Sample records for types alkalinity temperature

  1. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters, R. A. Feely, and R. M. Key (2006), Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity 35)2 + d (SST Ã? 20) + e (SST Ã? 20)2 fits surface total alkalinity (AT) data for each of five

  2. Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SAND CONSOLIDATION USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE ALKALINE SOLUTION A Thesis by FIDEL ENRIQUE MORENO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2000 Malor Subject: Petroleum Engmeering EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SAND CONSOLIDATION USING HIGH- TEMPERATURE ALKALINE SOLUTION A Thesis by FIDEL ENRIQUE MORENO ROMERO Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline a-type granites Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt... ) experimentally determined the stability of titanite and fluorite in the A-type Mount Scott Granite, Oklahoma... and origin of A-type...

  4. Hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hottest spot temperature allowance to be used for the different insulation system temperature classes is a major unknown facing IEEE Working Groups developing standards and loading guides for ventilated dry type transformers. In 1944, the hottest spot temperature allowance for ventilated dry type transformers was established as 30 C for 80 C average winding temperature rise. Since 1944, insulation temperature classes have increased to 220 C but IEEE standards continue to use a constant 30 C hottest spot temperature allowance. IEC standards use a variable hottest spot temperature allowance from 5 to 30 C. Six full size test windings were manufactured with imbedded thermocouples and 133 test runs performed to obtain temperature rise data. The test data indicated that the hottest spot temperature allowance used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA is too low. This is due to the large thermal gradient from the bottom to the top of the windings caused by natural convection air flow through the cooling ducts. A constant ratio of hottest spot winding temperature rise to average winding temperature rise should be used in product standards for all insulation temperature classes. A ratio of 1.5 is suggested for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA. This would increase the hottest spot temperature allowance from 30 C to 60 C and decrease the permissible average winding temperature rise from 150 C to 120 C for the 220 C insulation temperature class.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacte- rium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was iso- lated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be pub- lished. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  6. Predicting hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformer windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data indicates that hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA are too low. A mathematical model to predict hottest spot temperature rises in ventilated dry type transformers was developed. Data from six layer type test windings and a 2500 kva prototype was used to refine the model. A correlation for the local heat transfer coefficient in the cooling ducts was developed. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The number of conductor layers, insulation thickness, and conductor strand size were found to have only a minor effect on the ratio. Winding height was found to be the main parameter influencing the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The study based on the mathematical model confirmed previous conclusions based on test data that the hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA should be revised.

  7. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  8. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  9. Rectification properties of n-type nanocrystalline diamond heterojunctions to p-type silicon carbide at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Masaki; Amano, Ryo; Shimoda, Naotaka [Graduate School of Automotive Science, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kato, Yoshimine, E-mail: yoshimine.kato@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Teii, Kungen [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly rectifying heterojunctions of n-type nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films to p-type 4H-SiC substrates are fabricated to develop p-n junction diodes operable at high temperatures. In reverse bias condition, a potential barrier for holes at the interface prevents the injection of reverse leakage current from the NCD into the SiC and achieves the high rectification ratios of the order of 10{sup 7} at room temperature and 10{sup 4} even at 570?K. The mechanism of the forward current injection is described with the upward shift of the defect energy levels in the NCD to the conduction band of the SiC by forward biasing. The forward current shows different behavior from typical SiC Schottky diodes at high temperatures.

  10. p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, N. P.

    end-members of the (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 family of thermoelectric materials. Decades of work-based thermoelectrics has been the difficulty in making the material p-type. Unlike Bi2Te3, which can1 p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low temperature thermoelectric applications Y.S. Hor1

  11. Coexpression of Wild-Type Tyrosinase Enhances Maturation of Temperature-Sensitive Tyrosinase Mutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebert, Daniel N.

    Coexpression of Wild-Type Tyrosinase Enhances Maturation of Temperature-Sensitive Tyrosinase.S.A. Tyrosinase is a type I membrane glycoprotein whose activity is essential for melanin synthesis. Loss of function mutations in tyrosinase is the cause of ocu- locutaneous albinism 1. In the milder oculocuta

  12. Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992 ABSTRACT Alkalinity Tolerance of Peach Rootstocks. (May 1992) Yan Shi, B. S. , Fujian Agricultural College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. David H. Byrne Peaches suffer from Fe chlorosis when grown in alkaline soils. A range of alkalinity... could be assessed by leaf visual-chlorosis rating and Sped-502 reading instead of extractable leaf-chlorophyll concentration or leaf Fe concentration. Some modifications were suggested for the future evaluation. Bicarbonate was a major factor which...

  13. Upgrading Amerada-type survey clocks for high-temperature geothermal service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, B.H.; Witten, C.L.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Amerada type subsurface recording gauges have been used by the oil and gas industry for many years. These mechanical logging instruments are currently used by the growing goethermal industry. As the gauges were designed for service in low-temperature oil and gas wells, a significant number of failures are occurring at elevated geothermal temperatures. The spring driven mechanical survey clocks appear to be the primary cause of the failures. The clock mechanisms tend to stop or lock-up when exposed to temperatures as high as 300/sup 0/C. This paper summarizes a project that was undertaken to upgrade the survey clocks to 300/sup 0/C capability. The major problems causing clock failure were indentified and corrected by straightforward design modifications together with special lubrication of the moving parts. Several clocks so modified performed reliably, both during laboratory oven tests and during field tests that were performed in actual geothermal wells at temperatures up to 330/sup 0/C.

  14. Proactive Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling High-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermoelectric and structural properties of n-type (In, Ce) filled skutterudites including power factors and ZT as a function of temperature are presented

  15. Temperature Dependent Tensile Fracture Stress of n- and p-Type Filled-Skutterudite Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Yang, Jihui [General Motors Corporation; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While materials with excellent thermoelectric performance are most desirable for higher heat to electrical energy conversion efficiency, thermoelectric materials must also be sufficiently mechanically robust to withstand the large number of thermal cycles and vibrational stresses likely to be encountered while in service, particularly in automotive applications. Further these TE materials should be composed of non-toxic and naturally abundant constituent elements and be available as both n- and p-type varieties. Skutterudite based thermoelectric materials seemingly fit this list of criteria. In this contribution we report on the synthesis, tensile fracture strengths, low temperature electrical and thermal transport properties, and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), of the n-type skutterudite La{sub 0.05({+-}0.01)}Ba{sub 0.07({+-}0.04)}Yb{sub 0.08({+-}0.02)}Co{sub 4.00({+-}0.01)}Sb{sub 12.02({+-}0.03)} and the p-type Ce{sub 0.30({+-}0.02)}Co{sub 2.57({+-}0.02)}Fe{sub 1.43({+-}0.02)}Sb{sub 11.98({+-}0.03)}. Both materials have tensile fracture strengths that are temperature independent up to 500 C, and are in the range of {approx}140 MPa as measured by a three point bend flexure test fixture described herein. The CTE's were measured by dual rod dilatometry and were determined to be 10.3 ppm/C for the n-type material and 11.5 ppm/C for p-type up to 450 C.

  16. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David B. (Ithaca, NY); Lao, Guifang (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  17. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  18. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  19. A Caenorhabditis elegans Wild Type Defies the TemperatureSize Rule Owing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key

  20. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

  1. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  2. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  3. Temperature modeling for analysis and design of the sintering furnance in HTR fuel type of ball

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saragi, Elfrida [Computational Division, Centre for Nuclear Informatic Development, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong 15310 (Indonesia)] [Computational Division, Centre for Nuclear Informatic Development, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Serpong 15310 (Indonesia); Setiadji, Moch [PTAPB - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta 1008 (Indonesia)] [PTAPB - National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta 1008 (Indonesia)

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the factors that determine the safety of the operation of the sintering furnace fuel HTR ball is the temperature distribution in the ceramic tube furnace. The temperature distribution must be determined at design stage. The tube has a temperature of 1600 °C at one end and about 40 °C at the other end. The outside of the tube was cooled by air through natural convection. The tube is a furnace ceramic tube which its geometry are 0.08, 0.09 and 0.5 m correspondingly for the inner tube diameter, outer tube diameter and tube length. The temperature distribution of the tube is determined by the natural convection coefficient (NCF), which is difficult to be calculated manually. The determination of NCF includes the Grasshoff, Prandtl, and Nusselt numbers which is a function of the temperature difference between the surrounding air with the ceramic tube. If the temperature vary along the tube, the complexity of the calculations increases. Thus the proposed modeling was performed to determine the temperature distribution along the tube and heat transfer coefficient using a self-developed software which permit the design process easier.

  4. Retention of anhydrous ammonia as influenced by clay mineral types, cations, temperature and moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBee, George G

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to various temperature levels . . . . . ~ 20 5a 6. 70 Ammoni. a retained sxuressed as psr cent of cation-exchange capacity for olays treated with anhydrous ammonia prior to heating to various temperature levels . ~. . . . . . ~ ~ . 21 Ammonia retained... encountered in the use of anhydrous ammoni. . . REVIEW OF LITER4TURE Some of the early work with anhydx ous ammonia was done by anderson, et al. (2), and Enderson and Eattson (3). St that t1ms anhydrous ammonia as sn inorganic source of nitrogen fertiliaer...

  5. Evidence of two different types of short term solar modulation of regional surface temperature and cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmonds, Ian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work indicates that 27 day variations in cosmic ray flux during 2007 2009 are phase locked to 27 day variations in cloud and surface temperature at Shetland. Here we extend the study to other regions including Central England, US and Australia and to several other annual intervals that exhibit strong 27 day variation in cosmic ray flux and sunspot area. Band pass filtering was used to obtain 27 day components of daily maximum temperature in each region and 27 day components of cloud variation were determined, in Australia only, from solar exposure records. When cosmic ray flux is the dominant influence phase locked variations in surface temperature occur in each of the regions with, however, in phase or anti phase variation in different regions. Similar phase locking of 27 day variation in surface temperature to sunspot area variation occurs when sunspot activity is the dominant influence with indications that changes from in phase to anti phase variation are linked to flipping of sunspot activity from...

  6. A Comparison of the Performance of Different PV Module Types in High Ambient Temperatures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Centre for Renewable Energy Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia E-mail: acarr and summer in the temperate climate of Perth, Western Australia. The Perth summer averages over 7 peak sun operation during spring and summer in Perth, Western Australia, at reasonably elevated module temperatures

  7. CaMn1-x NbxO3 (x e 0.08) Perovskite-Type Phases As Promising New High-Temperature n-Type Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Type Thermoelectric Materials L. Bocher, M. H. Aguirre, D. Logvinovich, A. Shkabko, R. Robert, M. Trottmann, and A candidates as n-type polycrystalline thermoelectric materials operating in air at high temperatures of their high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal

  8. Oxygen diffusion and reactivity at low temperature on bare amorphous olivine-type silicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minissale, M., E-mail: marco.minissale@obspm.fr; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F. [LERMA-LAMAp, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)] [LERMA-LAMAp, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The mobility of O atoms at very low temperatures is not generally taken into account, despite O diffusion would add to a series of processes leading to the observed rich molecular diversity in space. We present a study of the mobility and reactivity of O atoms on an amorphous silicate surface. Our results are in the form of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption spectra of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} produced via two pathways: O + O and O{sub 2} + O, investigated in a submonolayer regime and in the range of temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. All the experiments show that ozone is formed efficiently on silicate at any surface temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. The derived upper limit for the activation barriers of O + O and O{sub 2} + O reactions is ?150 K/k{sub b}. Ozone formation at low temperatures indicates that fast diffusion of O atoms is at play even at 6.5 K. Through a series of rate equations included in our model, we also address the reaction mechanisms and show that neither the Eley–Rideal nor the hot atom mechanisms alone can explain the experimental values. The rate of diffusion of O atoms, based on modeling results, is much higher than the one generally expected, and the diffusive process proceeds via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism enhanced by tunnelling. In fact, quantum effects turn out to be a key factor that cannot be neglected in our simulations. Astrophysically, efficient O{sub 3} formation on interstellar dust grains would imply the presence of huge reservoirs of oxygen atoms. Since O{sub 3} is a reservoir of elementary oxygen, and also of OH via its hydrogenation, it could explain the observed concomitance of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ices.

  9. Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi, E-mail: sunyaev@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: khatri@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few ?K which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired.

  10. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  11. Room-temperature mid-infrared “M”-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum well lasers on InP substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Li, Zong-Lin; Pan, Chien-Hung; Lu, Hong-Ting; Lee, Chien-Ping; Lin, Sheng-Di, E-mail: sdlin@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated experimentally the InP-based “M”-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum-well (QW) laser lasing at 2.41??m at room temperature by optical pumping. The threshold power density per QW and extracted internal loss were about 234?W/cm{sup 2} and 20.5?cm{sup ?1}, respectively. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and lasing spectra revealed interesting characteristics for this type of lasers. Two distinct regions in the temperature dependent threshold behavior were observed and the transition temperature was found to coincide with the cross over point of the PL and lasing emission peaks. The current-voltage characteristic of “M”-type QW laser was superior to the inverse “W”-type one due to its thinner barrier for holes. Further improvement of the “M”-type QW structure could lead to a cost-effective mid-infrared light source.

