUND  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exelon Generation Company, LLC Exelon Generation Company, LLC Order No. EA-249 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On August 20, 2001, Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. Exelon proposes to purchase surplus electric energy from electric utilities and other suppliers within the United States and to export this energy on its own behalf to Canada. The energy to be exported would be delivered to Canada over the international electric transmission facilities owned and operated by the following:

251

DARK MATTER POWERED STARS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT  

SciTech Connect

The existence of predominantly cold non-baryonic dark matter is unambiguously demonstrated by several observations (e.g., structure formation, big bang nucleosynthesis, gravitational lensing, and rotational curves of spiral galaxies). A candidate well motivated by particle physics is a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). Self-annihilating WIMPs would affect the stellar evolution especially in the early universe. Stars powered by self-annihilating WIMP dark matter should possess different properties compared with standard stars. While a direct detection of such dark matter powered stars seems very challenging, their cumulative emission might leave an imprint in the diffuse metagalactic radiation fields, in particular in the mid-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this work, the possible contributions of dark matter powered stars (dark stars, DSs) to the extragalactic background light (EBL) are calculated. It is shown that existing data and limits of the EBL intensity can already be used to rule out some DS parameter sets.

Maurer, A.; Raue, M.; Kneiske, T.; Horns, D. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Elsaesser, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hauschildt, P. H., E-mail: andreas.maurer@physik.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre' , Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Separating Signal From Background Using Ensembles of Rules  

SciTech Connect

Machine learning has emerged as a important tool for separating signal events from associated background in high energy particle physics experiments. This paper describes a new machine learning method based on ensembles of rules. Each rule consists of a conjuction of a small number of simple statements (''cuts'') concerning the values of individual input variables. These rule ensembles produce predictive accuracy comparable to the best methods. However their principal advantage lies in interpretation. Because of its simple form, each rule is easy to understand, as is its influence on the predictive model. Similarly, the degree of relevance of each of the respective input variables can be assessed. Graphical representations are presented that can be used to ascertain the dependence of the model jointly on the variables used for prediction.

Friedman, J.H.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer ``wavetrap`` deposited over the surface of a layered synthetic microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 {Angstrom} wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 {Angstrom} has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, their number and distance for the ``wavetrap.``

Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.W.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

255

Characterization and modeling of a low background HPGe detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high efficiency, low background counting setup has been made at TIFR consisting of a special HPGe detector ($\\sim$70$\\%$) surrounded by a low activity copper+lead shield. Detailed measurements are performed with point and extended geometry sources to obtain a complete response of the detector. An effective model of the detector has been made with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations which agrees with experimental data within 5$\\%$. This setup will be used for qualification and selection of radio-pure materials to be used in a cryogenic bolometer for the study of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in $^{124}$Sn as well as for other rare event studies. Using this setup, radio-impurities in the rock sample from India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) site have been estimated.

N. Dokania; V. Singh; S. Mathimalar; V. Nanal; S. Pal; R. G. Pillay

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

256

UBS AG, LONDON BRANCH Order No. EA-261 I. BACKGROUND  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On April 11, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from UBS AG, London Branch (UBS) for authorization to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico. UBS, a Swiss corporation formed in 1998 by the merger of Union Bank of Switzerland and Swiss Bank Corporation, is a power marketer that does not own or control any electric generation or transmission facilities nor does it have any franchised service territory in the United States. The designation "London Branch" indicates the

257

Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indian Renewable Energy Status Report Indian Renewable Energy Status Report Background Report for DIREC 2010 D. S. Arora (IRADe) | Sarah Busche (NREL) | Shannon Cowlin (NREL) | Tobias Engelmeier (Bridge to India Pvt. Ltd.) | Hanna Jaritz (IRADe) | Anelia Milbrandt (NREL) | Shannon Wang (REN21 Secretariat) NREL/TP-6A20-48948 October 2010 I R A D e NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

258

BAYESIAN NOISE ESTIMATION FOR NON-IDEAL COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND EXPERIMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a Bayesian framework for estimating the time-domain noise covariance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations, typically parameterized in terms of a 1/f frequency profile. This framework is based on the Gibbs sampling algorithm, which allows for exact marginalization over nuisance parameters through conditional probability distributions. In this paper, we implement support for gaps in the data streams and marginalization over fixed time-domain templates, and also outline how to marginalize over confusion from CMB fluctuations, which may be important for high signal-to-noise experiments. As a by-product of the method, we obtain proper constrained realizations, which themselves can be useful for map making. To validate the algorithm, we demonstrate that the reconstructed noise parameters and corresponding uncertainties are unbiased using simulated data. The CPU time required to process a single data stream of 100,000 samples with 1000 samples removed by gaps is 3 s if only the maximum posterior parameters are required, and 21 s if one also wants to obtain the corresponding uncertainties by Gibbs sampling.

Wehus, I. K. [Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K., E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.no, E-mail: sigurdkn@astro.uio.no, E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Search for the Cosmic Neutrino Background and KATRIN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has been detected in 1964 by Penzias and Wilson. It shows today a remarkable constant temperature of T ~ 2.7 K independent of the direction. Present density is about 370 photons per cubic-cm. The size of the hot spots, which deviates only in the fifth decimal of the temperature from the average value, tells us, that the universe is flat. About 300 000 years after the Big Bang at a temperature of T = 3000 K already in the matter dominated era the electrons combine with the protons and 4He and the photons move freely in the neutral universe. So the temperature and distribution of the photons give us information of the universe 300 000 years after the Big Bang. Information about earlier times can, in principle, be derived from the Cosmic Neutrino Background. The neutrinos decouple already 1 second after the Big Bang at a temperature of about 10^{10} K. Today their temperature is ~ 1.95 K and the average density is 56 electron-neutrinos per cubic-cm. Registration of these neutrinos is an extremely challenging experimental problem which can hardly be solved with the present technologies. On the other hand it represents a tempting opportunity to check one of the key element of the Big Bang cosmology and to probe the early stages of the universe evolution. The search for the cosmic relic neutrinos with the induced beta decay Electron-neutrino + 3H --> 3He + e- is the topic of this contribution. The signal would show up by a peak in the electron spectrum with an energy of the neutrino mass above the Q value. We discuss the prospects of this approach and argue that it is able to set limits on the relic neutrino density in our vicinity.

Amand Faessler; Rastislav Hodak; Sergey Kovalenko; Fedor Simkovic

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

260

Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

CALTECH CORE-COLLAPSE PROJECT (CCCP) OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE: TYPICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITOR STARS  

SciTech Connect

Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are rare events, constituting only a few percent of all core-collapse SNe, and the current sample of well-observed SNe IIn is small. Here, we study the four SNe IIn observed by the Caltech Core-Collapse Project (CCCP). The CCCP SN sample is unbiased to the extent that object selection was not influenced by target SN properties. Therefore, these events are representative of the observed population of SNe IIn. We find that a narrow P-Cygni profile in the hydrogen Balmer lines appears to be a ubiquitous feature of SNe IIn. Our light curves show a relatively long rise time (>20 days) followed by a slow decline stage (0.01-0.15 mag day{sup -1}), and a typical V-band peak magnitude of M{sub V} = -18.4 {+-} 1.0 mag. We measure the progenitor star wind velocities (600-1400 km s{sup -1}) for the SNe in our sample and derive pre-explosion mass-loss rates (0.026-0.12 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We compile similar data for SNe IIn from the literature and discuss our results in the context of this larger sample. Our results indicate that typical SNe IIn arise from progenitor stars that undergo luminous-blue-variable-like mass loss shortly before they explode.

Kiewe, Michael; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Leonard, Douglas C.; Emilio Enriquez, J. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Bradley Cenko, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Moon, Dae-Sik [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sand, David J.; Soderberg, Alicia M., E-mail: avishay.gal-yam@weizmann.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Solar Tracing Sensors for Maximum Solar Concentrator ...  

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) relies on thermodynamic processes to convert concentrated light into useful forms of energy. Accurate sun tracking ...

264

Concentrating solar collector: technical note  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Acurex Model 3002 concentrator is a reflecting parabolic trough collector designed to heat liquids or gases to temperatures between 140/sup 0/F and 350/sup 0/F. The cost effectiveness, performance, reliability, and technical description of the collector are presented.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron interaction cross sections for boron. While corrections to the data files themselves are simple to implement and distribute, it is quite possible, however, that coding changes may be required in G4beamline or even in GEANT4 to fully correct nuclear interactions. Regardless, these studies are ongoing and future results will be reflected in updated releases of G4beamline.

Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

BL Lacertae Objects and the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A tight correlation between gamma-ray and radio emission is found for a sample of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The gamma-ray emission of BL Lac objects exhibits strong variability, and the detection rate of gamma-ray BL Lac objects is low, which may be related to the gamma-ray duty cycle of BL Lac objects. We estimate the gamma-ray duty cycle ~ 0.11, for BL Lac objects detected by EGRET and Fermi. Using the empirical relation of gamma-ray emission with radio emission and the estimated gamma-ray duty cycle, we derive the gamma-ray luminosity function (LF) of BL Lac objects from their radio LF. Our derived gamma-ray LF of BL Lac objects can almost reproduce that calculated with the recently released Fermi bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) sample. We find that about 45% of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) is contributed by BL Lac objects. Combining the estimate of the quasar contri...

Li, Fan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarization from satelliteastrophysical maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the application of the fast independent component analysis (FASTICA) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of E and B modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to assess the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance. We perform the analysis of all-sky maps simulated according to the Planck satellite capabilities, modeling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB E mode can be recovered on all scales up to lsimilar or equal to 1000, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the B-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at lsimilar or equal to 100, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30 per cent. The power spectrum of the cross-correlation between total intensity and polarization, TE, can be recovered up to lsimilar or equal to 1200, corresponding to the seventh TE acoustic oscillation.

Baccigalpi, C.; Perrotta, F.; Zotti, G.D.; Smoot, G.F.; Burigana,C.; Maino, D.; Bedini, L.; Salerno, E.

2004-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

269

Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis ({\\ica}) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. {We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to asses the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance.} We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated according to the {\\sc Planck} satellite capabilities, modelling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$-mode can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the $B$-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30%. The power spectrum of the cross correlation between total intensity and polarization, $TE$, can be recovered up to $\\ell\\simeq 1200$, corresponding to the seventh $TE$ acoustic oscillation.

C. Baccigalupi; F. Perrotta; G. De Zotti; G. F. Smoot; C. Burigana; D. Maino; L. Bedini; E. Salerno

2002-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation  

SciTech Connect

A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

Goff, David R. (Star City, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMAexample  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXEMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

Stompor, R.; Balbi, A.; Borrill, J.D.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany,S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lee, A.T.; Oh, S.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot,G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND CONSTRAINTS OF DECAYING DARK MATTER PARTICLE PROPERTIES  

SciTech Connect

If a component of cosmological dark matter is made up of massive particles-such as sterile neutrinos-that decay with cosmological lifetime to emit photons, the reionization history of the universe would be affected, and cosmic microwave background anisotropies can be used to constrain such a decaying particle model of dark matter. The optical depth depends rather sensitively on the decaying dark matter particle mass m{sub dm}, lifetime {tau}{sub dm}, and the mass fraction of cold dark matter f that they account for in this model. Assuming that there are no other sources of reionization and using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year data, we find that 250 eV {approx}< m{sub dm} {approx}< 1 MeV, whereas 2.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr {approx}< {tau}{sub dm}/f {approx}< 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} yr. The best-fit values for m{sub dm} and {tau}{sub dm}/f are 17.3 keV and 2.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} yr, respectively.

Yeung, S.; Chan, M. H.; Chu, M.-C., E-mail: mcchu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (Hong Kong)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

OBSERVATIONAL SCAN-INDUCED ARTIFICIAL COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPY  

SciTech Connect

Reliably detecting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is of great importance in understanding the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the difficulties in CMB experiments is the domination of measured CMB anisotropy maps by the Doppler dipole moment from the motion of the antenna relative to the CMB. For each measured temperature, the expected dipole component has to be calculated separately and then subtracted from the data. A small error in dipole direction, antenna pointing direction, sidelobe pickup contamination, and/or timing synchronism can introduce a significant deviation in the dipole-cleaned CMB temperature. After a full-sky observational scan, the accumulated deviations will be structured with a pattern closely correlated with the observation pattern with artificial anisotropies, including artificial quadrupole, octupole, etc., on large scales in the final CMB map. Such scan-induced anisotropies on large scales can be predicted by the true dipole moment and observational scan scheme. Indeed, the expected scan-induced quadrupole pattern of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission is perfectly in agreement with the published WMAP quadrupole. With the scan strategy of the Planck mission, we predict that scan-induced anisotropies will also produce an artificially aligned quadrupole. The scan-induced anisotropy is a common problem for all sweep missions and, like the foreground emissions, has to be removed from observed maps. Without doing so, CMB maps from COBE, WMAP, and Planck are not reliable for studying the CMB anisotropy.