  12. P-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low-temperature technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is obtained. P-type and N-type vertical TFTs have shown symmetric electrical characteristics. DifferentP-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low) ABSTRACT P-type and N-type multi-gate vertical thin film transistors (vertical TFTs) have been fabricated

  13. Effects of variations in rate of temperature rise, curing temperature and size of specimen on selected physical properties of concrete made with type III cement and steam cured at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Weldon Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    made with Type III Portland cement, 2. to determine the interrelationships of the physical pro- perties of the steam cured concrete as exhibited by the variation in size of the test specimens, 3. to compare certain physical properties of steam cured... it was believed that Type III Portland cement would respond favorably, to temperatures 1n the higher ranges. Due to this same reasoning the rate of temperature rise was varied between 40 F, 60o F and 80 F per hour. These oombinations of curing temperature...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth atoms Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals bands...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth metal Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline ... Source: del Barco,...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth metal compounds Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline ... Source: del Barco,...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metals pt Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline ... Source: del Barco,...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal ions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline ... Source: del Barco,...

  19. In-Pile SCC Growth Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water at JMTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiyuki Kaji; Hirokazu Ugachi; Takashi Tsukada; Yoshinori Matsui; Masao Ohmi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Nobuaki Nagata; Koji Dozaki; Hideki Takiguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In general, IASCC can be reproduced on the materials irradiated over a certain threshold fluence level of fast neutron by the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). It is, however, considered that the reproduced IASCC by PIEs must be carefully compared with the actual IASCC in nuclear power plants, because the actual IASCC occurs in the core under simultaneous effects of radiation, stress and high temperature water environment. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. A high temperature water loop facility was installed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to carry out the in-pile IASCC testing under a framework of cooperative research program between JAERI and the JAPC. In-pile IASCC growth tests have been successfully carried out using the compact tension (CT) type specimens of type 304 stainless steel that had been pre-irradiated up to a neutron fluence level around 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} before the in-pile testing since 2004. The tests were carried out in pure water simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant condition. In the paper, results of the in-pile SCC growth tests will be discussed comparing with the result obtained by PIEs from a viewpoint of the synergistic effects on IASCC. (authors)

  20. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. I. Temperature, Surface Gravity, Metallicity, and $v \\sin i$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted high dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and measured the stellar parameters of them. These 50 targets were selected from the solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler photometric data. As a result of these spectroscopic observations, we found that more than half (34 stars) of our 50 targets have no evidence of binary system. We then estimated effective temperature ($T_{\\rm{eff}}$), surface gravity ($\\log g$), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$) of these 34 superflare stars on the basis of our spectroscopic data. The accuracy of our estimations is higher than that of Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) values, and the differences between our values and KIC values ($(\\Delta T_{\\rm{eff}})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 219$K, $(\\Delta \\log g)_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.37$ dex, and $(\\Delta\\rm{[Fe/H]})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.46$ dex) are comparable to the large uncertainties and systematic differences of KIC values ...

  1. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  2. Geosynthetic clay liners in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKelvey, J.A. III [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as secondary barrier layers in environmental applications such as landfills and other impoundment facilities is becoming increasingly more popular among the engineering community, particularly at project sites where earthen materials suitable for barrier layers may not be locally available. Design engineers for these environmental applications are becoming well versed at performing equivalency calculations comparing the performance of geosynthetic materials to their earthen counterparts. For barrier layers, these equivalency calculations would normally compare the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the GCL to a compacted clay liner. Of these properties, the ability of the hydraulic properties to withstand degradation due to permeation of contained leachates is of prominent concern. Such is the case in alkaline environments. The leachate may adversely affect the GCL by minimizing swelling, decreasing adsorption capacity and increasing the permeability of the material. If the effect on the material is significant, the usefulness of this product is diminished, possibly voiding any equivalency comparison to compacted clay liner performance. The design engineer must fully understand what effect, if any, specific leachates will have on the GCL being considered. Accordingly, appropriate performance testing with the leachate in question must be performed during the design phase and confirmed during construction through quality assurance testing. This paper will present the design considerations, required laboratory testing and conformance tests for a recent project that contained an alkaline leachate. Through appropriate testing, a contaminant resistant GCL was shown to possess desired hydraulic properties in the presence of the alkaline leachate.

  3. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Marvin M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Kernohan, Robert H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  4. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  5. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation...

  7. alkaline ph alter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in magnitude and are often opposite in direction. It was also found that during Clyde Marshall; Leslie; F. Nims 37 Subcellular localization of marine bacterial alkaline...

  8. alkaline nuclear wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  9. alkaline nuclear waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  11. Novel alkaline earth copper germanates with ferro and antiferromagnetic S=1/2 chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandao, Paula [University of Aveiro, Portugal; Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new alkaline earth copper(II) germanates were hydrothermally synthesized: CaCuGeO4 center dot H2O (1) and BaCu2Ge3O9 center dot H2O (2), and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) crystallizes in space group P2(1)/c with a=5.1320(2) angstrom, b=16.1637(5) angstrom, c=5.4818(2) angstrom, beta=102.609(2)degrees, V=443.76(3) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This copper germanate contains layers of composition [CuGeO4](infinity)(2-) comprising CuO4 square planes and GeO4 tetrahedra with calcium and water molecules in the inter-layer space. Compound (2) crystallizes in the Cmcm space group with a=5.5593(3) angstrom, b=10.8606(9) angstrom, c=13.5409(8) angstrom, V=817.56(9) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This structure contains GeO6 and CuO6 octahedra as well as GeO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional network of interconnecting six-membered ring channels. The magnetic susceptibility for both samples can be interpreted as S=1/2 chains, in agreement with the copper topology observed in the crystal structure. The susceptibility of (1) exhibits a Bonner-Fisher type behavior, resulting from antiferromagnetic intra-chain interactions without three-dimensional ordering down to 5 K-the lowest measured temperature. This observation, together with the absence of super-exchange paths between the copper chains, make this system particularly promising for the study of low dimensional magnetism. The magnetic properties of (2) show a very weak ferromagnetic near-neighbor interaction along the chain. In this compound a peak the chi T plot seems to indicate the onset of interchain antiferromagentic correlations. However, no ordering temperature is detected in the susceptibility data.

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    ORIGINAL PAPER Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite in the southern Altai orogen for the Bulgen alkaline granite yield crystallization ages of 358 ± 4 Ma (SHRIMP) and 354 ± 4 Ma (LA-orogenic granitoids (460­375 Ma) in this region. The Bulgen granite has high SiO2, total alkalis, rare earth elements

  13. alkaline earth metals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth metals First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal...

  14. alkaline earth compound: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth compound First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  15. alkaline earth metallic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth metallic First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced alkaline water Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline water Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advanced alkaline water Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Net alkalinity and net acidity...

  17. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline massif kola Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: ultramafic-alkaline complex in the Kola Alkaline Prov- ince, northwestern Russia. This work continues... supports a close affinity between CAPR and carbonatitic rocks...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline pluton kola Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: ultramafic-alkaline complex in the Kola Alkaline Prov- ince, northwestern Russia. This work continues... supports a close affinity between CAPR and carbonatitic rocks...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth chlorides Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: of the alkaline earth cations, magnesium, calcium, and barium on the dissolution kinetics of quartz PATRICIAM... and alkaline earth cations in near-neutralpH solutions. We...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal cations Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. (2002): A novel group of alkaline earth metal amides: synthesis... ): Not just heavy "Grignards": Recent advances in the organometallic chemistry of the alkaline earth...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth cations Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the cation (alkaline, rare earth... to the cation size. Knowing that the size of rare earth elements and alkaline cations decreases in the following... of results on tungstate...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth isotopes Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that laser light could Summary: to alkaline elements, even isotopes of alkaline earth elements do not possess nuclear spin, and therefore do... temper- ature limits achievable by...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth lithium Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the cation (alkaline, rare earth... to the cation size. Knowing that the size of rare earth elements and alkaline cations decreases in the following... of results on tungstate...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline fluids released Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil Fuels 6 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: alkalinity. HCO3 is normally the dominant anion. Sr isotope ratios from...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hydrothermal reaction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering 13 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: alkalinity. HCO3 is normally the dominant anion. Sr isotope ratios from...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline intermediate level Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy 24 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal...

  8. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  9. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  10. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  11. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  12. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazias, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McGreevy, Tim (Morton, IL); Pollard,Michael James (East Peoria, IL); Siebenaler, Chad W. (Peoria, IL); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon. Such solution strengthening enhances the high temperature precipitation-strengthening benefits of fine dispersions of NbC. Such solid solution effects also enhance the stability of the austenite matrix from resistance to excess sigma phase or chrome carbide formation at higher service temperatures. The presence of sulfides is substantially eliminated.

  13. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  14. alkaline massif se: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  15. alkaline hydrothermal vent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  16. alkaline phosphatase activities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  17. african alkaline fermentedfood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  18. alkaline phosphatase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  19. alkaline phosphatase-conjugated oligonucleotide: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  20. alkaline complex south: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  1. alkaline province located: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  2. Observation of room temperature optical absorption in InP/GaAs type-II ultrathin quantum wells and quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. D., E-mail: devsh@rrcat.gov.in; Porwal, S.; Mondal, Puspen; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature optical absorption process is observed in ultrathin quantum wells (QWs) and quantum dots (QDs) of InP/GaAs type-II band alignment system using surface photovoltage spectroscopy technique, where no measurable photoluminescence signal is available. Clear signature of absorption edge in the sub band gap region of GaAs barrier layer is observed for the ultrathin QWs and QDs, which red shifts with the amount of deposited InP material. Movement of photogenerated holes towards the sample surface is proposed to be the main mechanism for the generation of surface photovoltage in type-II ultrathin QWs and QDs. QDs of smaller size are found to be free from the dislocations as confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  3. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  4. In situ atomic force microscopy imaging of electroprecipitated nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, R.; Mo, Y.; Scherson, D.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ atomic force microscopy images of nickel hydrous oxide films electrodeposited on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in alkaline electrolytes have shown that a stepwise oxidation leads to irreversible formation of wide crevices throughout the material. Upon subsequent stepwise reduction, the gaps close leaving a hairline type crack which follows the profile of the crevice. These potential induced structural rearrangements have been attributed to stresses induced by differences in the densities of the nickel hydrous oxide in the two oxidation states. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  6. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  7. A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, James Kent

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Dennis J. Opheim A previously undefined alkaline phosphatase in yeast, which is particulate, has been found. This latter form has no mobil- ity on polyacrylamide gels and can be sedimented after centri- fugation at 200, 000 x g for one hour. Over 90X... of the enzyme activity can be solubilized from the particulate fraction with 100 mM sodium cholate. In the solubilized state this enzyme has been found to migrate in the same position on polyacrylamide gels as the already known soluble repressible alkaline...

  8. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  9. Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Andrew M; Horan, James L; Aieta, Niccolo V; Sachdeva, Sonny; Kuo, Mei-Chen; Ren, Hui; Lingutla, Anitha; Emery, Michael; Haugen, Gregory M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Sharma, Neeraj; Coggio, William D; Hamrock, Steven J; Frey, Matthew H

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Original research was carried out at the CSM and the 3M Company from March 2007 through September 2011. The research was aimed at developing new to the world proton electrolyte materials for use in hydrogen fuel cells, in particular with high proton conductivity under hot and dry conditions (>100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH). Broadly stated, the research at 3M and between 3M and CSM that led to new materials took place in two phases: In the first phase, hydrocarbon membranes that could be formed by photopolymerization of monomer mixtures were developed for the purpose of determining the technical feasibility of achieving the program's Go/No-Go decision conductivity target of >100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. In the second phase, attempts were made to extend the achieved conductivity level to fluorinated material systems with the expectation that durability and stability would be improved (over the hydrocarbon material). Highlights included: Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized photocurable terpolymer derived from di-vinyl-silicotungstic acid (85%), n-butyl acrylate, and hexanediol diacrylate were prepared at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit an initial conductivity of 107mS/cm at 120°C and 47%RH (PolyPOM85v) using a Bekktech LLC sample fixture and TestEquity oven. Later independent testing by Bekktech LLC, using a different preheating protocol, on the same material, yielded a conductivity value of approximately 20mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. The difference in measured values is likely to have been the result of an instability of properties for the material or a difference in the measurement method. A dispersed catalyst fuel cell was fabricated and tested using a 150¼m thick HPA-based photocurable membrane (above, PolyPOM75v), exhibiting a current density of greater than 300mA/cm2 at 0.5V (H2/Air 800/1800sccm 70°C/75%RH ambient outlet pressure). Multiple lots of a co-polymer based on poly-trifluorovinylether (TFVE) derived HPA were synthesized and fabricated into films, Generation II films. These materials showed proton conductivities as high as 1 S/cm under high RH conditions. However, the materials suffered from compromised properties due to impure monomers and low molecular weights. Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized fluoropolymer derived from preformed PVDF-HFP (Generation III films) were synthesized and formed into membranes at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit conductivity reaching approximately 75mS/cm at 120°C/40%RH using a Bekktech sample fixture and TestEquity oven (optimized membrane, at close of program). Initial fuel cell fabrication and testing for this new class of membrane yielded negative results (no measureable proton conductivity); however, the specific early membrane that was used for the two 5cm2 MEAs was later determined to have <1 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH using the Bekktech fixture, vs. ca. 200 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH for samples of the later-optimized type described above. Future work in this area (beyond the presently reported contract) should include additional attempts to fabricate and test fuel cells based on the later-optimized Generation II and III polymer. A manufacturing study was performed which predicted no difficulties in any future scale up of the materials.

  10. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, Manuel F. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mfa@fe.up.pt; Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done for most of potential reactions between components in the batteries as well as between them and the surrounding atmosphere and it reasonably agrees the experimental results. The results obtained show the role of alkaline batteries at the acid gases cleaning process, through the neutralization reactions of some of their components. Therefore, LCA of spent AA alkaline batteries at the municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process must consider this contribution.

  11. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

  12. High temperature low-cycle fatigue of friction welded joints - type 304-304 stainless steel and alloy 718-718 nickel base superalloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, T. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center); Sakane, M.; Ohnami, M. (Ritsumeikan Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Okita, K. (Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Industrial Research, Miki (Japan). Technical Center for Machinery and Metals); Fukuchi, Y. (Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Industrial Research, Kobe (Japan))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the high-temperature low-cycle fatigue of the Type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 718 superalloy friction-welded joints. Strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests for 304-304 and 718-718 friction-welded specimens were carried out at 923 K in air to obtain the fatigue strength of the joints. These materials were selected as the cyclic hardening and softening materials, respectively. The 304-304 welded specimens showed inferior fatigue strength in comparison with the base metal while the 718-718 specimens exhibited fatigue strength equivalent to that of the base metal. The difference in the fatigue strength between the two materials is discussed from the viewpoint of the cyclic deformation behavior and strain reduction at weld interface.

  13. Increase in the Export of Alkalinity from North America's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    be fluvially exported. The fluvial export of terrestrial alkalinity is also the major source of oceanic bicarbonate or car- bonate through the weathering of the parent rock material, and the hydrologic cycle trans delivery can alter the export rates of elements with a weathering source (4). It has recently been shown

  14. alkaline earth compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth compounds First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  15. Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    1 Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment Will Mayes1 & Jon · Circum-neutral pH, high Fe concentrations Treatment wetlands and post-industrial pollution Taff Merthyr The basis for treatment wetlands · `Volunteer' wetlands · pH 12 lime spoil leachate · pH 12 steel slag

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth metal complexes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speciation of REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... (HA) 3-5. By contrast, in alkaline waters with high ... Source: Ecole...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth complexes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speciation of REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... (HA) 3-5. By contrast, in alkaline waters with high ... Source: Ecole...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth elements studied Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline-earth elements studied Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Heavy Alkaline-earth Elements: Barium and Radium...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hot springs Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: investigated, source of river solutes and alkalinity. Active hot springs are...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline siliceous hot Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: is the fraction of the total hot spring alkalinity derived from silicate...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline single cell Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous-alkaline biocarbon fuel cell. In view of the fact... that aqueous-alkaline hydrogen fuel cells have been used to power an Austin car and a commercial Black Cab... in...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline melts beneath Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    et al. 2001), mac alkaline magmas... , it is not coincident that the mac rock at Bingham Canyon is alkaline (Waite et al. 1997) and the basaltic mac melt... specia- tion...

  3. MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL of this work was to investigate the mineralogy of smectites in the soils surrounding a representative alkaline

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline phosphatase selective Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phosphatase activity is strongly... compounds. KKeeyywwoorrddss:: biosensor; algae; Chlorella; alkaline phosphatase; fluorescence; heavy metals... ; Rechnitz and Ho, 1990). This...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline phosphatase phok Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phosphatase activity is strongly... compounds. KKeeyywwoorrddss:: biosensor; algae; Chlorella; alkaline phosphatase; fluorescence; heavy metals... ; Rechnitz and Ho, 1990). This...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline phosphatase produced Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phosphatase activity is strongly... compounds. KKeeyywwoorrddss:: biosensor; algae; Chlorella; alkaline phosphatase; fluorescence; heavy metals... ; Rechnitz and Ho, 1990). This...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline phosphatase Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phosphatase activity is strongly... compounds. KKeeyywwoorrddss:: biosensor; algae; Chlorella; alkaline phosphatase; fluorescence; heavy metals... ; Rechnitz and Ho, 1990). This...

  8. Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell L. An, T.S. Zhao ethanol fuel cell Alkaline-acid Species concentrations Membrane thickness Power density a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell (AA-DEFC) that is composed

  9. Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform Fikile R of hydrogen H2 and oxygen O2 . Operating fuel cells in alkaline media, as opposed to acidic media, has on an alkaline microfluidic fuel cell for catalyst and electrode characterization. Its constantly refreshing

  10. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Baudry, Michelle (Le Pontaroux, FR)

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  11. Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

    2009-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  12. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meiser; M. J. Holland

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth-alkaline-like atoms with ultra-narrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements

  13. Positive bias temperature instability in p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with HfSiON/SiO{sub 2} gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Piyas, E-mail: piyas@vcfw.org [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar College for Women, 39 Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata 700 006 (India); Huang, Heng-Sheng; Chen, Shuang-Yuan [Institute of Mechatronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-Hsi [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 162, Sec. 1, He-Ping E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Li-Wei [Central R and D Division, United Microelectronics Corporation, No. 3, Li-Hsin Rd. II, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation on positive-bias temperature stress (PBTS) induced degradation of nitrided hafnium silicate (HfSiON)/SiO{sub 2} gate stack in n{sup +}-poly crystalline silicon (polySi) gate p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (pMOS) devices. The measurement results indicate that gate dielectric degradation is a composite effect of electron trapping in as-fabricated as well as newly generated neutral traps, resulting a significant amount of stress-induced leakage current and generation of surface states at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Although, a significant amount of interface states are created during PBTS, the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) instability of the HfSiON based pMOS devices is primarily caused by electron trapping and detrapping. It is also shown that PBTS creates both acceptor- and donor-like interface traps via different depassivation mechanisms of the Si{sub 3}???SiH bonds at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface in pMOS devices. However, the number of donor-like interface traps ?N{sub it}{sup D} is significantly greater than that of acceptor-like interface traps ?N{sup A}{sub it}, resulting the PBTS induced net interface traps as donor-like.

  14. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  15. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  16. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of strontium from alkaline and acidic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, R.J.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of strontium from acidic and alkaline media as applied to Hanford tank waste. The most promising methods of solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange are described. The following criteria were used for evaluating the separation methods: Appreciable strontium removal must be demonstrated; Strontium selectivity over bulk components must be demonstrated; The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process; The process should be safe to operate; The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating strontium from various waste types); Secondary waste generation must be minimized; and The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The methods discussed did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria; thus, key areas requiring further development are also given for each method. Less promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods were also identified; areas for potential development are included in this report.

  17. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline peroxide pretreated Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant Western Regional Center Summary: performed tests on Douglas fir and hybrid poplar biomass to identify the effect of pretreatment conditions... of alkaline elements and a...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth dihalide molecules Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline-earth dihalide molecules Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Vibrational signatures of zwitterionic...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline hypersaline mono Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eng KineretDataCenterProfileDC.asp) and its lake sediments are also alkaline (Stiller and ... Source: Yager, Patricia L. - Department of Marine Sciences, University of...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline dust impact Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chem. Phys., 10, 39994012, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net1039992010 Summary: in terms of accumulation of nitrate and sulfate, titration of dust alkalinity, and impact on...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline secondary cell Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    batteries within AUVs Summary: that secondary lithium batteries offer the lowest energy cost. PEM fuel cells should produce energy at a lower... alkaline and several primary...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline medium peliculas Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rate: medium Texture: medium Foliage Leaf arrangement: alternate (Fig... requirement: tree grows in full sun Soil tolerances: clay; loam; sand; slightly alkaline; acidic;...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth transition Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    various alkaline cations in order... to the cation size. Knowing that the size of rare earth elements and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali alkaline earth Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waterloo Collection: Chemistry 2 GEOL 305 Lecture 5 Felsic MaficIntermediate Summary: rare rhyolite Calc-alkaline and tholeiite basalts common, with less alkali basalt Mafic...

  8. Design and development in the field of alkaline fuel cell technology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schudt, Steffen, (Thesis)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? This thesis is about the research on alkaline fuel cell (AFC) technology to investigate the long term operation with air. The aim was to… (more)

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline thermal spring Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biotechnology 2 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: estimate that the springs provide 25 (15)% of the silicate-derived...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth silicate Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science 7 Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Summary: estimate that the springs provide 25 (15)% of the silicate-derived...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline band formation Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Chemistry 51 Residual alkalinity as tracer to...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline solution structure Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    added alkaline ethanol solutions have been ... Source: Zhao, Tianshou - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Collection: Energy...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline direct alcohol Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Oxford Collection: Mathematics ; Biology and Medicine 2 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell System Break-Out Session Summary: and reliability Advanced reformer (for alcohol...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth hafnates bahfo3 Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    apply the ab initio... of hafnium silicates (see e.g. Ref. 17). Perov- skite alkaline metal ... Source: Curtarolo, Stefano - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline nitrate solutions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net1039992010 Summary: . The model in- cludes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate... in terms of...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline soils Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the results were compared to alkalinity ... Source: Kirby, Carl S. - Department of Geology, Bucknell University Collection: Geosciences 49 Remediation of uranium...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline oxidizing conditions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    highly alkaline conditions. This discovery ... Source: Bethke, Craig - Department of Geology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

  18. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

  19. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  20. Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 °C). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

  1. Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Pt reserved. 1. Introduction In terms of fuel, a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is more attractive than

  2. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologiesAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

  3. Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing-electrolyte alkaline fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing- electrolyte alkaline fuel cell Fikile R 17 October 2011 Accepted 18 October 2011 Available online 12 November 2011 Keywords: Alkaline fuel cell Electrode characterization X-ray micro-computed tomography Microfluidic fuel cell Carbonates a b

  4. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  5. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  6. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high1 alkaline conditions2 3.1016/j.jcrysgro.2012.02.040 #12;2 Abstract16 Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one major replaced by18 chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions. In our study, olivine replacement19

  7. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  8. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  9. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  10. Waste Description Type of Project Pounds Reduced, Reused,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerator =1; National Synchrotron Light Source=1; Basic Energy Sciences=1) each handle 66 lbs. of hazardousWaste Description Type of Project Pounds Reduced, Reused, Recycled or Conserved in 2009 Waste Type Description Details * Alkaline batteries Recycling 200 Industrial waste $10 $0 $10 Two hundred pounds

  11. An investigation into high temperature superconducting flux pump technology with the circular type magnetic flux pump devices and YBaCuO films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires in the last decade has made it possible to wind high quality 2G HTS coils. These 2G HTS coils show promise for future applications such as magnetic...

  12. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta III b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Carl S.

    Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (=Ã?net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral p in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity

  13. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  14. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  15. Improvement of thermoelectric properties of alkaline-earth hexaborides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Masatoshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: takeda@mech.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Terui, Manabu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Takahashi, Norihito [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Ueda, Noriyoshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric (TE) and transport properties of alkaline-earth hexaborides were examined to investigate the possibility of improvement in their TE performance. As carrier concentration increased, electrical conductivity increased and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient decreased monotonically, while carrier mobility was almost unchanged. These results suggest that the electrical properties of the hexaboride depend largely on carrier concentration. Thermal conductivity of the hexaboride was higher than 10 W/m K even at 1073 K, which is relatively high among TE materials. Alloys of CaB{sub 6} and SrB{sub 6} were prepared in order to reduce lattice thermal conductivity. Whereas the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the alloys were intermediate between those of CaB{sub 6} and SrB{sub 6} single phases, the thermal conductivities of the alloys were lower than those of both single phases. The highest TE performance was obtained in the vicinity of Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}B{sub 6}, indicating that alloying is effective in improving the performance. - Graphical abstract: Thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, for (Ca,Sr)B{sub 6} alloys. The highest ZT value of 0.35 at 1073 K was obtained due to effective reduction of thermal conductivity by alloying.

  16. Spin reorientation transition and near room-temperature multiferroic properties in a W-type hexaferrite SrZn{sub 1.15}Co{sub 0.85}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Y. Q.; Fang, Y.; Wang, L. Y.; Zhou, W. P.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H., E-mail: wangdh@nju.edu.cn; Du, Y. W. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we investigate the magnetic and multiferroic properties of a W-type hexaferrite SrZn{sub 1.15}Co{sub 0.85}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27}. Due to the strong planar contribution to the anisotropy provided by Co{sup 2+} ions, this hexaferrite shows a spin reorientation transition from easy-axis to easy-cone at 302?K, which is different from the onset temperature of ferroelectric polarization, 275?K. By applying magnetic field, a remarkable drop of polarization is observed, suggesting a large magnetoelectric effect in this multiferroics. The difference between spin reorientation and ferroelectric phase transition temperature as well as the origin of magnetoelectric effect are discussed.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline ph jump Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health Summary: total alkalinity, the pH is unstable, and therefore you would have dramatic jumps in pH from...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkalinity bicarbonate rejection Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    By Elton Roberts Ripon, CA Summary: to bicarbonate in the water. Dropping the pH of the water leads to a decrease in the water alkalinity. The sole... is caused by the presence of...