Liu Hao; Li Tipei, E-mail: liuhao@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: litp@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Order Code RL31559 Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), especially in the hands of radical states and terrorists, represent a major threat to U.S. national security interests. Multilateral regimes were established to restrict trade in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technologies, and to monitor their civil applications. Congress may consider the efficacy of these regimes in considering the potential renewal of the Export Administration Act, as well as other proliferation-specific legislation in the 110 th Congress. This report provides background and current status information on the regimes. The nuclear nonproliferation regime encompasses several treaties, extensive multilateral and bilateral diplomatic agreements, multilateral organizations and domestic agencies, and the domestic laws of participating countries. Since the dawn of the nuclear age, U.S. leadership has been crucial in developing the regime. While there is almost universal international agreement opposing the further spread of nuclear weapons, several challenges to the regime have arisen in recent years: India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in 1998, North Korea withdrew from the

Mary Beth Nikitin; Paul Kerr; Steve Bowman; Steven A. Hildreth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Signatures of Cosmic Strings in the Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a search for signatures of cosmic strings in the the Cosmic Microwave Background data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We used a digital filter designed to search for individual cosmic strings and found no evidence for them in the WMAP CMB anisotropies to a level of $\\Delta T/T \\sim 0.29$ mK. This corresponds to an absence of cosmic strings with $ G\\mu \\ga 1.07 \\times 10^{-5}$ for strings moving with velocity $v = c/\\sqrt{2}$. Unlike previous work, this limit does not depend on an assumed string abundance. We have searched the WMAP data for evidence of a cosmic string recently reported as the CSL-1 object, and found an ``edge'' with 2$\\sigma$ significance. However, if this edge is real and produced by a cosmic string, it would have to move at velocity $\\ga$ 0.94c. We also present preliminary limits on the CMB data that will be returned by the PLANCK satellite for comparison. With the available information on the PLANCK satellite, we calculated that it would be twice as sensitive to cosmic strings as WMAP.

Amy S. Lo; Edward L. Wright

2005-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

276

Performance model assessment for multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four approaches to modeling multi-junction concentrating photovoltaic system performance are assessed by comparing modeled performance to measured performance. Measured weather, irradiance, and system performance data were collected on two systems over a one month period. Residual analysis is used to assess the models and to identify opportunities for model improvement. Large photovoltaic systems are typically developed as projects which supply electricity to a utility and are owned by independent power producers. Obtaining financing at favorable rates and attracting investors requires confidence in the projected energy yield from the plant. In this paper, various performance models for projecting annual energy yield from Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) systems are assessed by comparing measured system output to model predictions based on measured weather and irradiance data. The results are statistically analyzed to identify systematic error sources.

Stein, Joshua S.; Riley, Daniel M.; McConnell, Robert. (Amonix, Inc., Seal Beach, CA); Sahm, Aaron (University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Crawford, Clark (Amonix, Inc., Seal Beach, CA); King, David L.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Foresi, James S. (Emcore, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Statistical characterisation of bio-aerosol background in an urban environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we statistically characterise the bio-aerosol background in an urban environment. To do this we measure concentration levels of naturally occurring microbiological material in the atmosphere over a two month period. Naturally occurring bioaerosols can be considered as noise, as they mask the presence of signals coming from biological material of interest (such as an intentionally released biological agent). Analysis of this 'biobackground' was undertaken in the 1-10 um size range and a 3-9% contribution was found to be biological in origin - values which are in good agreement with other studies reported in the literature. A model based on the physics of turbulent mixing and dispersion was developed and validated against this analysis. The Gamma distribution (the basis of our model) is shown to comply with the scaling laws of the concentration moments of our data, which enables us to universally characterise both biological and non-biological material in the atmosphere. An application of this model is proposed to build a framework for the development of novel algorithms for bio-aerosol detection and rapid characterisation.

Milan Jamriska; Timothy C. DuBois; Alex Skvortsov

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

278

Silicon concentrator solar cell research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work conducted between December 1990 and May 1992 continuing research on silicon concentrator solar cells. The objectives of the work were to improve the performance of high-efficiency cells upon p-type substrates, to investigate the ultraviolet stability of such cells, to develop concentrator cells based on n-type substrates, and to transfer technology to appropriate commercial environments. Key results include the identification of contact resistance between boron-defused areas and rear aluminum as the source of anomalously large series resistance in both p- and n-type cells. A major achievement of the present project was the successful transfer of cell technology to both Applied Solar Energy Corporation and Solarex Corporation.

Green, M.A.; Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Dai, X.; Milne, A.; Cai, S.; Aberle, A.; Wenham, S.R. [Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW (AU). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Development of concentrator solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

THE DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) has been intensively studied but remains unsettled. Current popular source candidates include unresolved star-forming galaxies, starburst galaxies, and blazars. In this paper, we calculate the EGB contribution from the interactions of cosmic rays accelerated by Type Ia supernovae (SNe), extending earlier work that only included core-collapse SNe. We consider Type Ia events not only in star-forming galaxies, but also in quiescent galaxies that lack star formation. In the case of star-forming galaxies, consistently including Type Ia events makes little change to the star-forming EGB prediction, so long as both SN types have the same cosmic-ray acceleration efficiencies in star-forming galaxies. Thus, our updated EGB estimate continues to show that star-forming galaxies can represent a substantial portion of the signal measured by Fermi. In the case of quiescent galaxies, conversely, we find a wide range of possibilities for the EGB contribution. The dominant uncertainty we investigated comes from the mass in hot gas in these objects, which provides targets for cosmic rays; total gas masses are as yet poorly known, particularly at larger radii. Additionally, the EGB estimation is very sensitive to the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency and confinement, especially in quiescent galaxies. In the most optimistic allowed scenarios, quiescent galaxies can be an important source of the EGB. In this case, star-forming galaxies and quiescent galaxies together will dominate the EGB and leave little room for other contributions. If other sources, such as blazars, are found to have important contributions to the EGB, then either the gas mass or cosmic-ray content of quiescent galaxies must be significantly lower than in their star-forming counterparts. In any case, improved Fermi EGB measurements will provide important constraints on hot gas and cosmic rays in quiescent galaxies.

Lien, Amy; Fields, Brian D. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review  

SciTech Connect

As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to promote that understanding. The literature review begins with a discussion in Section 2.0 of the Federal regulatory processes and mission areas pertaining to hydropower siting and licensing at the basin scale. This discussion of regulatory processes and mission areas sets the context for the next topic in Section 3.0, past and ongoing basin-scale hydropower planning and assessment activities. The final sections of the literature review provide some conclusions about past and ongoing basin-scale activities and their relevance to the current basin-scale opportunity assessment (Section 4.0), and a bibliography of existing planning and assessment documents (Section 5.0).

Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Developing a Methodology for Characterizing the Effects of Building Materials’ Natural Radiation Background on a Radiation Portal Monitoring System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trafficking of radioactive material, particularly special nuclear material (SNM), has long been a worldwide concern. To interdict this material the US government has installed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) around the globe. Building materials surrounding an RPM can greatly effect the detector’s background radiation levels due to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some cases this effect is so great that the initial RPM setup had to be rebuilt. This thesis develops a methodology for quick and efficient determination of the specific activity and composition of building materials surrounding a RPM to predict background levels, therefore determining the minimum detectable quantity (MDQ) of material. This methodology builds on previous work by Ryan et al by generating material and source cards for a detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) deck, based on an experimental RPM setup to predict the overall gamma background at a site. Gamma spectra were acquired from samples of building materials and analyzed to determine the specific activity of the samples. A code was developed to estimate the elemental composition of building materials using the gamma transmission of the samples. These results were compared to previous Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) on the same samples. It was determined that densitometry provided an elemental approximation within 5% of that found through NAA. Using the specific activity and material composition, an MCNP deck was used to predict the gamma background levels in the detectors of a typical RPM. These results were compared against actual measurements at the RPM site, and shown to be within 10% of each other.

Fitzmaurice, Matthew Blake 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Concentrating Solar Power Program overview  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the last decade, the US solar thermal industry has established a track record in the power industry by building and operating utility-scale power plants with a combined rated capacity of 354 megawatts (MW). The technology used in these power plants is based on years of research and development (R and D), much of it sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). DOE`s Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program is collaborating with its partners in the private sector to develop two new solar technologies -- power towers and dish/engines -- to meet the huge commercial potential for solar power.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Mathematical modeling of solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computational capability that models the operation of any solar energy collector that uses flux concentrators is a valuable aid in the planning, design, construction, calibration, safety analysis, and operation of the system. In addition to the usual optical considerations, the model should treat such imperfections as reflecting-surface slope errors, suntracking and alignment errors, and mirror-focusing errors. It should properly account for the angular distribution of incoming sun rays and the effects of atmospheric transmission on this distribution. A model with these capabilities is described, and two computer programs for implementing it are illustrated.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Determination of the Far-Infrared Cosmic Background Using COBE/DIRBE and WHAM Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determination of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at far infrared wavelengths using COBE/DIRBE data is limited by the accuracy to which foreground interplanetary and Galactic dust emission can be modeled and subtracted. Previous determinations of the far infrared CIB (e.g., Hauser et al. 1998) were based on the detection of residual isotropic emission in skymaps from which the emission from interplanetary dust and the neutral interstellar medium were removed. In this paper we use the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM) Northern Sky Survey as a tracer of the ionized medium to examine the effect of this foreground component on determination of the CIB. We decompose the DIRBE far infrared data for five high Galactic latitude regions into H I and H-alpha correlated components and a residual component. We find the H-alpha correlated component to be consistent with zero for each region, and we find that addition of an H-alpha correlated component in modeling the foreground emission has negligible effect on derived CIB results. Our CIB detections and 2 sigma upper limits are essentially the same as those derived by Hauser et al. and are given by nu I_nu (nW m-2 sr-1) < 75, < 32, 25 +- 8, and 13 +- 3 at 60, 100, 140, and 240 microns, respectively. Our residuals have not been subjected to a detailed anisotropy test, so our CIB results do not supersede those of Hauser et al. We derive upper limits on the 100 micron emissivity of the ionized medium that are typically about 40% of the 100 micron emissivity of the neutral atomic medium. This low value may be caused in part by a lower dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized medium than in the neutral medium, and in part by a shortcoming of using H-alpha intensity as a tracer of far infrared emission.

N. Odegard; R. G. Arendt; E. Dwek; L. M. Haffner; M. G. Hauser; R. J. Reynolds

2007-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

291

MADmap: A Massively Parallel Maximum-Likelihood Cosmic Microwave Background Map-Maker  

SciTech Connect

MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap is already being run on up to O(1011) time samples, O(108) pixels and O(104) cores, with ongoing work to scale to the next generation of data sets and supercomputers. We describe MADmap's algorithm based around a preconditioned conjugate gradient solver, fast Fourier transforms and sparse matrix operations. We highlight MADmap's ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets and describe its application to simulations of the Planck and EBEX experiments. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analysing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available, and we argue that, given Moore's Law, MADmap will be capable of reducing the most massive projected data sets.

Cantalupo, Christopher; Borrill, Julian; Jaffe, Andrew; Kisner, Theodore; Stompor, Radoslaw

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

292

Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Optimizing luminescent solar concentrator design.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) use fluorescent materials and light guides to convert direct and diffuse sunlight into concentrated wavelength-shifted light that produces electrical power in small photovoltaic (PV) cells with the goal of significantly reducing the cost of solar energy utilization. In this paper we present an optimization analysis based on the implementation of a genetic algorithm (GA) subroutine to a numerical ray-tracing Monte Carlo model of an LSC, SIMSOLAR-P. The initial use of the GA implementation in SIMSOLAR-P is to find the optimal parameters of a hypothetical 'perfect luminescent material' that obeys the Kennard Stepanov (K-S) thermodynamic relationship between emission and absorption. The optimization balances the efficiency losses in the wavelength shift and PV conversion with the efficiency losses due to re-scattering of light out of the collector. The theoretical limits of efficiency are provided for one, two and three layer configurations; the results show that a single layer configuration is far from optimal and adding a second layer in the LSC with wavelength shifted material in the near infrared region significantly increases the power output, while the gain in power by adding a third layer is relatively small. The results of this study provide a theoretical upper limit to the performance of an LSC and give guidance for the properties required for luminescent materials, such as quantum nanocrystals, to operate efficiently in planar LSC configurations.

Hernandez-Noyola, H.; Potterveld, D. H.; Holt, R. J.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PHY)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and clarifying the central tendency of those estimates in ways useful for decision makers and analysts. Each article took a slightly different approach, demonstrating the flexibility of the harmonization approach. Each article also discusses limitations of the current research, and the state of knowledge and of harmonization, pointing toward a path of extending and improving the meta-analysis of LCAs.

Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Gas and Particulate Concentration Measurements and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to the species of interest as gas concentration standards ... for low concentrations and toxic and reactive gases. ... data set correlating liquid-phase fuels ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Concentrating Solar Power Facilities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrating Solar Power Facilities Concentrating Solar Power Facilities Florida Hawaii Southwest U.S. Addthis Browse By Topic TOPICS Energy Efficiency ---Home Energy Audits...

297

Federal Energy Management Program: Concentrating Solar Power...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies on Facebook...

298

SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power to Concentrating Solar Power to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards Staff Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Concentrating Solar Power SunShot CSP Team Learn more about the SunShot concentrating solar power program staff by visiting the team's profile pages. Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory

299

Impact of Alternative Energy Prices, Tenure Arrangements and Irrigation Technologies on a Typical Texas High Plains Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irrigation is a major contributing factor in crop production on the Texas High Plains. It is responsible for greatly increasing crop production and farm income for the region. Two factors, a declining groundwater supply and increasing production costs, are of primary concern because they impact on farm operations and producer economic viability. A recursive linear programming model for a typical Texas High Plains irrigated farm was developed to evaluate expected impact of price changes, tenure and new technology. The model includes a Fortran sub-routine that adjusts irrigation factors each year based on the linear programming solution of the previous year. After calculating new pumping energy requirements, well yield, and pumping lift, the Fortran component updates the linear programming model. This procedure continues automatically to the end of a specified planning period or to economic exhaustion of the groundwater, whichever occurs first. Static applications of the model, in a deep water situation, showed that a natural gas price increase from $1.50 to $2.20 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) would result in reductions in irrigation levels. Irrigation was terminated when the price of natural gas reached about $7.00 per mcf. In a shallow water situation, much higher natural gas prices were reached ($3.60 per mcf) before short-run adjustments in farm organization began to occur. Under furrow irrigation, irrigation was terminated when the natural gas price reached $7.00 per mcf. Increased natural gas prices impact heavily on returns above variable costs (up to 15 percent reductions) for a 60 percent natural gas price increase. The effects of rising natural gas prices over a longer period of time were more significant. Annual returns (above variable and fixed costs) were reduced by as much as 30 percent, and the present value of returns to water was reduced by as much as 80 percent as the natural gas price was increased annually by $0.25 per mcf (from $1.50 per mcf). The economic life of deep groundwater was shortened by as much as 18 years. Renter-operators are even more vulnerable to rising natural gas prices than are owner-operators. With rising natural gas prices, profitability over time for the renter is low. As natural gas prices continue to increase, the greater will be the incentives for renter-operators to seek more favorable rental terms such as a sharing of irrigation costs. With the problem of a declining groundwater supply and rising natural gas prices, an economic incentive exists for producers to find new technologies that will enable them to make more efficient use of remaining groundwater and of natural gas. Substantial economic gains appear feasible through improved pump efficiency. Increasing pump efficiency from 50 to 75 percent will not increase the economic life of the water supply, but can improve farm profits over time; e.g., the present value of groundwater was increased 33 percent for a typical farm with an aquifer containing 250 feet of saturated thickness and 15 percent for 75 feet of saturated thickness. Improved irrigation distribution systems can help conserve water and reduce irrigation costs. Results indicate that irrigation can be extended by 11 or more years with 50 percent improved distribution efficiency. In addition, the increase in present value of groundwater on the 1.69 million irrigated acres of the Texas High Plains was estimated to be $995 million with 50 percent improved efficiency. Limitations in borrowing can substantially reduce annual net returns. This analysis suggests that the farmer can economically justify very high costs of borrowing rather than a limitation of funds available for operating expenses.

Petty, J. A.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hardin, D. C.; Whitson, R. E.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Concentrating Solar Power: Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) has the potential to contribute significantly to the generation of electricity by renewable energy resources in the U.S.. Thermal storage can extend the duty cycle of CSP beyond daytime hours to early evening where the value of electricity is often the highest. The potential solar resource for the southwest U.S. is identified, along with the need to add power lines to bring the power to consumers. CSP plants in the U.S. and abroad are described. The CSP cost of electricity at the busbar is discussed. With current incentives, CSP is approaching competiveness with conventional gas-fired systems during peak-demand hours when the price of electricity is the highest. It is projected that a mature CSP industry of over 4 GWe will be able to reduce the energy cost by about 50%, and that U.S. capacity could be 120 GW by 2050.

Mehos, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Advanced evacuated tubular concentrator research  

SciTech Connect

Previous research projects led to the conceptual development and proof-of-concept of an advanced evacuated concentrating solar collector tube. The basic idea involves the integration of a nonimaging Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) inside an evacuated tube and coupled to a spectrally selective absorber. An experimental panel of these tubes achieved the highest operating efficiency at high temperatures ever measured with a non-tracking stationary solar collector. Subsequent studies have indicated that a mass-producible collector, incorporating the same concepts, can be developed which will deliver excellent performance across a broad range of temperatures, extending from about 50{degrees}C (suitable for domestic hot water and space heating) to well above 200{degrees}C (suitable for space cooling, process steam and many other end uses). Some form of advanced Integrated CPC (ICPC) remains the only simple and effective method for delivering solar thermal energy efficiently throughout the temperature range from 50{degrees}C to about 300{degrees}C without tracking. It has the potential to make practical and economical several cooling technologies which are otherwise not viable. In addition to its potential for driving cooling systems, this technology also provides a highly versatile solar source for virtually all thermal end uses including general purpose space and domestic hot water heating as well as industrial process heat. Research efforts have been directed towards designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of such a collector tube. We have been pursuing several paths. These include: (1) a small tube version, 52mm in diameter, based on the use of the T-17 commercially produced fluorescent glass tubing, which is the largest size lamp tubing produced in high volume in the United States, and (2) a large tube version, 125mm in diameter, compatible with the commercial design manufactured until recently by Corning France (the CORTEC collector).

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g. 37 Ar ). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Energy Conversion – Photovoltaic, Concentrating Solar Power, and  ...

304

Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

Chiang, C.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Terracentric Nuclear Fission Reactor: Background, Basis, Feasibility, Structure, Evidence, and Geophysical Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The background, basis, feasibility, structure, evidence, and geophysical implications of a naturally occurring Terracentric nuclear fission georeactor are reviewed. For a nuclear fission reactor to exist at the center of the Earth, all of the following conditions must be met: (1) There must originally have been a substantial quantity of uranium within Earth's core; (2) There must be a natural mechanism for concentrating the uranium; (3) The isotopic composition of the uranium at the onset of fission must be appropriate to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction; (4) The reactor must be able to breed a sufficient quantity of fissile nuclides to permit operation over the lifetime of Earth to the present; (5) There must be a natural mechanism for the removal of fission products; (6) There must be a natural mechanism for removing heat from the reactor; (7) There must be a natural mechanism to regulate reactor power level, and; (8) The location of the reactor or must be such as to provide containment and prevent meltdown. Herndon's georeactor alone is shown to meet those conditions. Georeactor existence evidence based upon helium measurements and upon antineutrino measurements is described. Geophysical implications discussed include georeactor origin of the geomagnetic field, geomagnetic reversals from intense solar outbursts and severe Earth trauma, as well as georeactor heat contributions to global dynamics.

J. Marvin Herndon

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:12pm Addthis Concentrator photovoltaic (PV) systems use less solar cell material than other PV systems. PV cells are the most expensive components of a PV system, on a per-area basis. A concentrator makes use of relatively inexpensive materials such as plastic lenses and metal housings to capture the solar energy shining on a fairly large area and focus that energy onto a smaller area-the solar cell. One measure of the effectiveness of this approach is the concentration ratio-in other words, how much concentration the cell is receiving. Concentrator PV systems have several advantages over flat-plate systems. First, concentrator systems reduce the size or number of cells needed and

309

Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Data and Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data and Resources Data and Resources For concentrating solar power technologies, NREL features the following online solar radiation resource data and solar resource maps, as well as data for renewable energy power plants. Also see TroughNet's data and resources specifically for parabolic trough technology. Concentrating Solar Power Projects around the World NREL, in conjunction with SolarPACES (Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems), maintains a database of CSP projects around the world with plants that are either operational, under construction, or under development. CSP technologies include parabolic trough, linear Fresnel reflector, power tower, and dish/engine systems. Each project profile includes background information, a listing of project participants, and data on the power-plant

311

HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS DURING STORAGE OF 3013 OXIDE SAMPLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a surveillance program intended to ensure the safe storage of plutonium bearing nuclear materials in the Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS), samples of these materials are shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. These samples are in the form of solids or powders which will have absorbed moisture. Potentially flammable hydrogen gas is generated due to radiolysis of the moisture. The samples are shipped for processing after chemical analysis. To preclude the possibility of a hydrogen deflagration or detonation inside the shipping containers, the shipping times are limited to ensure that hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of every layer of confinement is below the lower flammability limit of 4 volume percent (vol%). This study presents an analysis of the rate of hydrogen accumulation due to radiolysis and calculation of allowable shipping times for typical KAMS materials.

Hensel, S.; Askew, N.; Laurinat, J.

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Multiscale Waves in an MJO Background and Convective Momentum Transport Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors use linear analysis for a simple model to study the evolution of convectively coupled waves (CCWs) in a background shear and background moisture mimicking the observed structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). This is motivated ...

Boualem Khouider; Ying Han; Andrew J. Majda; Samuel N. Stechmann

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Impact of Altimeter Sampling Patterns on Estimates of Background Errors in a Global Wave Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the main limitations to current wave data assimilation systems is the lack of an accurate representation of the structure of the background errors. One method that may be used to determine background errors is the observational method of ...

Diana J. M. Greenslade; Ian R. Young

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Air Pollution Background Monitoring over the Former Soviet Union: Fifteen Years of Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regular air pollution observations in background areas over the former Soviet Union (FSU) were started in the 1980s. The air background monitoring network consisted of 16 stations working under the Integrated Monitoring (IM) Program. Several air ...

Sergey G. Paramonov

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Background Data Confidence Bounds Results The other side The Effectiveness of Internet Content Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Requires age screen for commercial porn. · Credit card number deemed adequate proof of age. #12;Background

Stark, Philip B.

316

Calibration of an ultra-low-background proportional counter for measuring 37 Ar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ultra-low-background proportional counter design has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using clean materials

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix I: Generating Resources -Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..................................................................................... 38 Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plant)............................................................. 50 Table I-21: Levelized Cost of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Plants ............................................................................... 26 Woody Residue Power Plants

318

Type-2 Fuzzy Mixture of Gaussians Model: Application to Background Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background modeling is a key step of background subtraction methods used in the context of static camera. The goal is to obtain a clean background and then detect moving objects by comparing it with the current frame. Mixture of Gaussians Model [1] is ...

Fida Baf; Thierry Bouwmans; Bertrand Vachon

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Determining Background Radiation Levels in Support of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a technical reference for determining background radiation levels in support of surveys for decommissioning nuclear power facilities. Careful planning and data evaluation are essential for a valid survey. The report discusses important considerations for successful establishment of background levels for soils, surfaces, structures, and groundwater. It also explores alternatives to performing a formal background study.

2001-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

320

Effects of CCN Concentrations on Stratus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons between cloud-base CCN concentrations and cloud droplet concentrations in stratus clouds over San Diego and 100 km out to sea showed a positive correlation. The supersaturation in these clouds, as derived from the matching of the CCN ...