  19. Electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in alkaline media in the presence of hexavalent chromium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    , at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, approximately 35 million gallons of highly ra- dioactive waste has be operated on a continuous basis. Keywords: alkaline media, electrochemical reduction, hexavalent chromium

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline water treatment Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and severity. Bogoria an alkaline saline, Rift Valley Lake at one time fresh water... rainwater was used in the dilution. Four treatments (100%vv lake water, 50%vv lake...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline phosphatase predicts Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results for: alkaline phosphatase predicts Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 In Silico Biology 5, 0034 (2005); 2005, Bioinformation Systems e.V. A new domain family in the...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline assisted thermal Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Adam Ray, Matt Van de Bogert, and Carl Johnson for technical assistance; and M. Stiller for providing... and alkalinity (HCO and CO ), calcite dissolution,2 3 3 and methane...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline cacl2 solutions Sample Search...

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    cacl2 solutions Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline cacl2 solutions Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 pH Effects on the structure of...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline internal ph Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: Islam, M. R. Summary: enhanced oil recovery (EOR) schemes. Alkaline water flooding is an old recovery process in which pH... acidic oil...

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline spring system Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flowers in the spring. It is also quite drought and alkaline soil tolerant... of soil pH. Care: Prune only in summer. Winter or spring pruning results in profuse bleeding. This...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earths Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth elements Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline earth elements Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 2001 Fall Meeting Eos Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet....

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth plasmas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal alkaline Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with alkali-metals 9, loi, alkaline earth metals l,18 and some of other rare-earth elements 19, 20 have... alkali metals were doped into C60 solids 9 and...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth neptunatesiv Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth lanthanide Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bound to carbonates as a function of pH for various alkalinities: (a... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth halogenides Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline earth zinc-aluminophosphate Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REE with organic matter in alkaline organic rich-water. .H ZRUGV Rare earth... of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) and carbonates was studied experimentally at various...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline permanganate-an electrochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for: alkaline permanganate-an electrochemical Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Biocarbon Fuel Cell III Thermodynamics permits the carbon fuel cell, which is a battery that...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline air pollution Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air pollution Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline air pollution Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Long-term and seasonal variations...

  16. A NEW CONCEPT IN AN ELECTRICALLY RECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of a New Zinc-Air Battery Concept Using Flowingdiagram of the zinc-air battery single cell prototype usedRECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY Philip N. Ross

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth silicate phosphors Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    differ in the nature of the angle... ). Weidner and Hamaya (1983) observed that the transition-metal oxides and the alkaline-earth oxides fail... the shear elastic moduli and...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal oxides Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    differ in the nature of the angle... ). Weidner and Hamaya (1983) observed that the transition-metal oxides and the alkaline-earth oxides fail... ... Source: Price, G. David -...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline black liquor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline black liquor Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Membrane Science, 33 (1987) 83-95 Elsevier Science...

  20. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  1. Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerling, T.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Halfman, J.D.; Lister, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water from 12 meter cores collected in November 1984 show that sulfate is reduced in the sediment column with a net production of alkalinity. Some sodium is lost from the lake and diffuses into the sediment to maintain charge balance. At several meters depth, organic matter is destroyed by methanogenic bacteria, as shown by the high delta /sup 13/C values for dissolved inorganic carbon. Magnesium and calcium molar ratios change with depth; chloride, sodium, and alkalinity also change with depth.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline electrolyte fuel cells Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cells Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline electrolyte fuel cells Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Biocarbon Fuel Cell III...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline treatment conditions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 589-598, May 1995 O 1995 American Society of Plant Physiologists The Activation of the Potato PR-lOa Gene Requires the Summary: . Treatment with alkaline phosphatase also...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - affects alkaline phosphatase Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 589-598, May 1995 O 1995 American Society of Plant Physiologists The Activation of the Potato PR-lOa Gene Requires the Summary: is affected by alkaline phosphatase only in...

  5. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  6. Utilization of by-products from alkaline hydroxide preservation of whole broiler carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, Truitt Preston

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM ALKALINE HYDROXIDE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE BROILER CARCASSES A Thesis by TRUITT PRESTON NIEMEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2002 Major Subject: Poultry Science UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM ALKALINE HYDROXIDE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE BROILER CARCASSES A Thesis by TRUITT PRESTON NIEMEYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  7. Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Nita

    Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution Michel R 16, 2005 We present 29 Si, 27 Al, and 67 Zn NMR evidence to show that silicate ions in alkaline, with aluminate (Al(OH)4 - ). Zincate reacts with monomeric silicate at pH 14-15 to form [(HO)O2Si-O-Zn(OH)3

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  9. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  10. Crystal structure and high temperature transport properties of Yb-filled p-type skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yongkwan [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Puneet, Pooja; Tritt, Terry M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Partially Yb-filled Fe substituted polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with nominal compositions Yb{sub x}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 12}, with varying filler concentrations x, were synthesized by reacting the constituent elements and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. The compositions and filling fractions were confirmed with a combination of Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients for the specimens increase with increasing temperature and plateau at around 750 K. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing Yb filling fraction, and bipolar conduction becomes evident and increases at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.8 was obtained at 750 K for Yb{sub 0.47}Co{sub 2.6}Fe{sub 1.4}Sb{sub 12}. The thermoelectric properties and potential for further optimization are discussed in light of our results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Yb-filled Fe-substituted p-type CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, Yb{sub x}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 12}, were structurally and physically characterized. • Both filling fraction and Co-to-Fe ratio affect the transport properties. • High ZT was obtained for the composition with ?50% Yb filling and a slightly lower than nominal Fe content.

  11. THE 3R ANTHRACITE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY Economical Conversion of Browncoal to Anthracite Type Clean Coal by Low Temperature Carbonization Pre-Treatment Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Someus

    The pre ven tive pre-treat ment of low grade solid fu els is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the “end-of-the-pipe ” post treat ment so lu tions. The “3R ” (Re cy cle-Re duce-Re use) in te grated en vi ron-ment con trol tech nol ogy pro vides pre ven tive pre-treat ment of low grade solid fu els, such as brown coal and con tam i nated solid fu els to achieve high grade cleansed fu els with an thra cite and coke com-pa ra ble qual ity. The goal of the 3R tech nol ogy is to pro vide cost ef fi cient and en vi ron men tally sus-tain able so lu tions by pre ven tive pre-treat ment means for ex tended op er a tions of the solid fuel com-bus tion power plants with ca pac ity up to 300 MWe power ca pac i ties. The 3R An thra cite Clean Coal end prod uct and tech nol ogy may ad van ta geously be in te grated to the oxyfuel – oxy-fir ing, Fos ter Wheeler an thra cite arc-fired util ity type boiler and Heat Pipe Re former tech nol o gies in com bi na tion with CO2 cap ture and stor age pro grams. The 3R tech nol ogy is pat ented orig i nal so lu tion. Ad van tages. Feedstock flex i bil ity: ap pli ca tion of pre-treated multi fu els from wider fuel se lec tion and avail abil ity. Im proved burn ing ef fi ciency. Tech nol ogy flex i bil ity: ef fi cient and ad van ta geous inter-link to proven boiler tech nol o gies, such as oxyfuel and arc-fired boil ers. Near zero pol lut ants for haz ard ous-air-pol lut ants: pre ven tive sep a ra tion of halo gens and heavy met als into small vol ume streams prior uti li za tion of cleansed fu els. ?97 % or ganic sul phur re moval achieved by the 3R ther-

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differentia

  13. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential

  14. Heat inactivation of alkaline phosphatase in human milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odumodu, Chinyelu Uzoamaka

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and cobalt; and the use of di sodium ethyl enedi amine tetraacetate I EDTA]. Fram ( 1957) further investigated the effect of temperature nd reported results which were essentially in agreement with other workers. Using skim milk, whole milk, 20K cream... was more readily destroyed in colostrum than in normal milk. Other work is proceeding in our laboratory on the heat destruction of bacterial cells in breast milk. 'When that work i s complete, the useful ness of pho sphata-e activity as a marker...

  15. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3....

  16. Synthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Available online 3 August 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Oxygen reduction Carbon in large quantities from agricultural products or biomass. Hence, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) haveSynthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline shift effect Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil Fuels 18 FEATURE ARTICLE T.S. Zhao, Y.S. Li, S.Y. Shen Summary: for the EOR in alkaline media whereas it was Pd1Ag1C for the PdAgC catalysts. The promoting...

  18. Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    alteration High-carbonate alkalinity Magnesite Lizardite Crystal growth Hydrothermal systems The present and carbonation of olivine with relevance in Earth systems (e.g. functioning of hydrothermal fieldsSimultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from hydrothermal alteration of olivine under

  19. The structure and energetics of $^3$He and $^4$He nanodroplets doped with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Hernando; R. Mayol; M. Pi; M. Barranco; F. Ancilotto; O. B{ü}nermann; F. Stienkemeier

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present systematic results, based on density functional calculations, for the structure and energetics of $^3$He and $^4$He nanodroplets doped with alkaline earth atoms. We predict that alkaline earth atoms from Mg to Ba go to the center of $^3$He drops, whereas Ca, Sr, and Ba reside in a deep dimple at the surface of $^4$He drops, and Mg is at their center. For Ca and Sr, the structure of the dimples is shown to be very sensitive to the He-alkaline earth pair potentials used in the calculations. The $5s5p\\leftarrow5s^2$ transition of strontium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets of either isotope has been probed in absorption experiments. The spectra show that strontium is solvated inside $^3$He nanodroplets, supporting the calculations. In the light of our findings, we emphasize the relevance of the heavier alkaline earth atoms for analyzing mixed $^3$He-$^4$He nanodroplets, and in particular, we suggest their use to experimentally probe the $^3$He-$^4$He interface.

  20. Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Matthew J. Evans hot springs flow within the steeply incised gorges of the central Nepal Himalayan front. The spring of central Nepal, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q08011, doi:10.1029/2004GC000719. G 3 G 3Geochemistry

  1. Author's personal copy An alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cell with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ), rather than carbon di- oxide (CO2) [5]. Hence, the actual and maximum electron transfer numbers per), and the product of ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media is pre- dominated by acetic acid (CH3COOH), respectively. Under this circumstance, the electron transfer rate (ETR) of the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR

  2. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  3. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. As a result, the overall cost of the fuel cell system can for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells E.D. Wang, T.S. Zhao*, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering Accepted 29 December 2009 Available online 8 January 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct ethanol fuel cell

  4. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Reis, Signo T. (Rolla, MO); Velez, Mariano (Rolla, MO); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  5. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  6. Nepheline syenites and related magmatic fluids in the Ditr u Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania Andrs Fall *, Robert J. Bodnar and Csaba Szab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    Nepheline syenites and related magmatic fluids in the Ditr u Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania Carpathians, in Romania, and is a Mesozoic alkaline igneous complex formed during an extensional phase

  7. Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

  8. Mechanism of CO Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Media J. S. Spendelow, J. D. Goodpaster, P. J. A. Kenis, and A. Wieckowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of the mechanism of CO oxidation on Pt surfaces would be useful in optimizing Pt-based catalysts for fuel cell fuel cells (DMFCs) and reformate- fed hydrogen fuel cells.1-11 Alkaline electrolytes have been shown carbonation in alkaline media complicates the use of alkaline electrolytes for fuel cells.16 Fuel cells

  9. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  10. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  11. Anodically electrodeposited Co+Ni mixed oxide electrode: preparation and electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Gang [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: wugang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Derui [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Mitsuo, Kurachi [Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8283 (Japan); Xu Boqing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co+Ni mixed oxides on Ni substrate were prepared through anodic electrodeposition from Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with five different Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratios beside only Co{sup 2+}. By the electrochemical measurements, the optimum performance in electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media was obtained on the Co+Ni mixed oxide deposited from the solution containing Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratio of 1:1. The mixed oxide is corresponding to about 68at% Co contents with spinel-type NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and porosity surface structure. The electrochemical kinetic parameters including exchange current density, Tafel slopes, reaction order with respect to [OH{sup -}] and standard electrochemical enthalpy of activation were analyzed also. A possible mechanism involving the formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate in a slow electrochemical step was presented, which accounts for the values of the experimental results.

  12. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  13. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Beck, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville; Rowe, E [Fisk University, Nashville; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  15. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  16. The synthesis and crystal structures of the first rare-earth alkaline-earth selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca and Sr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, P.S. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: psberd@inorg.chem.msu.ru; Olenev, A.V.; Dolgikh, V.A. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Lightfoot, P. [EaStChem, School of Chemistry, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new alkaline-earth Nd selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr) were obtained using crystal growth from alkaline-earth chloride melts in quartz tubes. These new compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic system in space group C cca (no. 68). The compounds were studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that both compounds adopt the same structure type, constructed by complex [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs separated by chloride anion layers perpendicular to the longest cell parameter. The SeO{sub 3} groups show a pyramidal shape and may be described as SeO{sub 3}E tetrahedra. Such SeO{sub 3} groups decorate the Nd-O skeletons forming the [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs. - Graphical abstract: Two new alkaline-earth Nd selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr) were synthesized. These structures are constructed by [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs separated by chloride anion layers.

  17. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  18. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  19. Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wu, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

  20. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperly, William R. (Summit, NJ); Deane, Barry C. (East Brunswick, NJ); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  1. Photovoltaic cell efficiency at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Katherine Leung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar cell could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic hybrid power generator, we tested the change in efficiency due to higher temperatures of three types of solar ...

  2. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  3. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Haverlock, Tamara J.

    2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research has focused on new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to separation of major sodium salts from alkaline tank waste. It was the overall goal to provide the scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of liquid-liquid extraction chemistry for bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated. Sodium hydroxide represented the initial test case and primary focus. It is a primary component of the waste1 and has the most value for recycle. A full explanation of the relevance of this research to USDOE Environmental Management needs will be given in the Relevance, Impact, and Technology Transfer section below. It should be noted that this effort was predicated on the need for sodium removal primarily from low-activity waste, whereas evolving needs have shifted attention to volume reduction of the high-activity waste. The results of the research to date apply to both applications, though treatment of high-activity wastes raises new questions that will be addressed in the renewal period. Toward understanding the extractive chemistry of sodium hydroxide and other sodium salts, it was the intent to identify candidate extractants and determine their applicable basic properties regarding selectivity, efficiency, speciation, and structure. A hierarchical strategy was to be employed in which the type of liquid-liquid-extraction system varied in sophistication from simple, single-component solvents to solvents containing designer host molecules. As an aid in directing this investigation toward addressing the fundamental questions having the most value, a conceptualization of an ideal process was advanced. Accordingly, achieving adequate selectivity for sodium hydroxide represented a primary goal, but this result is worthwhile for waste applications only if certain conditions are met.

  4. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  5. Investigations Into the Nature of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work accomplished in fiscal year (FY) 2013, exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Various aspects of FY 2013’s work were sponsored both by Washington River Protection Solutions and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection; because of this commonality, both sponsors’ work is summarized in this report. There were three tasks in this FY 2013 study. The first task involved examining the speciation of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ in alkaline solution by 99Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The second task involved the purchase and installation of a microcalorimeter suitable to study the binding affinity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ with various inorganic and organic compounds relevant to Hanford tank wastes, although the actual measure of such binding affinities is scheduled to occur in future FYs. The third task involved examining the chemical reactivity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ as relevant to the development of a [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ spectroelectrochemical sensor based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

  6. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  7. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  8. Temperature-dependent structural property and power factor of n type thermoelectric Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, K.; Das, Diptasikha [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)] [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra, E-mail: arbphy@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India) [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Center for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, JD-2, Sector-III, Saltlake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Mandal, P.; Srihari, Velaga [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)] [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Deb, A. K. [Department of Physics, Raiganj College (University College), Uttar Dinajpur 733 134 (India)] [Department of Physics, Raiganj College (University College), Uttar Dinajpur 733 134 (India)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal variation of structural property, linear thermal expansion coefficient (?), resistivity (?), thermopower (S), and power factor (PF) of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} (x?=?0.10 and 0.14) samples are reported. Temperature-dependent powder diffraction experiments indicate that samples do not undergo any structural phase transition. Rietveld refinement technique has been used to perform detailed structural analysis. Temperature dependence of ? is found to be stronger for Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10}. Also, PF for direct band gap Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} is higher as compared to that for indirect band gap Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}. Role of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering on ?, S, and PF has been discussed.

  9. Parity violating radiative emission of neutrino pair in heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yoshimura; N. Sasao; S. Uetake

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable excited states ${}^3P_2, {}^3P_0$ of heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes are studied for parity violating (PV) effects in radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP). PV terms arise from interference between two diagrams containing neutrino pair emission of valence spin current and nuclear electroweak charge density proportional to the number of neutrons in nucleus. This mechanism gives large PV effects, since it does not suffer from the suppression of 1/(electron mass) usually present for non-relativistic atomic electrons. A controllable magnetic field is crucial to identify RENP process by measuring PV observables. Results of PV asymmetries under the magnetic field reversal and the photon circular polarization reversal are presented for an example of Yb atom.

  10. Oscillatory Increases in Alkalinity Anticipate Growth and May Regulate Actin Dynamics in Pollen Tubes of Lily W OA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 b Integrative Cell Biology Laboratory, Durham University, Durham DH1 alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical

  11. An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao the performance of anion exchange membrane (AEM) direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is that state-of-the-art AEMs exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM- DEFCs) have received ever-increasing attention, mainly

  12. Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from1 hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from1 hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity2 3 Romain Lafaya, b , German Montes-Hernandeza, *, Emilie Janotsb experiments in order to investigate the simultaneous25 serpentinization and carbonation of olivine

  13. Bull. Soc. gol. Fr., 2008, no The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey): a Late

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., 2008, no 4 The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey-words. ­ Alkali basalt, Intraplate volcanism, Triassic (Upper), Neotethys, Turkey, Geochemistry. Abstract. ­ Late belonging to the Kara Dere ­ Sayrun unit of the Middle Antalya nappes, southwestern Turkey. New

  14. Historical and Short-Term Controls on Sulfate Reduction and Alkalinity Generation in Three Aquatic Ecosystems of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    precipitation, pyrite, sediments #12;Introduction First described as acid rain in 1852 by Scottish chemist Angus.19 to 13.47 mEq m-2 y-1 in freshwater sediments. Keywords: Sulfate reduction, alkalinity, acid Smith, all forms of atmospheric acid deposition continue to be an environmental problem faced

  15. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience ProgramBackground8.0.1 PrintTemperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV

  16. Evaluation of building and occupant response to temperature and humidity: non-traditional heat stress considerations A comparison of different construction types used by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nalbone, Joseph Torey

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    stifling hot in the summer and damp cold in the winter. The design and construction of dedicated prison facilities continued to progress slowly, but is was not until the 18th century and a review of world prisons by John Howard (State of the Prisons... at Dallas Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. James C. Rock This study examined the effects of construction types on the indoor environment of selected prison facilities in the State of Texas. Three collocated facilities of the Texas Department...

  17. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  18. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Different Alkaline Catalysts on Biodiesel Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cynthia Ofori-boateng; Ebenezer M. Kwofie; Moses Y. Mensah

    Abstract: A major challenge in the biodiesel industry is the comparatively high cost of raw materials for production. A cost build-up analysis of biodiesel production from J. curcas oil shows that catalyst alone contributes about 50.9 % of the total production cost. This paper aims at highlighting the effects of two different commonly used catalysts on the yield of biodiesel. Samples of biodiesel were produced by three different methods namely single stage transesterification (SST), double stage transesterification (DST) and foolproof (FP) processes in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were used. The effects of each catalyst on the production yield were analyzed and compared. NaOH gave production yields of 79%, 81% and 84 % for the SST, DST and FP processes respectively. KOH produced comparatively lower yields of 68%, 71 % and 75 % for SST, DST and fool proof processes respectively. Although the use of KOH slightly raises the cost of biodiesel production as compared to NaOH, the local production of KOH from cocoa husks could minimize the production cost. Abbreviations: BDF = Biodiesel fuel; PDF = Petroleum diesel fuel; DF = Diesel fuel Key words: Transesterification Alkaline catalysts Biodiesel yield Biodiesel KOH NaOH

  20. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  1. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  2. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  3. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  4. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise (Ris Orangis, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

    1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  5. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and it`s application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to (1) quantify the incremental oil produced from the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project by classical engineering and numerical simulation techniques,(2) to quantify the effect of chemical slug volume injection on incremental oil in the two swept areas of the field, (3) to determine the economic ramifications of the application of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology, (4) to forecast the results of injecting an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution to mature waterfloods and polymer floods, and (5) to provide the basis for independent operators to book additional oil, reserves by using the alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology. This report document the initial geological and reservoir engineering data gathering. In addition, some of the initial laboratory results are discussed. Some evaluation of the West Kiehl has been published.

  6. Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  7. Temperature effects on the electronic conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascaro, Mark Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature electronic conductivity and temperature dependence of conductivity were measured for samples of carbon nanotubes of three types: pristine; functionalized with a nitrobenzene covalent functionalization, ...

  8. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

  9. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  10. Deltaic sedimentation in saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Response to environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renaut, R.W. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Tiercelin, J.J. (Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Domaines Oceaniques)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Bogoria is a meromictic, saline (90 g/l TDS), alkaline (pH: 10.3) lake with Na-CO[sub 3]-Cl waters, located in a narrow half-graben in the central Kenya Rift. It is fed by hot springs, direct precipitation, and a series of ephemeral streams that discharge into the lake via small deltas and fan-deltas. Examination of the exposed deltas and >50 short cores from the lake floor, have revealed a wide range of deltaic and prodeltaic sediments, including turbidites and subaqueous debris-flow deposits. Studies of 3 long cores and the exposed delta stratigraphy have shown how the style of deltaic sedimentation has responded to environmental changes during the last 30,000 years. During humid periods when lake level is high the lake waters are fresher and less dense. Theoretically, high sediment yield and more constant discharge may promote underflow (hyperpycnal flow), generating low-density turbidity currents. In contrast, during low stages with dense brine, the less dense, inflowing waters carry fine sediment plumes toward the center of the lake where they settle from suspension (hypopycnal flow). Although applicable as a general model, the sediment record shows that reality is more complex. Variations in meromixis and level of the chemocline, together with local and temporal differences in sediment yield and discharge, may permit density flows even when the lake is under a predominant hypopycnal regime. During periods of aridity when sodium carbonate evaporites were forming, exposed delta plains were subject to desiccation with local development of calcrete and zeolitic paleosols.

  11. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic alkaline aquifers Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    zones, Fe(III) reduction may alter the abundance and type of the metal... on the sediment samples collected from both the aerobic and ... Source: Virginia, University of -...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline polymer electrolyte Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Type Common ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion...

  14. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A. [NMD and Associates, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  15. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  16. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  17. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  18. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, María V., E-mail: plapimu@yahoo.com.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Falco, Lorena R., E-mail: mlfalco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peluso, Miguel A., E-mail: apelu@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sambeth, Jorge E., E-mail: sambeth@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomas, Horacio J. [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  19. Proactive Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling High-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery Proactive Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling High-Temperature...

  20. Infrared spectra and structure of alkali-metal and alkaline-earth di-2-ethylhexylphosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyanov, E.S.; Mikhailov, V.A.; Popov, V.M.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The types of coordination of the di-2-ethylhexylphosphate anion (X/sup -/) to M/sup +/ (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and Mg/sup 2 +/ in solid salts and in their solutions in CCl/sub 4/ have been studied by IR spectroscopy (25-4000 cm/sup -1/). The combination LiX forms only polymers of type (I); NaX and KX form not only I, but also two types of monomers, (II) and (III), and RbX and CsX form practically only III and I to only a slight extent. The compound Mgx/sub 2/ forms linear polymeric molecules of the (MgX/sub 2/)/sub n/ type, in which the four oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of Mg/sup 2 +/ form a distorted tetrahedron. The forms CaX/sub 2/ and BaX/sub 2/ contain two or more inequivalent types of POO groups. The laws obtained for the variation of the types of coordination of POO groups to the M/sup +/ cation along the series from Li/sup +/ to Cs/sup +/ have been discussed in connection with the changes in the density of the charges on the M/sup +/ cations and their radii. It has been established that the interaction of the polymeric (LiX)/sub n/ molecules with pyridine (Py) results in the formation of short-chain (LiX 2Py)/sub n/ polymers and that the interaction in 100% pyridine results in the formation of long-chain polymers and monomeric molecules of type II. The properties of the salts studied and the corresponding carboxylates have been compared. The structure types are illustrated.