James G. Hudson

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Background & Publications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

moths this week than last, and we caught at total of seven apple maggots on two red sticky spheres' or a turtle-like covering for their whole lives. Males are also round in shape, but they have wings once

322

Background Story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Checking for Candidate Events Checking for Candidate Events The Tevatron produces millions of collisions each second at CDF and DZero. The detectors detect most but not all of these collisions. When a collision is detected, computers must decide if the event is an interesting one for the current study. (While this decision is being made, the detector cannot process another event. Also, the detector needs a little time to recover from one event before detecting another. That is why the detector cannot detect all the collisions. Physicists try to minimize this down time.) To decide if an event is interesting, computers perform a quick preliminary data analysis looking for certain characteristics. This is done in a series of tests. Only if the event passes these tests does it "trigger" the

323

Legal Background  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Summary of Summary of Property Damage Complaints andlor Claims \ P R O J E C T R U L I S O N I - S U M M A R Y O F P R O P E R T Y D A M A G E C O M P L A I N T S A N D / O R C L A I M S AS OF MARCH 31, 1970 'E: The m a t e r i a l contained h e r e i n i s n o t t o be p u b l i c l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h o u t t h e p r i o r Office ( ~ E c ) , y o @ oplc-9 - Las Vegas, Nevada 89114 -- Prepared By: % & c n U a i l b 0. Brush Approved: Las Vegas Branch General Adjustment Bureau, Inc. P r o j e c t R u l i s o n Summary o f Property Damage Complaints and/or Claims DISTRIBUTION: H. E. G r i e r , President, CER Geonuclear Corp., Las Vegas, Nev. (4) G. W. Frank, A u s t r a l O i l Co., Houston, Texas (4) W. E. Ogle, LASL, Los Alamos, N. !4. (2) H. L. Reynolds, LRL, Livermore, C a l i f . ( 2 ) Fred Holzer/Gene C. Rizer, LRL, Livermore, C a l i f . ( 2 ) L l o v d A. Lee, J. A. Blume & Assoc.. San Francisco. C

324

Legal Background  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Text of Decision Text of Decision March 16,1970 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. PROJECT RULlSON L .. .. ---_ ---._._ /' Text of Decision March 76, 7970 Q - CHIEF JUDGE ALFRED A. ARRAJ United States District Court Denver, Colorado With Introductory Remarks By ROBERT E. MILLER Manager k v a d a Operations ~ffice:,>:?.;, .- ,.,:-. !c- - United states Atomic Energy Commission i. This page intentionally left blank UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION N E V A D A O P E R A T I O N S O F F I C E P. 0. e o x 14100 L A S V E G A S . N E V A D A 891 1 4 June ,1970 The P r o j e c t Rulison d e t o n a t i o n was conducted i n Western Colorado on September 10, 1969 as p a r t of a j o i n t g o v e r n m e n t - i n d u s t r y e x

325

Background Experiment  

•Gas and liquid samples analyzed •Resin with known oxygen exposure irradiated for comparison •Irradiated resin used in K d tests for comparison Co-60 ...

326

Education Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Member of interactive software and hardware development team. Participated in development of Retail Interactive System and assisted in organization and management of commercial exhibitions and events.

Edmund S. L. Lam; Race Chinese; Nationality Singaporean; Ling Rules

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Norway Background  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

well as developing new subsea technology, in which Norway is a global leader. ... Sea for production, and its infrastructure will be a hub for future developments.

328

VVSG Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... new voting system development and implementation scenarios not contemplated by the ... Following a Requirements Analysis released in 1999, ...

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

329

General Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...subdivided into cast and wrought. A large number of alloys have been invented and studied; many have been patented. However, the many alloys have been winnowed

330

Conceptual Background  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by an Electric Field Applications of the Photoelectric Effect Graphing Techniques and Curve-fitting Alignment with National Science Education Standards: This project...

331

1. Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... XML file should appear on the left hand of ... Main screen panel click on the Compare devices tab. ... Highlight a particular MOC and then right click the ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

332

Estimating Contaminant Release Concentrations from Hanford ...  

& Transport Model Long-Term Performance Assessment ... sludge provide upper limit on future releases. 9 Metals Concentrations in Hanford Tank ...

333

NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Declared a national user facility in 1993, NREL's Concentrated Solar Radiation User Facility (CSR) allows industry, government, and university researchers to examine the effects and applications of as much as 50,000 suns of concentrated solar radiation using a High-Flux Solar Furnace and long-term exposure using an ultraviolet (UV) concentrator.

Lewandowski, A.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Program on Technology Innovation: Evaluation of Concentrating Solar Thermal Energy Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adding solar thermal energy storage to concentrating solar thermal power plants expands both the amount of power and the timing of production. With thermal energy storage, plant power output can be firmed and shaped to better match consumer demand for electricity. Thermal storage associated with these plants is typically much more efficient and cost-effective than electrical or mechanical forms of storage. In many cases, the addition of thermal energy storage can lower the levelized electricity productio...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Proppant concentrator boosts foam frac effectiveness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently introduced propant concentrator appears to be reducing downtime and enhancing the overall effectiveness and practicality of foam fracturing. The basic purpose behind the proppant concentrator is to provide a method to allow higher proppant concentrations to be run in foam stimulation treatments. A concentrator removes liquid while pumping to allow a higher proppant load to be delivered to the well. This is accomplished by injecting the fluid/proppant slurry, which has been preblended, and passing it through a standard screen or centrifugal device. This allows removal of up to 50% of the liquid portion of the slurry and achieves a doubling of the proppant concentration prior to being foamed.

Not Available

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nanofluidic Concentration Device for Biomolecules Utilizing Ion Concentration Polarization: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, a new type of electrokinetic concentration devices has been developed in a microfluidic chip format, which allows efficient trapping and concentration of biomolecules by utilizing ion concentration polarization ...

Kim, Sung Jae

337

Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Concentrating solar power Concentrating solar power (Redirected from Concentrating Solar Power) Jump to: navigation, search Concentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived from NREL's concentrating solar power information page.)[1] Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce power by first using mirrors to focus sunlight to heat a working fluid. Ultimately, this high-temperature fluid is used to spin a turbine or power an engine that drives a generator. And the final product is electricity. Smaller CSP systems can be located directly where the power is needed. Larger, utility-scale CSP applications provide hundreds of megawatts of electricity for the power grid. Both linear concentrator and power tower

338

Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Concentrating solar power Concentrating solar power (Redirected from - Concentrating Solar Power) Jump to: navigation, search Concentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived from NREL's concentrating solar power information page.)[1] Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce power by first using mirrors to focus sunlight to heat a working fluid. Ultimately, this high-temperature fluid is used to spin a turbine or power an engine that drives a generator. And the final product is electricity. Smaller CSP systems can be located directly where the power is needed. Larger, utility-scale CSP applications provide hundreds of megawatts of electricity for the power grid. Both linear concentrator and power tower

339

Efficient Solar Concentrators: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Teledyne is developing a liquid prism panel that tracks the position of the sun to help efficiently concentrate its light onto a solar cell to produce power. Typically, solar tracking devices have bulky and expensive mechanical moving parts that require a lot of power and are often unreliable. Teledyne’s liquid prism panel has no bulky and heavy supporting parts—instead it relies on electrowetting. Electrowetting is a process where an electric field is applied to the liquid to control the angle at which it meets the sunlight above and to control the angle of the sunlight to the focusing lensthe more direct the angle to the focusing lens, the more efficiently the light can be concentrated to solar panels and converted into electricity. This allows the prism to be tuned like a radio to track the sun across the sky and steer sunlight into the solar cell without any moving mechanical parts. This process uses very little power and requires no expensive supporting hardware or moving parts, enabling efficient and quiet rooftop operation for integration into buildings.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Technical Bases for the Development and Application of Derived Concentration Guidance Levels for Decommissioning and License Termination of Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear Power plants achieve license termination by meeting regulatory site release criteria. Depending on the country, these criteria may be based on radionuclide concentration or dose. For dose-based criteria, corresponding radionuclide concentration limits, called Derived Concentration Guidance Levels (DCGLs), must also be developed. This report provides information related to site release criteria and the development of DCGLs.BackgroundThe ultimate goal ...

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background 0:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil June 23, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, Thursday, June 23 at 10:30AM ET, Senior Administration Officials will hold a background conference call regarding the ongoing oil supply disruptions in the Middle East and North Africa and the announcement this morning to release oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in coordination with the International Energy Agency. The call will be on background with no embargo. WHO: Senior Administration Officials WHAT: Background conference call WHEN: Thursday, June 23, 2011 10:30AM ET RSVP: Media who want to attend this call should dial (877) 941-1706 and ask to join the "White House call." No passcode is necessary.

342

Applying Bayesian Neural Networks to Separate Neutrino Events from Backgrounds in Reactor Neutrino Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A toy detector has been designed to simulate central detectors in reactor neutrino experiments in the paper. The samples of neutrino events and three major backgrounds from the Monte-Carlo simulation of the toy detector are generated in the signal region. The Bayesian Neural Networks(BNN) are applied to separate neutrino events from backgrounds in reactor neutrino experiments. As a result, the most neutrino events and uncorrelated background events in the signal region can be identified with BNN, and the part events each of the fast neutron and $^{8}$He/$^{9}$Li backgrounds in the signal region can be identified with BNN. Then, the signal to noise ratio in the signal region is enhanced with BNN. The neutrino discrimination increases with the increase of the neutrino rate in the training sample. However, the background discriminations decrease with the decrease of the background rate in the training sample.

Ye Xu; Yixiong Meng; Weiwei Xu

2008-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

343

Background studies for a ton-scale argon dark matter detector (ArDM)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ArDM project aims at operating a large noble liquid detector to search for direct evidence of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) as Dark Matter in the universe. Background sources relevant to ton-scale liquid and gaseous argon detectors, such as neutrons from detector components, muon-induced neutrons and neutrons caused by radioactivity of rock, as well as the internal $^{39}Ar$ background, are studied with simulations. These background radiations are addressed with the design of an appropriate shielding as well as with different background rejection potentialities. Among them the project relies on event topology recognition, event localization, density ionization discrimination and pulse shape discrimination. Background rates, energy spectra, characteristics of the background-induced nuclear recoils in liquid argon, as well as the shielding performance and rejection performance of the detector are described.

L. Kaufmann; A. Rubbia

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

344

Energy Use Savings for a Typical New Residential Dwelling Unit Based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) require a substantial improvement in energy efficiency compared to the 2006 IECC. This report averages the energy use savings for a typical new residential dwelling unit based on the 2009 and 2012 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Results are reported by the eight climate zones in the IECC and for the national average.

Lucas, Robert G.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Performance measurement of magnetohydrodynamic code for space plasma on typical scalar-type supercomputer systems with a large number of cores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The computational performance of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is evaluated on two typical scalar-type supercomputer systems. We have carried out performance tuning of a three-dimensional MHD code for space plasma simulations on the HA8000 (with 8192 ... Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics simulation, parallel computing, performance evaluation, scalar massively computer system

Keiichiro Fukazawa; Takayuki Umeda

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Nowadays, a large spectrum of knowledge is required from PhD students working within the area of Energy Conversion Systems. Nevertheless, typical PhD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy Conversion Systems. Nevertheless, typical PhD comptetences are often restricted to their fieldTech Summer School « Integrated Approach to Energy Systems » is to make up for those lacks, bring out the main challenges and provide methodological approaches to address multi-disciplinary energy-related challenges

347

Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basics Basics Concentrating Solar Power Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:38pm Addthis Text Version This solar concentrator has a fixed-focus faceted dish with a concentration of about 250 suns. This system can be used for large fields connected to the utility grid, hydrogen generation, or water pumping. Credit: Science Applications International Corporation / PIX 13464 Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via a steam turbine or heat engine that drives a generator. Concentrating solar power offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for

348

A COMPARISON OF ESTIMATED AND BACKGROUND SUBSIDENCE RATES IN TEXAS-LOUISIANA GEOPRESSURED GEOTHERMAL AREAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Kazmann, R. G. , 1978, Subsidence in the capital areageothermal-related subsidence rates derived from EDAW ESA111-5 Scale corpus Background Subsidence Rates Compared to

Lee, L.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Administration Officials will hold a background conference call regarding the ongoing oil supply disruptions in the Middle East and North Africa and the announcement this...

350

Automated Micro-Tracking Planar Solar Concentrators.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? One aim of solar concentrators is to reduce the cost of a solar power systems by reducing the amount of expensive semiconductor used in… (more)

Hallas, Justin Matthew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Modeling Carbon Concentration Profiles in Austenitic Stainless ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Modeling Carbon Concentration Profiles in Austenitic Stainless Steels Carburized at Low Temperatures. Author(s), Gary M. Michal, Xiaoting ...

352

Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002asl2.441 Meeting Report Production mechanisms, number concentration, size distribution, chemical composition, and...

353

Status of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several leading line- and point-focus photovoltaic concentrator system development programs are reviewed, including those by ENTECH, SEA Corporation, AMONIX, and Alpha Solarco. Concentrating collectors and trackers are gaining maturity and reaching product status as designs are made more manufacturable and reliable. Utilities are starting to take notice of this emerging technology, and several privately-funded utility installations are underway. Several advantages are offered by concentrators, including low system and capital cost and rapid production ramp-up. These are discussed along with issues generally raised concerning concentrator technology.

Maish, A.B.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Gravity Gold Concentration at Newmont Mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The process of gold recovery by gravity concentration is incorporated ... Energy Management Planning, Following the ISO 50001 Draft Standard.

355

PV FAQs: What's New in Concentrating PV?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This publication, one in a series of PV FAQs, addresses concentrating PV: what it is, how it works, the challenges it faces, recent breakthroughs, and its future direction.

Not Available

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

Gadish, Nitzan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Projects Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of concentrating solar power plants. Activities include testing large-scale systems and developing advanced technologies, components, instrumentation, and analysis techniques....

358

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Technology Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Basics Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies can be a major contributor to our nation's future need for new, clean sources of energy, particularly in the Western...

359

Concentrating Solar Power: Energy from Mirrors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet explains how concentrating solar power technology works and the three types of systems in development today: trough, dish, and central receiver.

Poole, L.