  1. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  2. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  3. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  4. Decomposition of NH3 on Ir(100): A Temperature Programmed Desorption Study A. K. Santra, B. K. Min, C. W. Yi, Kai Luo, T. V. Choudhary, and D. W. Goodman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    -temperature fuel cells are of great interest, yet require COx-free hydrogen for optimum operation. For example, proton exchange membrane fuel cells can tolerate only ppm levels of CO in the hydrogen fuel, whereas alkaline fuel cells require COx-free hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen production technologies such as steam

  5. In situ x-ray absorption fine structure and optical reflectance studies of electrodeposited nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.; Bae, I. T.; Mo, Y.; Antonio, M. R.; Scherson, D. A.; Chemistry; Case Western Reserve Univ.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and optical reflectance spectroscopy (RS) have been used to examine in situ electronic and structural aspects of nickel hydrous oxide, a-Ni(OH)2(hyd), electrodes supported on gold in alkaline electrolytes as a function of their state of charge. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of a-Ni(OH)2(hyd) electrodes in the uncharged (UC, or discharged) and overcharged (OC, or fully charged) states yielded, in each case, a single set of two distinct nearest-neighbor shells, with distances, d(Ni-O)1 = 2.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} and d(Ni-Ni)1 = 3.11 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} for UC, and d(Ni-O)1 = 1.87 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} and d(Ni-Ni)1 = 2.83 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} for OC. The in situ EXAFS of films allowed to self-discharge following overcharge could be fit with contributions from both sets of shells, suggesting that only two types of nickel sites are sufficient to account for the redox chemistry of this material. These data, in addition to information derived both from quantitative X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and optical RS in the visible range, indicate that the excess anodic charge, i.e., beyond the one-electron oxidation of Ni2+ sites, observed during the first oxidation of freshly prepared a-Ni(OH)2(hyd) electrodes may not be related to oxidation state changes involving nickel sites in the lattice, and, therefore, do not support the existence of nickel sites with a formal oxidation state higher than three for charged or overcharged electrodes in this media.

  6. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual report for the period January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Mundorf, W.R.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. {open_quotes}Detailed Evaluation of the West Kiehl Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and Its Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods{close_quotes} objective is to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  7. Magnetic insulation at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedecke, G. H.; Davis, Brian T.; Chen, Chiping [Physics Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 and Raytheon Missile Systems, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (United States); Intense Beam Theoretical Research Group, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and Raytheon Missile Systems, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A finite-temperature non-neutral plasma (FTNNP) theory of magnetically insulated (MI) electron flows in crossed-field vacuum devices is developed and applied in planar geometry. It is shown that, in contrast to the single type of MI flow predicted by traditional cold-plasma treatments, the nonlinear FTNNP equations admit five types of steady flow, of which three types are MI flows, including flows in which the electric field and/or the tangential velocity at the cathode may be zero or nonzero. It is also shown that finite-temperature Vlasov-Poisson treatments yield solutions for electron number densities and electrostatic potentials that are a subset of the FTNNP solutions. The algorithms that are used to solve the FTNNP equations numerically are discussed, and the numerical results are presented for several examples of the three types of MI flow. Results include prediction of the existence, boundaries, number density profiles, and other properties of sheaths of electrons in the anode-cathode gap.

  8. Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

  9. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L. [Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  10. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  11. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  12. Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles for Protection and Delayed Release of Enzymes in Alkaline pH and at Elevated Temperature during Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barati Ghahfarokhi, Reza; Johnson, Stephen J.; McCool, Stan; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul; Liang, Jenn-Tai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyethylenimine-dextran sulfate polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) were used to entrap two enzymes used to degrade polymer gels following hydraulic fracturing of oil wells in order to obtain delayed release and to protect ...

  13. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in Lawrence Field. Geologic and geocellular modeling needed for reservoir characterization and res

  14. The effect of stress cracked and broken corn kernels on alkaline processing losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, David Scott

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used and the final product desirecL Then the cooked corn and water mixture is, &equently, pumped to a soaking tank for a 8-15 br steep, Other commercial operations utilize large cooking tanks which, after cooking, serve as steeping tanks. After...-samples of Pioneer 3780 (P3780) were also preparezL The first sub- sample was dried in a continuous elevator drying system at 46' C and steeped in a bin for 6 hr, then cooled with ambient temperature air. The second Pioneer 3780 sub- sample was bin (batch) dried...

  15. Calc-alkaline mafic rocks of the Black Dyke Formation: Remnants of the final activity of a submerged Permian volcano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blein, O.; Lapierre, H.; Pecher, A. (URA-CNRS, Grenoble (France)); Schweickert, R.A. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Geological Science)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Permian Black Dyke Fm., which occurs as large tectonic slices within the Luning allochthon in the Excelsior Mountains, NV, forms an E-W trending anticline at Black Dyke Mountain. The 800-m thick stratigraphic succession consists of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks overlain conformably by volcaniclastic sediments. Along the northern limb of the anticline, the rocks consist of mafic porphyritic lavas, breccias, and graded and ungraded pyroclastic beds. The sedimentary unit consists of thick volcaniclastic turbidites overlain by conglomerates, sandstones, and mudstones. Along the southern limb of the anticline, the sequence is replaced by reworked breccia, tuffs, and sandstones. Mafic plutonic rocks occur as xenoliths in the lavas and breccias, and as coeval plugs intruding the section. Gabbros show cumulate or porphyritic textures and are composed of amph, cpx, and zoned plag. Their Ti/V (14.5--15) and Nb/Y (0.25--0.3) ratios fall in the range commonly found in calc-alkaline rocks. Diorite porphyry shows high Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], and REE abundances indicating that this rock is more fractionated. Basalts and andesites are plag-cpx-opx phyric. They often include glomeroporphyritic clots of cpx with amph coronas. Some rocks exhibit fluidal textures. Both volcanic and plutonic rocks show homogeneous geochemical features and similar crystallization sequences: Fe-Ti oxides---->plag---->opx + cpx----> brown zoned hbl, suggesting that they are cogenetic. Thus, the lower part of the Black Dyke Fm. likely represents the final products formed in a calc-alkaline magma chamber because pyroclastic rocks prevail over lava flows and abundant early crystal cumulates occur as plugs or as inclusions in the lavas and breccias.

  16. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  17. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  18. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, Neil C. (Chicago, IL); Warner, Barry T. (South Holland, IL); Smaga, John A. (Lemont, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  19. 6, 13011320, 2006 Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban, South Africa H and Physics Discussions Temperature climatology and trend estimates in the UTLS region as observed over Commons License. 1301 #12;ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban

  20. A Carbon-Supported Copper Complex of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole as a Cathode Catalyst for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Fuel Cell Applications Fikile R. Brushett, Matthew S. Thorum, Nicholas S. Lioutas, Matthew S. Naughton-tri/C) is investigated as a cathode material using an alkaline microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell. The absolute Cu be realized by optimizing catalyst and electrode preparation procedures. Fuel cell-based systems hold promise

  1. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  2. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3SrTiO3 thin films on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    by a 20-nm-thick SrTiO3 001 buffer layer. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies. INTRODUCTION Perovskite manganites RE 1-x AE xMnO3, where RE =rare earth and AE=alkaline earth formTemperature dependence of magnetic properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3Ã?SrTiO3 thin films on silicon

  3. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  4. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  5. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  6. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  7. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  8. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  9. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  10. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  11. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  12. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

  13. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  14. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  15. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  16. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  17. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  18. Elevated temperature crack propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orange, T.W.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  19. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  20. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  1. Rock types, pore types, and hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coalson, E.B.; Hartmann, D.J.; Thomas, J.B.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proposed exploration-oriented method of classifying porosity in sedimentary rocks is based on microscopic examination cores or cuttings. Factors include geometry, size, abundance, and connectivity of the pores. The porosity classification is predictive of key petrophysical characteristics: porosity-permeability relationships, capillary pressures, and (less certainly) relative permeabilities. For instance, intercrystalline macroporosity typically is associated with high permeability for a given porosity, low capillarity, and favorable relative permeabilities. This is found to be true whether this porosity type occurs in a sucrosic dolomite or in a sandstone with pervasive quartz overgrowths. This predictive method was applied in three Rocky Mountain oil plays. Subtle pore throat traps could be recognized in the J sandstone (Cretaceous) in the Denver basin of Colorado by means of porosity permeability plotting. Variations in hydrocarbon productivity from a Teapot Formation (Cretaceous) field in the Powder River basin of Wyoming were related to porosity types and microfacies; the relationships were applied to exploration. Rock and porosity typing in the Red River Formation (Ordovician) reconciled apparent inconsistencies between drill-stem test, log, and mud-log data from a Williston basin wildcat. The well was reevaluated and completed successfully, resulting in a new field discovery. In each of these three examples, petrophysics was fundamental for proper evaluation of wildcat wells and exploration plays.

  2. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  3. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to explore new liquid-liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of major sodium salts from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites. Disposal of high level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Since the residual bulk chemicals must still undergo expensive treatment and disposal after most of the hazardous radionuclides have been removed, large cost savings will result from processes that reduce the overall waste volume. It is proposed that major cost savings can be expected if sodium hydroxide needed for sludge washing can be obtained from the waste itself, thus avoiding the addition of yet another bulk chemical to the waste and still further increase of the waste volume and disposal cost. Secondary priority is given to separating potassium an d abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  4. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation and Recycle of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high- level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in the tanks has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. Treatment processes themselves can exacerbate the problem by adding further volume to the waste. Waste retrieval and sludge washing, for example, will require copious amounts of sodium hydroxide. If the needed sodium hydroxide could be separated from the waste and recycled, however, the addition of fresh sodium hydroxide could be avoided, ultimately reducing the final waste volume and associated disposal costs. The major objective of this research is to explore new liquid- liquid extraction approaches to the selective separation of sodium hydroxide from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Consideration is also given to separating potassium and abundant anions, including nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, and carbonate. Salts of these ions represent possible additional value for recycle, alternative disposal, or even use as commodity chemicals. A comprehensive approach toward understanding the extractive chemistry of these salts is envisioned, involving systems of varying complexity, from use of simple solvents to new bifunctional host molecules for ion-pair recognition. These extractants will ideally require no adjustment of the waste composition and will release the extracted salt into water, thereby consuming no additional chemicals and producing no additional waste volume. The overall goal of this research is to provide a scientific foundation upon which the feasibility of new liquid-liquid extraction chemistry applicable to the bulk reduction of the volume of tank waste can be evaluated.

  5. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  6. Typed Self-Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    type T y[O]. The operator IsIs is self-applicative, in thatargument t is any of Is[O] or IsIs, and otherwise behavesproof constant introduced by IsIs proves that the type of t

  7. Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xiaochen

    Room temperature direct gap photoluminescence (PL) was observed from n-type tensile-strained epitaxial Ge-on-Si. The PL intensity increases with n-type doping due to a higher electron population in the direct ? valley as ...

  8. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  9. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  10. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  11. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  12. Temperature Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, David

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

  13. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  14. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

  15. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research Establishment, Ris^, Denmark, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency,

  16. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heinrich; Petrology and Mineralogy of the Mt. Rosa Area, ElDana 1958 A textbook of mineralogy with an extended treatiseon crystallography and physical mineralogy, Dana, E.S. , and

  17. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Thorium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, Exemplified byabundance by gamma-ray spectrometry and, on the basis ofand thorium by gamma-ray spectrometry; exemplified by

  18. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ^ (0H) , also with rare-earth elements. Commonly altered andthe radio- and rare-earth elements. However, there iscontain the radio- and rare-earth elements. In general then,

  19. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Press, Canberra, Australia, 224 p. Gerasimovsky,University Press, Canberra, Australia, 369 p. Gerasimovsky,

  20. Alkaline Membrane Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy Natural Gas:Austin, T X S ummaryDirector,

  1. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenland," in Uranium Exploration Geology, Int. AtomicOklahoma," 1977 Nure Geology Uranium Symposium, Igneous HostMcNeil, M. , 1977. "Geology of Brazil's Uranium and Thorium

  2. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  3. Anisotropic criteria for the type of superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, Vladimir G [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical criterion for classification of superconductors as type I or type II based on the isotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory is generalized to arbitrary temperatures for materials with anisotropic Fermi surfaces and order parameters. We argue that the relevant quantity for this classification is the ratio of the upper and thermodynamic critical fields Hc2/Hc, rather than the traditional ratio of the penetration depth and the coherence length ?/?. Even in the isotropic case, Hc2/Hc coincides with 2??/? only at the critical temperature Tc and they differ as T decreases, the long-known fact. Anisotropies of Fermi surfaces and order parameters may amplify this difference and render false the criterion based on the value of ?=?/?.

  4. Document Type: Subject Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    Title: Authors: Source: Document Type: Subject Terms: Abstract: Full Text Word Count: ISSN at creating team results. In fact, it's priceless. Managers in Western corporations have received a lifetime

  5. Rechargeable alkaline zinc/ferricyanide battery, Phase III. Final report, 26 October 1981-18 September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, G.B.; Hollandsworth, R.P.; Webber, B.D.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project effort was concentrated primarily on technical advancement of the alkaline zinc/ferricyanide battery to meet goals of scale-up and demonstration of solid-reactant storage with 1000-cm/sup 2/ full-scale cells; development of a conceptual engineering design for a 50-kW solar-photovoltaic storage system; demonstration of solar acceptance random cycling; and determination of cycle life of cells operating at 70- and 200-mA.h/cm/sup 2/ capacity. These goals were met in the design, fabrication, and cyclic testing of a 1000-cm/sup 2/ cell having a flow aspect ratio of 2:1. After some design optimization, energy efficiency in 2N NaOH at 43/sup 0/C is 74 to 78 percent. Testing has been in conjunction with a crystallizer/reservoir designed with a capacity of 300 mA.h/cm/sup 2/ that delivers solids-free electrolyte to the cell. A conceptual engineering design for a 50-kW solar storage-battery system has been formulated with mass and thermal balances computed. Single-cell (60-cm/sup 2/) cycle life tests are in progress at 35 mA/cm/sup 2/ with 2N NaOH electrolyte with Nafion N-125 separator at 40/sup 0/C. Over 800 cycles at 70 mA.h/cm/sup 2/ capacity with mean energy efficiency of 76.6 +- 2.1 percent have been logged. Mean voltaic and coulombic efficiencies are 83.3 +- 1.8 percent and 92.0 +- 1.8 percent, respectively. Single-cell (60-cm/sup 2/) cycle life tests run under similar conditions at 249 +- 45 mA.h/cm/sup 2/ have logged over 220 cycles with mean energy efficiency of 75.3 +- 5.1 percent. Mean voltaic and coulombic efficiencies are 84.7 +- 2.0 and 89.0 +- 6.0, respectively.