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

360

Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Webmaster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version Concentrating Solar Power Research Home Projects Research Staff Working with Us Data & Resources...

362

A solar concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis discusses aspects of a novel solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector that has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water.… (more)

Coventry, Joseph S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

TOPCAT Solar Cell Alignment & Energy Concentration Technology ...  

Patent 7,667,833: Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a ...

364

Concentrating Solar Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Anchor shot detection with diverse style backgrounds based on spatial-temporal slice analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anchor shot detection is a challenging and important task for news video analysis. This paper has put forward a novel anchor shot detection algorithm for the situations with dynamic studio background and multiple anchorpersons based on spatio-temporal ... Keywords: anchor shot detection, dynamic background, multiple anchorpersons, sequential clustering, spatio-temporal slice

Fuguang Zheng; Shijin Li; Hao Wu; Jun Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Software Note: Using probe secondary structure information to enhance Affymetrix GeneChip background estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-density short oligonucleotide microarrays are a primary research tool for assessing global gene expression. Background noise on microarrays comprises a significant portion of the measured raw data. A number of statistical techniques have been developed ... Keywords: Background correction, DNA microarray, Probe secondary structure

Raad Z. Gharaibeh; Anthony A. Fodor; Cynthia J. Gibas

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The homogeneity theorem for supergravity backgrounds II: the six-dimensional theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that supersymmetry backgrounds of (1,0) and (2,0) six-dimensional supergravity theories preserving more than one half of the supersymmetry are locally homogeneous. As a byproduct we also establish that the Killing spinors of such a background generate a Lie superalgebra.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Background Information re TIAA-CREF's Annuity Contract (October 2011) University of Arizona HR Benefits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background Information re TIAA-CREF's Annuity Contract (October 2011) University of Arizona ­ HR Benefits TIAA-CREF Contract Background ­ October 2011 Optional Retirement Plan: Sponsor ­ Contract Holder. In TIAA-CREF's older annuity contracts, the participant was the account "owner". The plan sponsor could

Wong, Pak Kin

369

GPU-based Calculation for Scattering Characteristics of Complex Targets from Background Radiance in Infrared Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scattering characteristic of complex targets from sky and ground background radiance plays an important role in engineering fields. Firstly, a 5-parameter BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distributional Function) model is introduced. Then MODTRAN is used ... Keywords: scattering characteristic, background radiance, BRDF, GPU, CUDA, optimization

Xing Guo, Zhensen Wu, Longxiang Linghu, Yufeng Yang, Yunhua Cao, Jiaji Wu

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Real-time robust background subtraction under rapidly changing illumination conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast robust background subtraction under sudden lighting changes is a challenging problem in many applications. In this paper, we propose a real-time approach, which combines the Eigenbackground and Statistical Illumination method to address this issue. ... Keywords: Background subtraction, EM, Eigenbackground, Illumination changes

Luc Vosters; Caifeng Shan; Tommaso Gritti

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Examination of the Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in Urban Background Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between 2000 and 2005, EPRI collected several hundred soil samples from urban background locations in three States and analyzed them for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This report presents the initial results of efforts to extract additional chemical data from the urban background PAH database and to explore those data using chemical forensic methods for statistical properties and trends.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

372

Comparison of segmentation algorithms for cow contour extraction from natural barn background in side view images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer vision techniques are a means to extract individual animal information such as weight, activity and calving time in intensive farming. Automatic detection requires adequate image pre-processing such as segmentation to precisely distinguish the ... Keywords: Background segmentation, Computer vision, Cow contour, Dairy cattle, Static background

T. Van Hertem; V. Alchanatis; A. Antler; E. Maltz; I. Halachmi; A. Schlageter-Tello; C. Lokhorst; S. Viazzi; C. E. B. Romanini; A. Pluk; C. Bahr; D. Berckmans

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Definition: Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dictionary.png Dictionary.png Concentrating solar power Technologies that use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. This thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via a steam turbine or heat engine that drives a generator.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition . ]] File:El-v-01 ubt. jpeg Sustainable energy Renewable energy Anaerobic digestion Hydroelectricity · Geothermal Microgeneration · Solar Tidal · Wave · Wind Energy conservation Cogeneration · Energy efficiency Geothermal heat pump Green building · Passive Solar Sustainable transport Plug-in hybrids · Electric vehicles File:Terra- edge blur. png Environment Portal v · d · e Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems use

374

Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Determination and Mitigation of Precipitation Effects on Portal Monitor Gamma Background Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to establish a correlation between precipitation and background gamma radiation levels at radiation portal monitors (RPM) deployed at various ports worldwide, and to devise a mechanism by which the effects of these precipitation-induced background fluctuations could be mitigated. The task of detecting special nuclear materials (SNM) by passive gamma spectroscopy is very difficult due to the low signal-to-noise ratio observed in an uncontrolled environment. Due to their low activities and the low energies of their characteristic gamma rays, the signals from many types of SNM can easily be obscured by background radiation. While this can be somewhat mitigated by taking regular background radiation measurements, even this cannot resolve the issue if background levels change suddenly and dramatically. Furthermore, any increase in background count rate will increase the statistical uncertainty of the count rate measurement, and thus decrease the minimum quantity of SNM that can be reliably detected. Existing research suggests that the advent of precipitation is the culprit behind many such large and sudden increases in background radiation. The correlation between precipitation and background levels was explored by in-situ testing on a full-scale portal monitor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and by comparing previously recorded background radiation and weather data from portal monitors located at ports worldwide. The first was utilized to determine the frequency and magnitude at which precipitation introduces background activity, and the second was used to quantify the effects of various quantities and types of precipitation in various parts of the world. Once this analysis was complete, various methods of mitigating these changes in background radiation were developed based on the collected data. Precipitation was found to be the most common culprit for rapid increases in background count rate, and was attributable to 85.6% of all such events. Based on extensive simulation via the Origen-ARP and MCNP software, a response function for the portal monitor was developed, and an algorithm designed to predict the contribution of the precipitation to the background count rate was developed. This algorithm was able to attenuate the contribution of precipitation to the background count rate by an average of 45% with very minimal over-correction. Such an algorithm could be utilized to adjust the alarm levels of the RPM to better allow it to compensate for the rise and fall in background count rate due to precipitation. Additionally, the relative contribution of precipitation which landed at various distances from the portal monitor to the increase in background count rate was measured via simulation. This simulation demonstrated that 37.2% of all background counts were due to the radon daughters which landed within a 2.76 m radius from the center of the portal monitor. This radius encompasses the area between the two portals. Based on this, several designs for shielding were simulated, the most successful of which was a concrete structure that was able to attenuate 71.3% of the background radiation caused by a given precipitation event at a materials cost of approximately $6,000 per RPM. This method is recommended as the primary means of mitigating this issue.

Revis, Stephen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Entanglement concentration of three-partite states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the concentration of multiparty entanglement by focusing on a simple family of three-partite pure states, superpositions of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and singlets. Despite the simplicity of the states, we show that they cannot be reversibly concentrated by the standard entanglement concentration procedure, to which they seem ideally suited. Our results cast doubt on the idea that for each N there might be a finite set of N-party states into which any pure state can be reversibly transformed. We further relate our results to the concept of locking of entanglement of formation.

Groisman, Berry [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Linden, Noah [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Popescu, Sandu [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS12 6QZ (United Kingdom)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications Publications NREL develops publications, including technical reports and papers, about its R&D activities in concentrating solar power, as well as related information. Below you'll find a list of selected NREL publications concerning these activities. Also see TroughNet's publications on parabolic trough technology, and market and economic assessment. For other NREL concentrating solar power publications, you can search NREL's Publications Database. Selected Publications These publications are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Utility-Scale Power Tower Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines NREL Subcontract Report Author: David Kearney - Kearney & Associates Publication Date: March 2013 Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy

378

Si concentrator solar cell development. [Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency, low-cost concentrator solar cell compatible with Spectrolab`s existing manufacturing infrastructure for space solar cells. The period covered is between 1991 and 1993. The program was funded through Sandia National Laboratories through the DOE concentrator initiative and, was also cost shared by Spectrolab. As a result of this program, Spectrolab implemented solar cells achieving an efficiency of over 19% at 200 to 300X concentration. The cells are compatible with DOE guidelines for a cell price necessary to achieve a cost of electricity of 12 cents a kilowatthour.

Krut, D.D. [Spectrolab, Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

Kuklo, T.C.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

VSHOT Measurements of Distal II Dish Concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Video Scanning Hartmann Optical Tester (VSHOT) is a laser ray-trace tool for measuring the slope error of solar concentrator mirrors. The VSHOT measurements made on two, 8.5-m diameter, Distal II dishes represent its first use on a concentrator installed and operating in the field. A number of valuable lessons were learned regarding the use of the VSHOT for outdoor testing. The two dishes were found to have overall figure-of-merit RMS slope errors from an ideal parabola of 2.99 and 3.18 milliradians. The VSHOT measurements compare well qualitatively with distant observer photographs made using a colored concentric ring target.

Jones, S.A.

1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

382

Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

Lindley, R.A. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Cosmic Electron Background in Low Energy IACTs. Effect of the Geomagnetic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new generation of low threshold Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) may reach gamma-ray energies about 10 GeV with high sensitivities and very large collection areas. At these low energies cosmic electrons significantly contribute to the telescope background and are in principle indistinguishable from gamma-rays. In this paper we estimate the electron background expected for two configurations of the low energy IACT MAGIC. We discuss in particular the reduction of the background caused by the geomagnetic field at different locations on the Earth's surface.

J. Cortina; J. C. Gonzalez

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Particle Receiver...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bed-Novel Components to Overcome Existing Barriers Advancing concentrating solar power (CSP) systems to the target cost of 0.06 per kilowatt-hour, set by the U.S. Department of...

385

Analytical Solutions for Cloud-Drop Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note compares and evaluates the analytical solutions of Squires and Twomey for cloud droplet concentration. Either solution is likely to be fairly accurate (±30%) when the slope parameter (?) of the cloud condensation nuclei distribution is ...

David B. Johnson

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Concentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived from NREL's concentrating solar power information page.)[1] Concentrating solar power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet our nation's demand for electricity. CSP plants produce power by first using mirrors to focus sunlight to heat a working fluid. Ultimately, this high-temperature fluid is used to spin a turbine or power an engine that drives a generator. And the final product is electricity. Smaller CSP systems can be located directly where the power is needed. Larger, utility-scale CSP applications provide hundreds of megawatts of electricity for the power grid. Both linear concentrator and power tower systems can be easily integrated with thermal storage, helping to generate

387

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

Salomon, R.E.

1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

389

Power Tower Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In power tower concentrating solar power systems, numerous large, flat, sun-tracking mirrors, known as heliostats, focus sunlight onto a receiver at the top of a tall tower. A heat-transfer fluid...

390

What does stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations mean?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is applied to an exploration of the national emissions obligations that would be required to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at levels now under active ...

Jacoby, Henry D.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Reiner, David M.

391

Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Power Technologies............................................... 7 Parabolic Troughs power technologies are described in this report: parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel, power towers, and dish/engine. Parabolic troughs are the most commercially available technology. Linear Fresnel and power

Laughlin, Robert B.

392

Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

Francis, Chester W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brinkley, Frank S. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

NREL: Learning - Concentrating Solar Power Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a...

394

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Research Staff  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Staff Here you'll find contact information for NREL's concentrating solar power research team and staff. To learn more about us and our expertise, read the staff's...

395

Test results of early photovoltaic concentrating collectors  

SciTech Connect

Several passively and actively cooled photovoltaic concentrating collectors built during the period 1976 to 1979 have been tested. The tests provide information on the performance characteristics of these collectors. The results of the tests are summarized.

Gerwin, H.J.; Pritchard, D.A.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Spectral converters and luminescent solar concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present a comprehensive theoretical description of molecular spectral converters in the specific context of Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs). The theoretical model is an extension to a three-level system interacting with a solar radiation bath of the standard quantum theory of atomic radiative processes. We derive the equilibrium equations of the conversion process and provide specific examples of application of this principle to the development of solar concentration devices.

Petra F. Scudo; Luigi Abbondanza; Roberto Fusco

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Spectral converters and luminescent solar concentrators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present a comprehensive theoretical description of molecular spectral converters in the specific context of Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs). The theoretical model is an extension to a three-level system interacting with a solar radiation bath of the standard quantum theory of atomic radiative processes. We derive the equilibrium equations of the conversion process and provide specific examples of application of this principle to the development of solar concentration devices.

Scudo, Petra F; Fusco, Roberto

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Georgia Tech spiral concentrator: an innovative design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new, low cost, high performance solar energy concentrator has been developed at Georgia Tech. It is based on Fresnel reflector principles, and is formed by slightly winding a flat spiral of reflective material and securing it to a planar frame. Special focal distributions are easily designed into the concentrator. A wide variety of applications exist for this new device, ranging from generation of industrial process heat to solar cooking.