  6. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  7. Low Temperature Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.0036 0.0038 0.004 0.0042 Inverse Temperature, 1K Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww) (BID 1935), 4.1V, 3 Sep. Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww)...

  8. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  9. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  10. Processing of LEU targets for {sup 99}Mo production: Dissolution of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} targets by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-enriched uranium silicide targets designed to recover fission product {sup 99}Mo were dissolved in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plus NaOH) at about 90C. Sintering of matrix aluminum powder during irradiation and heat treatment retarded aluminum dissolution and prevented silicide particle dispersion. Gas evolved during dissolution is suspected to adhere to particles and block hydroxide ion contact with aluminum. Reduction of base concentrations from 5M to O.lM NaOH yielded similar silicide dissolution and peroxide destruction rates, simplifying later processing. Future work in particle dispersion enhancement, {sup 99}Mo separation, and waste disposal is also discussed.

  11. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  12. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  13. Manufacturing High Temperature Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-TemperatureEnergyAll ManufacturingFoodOctoberto DOE

  14. STRENGTH OF N- AND P-TYPE SKUTTERUDITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Ragan, Meredith E [ORNL; Strong, Kevin T [ORNL; Ritt, Patrick J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Yang, Jihui [General Motors Corporation

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The failure stress distributions of developmental Yb0.27Co4Sb12.08 (n-type) and Ce0.86Co1.02Fe2.98Sb11.97 (p type) skutterudites were measured as a function of temperature. These thermoelectric materials are attractive candidates for use in devices under consideration for power generation sourced from intermediate to high-temperature waste heat recovery. A self-aligning, high-temperature-capable, three-point-bend fixture was developed and used to test specimens whose cross-sectional dimensions were equivalent to those typically used in thermoelectric device legs. The strength of the n-type skutterudite was approximately 115 MPa and independent of temperature to 500 C. The strength of the p-type skutterudite was equivalent to that of the n type material and independent of temperature to at least 200 C, but its strength dropped by ~20% at 400 C. Compared to other skutterudites, the herein tested compositions have equivalent or even superior strength.

  15. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH){sub 3}, Fe(OH){sub 3}, Cr(OH){sub 3}, and Mn(OH){sub 2} obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400.

  16. Hysteresis and Noise from Electronic Nematicity in High-Temperature Superconductors E. W. Carlson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Erica

    -temperature superconductors, in addition to superconductivity, there may exist various other types of order which breakHysteresis and Noise from Electronic Nematicity in High-Temperature Superconductors E. W. Carlson,1 reported in recent noise [8] and hysteresis [9,10] measure- ments on high-temperature superconductors

  17. Notice Type: Presolicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    each Accessory Kit for furnace hoist P/N: HTP40000A05.020, 1 each Highest temperature vacuum tube furnace P/N: HTP4000A89.000-00, 1 each Sample carrier system for TG measurements P/N: HTP40000A52.000-00, 1 each Furnace power supply system for 2400 degree C tungsten furnace P/N: HTP40000A30.010-00, 1

  18. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  19. Thermionic Converter Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner,B. J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  20. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  1. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery?temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overeem, A.

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on ...

  2. ReproducedfromJournalofEnvironmentalQuality.PublishedbyASA,CSSA,andSSSA.Allcopyrightsreserved. Phosphorus Speciation in Manure-Amended Alkaline Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puglisi, Joseph

    on the nature of the animal manure. Manure nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and conventional from between composted and raw dairy type. Total P in the subsurface soil was greater in the lagoon compared with the subsurface soils. These results provide piles, which may also be composted, and lagoons

  3. Biogeochemical redox cycling in hyper alkaline sediment-water systems. Ian Burke, Rob Mortimer and Doug Stewart (Civil Engineering)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    kiln contrusted at Harper Hill in Derbyshire by the Buxton Lime Company was biggest of its type and was in operation continuously, 24/7, from 1872 until it was closed in 1944. (The kiln was demolished in 1980 of the kiln, and groundwater in contact with this waste has become saturated in Ca-, Na-, and K- hydroxides

  4. Biogeochemical redox cycling in hyper alkaline sediment-water systems. Ian Burke, Rob Mortimer and Doug Stewart (Civil Engineering)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    kiln constructed at Harper Hill in Derbyshire by the Buxton Lime Company was biggest of its type and was in operation continuously, 24/7, from 1872 until it was closed in 1944. (The kiln was demolished in 1980 of the kiln, and groundwater in contact with this waste has become saturated in Ca-, Na-, and K- hydroxides

  5. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust around Type Ia supernovae Lifan Wang 1,2 LawrenceIa. Subject headings: Supernovae: General, Dust, Extinctionline) bands for Type Ia supernovae. (a), upper panel, shows

  6. Wolter type i LAMAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catura, R.C.; Joki, E.G.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

  7. Definitions: Types of Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, J. T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workshop on the Continuous Commissioning® Process Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko Masuda, Juan-Carlos Baltazar, PhD, PE Ahmet Ugursal, PhD Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Conference, Dallas, Texas. November 18, 2014... 5. Continuous Commissioning Measures 6. Measurement and Verification ESL-KT-14-11-41 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Definitions: Types of Commissioning Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko...

  8. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  9. Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity By Ohm's Law, resistance will dim. Low temperature superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike was explained by BCS theory. BCS theory explains superconductivity microscopically

  10. The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

  11. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  12. Low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Bingchen; Shen, Xiaonan; Shang, Jingzhi; Cong, Chunxiao; Yang, Weihuang; Eginligil, Mustafa, E-mail: yuting@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: meginligil@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 (Singapore); Yu, Ting, E-mail: yuting@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: meginligil@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117546 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High photoresponse can be achieved in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the response times are inconveniently limited by defects. Here, we report low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide prepared by exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The exfoliated device exhibits n-type behaviour; while the CVD device exhibits intrinsic behaviour. In off state, the CVD device has four times larger ratio of photoresponse for laser on/off and photoresponse decay–rise times are 0.1 s (limited by our setup), while the exfoliated device has few seconds. These findings are discussed in terms of charge trapping and localization.

  13. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  14. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  15. Forecast Technical Document Forecast Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forecast Technical Document Forecast Types A document describing how different forecast types are implemented in the 2011 Production Forecast system. Tom Jenkins Robert Matthews Ewan Mackie Lesley Halsall #12;PF2011 ­ Forecast Types Background Different `types' of forecast are possible for a specified area

  16. Control of household refrigerators. Part 1: Modeling temperature control performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graviss, K.J.; Collins, R.L.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial household refrigerators use simple, cost-effective, temperature controllers to obtain acceptable control. A manually adjusted airflow damper regulates the freezer compartment temperature while a thermostat controls operation of the compressor and evaporator fan to regulate refrigerator compartment temperature. Dual compartment temperature control can be achieved with automatic airflow dampers that function independently of the compressor and evaporator fan thermostat, resulting in improved temperature control quality and energy consumption. Under dual control, freezer temperature is controlled by the thermostat while the damper controls refrigerator temperature by regulating airflow circulation. A simulation model is presented that analyzes a household refrigerator configured with a conventional thermostat and both manual and automatic dampers. The model provides a new paradigm for investigating refrigerator systems and temperature control performance relative to the extensive verification testing that is typically done by manufacturers. The effects of each type of control and damper configuration are compared with respect to energy usage, control quality, and ambient temperature shift criteria. The results indicate that the appropriate control configuration can have significant effects and can improve plant performance.

  17. Quantum Chemistry at Finite Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liqiang Wei

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we present emerging fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. We discuss its recent developments on both experimental and theoretical fronts. First, we describe several experimental investigations related to the temperature effects on the structures, electronic spectra, or bond rupture forces for molecules. These include the analysis of the temperature impact on the pathway shifts for the protein unfolding by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of electrons in solvents, and the temperature influence over the intermolecular forces measured by the AFM. On the theoretical side, we review advancements made by the author in the coming fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. Starting from the Bloch equation, we have derived the sets of hierarchy equations for the reduced density operators in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. They provide a law according to which the reduced density operators vary in temperature for the identical and interacting many-body systems. By taking the independent particle approximation, we have solved the equations in the case of a grand canonical ensemble, and obtained an energy eigenequation for the molecular orbitals at finite temperature. The explicit expression for the temperature-dependent Fock operator is also given. They form a mathematical foundation for the examination of the molecular electronic structures and their interplay with finite temperature. Moreover, we clarify the physics concerning the temperature effects on the electronic structures or processes of the molecules, which is crucial for both theoretical understanding and computation. Finally, ....

  18. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  19. Syntheses and characterization of energetic compounds constructed from alkaline earth metal cations (Sr and Ba) and 1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia Zhengqiang [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Chen Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Wei Qing, E-mail: weiqq@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Qiao Chengfang [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new energetic compounds, [M(BTE)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub n} (M=Sr(1), Ba(2)) [H{sub 2}BTE=1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that they are isomorphous and exhibit 2D (4,4) net framework, generated by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs linked up by two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE, and the resulting 2D structure is interconnected by hydrogen-bond and strong face to face {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between two tetrazole rings to lead to a 3D supramolecular architecture. DSC measurements show that they have significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties, thermogravimetric analyses, and flame colors of the as-prepared compounds are also investigated in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 2D isomorphous alkaline earth metal complexes were assembled by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE ligands, and the catalytic performances toward thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and photoluminescent properties of them were investigated. Highlights: > Two novel alkaline earth energetic coordination polymers have been prepared.{yields} Both structures are layered based on 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two distinct H{sub 2}BTE coordination modes.{yields} The dehydrated products of the compounds possess good thermostability and significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of AP.

  20. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  1. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  2. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report...

  3. Temperature control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and non-silicon based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  4. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

  5. Effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical properties of concrete containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical properties of concrete containing haematite and A. Beycioglu5 Concretes containing different proportions of haematite (15, 30, 45 and 60%) were of concretes were determined according to ASTM C39 and ASTM C469. A rule based Mamdani type fuzzy logic model

  6. Effects of Radiation and Temperature on Iodide Sorption by Surfactant-Modified Bentonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choung, Sungwook; Kim, Min Kyung; Yang, Jungseok; Kim, Min-Gyu; Um, Wooyong

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Bentonite, which is used as an engineered barrier in geological repositories, is ineffective for sorbing anionic radionuclides because of its negatively charged surface. This study modified raw bentonite using a cationic surfactant (i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium [HDTMA]-Br) to improve its sorption capability for radioactive iodide. The effects of temperature and radiation on the iodide sorption of surfactant-modified bentonite (SMB) were evaluated under alkaline pH condition similar to that found in repository environments. Different amounts of surfactant, equivalent to the 50, 100, and 200% cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite, were used to produce the HDTMA-SMB for iodide sorption. The sorption reaction of the SMB with iodide reached equilibrium rapidly within 10 min regardless of temperature and radiation conditions. The rate of iodide sorption increased as the amount of the added surfactant was increased and nonlinear sorption behavior was exhibited. However, high temperature and ?-irradiation (60Co) resulted in significantly (~2–10 times) lower iodide Kd values for the SMB. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis suggested that the decrease in iodide sorption may be caused by weakened physical electrostatic force between the HDTMA and iodide, and by the surfactant becoming detached from the SMB during the heating and irradiation processes.

  7. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  8. Mechanism design with approximate types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zeyuan Allen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mechanism design, we replace the strong assumption that each player knows his own payoff type exactly with the more realistic assumption that he knows it only approximately: each player i only knows that his true type ...

  9. Types of Farming in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .......... .......-.----------------------. 8 Labor -..-.....-----...------------------------------------------------. 9 Land Tenure .--.----....---....--------------------------------- 9 Number and Size of Farms ....----...----.-._--------- 10 Capital... -------------...-------.---------------------------- 21 Hogs -......-....--------------------------------------------------- 22 Poultry .-.---.-.....--.-..------.---------------------------------- 22 Horses and Mules ---..-....---..--..------------------------ 23 Types of Farming and Type-of-farming...

  10. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  11. Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An update is given on the work of the PV Quality Assurance Task Force; Group 3: studying the effects of humidity, temperature, and voltage bias.