Steenblik, R.A.; Bomar, S.H. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research Home Page  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A collage of Concentrating Solar Power photographs. The first photo shows a dish-engine solar system. The second is of a SAIC Stirling dish collector. And the third photo shows a SkyTrough solar concentrator located on a mesa top. A collage of Concentrating Solar Power photographs. The first photo shows a dish-engine solar system. The second is of a SAIC Stirling dish collector. And the third photo shows a SkyTrough solar concentrator located on a mesa top. NREL collaborates with industry to further the research and development (R&D) of concentrating solar power (CSP) plant and solar thermal technologies. NREL's projects in concentrating solar power focus on components R&D and systems analysis related to power tower and parabolic trough technologies: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. In addition, NREL has received funding through the following competitively awarded projects: 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) turbine test Near-blackbody, enclosed-particle receiver integrated with a

400

Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Validation of Cloud-Resolving Model Background Data for Cloud Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from a cloud-resolving model are systematically compared with a variety of observations, both ground based and satellite, in order to better understand the mean background errors and their correlations. This is a step in the direction of ...

Rosanne Polkinghorne; Tomislava Vukicevic; K. Franklin Evans

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Neural networks and separation of cosmic microwave background and astrophysical signals in sky maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maps produced by large area surveys aimed at imaging primordial fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a linear mixture of signals by several astrophysical and cosmological sources (Galactic synchrotron,

C. Baccigalupi; L. Bedini; C. Burigana; G. De Zotti; A. Farusi; D. Maino; M. Maris; F. Perrotta; E. Salerno; L. Toffolatti; A. Tonazzini

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Linear Theory Calculations for the Sea Breeze in a Background Wind: The Equatorial Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equatorial coastal circulation is modeled in terms of the linear wave response to a diurnally oscillating heat source gradient in a background wind. A diurnal scaling shows that the solution depends on two parameters: a nondimensional coastal ...

Tingting Qian; Craig C. Epifanio; Fuqing Zhang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

The diffusion of photovoltaics : background, modeling and initial reaction of the agricultural - irrigation sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the background, development and calibration of a model of innovation-diffusion, designed to help allocate government field test and demonstration resources in support of a photovoltaic technology ...

Lilien, Gary Louis

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The Role of Background Cloud Microphysics in the Radiative Formation of Ship Tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors investigate the extent to which the contrast brightness of ship tracks, that is, the relative change in observed solar reflectance, in visible and near-infrared imagery can be explained by the microphysics of the background cloud in ...

S. Platnick; P. A. Durkee; K. Nielsen; J. P. Taylor; S.-C. Tsay; M. D. King; R. J. Ferek; P. V. Hobbs; J. W. Rottman

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

A Hybrid Background Error Covariance Model for Assimilating Glider Data into a Coastal Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid background error covariance (BEC) model for three-dimensional variational data assimilation of glider data into the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) is introduced. Similar to existing atmospheric hybrid BEC models, the proposed model ...

Max Yaremchuk; Dmitri Nechaev; Chudong Pan

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Deepest Spectrum of the Universe? Constraints on the Lyman Continuum Background at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe an ongoing experiment to search for the meta-galactic Lyman-continuum background at z~2-3. We are obtaining one of the deepest optical spectra ever, using LRIS/Keck-II to search for the fluorescent Ly-alpha emission from optically thick HI clouds. The null results of our pilot study (Bunker, Marleau & Graham 1998) placed a 3-sigma upper bound on the mean intensity of the ionizing background of J_{nu 0} radiation field. We have recently greatly extended our search, obtaining a 16-hour spectrum which is sensitive to UV background fluxes ~1E-21 erg/s/cm^2/Hz/sr (z~2.3 at 3-sigma, assuming the HI clouds are ~10arcsec in extent). We describe how the results of this study can be used to constrain the quasar luminosity function and the contribution of high-redshift star-forming galaxies to the ambient ionizing background.

Andrew J. Bunker; Francine R. Marleau; James R. Graham

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Background of SIFs and Stress Indices for Moment Loadings of Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information, references, and equations for twenty-four piping components (thirteen component SIFs and eleven component stress indices) that justify the values or expressions for the SIFs and indices.

E. A. Wais; E. C. Rodabaugh

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Wavelet Approach to Representing Background Error Covariances in a Limited-Area Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of orthogonal wavelets for the representation of background error covariances over a limited area is studied. Each wavelet function contains both information on position and information on scale: using a diagonal correlation matrix in ...

Alex Deckmyn; Loïk Berre

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

Backus, C.E.

1976-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

412

An off-axis Cassegrain optimal design for short focal length parabolic solar concentrators  

SciTech Connect

The present work addresses an off-axis Cassegrain optical concentration system. The specific primary collector analyzed, a short focal length parabolic concentrator, is at the University of Florida`s Energy Park. A secondary hyperbolic reflective element was designed to redirect the solar radiation from the primary focal plane to an off-axis target on the polar axis of the primary concentrator. This ground level target will be required for planned experimental work. The analysis was performed using a numerical ray tracing procedure that incorporates both random and systematic errors due to slope and surface irregularities. The optimization process varied secondary element size, curvature, and offset angle, and yielded information required for optimum design. As a single secondary element was found impractical, three elements were designed for use at various time of the year. The numerical analysis predicts that typically 70 to 75 percent of the solar flux incident on the primary concentrator aperture was focused within a 0.5-meter radius. During the design, it was found that this type of compact concentration system is a practical alternative. The optical system is also shown to have advantages that are generally applicable for problems involving short focal length primary concentrators, or when the solar apparatus is to be placed outside the primary collector aperture.

Roman, R.J.; Peterson, J.E.; Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

Jeffers, L.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Tracking quintessence and k-essence in a general cosmological background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive conditions for stable tracker solutions for both quintessence and k-essence in a general cosmological background, H^2 \\propto f(\\rho). We find that tracker solutions are possible only when \\eta = d ln f /d ln \\rho is constant, aside from a few special cases, which are enumerated. Expressions for the quintessence or k-essence equation of state are derived as a function of \\eta and the equation of state of the dominant background component.

Rupam Das; Thomas W. Kephart; Robert J. Scherrer

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

415

Beam-induced backgrounds in the CLIC 3 TeV CM energy interaction region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Luminosity spectrum and accelerator background levels strongly influence the experimental conditions and have an important impact on detector design. The expected rates of the main beam-beam products at CLIC 3 TeV CM energy, taking into account for machine imperfections, are computed. Among the other machine-induced background the photon fans from the Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation (ISR) photons emitted in the final doublet are evaluated.

B. Dalena; J. Esberg; D. Schulte

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

416

Walking solutions in the string background dual to N=1 SQCD-like theories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new solution in the string background dual to N=1 SQCD-like theories is presented. The gauge coupling in this solution has walking property. The Wilson loop calculations show that quark anti-quark potential makes phase transitions. Additionally the effect of flavours on other solutions in this background is investigated by considering some unflavoured solutions and perturbing them with small parameter x=(N{sub f})/(N{sub c})

Guerdogan, Omer Can [Istanbul Teknik Universitesi Fizik Boeuemue, 34469 Maslak Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: gurdogano@itu.edu.tr

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Solar neutrino-electron scattering as background limitation for double beta decay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The background on double beta decay searches due to elastic electron scattering of solar neutrinos of all double beta emitters with Q-value larger than 2 MeV is calculated, taking into account survival probability and flux uncertainties of solar neutrinos. This work determines the background level to be [1-2]E-7 counts /keV/kg/yr, depending on the precise Q-value of the double beta emitter. It is also shown that the background level increases dramatically if going to lower Q-values. Furthermore, studies are done for various detector systems under consideration for next generation experiments. It was found that experiments based on loaded liquid scintillator have to expect a higher background. Within the given nuclear matrix element uncertainties any approach exploring the normal hierarchy has to face this irreducible background, which is a limitation on the minimal achievable background for purely calorimetric approaches. Large scale liquid scintillator experiments might encounter this problem already while exploring the inverted hierarchy. Potential caveats by using more sophisticated experimental setups are also discussed.

N. F. de Barros; K. Zuber

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Background study for the pn-CCD detector of CERN Axion Solar Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare and different background components (environmental gamma radiation, cosmic rays, intrinsic radioactive impurities in the set-up, ...) entangle it, a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the Phase I of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of different background components. This study will show that the observed background level (at a rate of (8.00+-0.07)10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 7 keV) seems to be dominated by the external gamma background due to usual activities at the experimental site, while radioactive impurities in the detector itself and cosmic neutrons could make just smaller contribution.

S. Cebrián; A. Rodríguez; M. Kuster; B. Beltrán; J. M. Carmona; H. Gómez; R. Hartmann; I. G. Irastorza; R. Kotthaus; G. Luzón; J. Morales; A. Ortiz de Solórzano; J. Ruz; L. Strüder; J. A. Villar

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

419

Energy Basics: Dish/Engine Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

power plant. Solar Concentrator The solar concentrator, or dish, gathers the solar energy coming directly from the sun. The resulting beam of concentrated sunlight is reflected...

420

Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, U isotopes, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of {sup 60}Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in {sup 90}Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time.

Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large amounts of solid waste are disposed in landfills and the potential of particulate matter (PM) emissions into the atmosphere is significant. Particulate matter emissions in landfills are the result of resuspension from the disposed waste and other activities such as mechanical recycling and composting, waste unloading and sorting, the process of coating residues and waste transport by trucks. Measurements of ambient levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were performed in a landfill site located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Elevated PM{sub 10} concentrations were measured in the landfill site during several landfill operations. It was observed that the meteorological conditions (mainly wind velocity and temperature) influence considerably the PM{sub 10} concentrations. Comparison between the PM{sub 10} concentrations at the landfill and at a PM{sub 10} background site indicates the influence of the landfill activities on local concentrations at the landfill. No correlation was observed between the measurements at the landfill and the background sites. Finally, specific preventing measures are proposed to control the PM concentrations in landfills.

Chalvatzaki, E.; Kopanakis, I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Kontaksakis, M. [Municipal Company of Solid Waste Management, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Glytsos, T.; Kalogerakis, N. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece); Lazaridis, M., E-mail: lazaridi@mred.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100, Crete (Greece)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: a. providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; b. eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate. c. eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; d. eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and e. eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution.

Knapp, Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beets, Arnold L. (Clinton, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Guhlke, Stefan (Bonn, DE)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

concentrating solar power | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

concentrating solar power concentrating solar power Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

424

Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush  

SciTech Connect

The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Concentration and purification of plutonium or thorium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In this invention a first solution obtained from such as a plutonium/thorium purification process or the like, containing plutonium (Pu) and/or thorium (Th) in such as a low nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) concentration may have the Pu and/or Th separated and concentrated by passing an electrical current from a first solution having disposed therein an anode to a second solution having disposed therein a cathode and separated from the first solution by a cation permeable membrane, the Pu or Th cation permeating the cation membrane and forming an anionic complex within the second solution, and electrical current passage affecting the complex formed to permeate an anion membrane separating the second solution from an adjoining third solution containing disposed therein an anode, thereby effecting separation and concentration of the Pu and/or Th in the third solution.

Hayden, John A. (Arvada, CO); Plock, Carl E. (Golden, CO)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Design package for concentrating solar collector panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The Northrup concentrating solar collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, fiber glass insulation and weighs 98 pounds. The gross collector area is about 29.4/sup 2/ per collector. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Northrup, Inc., has developed and delivered 300 square feet of Concentrating Solar Collector (ML Series) and Attitude Control System, under the direction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ''ML Series'' Solar Collector Panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel Prismatic Lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ration, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, in unassembled components for field erection. The Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Warranty, List of Materials, Sub-Assembly drawings and Final Field Assembly Drawings are included in the package.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Measurement of Neutron Background at the Pyhasalmi mine for CUPP Project, Finland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A natural neutron flux is one of significant kind of background in high-sensitive underground experiments. Therefore, when scheduling a delicate underground measurements one needs to measure neutron background. Deep underground the most significant source of neutrons are the U-Th natural radioactive chains giving a fission spectrum with the temperature of 2-3 MeV. Another source is the U-Th alpha-reactions on light nuclei of mine rock giving neutrons with different spectra in the 1-15 MeV energy region. Normal basalt mine rocks contain 1 ppm g/g of U-238 and less. Deep underground those rocks produce natural neutron fluxes of 10^{-7} - 10^{-6} cm^{-2}s^{-1} above 1 MeV. To measure such a background one needs a special techniques. In the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow, the neutron spectrometer was developed and built which is sensitive to such a low neutron fluxes. At the end of 2001 the collection of neutron data at the Pyhasalmi mine was started for the CUPP project. During 2002 the background and rough energy spectra of neutron at underground levels 410, 660, 990 and 1410 m were measured. The result of the measurement of the neutron background at different levels of the Pyhasalmi mine is presented and discussed. Data analysis is performed in different energy ranges from thermal neutrons up to 25 MeV and above.

J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. L. Matushko; A. A. Shikhin; V. E. Yants; J. Peltoniemi; T. Keranen

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

429

Concentrating Photovoltaic Module Testing at NREL's Concentrating Solar Radiation Users Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been much recent interest in photovoltaic modules designed to operate with concentrated sunlight (>100 suns). Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology offers an exciting new opportunity as a viable alternative to dish Stirling engines. Advantages of CPV include potential for>40% cell efficiency in the long term (25% now), no moving parts, no intervening heat transfer surface, near-ambient temperature operation, no thermal mass, fast response, concentration reduces cost of cells relative to optics, and scalable to a range of sizes. Over the last few years, we have conducted testing of several CPV modules for DOEs Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) program. The testing facilities are located at the Concentrating Solar Radiation Users Facility (CRULF) and consist the 10 kW High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) and a 14m2 Concentrating Technologies, LLC (CTEK) dish. This paper will primarily describe the test capabilities; module test results will be detailed in the presentation.

Bingham, C.; Lewandowski, A.; Stone, K.; Sherif, R.; Ortabasi, U.; Kusek, S.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Does Tracking Affect the Importance of Family Background on Student’s Test Scores?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study investigates whether tracking students according to ability affects the importance of family background on student’s educational test scores. Using data from the PISA 2003, PISA 2000 and the PIRLS 2001 studies this paper uses the cross-country variation in tracking policies to identify the effect of tracking. The results indicate that family background is more important in countries, which track students early in a simple cross section. Using a difference-in-differences methodology to control for unobserved country level variables I find, however, that the importance of family background does not increase after actual tracking has taken place. This result is very different to the findings of two concurrent papers using a similar approach. Both of these papers …nd that tracking affects educational equity. Using a number of robustness checks, however, I find that the results presented in this research are robust to using different tracking measures, datasets and speci…cations.

Fabian Waldinger

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Solar-Driven Background Intensity Variations in a Focal Plane Array  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Portions of a series of end-of-life tests are described for a Sandia National Li~boratories- designed space-based sensor that utilizes a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal plane array. Variations in background intensity are consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal variations in solar position cause changes in the pattern of shadows falling across the compartment containing the optical elements, filter-band components, and focal plane array. When the sensor compartment is most fully illuminated by the sun, background intensities are large and their standard deviations tend to be large. During the winter season, when the compartment is most fully shadowed by surrounding structure, backgrounci intensities are small and standard deviations tend to be small. Details in the surrounding structure are speculated to produce transient shadows that complicate background intensifies as a function of time or of sensor position in orbit.

Eyer, H.H.; Guillen, J.L.L.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Deepest Spectrum of the Universe? Constraints on the Lyman Continuum Background at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe an ongoing experiment to search for the meta-galactic Lyman-continuum background at z~2-3. We are obtaining one of the deepest optical spectra ever, using LRIS/Keck-II to search for the fluorescent Ly-alpha emission from optically thick HI clouds. The null results of our pilot study (Bunker, Marleau & Graham 1998) placed a 3-sigma upper bound on the mean intensity of the ionizing background of J_{nu 0} radiation field. We have recently greatly extended our search, obtaining a 16-hour spectrum which is sensitive to UV background fluxes ~1E-21 erg/s/cm^2/Hz/sr (z~2.3 at 3-sigma, assuming the HI clouds are ~10arcsec in extent). We describe how the results of this study can be used to constrain the quasar luminosity function and the contribution of...

Bunker, A J; Graham, J R; Bunker, Andrew J.; Marleau, Francine R.; Graham, James R.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effects of the background plasma temperature on the current filamentation instability  

SciTech Connect

The effects of thermal anisotropy of background plasma on the current-filamentation instability (CFI) in an asymmetric counterstreaming system are investigated with a fully relativistic kinetic model. It is found that both the temperature and the thermal anisotropy of the background plasma play important roles in the development of the CFI. It is also pointed out that the thermal anisotropy of the background plasma dominates over the space charge effect in suppressing the CFI. A parametric study of the CFI is presented in the context of fast ignition. A new way to suppress CFI and its detrimental effects on the fast electron beam divergence has been proposed. The results of the analytical estimations are verified by 2D3V particle-in-cell simulations.

Jia Qing [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cai, Hong-bo; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Weiwu [Graduate School, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 2101, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Shaoping [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Sheng, Z. M. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Early Results on Radioactive Background Characterization for Sanford Laboratory and DUSEL Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring external sources of background for a deep underground laboratory at the Homestake Mine is an important step for the planned low-background experiments. The naturally occurring $\\gamma$-ray fluxes at different levels in the Homestake Mine are studied using NaI detectors and Monte Carlo simulations. A simple algorithm is developed to convert the measured $\\gamma$-ray rates into $\\gamma$-ray fluxes. A good agreement between the measured and simulated $\\gamma$-ray fluxes is achieved with the knowledge of the chemical composition and radioactivity levels in the rock. The neutron fluxes and $\\gamma$-ray fluxes are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for different levels including inaccessible levels that are under construction for the planned low background experiments.

D. -M. Mei; C. Zhang; K. Thomas; F. Gray

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Research Renewable Energy Research http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/renewabl e/index.html August 2011 The Issue Several factors inhibit the potential growth of the California photovoltaic market: high installation costs, expenses

436

SunShot Initiative: Concentrating Solar Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Power SunShot CSP Team Learn more about the SunShot concentrating solar power program staff by visiting the team's profile pages. Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP University of California Los Angeles University of California Los Angeles High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids Jet Propulsion Laborator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators Abengoa Solar Abengoa Solar Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant HiTek Services HiTek Services Low-Cost Heliostat Development The Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies as a unique path to achieve SunShot Initiative cost targets with systems that can supply solar power on demand through the use of thermal storage. CSP technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat. Thermal energy can then be used to produce electricity via a turbine or heat engine driving a generator.

437

Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Western North Pacific Typhoons with Concentric Eyewalls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the intensity change and moat dynamics of typhoons with concentric eyewalls using passive microwave data and best-track data in the western North Pacific between 1997 and 2006. Of the 225 typhoons examined, 55 typhoons and 62 ...

Hung-Chi Kuo; Chih-Pei Chang; Yi-Ting Yang; Hau-Jang Jiang

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Optical modelling of square solar concentrator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the optical design of a photovoltaic solar concentrator composed by two squared reflection mirrors. The optical configuration of the device, is based on the Cassegrain telescope and designed in order to maximize the fill factor ... Keywords: photovoltaic, ray tracing, solar cell

Maurizio Carlini; Carlo Cattani; Andrea O. M. Tucci

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

HELIOS: a computational model for solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HELIOS is a computer code for mathematically simulating the behavior of the flux pattern from the concentrator field for a solar central receiver power station. Statistical methods are used to incorporate nondeterministic factors. The code is described, and some examples of its output are given.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Nonimaging light concentrator with uniform irradiance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nonimaging light concentrator system including a primary collector of light, an optical mixer disposed near the focal zone for collecting light from the primary collector, the optical mixer having a transparent entrance aperture, an internally reflective housing for substantially total internal reflection of light, a transparent exit aperture and an array of photovoltaic cells disposed near the transparent exit aperture.

Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gee, Randy C. (Arvada, CO)

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Impact of background flow on dissolution trapping of carbon dioxide injected into saline aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While there has been a large interest in studying the role of dissolution-driven free convection in the context of geological sequestration, the contribution of forced convection has been largely ignored. This manuscript considers CO$_2$ sequestration in saline aquifers with natural background flow and uses theoretical arguments to compute the critical background velocity needed to establish the forced convective regime. The theoretical arguments are supported by two dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations which demonstrate the importance of forced convection in enhancing dissolution in aquifers characterised by low Rayleigh numbers.

Rapaka, Saikiran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Numerical modeling of plasma plume evolution against ambient background gas in laser blow off experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two dimensional numerical modelling based on simplified hydrodynamic evolution for an expanding plasma plume (created by laser blow off) against an ambient background gas has been carried out. A comparison with experimental observations shows that these simulations capture most features of the plasma plume expansion. The plume location and other gross features are reproduced as per the experimental observation in quantitative detail. The plume shape evolution and its dependence on the ambient background gas are in good qualitative agreement with the experiment. This suggests that a simplified hydrodynamic expansion model is adequate for the description of plasma plume expansion.

Patel, Bhavesh G.; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman; Singh, Rajesh; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Double parton interactions as a background to associated HW production at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we study events with W+jets final state, produced in double parton (DP) interactions, as a background to the associated Higgs boson (H) and W production, with H {yields} b{bar b} decay, at the Tevatron. We have found that the event yield from the DP background can be quite sizable, what necessitates a choice of selection criteria to separate the HW and DP production processes. We suggest a set of variables sensitive to the kinematics of DP and HW events. We show that these variables, being used as an input to the artificial neural network, allow one to significantly improve a sensitivity to the Higgs boson production.

Bandurin, Dmitry; Golovanov, Georgy; Skachkov, Nikolai

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Investigation of materials performances in high moisture environments including corrosive contaminants typical of those arising by using alternative fuels in gas turbines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

materials performances in high moisture materials performances in high moisture environments including corrosive contaminants typical of those arising by using alternative fuels in gas turbines Gerald Meier, Frederick Pettit and Keeyoung Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jung University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15260 Peer review Workshop III UTSR Project 04 01 SR116 October 18-20, 2005 Project Approach Task I Selection and Preparation of Specimens Task II Selection of Test Conditions Specimens : GTD111+CoNiCrAlY and Pt Aluminides, N5+Pt Aluminides Deposit : No Deposit, CaO, CaSO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 1150℃ Dry 1150℃ Wet 950℃ Wet 750℃ SO 3 950℃ Dry Selection of Test Temperature, T 1 , Gas Environment and Deposit Composition, D

446

Impacts of Static Pressure Reset on VAV System Air Leakage, Fan Power and Thermal Energy - Part 2: Case Demonstration for a Typical Climate System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Part 1 of this paper, the theoretical models, integrating the fan airflow, fan head, air leakage factors, are developed to analyze the impacts of the static pressure reset on both pressure dependent and pressure independent terminal boxes. In this part, a simulated air handling unit (AHU) system in Omaha NE is used to demonstrate the energy savings performance in one typical climate year. This AHU system has a static pressure reset system and two constant static pressure systems, one having pressure dependent terminal boxes and one having pressure independent terminal boxes. These simulated systems were compared mainly on the basis of fan power energy consumption and thermal energy consumption in totally a year. The example presents a good agreement with the theoretical model and simulation results. It was also shown that static pressure reset provides a promising and challenging way for the energy performance in VAV system.

Liu, M.; Zheng, K.; Wu, L.; Wang, Z.; Johnson, C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cosmic microwave background map-making at the petascale and beyond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations is a long-standing computational challenge, driven by the exponential growth in the size of the data sets being gathered. Since this growth is projected to continue for at least the next ... Keywords: hybrid programming, petascale computing, sparse allreduce

Rajesh Sudarsan; Julian Borrill; Christopher Cantalupo; Theodore Kisner; Kamesh Madduri; Leonid Oliker; Yili Zheng; Horst Simon

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Electrical axes of TESLA-type cavities (Theoretical background, development of measurement equipment, measurement results)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - Electrical axes of TESLA-type cavities (Theoretical background, development of measurement equipment, measurement results) Anton Labanc, MHF-SL, DESY, January 2008 Abstract Cells in TESLA cavities. A short overview was already published at the TESLA Report 2007-01. This paper brings more details about

449

DETERMINATION OF LITHIUM BY FLAME EMISSION SPECTROMETRY Background Reading: Harris, 7th  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETERMINATION OF LITHIUM BY FLAME EMISSION SPECTROMETRY Background Reading: Harris, 7th ed., Chap of this experiment is to acquaint you with flame emission spectrometry. The determination of lithium, and all other. It uses a propane/air flame. #12;Lithium by Flame Emission, Page 2 Identify the burner with its nebulizer

Weston, Ken

450

Can Solar Neutrinos be a Serious Background in Direct Dark Matter Searches?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coherent contribution of all neutrons in neutrino nucleus scattering due to the neutral current is examined considering the boron solar neutrinos. These neutrinos could potentially become a source of background in the future dark matter searches aiming at nucleon cross sections in the region well below the few events per ton per year.

J. D. Vergados; H. Ejiri

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

451

Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Blessinger, Christopher S [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Gravitational lens magnification by Abell 1689: Distortion of the background galaxy luminosity function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gravitational lensing magnifies the luminosity of galaxies behind the lens. We use this effect to constrain the total mass in the cluster Abell 1689 by comparing the lensed luminosities of background galaxies with the luminosity function of an undistorted field. Since galaxies are assumed to be a random sampling of luminosity space, this method is not limited by clustering noise. We use photometric redshift information to estimate galaxy distance and intrinsic luminosity. Knowing the redshift distribution of the background population allows us to lift the mass/background degeneracy common to lensing analysis. In this paper we use 9 filters observed over 12 hours with the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope to determine the redshifts of 1000 galaxies in the field of Abell 1689. Using a complete sample of 151 background galaxies we measure the cluster mass profile. We find that the total projected mass interior to 0.25h^(-1)Mpc is (0.48 +/- 0.16) * 10^(15)h^(-1) solar masses, where our error budget includes uncertainties from the photometric redshift determination, the uncertainty in the off-set calibration and finite sampling. This result is in good agreement with that found by number count and shear-based methods and provides a new and independent method to determine cluster masses.

S. Dye; A. N. Taylor; E. M. Thommes; K. Meisenheimer; C. Wolf; J. A. Peacock

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

OIL SPILL BACKGROUND Marcia K McNutt, Juan Lasheras, 'Franklin Shaffer',  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OIL SPILL BACKGROUND Marcia K McNutt, Juan Lasheras, 'Franklin Shaffer', BlIIlehr to: pmbommer on the fate and behavior of spilled oil. Of course, since this spill originates a mile deep, some. ~ Lehr book chapter .pdf #12;Review of modeling procedures for oil spill weathering behavior William J

Fleskes, Joe

454

Information Loss Paradox Tested on Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilatonic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilatonic field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilatonic black hole. Unlike the conclusion drawn in \\cite{MIT} it is found that the presence of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Regularization plays a crucial role on the information paradox.

Anisur Rahaman

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

455

Molecular dynamics study of nanoparticle evolution in a background gas under laser ablation conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics study of nanoparticle evolution in a background gas under laser ablation,7] are used to explain the evaporation­condensation process. Molecular dynamics (MD) method [4,5,8,9] directly simulates molecular movement and interactions and can be used to investigate the evaporation process

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

456

A PORTABLE DOSE RATE INSTRUMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL BACK-GROUND RADIATION LEVELS  

SciTech Connect

An instrument of the ionization chamber type which is capable of measuring radiation dose rates down to and below those encountered in natural background was designed and constructed. It consists of a 40-liter ionization chamber coupled to a portable battery-powered electrometer. The chamber polarizing battery is a part of the chamber center electrode assembly and is located inside the chamber. (auth)

Rising, F.L.

1960-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

457

Does Chiral Fermion Coupled to a Background Dilaton Field Preserve Information?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model where chiral boson is coupled to a background dilaton field is considered to study the s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that the scattering process of chiral fermion does not violate unitarity and information remains preserved. Faddevian anomaly plays a crucial role on the information scenario.

Anisur Rahaman

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

458

Background Rejection in the DMTPC Dark Matter Search Using Charge Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration is developing a low pressure gas TPC for detecting Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP)-nucleon interactions. Optical readout with CCD cameras allows for the detection of the daily modulation of the direction of the dark matter wind. In order to reach sensitivities required for WIMP detection, the detector needs to minimize backgrounds from electron recoils. This paper demonstrates that a simplified CCD analysis achieves $7.3\\times10^{-5}$ rejection of electron recoils while a charge analysis yields an electron rejection factor of $3.3\\times10^{-4}$ for events with $^{241}$Am-equivalent ionization energy loss between 40 keV and 200 keV. A combined charge and CCD analysis yields a background-limited upper limit of $1.1\\times10^{-5}$ (90% confidence level) for the rejection of $\\gamma$ and electron events. Backgrounds from alpha decays from the field cage are eliminated by introducing a veto electrode that surrounds the sensitive region in the TPC. CCD-specific backgrounds are reduced more than two orders of magnitude when requiring a coincidence with the charge readout.

J. P. Lopez; D. Dujmic; S. Ahlen; J. B. R. Battat; C. Deaconu; P. Fisher; S. Henderson; A. Inglis; A. Kaboth; J. Monroe; G. Sciolla; H. Tomita; H. Wellenstein; R. Yamamoto

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

459

Spectral Tail of a Gravity Wave Train Propagating in a Shearing Background  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The causes of the appearance of a tail in the power spectrum of a gravity wave train in a shearing background terminating under the Hodges condition are studied. The power spectrum of this train for a wavenumber greater than the cutoff value has ...

Manuel Pulido; Giorgio Caranti

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Detecting a Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background in the presence of a Galactic Foreground and Instrument Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detecting a stochastic gravitational wave background requires that we first understand and model any astrophysical foregrounds. In the millihertz frequency band, the predominate foreground signal will be from unresolved white dwarf binaries in the galaxy. We build on our previous work to show that a stochastic gravitational wave background can be detected in the presence of both instrument noise and a galactic confusion foreground. The key to our approach is accurately modeling the spectra for each of the various signal components. We simulate data for a gigameter Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) operating in the mHz frequency band detector operating with both 6- and 4-links. We obtain posterior distribution functions for the instrument noise parameters, the galaxy level and modulation parameters, and the stochastic background energy density. We find that we are able to detect a scale-invariant stochastic background with energy density as low as Omega_gw = 2e-13 for a 6-link interferometer and Omega_gw = 5e-13 for a 4-link interferometer with one year of data.

Matthew R. Adams; Neil J. Cornish

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "typical background concentrations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

ARE THERE ECHOES FROM THE PRE-BIG-BANG UNIVERSE? A SEARCH FOR LOW-VARIANCE CIRCLES IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY  

SciTech Connect

In a recent analysis of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year temperature maps, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to find concentric circular patterns in the sky with anomalously low variances. These circles are presented as observational evidence for violent processes in a universe preceding our big bang as predicted by Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology. We reassess the statistical significance of the detection of the claimed concentric low-variance circles by comparing the WMAP data with Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky plus realistic modeling of WMAP's anisotropic noise. We find no anomaly in the variances compared with the {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. The observed variances in the data are consistent with a Gaussian CMB sky as predicted by the inflationary cosmology model at better than 3{sigma}.

Hajian, Amir, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

462

Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our understanding of the µ-Witness prototype. As a proof of concept, we present the results of using this detector with electroformed copper during its transport from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where the copper is grown, to the underground lab in Lead, South Dakota, where the experiment is being deployed. The development of a code to be used with the Majorana parts tracking database, designed to aid in estimating the cosmogenic activation, is also presented.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrators Concentrators California Institute of Technology/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Award Number:0595-1612 | January 15, 2013 | Ganapathi Thin Film mirror is ~40-50% cheaper and 60% lighter than SOA * Project leverages extensive space experience by JPL and L'Garde to develop a low-cost parabolic dish capable of providing 4 kW thermal. Key features: * Metallized reflective thin film material with high reflectivity (>93%) with polyurethane foam backing * Single mold polyurethane backing fabrication enables low cost high production manufacturing * Ease of panel installation and removal enables repairs and results in a low total life cycle cost * Deployment of multiple dishes enhances system level optimizations by simulating larger fields which addresses issues like shared resources

464

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Partnerships Partnerships NREL maintains partnerships to advance concentrating solar power research, development, and deployment efforts. Currently, NREL works with Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through SunLab-a partnership developed by the U.S. Department of Energy to administer its concentrating solar power R&D and analysis activities. SolarPACES Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES), an international program of the International Energy Agency, furthers collaborative development, testing, and marketing of CSP plants. NREL represents the U.S. activities and serves on various committees in SolarPACES, which now has 13 members: Algeria, Australia, Egypt, the European Commission, France, Germany, Israel, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, and

465

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects Projects NREL's concentrating solar power (CSP) projects focus on components R&D and systems analysis related to power tower and parabolic trough technologies. We support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its CSP deployment efforts in the following areas: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. NREL received funding from DOE for concentrating solar power research projects. Through a competitive process, NREL was selected to lead the following projects: Novel Components to Overcome Existing Barriers-Particle Receiver Integrated with a Fluidized Bed Thermodynamic Cycle to Revolutionize CSP Systems-10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (s-CO2) Turbine Test Nanomaterials for thermal energy storage in CSP plants In addition to these efforts, NREL is also a key partner on two other

466

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Radionuclide Concentrations in Benthic Invertebrates  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Environ Monit Assess (2007) 128:329-341 Environ Monit Assess (2007) 128:329-341 DO1 10.1007/~10661-006-93 I 6 4 ORIGINAL ARTICLE - Radionuclide Concentrations in Benthic Invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska Joanna Burger Michael Gochfeld Stephen C. Jewett Received: 8 March 2006 /Accepted: 8 May 2006 1 Published online: 21 October 2006 0 Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006 Abstract Concentrations of 13 radionuclides 1291, 60co, 1 5 2 ~ ~ , 9 0 s r , 9 9 ~ ~ , 2 4 1 ~ ~ , 238pu, 239249pu, 2 3 4 ~ , 2 3 5 ~ , 236U, 2 3 8 ~ were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test

467

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Roberts, K.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

468

CAST STONE FORMULATION AT HIGHER SODIUM CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K.; Roberts, K.; Edwards, T.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

469

Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

470

High-efficiency silicon concentrator cell commercialization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the first phase of a forty-one month program to develop a commercial, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell and facility for manufacturing it. The period covered is November 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991. This is a joint program between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Sandia National Laboratories. (This report is also published by EPRI as EPRI report number TR-102035.) During the first year of the program, SunPower accomplished the following major objectives: (1) a new solar cell fabrication facility, which is called the Cell Pilot Line (CPL), (2) a baseline concentrator cell process has been developed, and (3) a cell testing facility has been completed. Initial cell efficiencies are about 23% for the baseline process. The long-range goal is to improve this efficiency to 27%.

Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Laboratory Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Capabilities Laboratory Capabilities To research, develop, and test a variety of concentrating solar power technologies, NREL features the following laboratory capabilities: High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) Large Payload Solar Tracker Advanced Optical Materials Laboratory Advanced Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory Optical Testing Laboratory and Beam Characterization System Receiver Test Laboratory Heat Collection Element (HCE) Temperature Survey Photo of NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace. NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace. High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) The power generated at NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) can be used to expose, test, and evaluate many components-such as receivers, collectors, and reflector materials-used in concentrating solar power systems. The 10-kilowatt HFSF consists of a tracking heliostat and 25 hexagonal

472

Concentrating Solar Power: Energy from Mirrors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mirror mirror on the wall, what's the Mirror mirror on the wall, what's the greatest energy source of all? The sun. Enough energy from the sun falls on the Earth everyday to power our homes and businesses for almost 30 years. Yet we've only just begun to tap its potential. You may have heard about solar electric power to light homes or solar thermal power used to heat water, but did you know there is such a thing as solar thermal-electric power? Electric utility companies are using mirrors to concentrate heat from the sun to produce environmentally friendly electricity for cities, especially in the southwestern United States. The southwestern United States is focus- ing on concentrating solar energy because it's one of the world's best areas for sun- light. The Southwest receives up to twice the sunlight as other regions in the coun-

473

Solar concentrator with restricted exit angles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for the collection and concentration of radiant energy and includes at least one reflective side wall. The wall directs incident radiant energy to the exit aperture thereof or onto the surface of energy absorber positioned at the exit aperture so that the angle of incidence of radiant energy at the exit aperture or on the surface of the energy absorber is restricted to desired values.

Rabl, Arnulf (Downers Grove, IL); Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

1978-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

474

CONCENTRATION OF CESIUM-137 BY ALGAE  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption-absorption of Cs/sup 137/ by algae is of interest because Cs/sup 137/ of the critical fission products in power reactor wastes and atomic weapon fall-out. It is well known that plankton takes up radioactivity in fairly high concentrations. The purpose of this investigation was to study the accumulation of Cs/sup 137/ by fresh water-algae. (A.C.)

Williams, L.G.; Swanson, H.D.

1958-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

475

Efficiency of luminescence in luminescent solar concentrators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power effiency of luminescence excited by solar radiation in luminescent solar collectors is calculated for a glass sheet doped with CR/sup 3 +/. The achievable chemical potential for an optically thick absorber irradiated by diluted blackbody radiation as a function of Cr/sup 3 +/ concentration, sheet thickness, sunlight dilution, and luminescence quantum yield leads directly to overall conversion efficiency of solar power to luminescence power.

Lempicki, A.

1983-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Material for a luminescent solar concentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

Andrews, L.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Paper: Safeguards design for a plutonium concentrator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we consider the design of a nonlinear estimator to be used in conjunction with on-line detectors for a plutonium nitrate concentrator. Using a complex state-of-the-art process model to simulate 'realistic' data, we show that the estimator ... Keywords: (diversion detection), (nuclear safeguards), Kalman filter, decision theory, nonlinear filtering, nuclear plants, on-line operation, optimal filtering, state estimation

J. V. Candy; R. B. Rozsa

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design o