  12. High Temperature Processing Symposium 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liley, David

    } High temperature recycling operations } Materials sustainability } New furnace technology (including solar) We look forward to seeing you in February 2014. Dr M Akbar Rhamdhani (Chairman HTPS 2014) Prof

  13. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  14. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  15. Experiment Hazard Class 3 - High Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation * APS Base Low Temperatures * Cryogenic Systems High Temperatures * Electric Furnace * Optical Furnace * Other High Temperature Lasers * Laser, Class 2 * Laser,...

  16. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  17. Duality Phase Transition in Type I String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the duality phase transition in the unoriented type I theory of open and closed strings is_first order_. The order parameter is the semiclassical approximation to the heavy quark-antiquark potential at finite temperature, extracted from the covariant off-shell string amplitude with Wilson loop boundaries wrapped around the Euclidean time direction. Remarkably, precise calculations can be carried out on either side of the phase boundary at the string scale T_C = 1/2\\pi \\alpha^{'1/2} by utilizing the T-dual, type IB and type I', descriptions of the short string gas of massless gluon radiation. We will calculate the change in the duality transition temperature in the presence of an electromagnetic background field.

  18. Low temperature irradiation tests on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Sample cool down by He gas loop 10K ­ 20K Fast neutron flux Measured by Ni activation in 2010 1.4xK #12;reactor Cryogenics #12;Al-Cu-Mg He gas temperature near sample 12K Resistance changesLow temperature irradiation tests on stabilizer materials using reactor neutrons at KUR Makoto

  19. Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and the response time. Rutile-structured tin oxide (SnO2) is an n-type semiconducting material widely used in gas

  20. Detecting temperature fluctuations at equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixit, Purushottam D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gibbs and Boltzmann definitions of temperature agree only in the macroscopic limit. The ambiguity in identifying the equilibrium temperature of a finite sized `small' system exchanging energy with a bath is usually understood as a limitation of conventional statistical mechanics. We interpret this ambiguity as resulting from a stochastically fluctuating temperature coupled with the phase space variables giving rise to a broad temperature distribution. With this ansatz, we develop the equilibrium statistics and dynamics of small systems. Numerical evidence using an analytically tractable model shows that the effects of temperature fluctuations can be detected in equilibrium and dynamical properties of the phase space of the small system. Our theory generalizes statistical mechanics to small systems relevant to biophysics and nanotechnology.

  1. Finite temperature topological order in 2D topological color codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehdi Kargarian

    2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the topological order at finite temperature in two-dimensional color code is studied. The topological entropy is used to measure the behavior of the topological order. Topological order in color code arises from the colored string-net structures. By imposing the hard constrained limit the exact solution of the entanglement entropy becomes possible. For finite size systems, by raising the temperature, one type of string-net structure is thermalized and the associative topological entropy vanishes. In the thermodynamic limit the underlying topological order is fragile even at very low temperatures. Taking first the thermodynamic limit and then the zero-temperature limit and vice versa does not commute, and their difference is related only to the topology of regions. The contribution of the colors and symmetry of the model in the topological entropy is also discussed. It is shown how the gauge symmetry of the color code underlies the topological entropy.

  2. Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50 days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the ...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-thsisub 2-type structures Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and GeO2: difference and similarity Summary: room temperature phase omitting rutile- or CaCl2-type structure. The crystallization of the d... was found for a further transformation...

  4. Electrical and optical properties of p-type InN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, M.A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical and optical properties of p-type InN Marie A.thermoelectric and electrical properties of Mg doped InNthe temperature dependent electrical properties, the sign of

  5. On the asymptotic homotopy type of inductive limit Type ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this note we exhibit large classes of (projeetionless) stable, nuclear C*- algebras whose asymptotic homotopy type is determined by K-theoretical data.

  6. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract—The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

  7. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  8. A Dynamical Approach to Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans Henrik Rugh

    1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dynamical approach for measuring the temperature of a Hamiltonian dynamical system in the micro canonical ensemble of thermodynamics. We show that under the hypothesis of ergodicity the temperature can be computed as a time-average of the functional, div(grad H/|grad H|^2), on the energy-surface. Our method not only yields an efficient computational approach for determining the temperature it also provides an intrinsic link between dynamical systems theory and the statistical mechanics of Hamiltonian systems.

  9. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  10. DSC Evidence for Microstructure and Phase Transitions in Polyethylene Melts at High Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    DSC Evidence for Microstructure and Phase Transitions in Polyethylene Melts at High Temperatures polyethylenes of types HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE. DSC data were obtained for a range of heating and cooling rates previous rheology findings of order and high-temperature transitions in polyethylene melts. Introduction

  11. 1250 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL VOL. 6, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006 Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz, Werner

    1250 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL VOL. 6, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006 Room-Temperature Hydrogen Sensitivity sensors for room-temperature hydrogen monitoring. The Pt/LaF3 interface leads to a Nernst-type response s and was independent of hydrogen concentration. A method for the stabilization of a long-term behavior of the sensor

  12. Temperature control method for series-connected reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, L.M.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is claimed for controlling the temperature and composition of a vapor feedstream into a second reactor connected in series flow arrangement with a first reactor. The effluent stream from the first reactor containing vapor and liquid fractions is first cooled against a vapor stream and then further cooled against a suitable external fluid, then is phase separated to provide vapor and liquid fractions. The separated vapor fraction is reheated against the first reactor effluent stream and passed at an intermediate temperature into the second reactor. The first reactor is preferably an ebullated bed type catalytic reactor and the second reactor is preferably a fixed bed type catalytic reactor which is operated at an inlet temperature 20/sup 0/-200/sup 0/ F. lower than the first reactor effluent stream temperature. If desired, the effluent stream from the first reactor can be initially phase separated into vapor and liquid factions, and the vapor fraction only passed to the first heat exchange step for cooling to a first lower temperature.

  13. Unimolecular and hydrolysis channels for the detachment of water from microsolvated alkaline earth dication (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine theoretically the three channels that are associated with the detachment of a single water molecule from the aqueous clusters of the alkaline earth dications, [M(H2O)n]2+, M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, n ? 6. These are the unimolecular water loss (M2+(H2O)n-1 + H2O) and the two hydrolysis channels resulting to the loss of hydronium ([MOH(H2O)n-2]+ + H3O+) and Zundel ([MOH(H2O)n-3]+ + H3O+(H2O)) cations. The Potential Energy Curves (PECs) corresponding to those three channels were constructed at the Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) level of theory with basis sets of double- and triple-? quality. We furthermore investigated the water and hydronium loss channels from the mono-hydroxide water clusters with up to four water molecules, [MOH(H2O)n]+, 1 ? n ? 4. Our results indicate the preference of the hydronium loss and possibly the Zundel cation loss channels for the smallest size clusters, whereas the unimolecular water loss channel is preferred for the larger ones as well as the mono-hydroxide clusters. Although the charge separation (hydronium and Zundel cation loss) channels produce more stable products when compared to the ones for the unimolecular water loss, they also require the surmounting of high energy barriers, a fact that makes the experimental observation of fragments related to these hydrolysis channels difficult.

  14. Study of electrodeposited nickel-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten, cobalt-molybdenum, and cobalt-tungsten as hydrogen electrodes in alkaline water electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, C.; Piron, D.L.; Sleb, A.; Paradis, P. (Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Metallurgie et de Genie des Materiaux)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposited nickel-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten, cobalt-molybdenum, and cobalt-tungsten were characterized for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the electrolysis of 30 w/o KOH alkaline water at 25 C. The rate-determining step (rds) of the HER was suggested based on the Tafel slope of polarization and the capacitance of electrode-solution interface determined by ac impedance measurement. The HER on the nickel- and cobalt-based codeposits was enhanced significantly compared with that o the electrolytic nickel and cobalt with comparable deposit loadings. The decrease in the HER overpotential was more pronounced on the molybdenum-containing codeposits, particularly on cobalt-molybdenum which also showed a high stability. The enhancement of the HER was attributed to both the synergetic composition and the increased active surface of the codeposits. The real electrocatalytic activity of te electrodes and the effect of their and the increased active surface of the codeposits. The real electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes and the effect of their surface increase were distinguished quantitatively. The linear relations between HER overpotential and surface roughness factor of the electrodes on a Y-log(X) plot were obtained experimentally and interpreted based on the Tafel law.

  15. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of foreign metal ions in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.A.; Scherson, D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Antonio, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Carr, R. (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States))

    1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aspects of the structural and electronic properties of hydrous oxide films of composite (9:1) Ni/Co and (9:1) Ni/Fe, prepared by electrodeposition, have been examined in alkaline electrolytes using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). An analysis of the X-ray absorption near the edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for the Co and Fe K-edges of these composite hydrous oxides revealed that, regardless of the oxidation state of nickel sites in the films, the guest metal ions are present as Co[sup 3+] and Fe[sup 3+] and that the cobalt-oxygen distance d(Co-O) = 1.9 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom] and d(Fe-O) = 1.92 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom]. The latter values are in excellent agreement with d(Me-O) (Me = Co or Fe) in CoOOH and [beta]- and [gamma]-FeOOH, respectively, determined by conventional X-ray diffraction. Two clearly defined Me-Ni first coordination shells could be observed in the Fourier transforms (FT) of the K-edge EXAFS of the guest metal recorded at a potential at which both Ni[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 3+] sites are expected to be present. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Behavior of type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless in 55% lithium bromide heavy brine environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itzhak, D.; Elias, O. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical tensile specimens of AISI type 304 (UNS S30400) and type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steels (SS) were tested under constant-load conditions in 55% lithium bromide (LiBr) heavy brines at temperatures of 120 C and 140 C. Elongation and open-circuit potential (OCP) were recorded during the tensile test. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted, and the failed surface fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tested SS were subjected to stress corrosion under the test environments. Sensitivity was affected strongly by pH values. In LiBr brine of pH = 11.6, the passivation processes were more effective than in brine of pH = 6 [approximately] 8. Because of effective passivation behavior in brine of pH = 11.6, lower values of [delta]l[sub 0] were measured, indicating lower dislocation relaxation processes and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

  17. temperature heat pumps applied to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Very high- temperature heat pumps applied to energy efficiency in industry Application June 21th 2012 Energy efficiency : A contribution to environmental protection Kyoto Copenhage Emission, plastics Partnership : EDF R&D Bil

  18. Conducting polymer actuators : temperature effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Zio, Michael R. (Michael Robert), 1982-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to utilize conducting polymer actuators as a viable engineering solution, it is necessary to produce usable levels of force with a reasonable bandwidth. Polypyrrole actuated at temperatures as high as 100 °C ...

  19. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  20. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  1. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  2. Curie temperature of multiphase nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skomski, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Sellmyer, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Curie temperature and the local spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnetic nanocomposites are investigated. The macroscopic character of the critical fluctuations responsible for the onset of ferromagnetic order means that there is only one Curie temperature, independent of the number of magnetic phases present. The Curie temperature increases with the grain size and is, in general, larger than predicted from the volume averages of the exchange constants. However, the Curie-temperature enhancement is accompanied by a relative reduction of the spontaneous magnetization. Due to the quadratic dependence of the permanent-magnet energy product on the spontaneous magnetization, this amounts to a deterioration of the magnets performance. The length scale on which an effective intergranular exchange coupling is realized (coupling length) depends on the Curie-temperature difference between the phases and on the spacial distribution of the local interatomic exchange. As a rule, it is of the order of a few interatomic distances; for much bigger grain sizes the structures mimic an interaction-free ensemble of different ferromagnetic materials. This must be compared to the magnetic-anisotropy coupling length, which is of the order of 10 nm. The difference is explained by the nonrelativistic character of the Curie-temperature problem. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  4. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, J. Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hau-Riege, Stefan (Fremont, CA); Walton, Chris (Oakland, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  5. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These endeavors have lead us to a solution which we think is quite unique and should allow us to obtain flaw free dense films of thickness in the 0.5 to 5 {micro}m range at processing temperatures {le} 900{sup o}. The process involves the deposition of a slurry of nanocrystalline YSZ onto a presintered porous LSM substrate. The key element in the deposition is that the slurry contains sufficient YSZ polymer precursor to allow adhesion of the YSZ particles to each other and the surface after annealing at about 600 C. This allows the formation of a porous film of 0.5 to 5 {micro}m thick which adheres to the surface. After formation of this film, YSZ polymer precursor is allowed to impregnate the porous surface layer (capillary forces tend to confine the polymer solution in the nanoporous layer). After several impregnation/heat treatment cycles, a dense film results. Within the next few months, this process should be developed to the point that single cell measurements can be made on 0.5 to 5 {micro}m films on a LSM substrate. This type of processing allows the formation of essentially flaw free films over areas > 1 cm{sup 2}.

  7. Soft Typing PHP Patrick Camphuijsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Soft Typing PHP Patrick Camphuijsen Jurriaan Hage Stefan Holdermans Technical Report UU-CS-2009.O. Box 80.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Soft Typing PHP with PHP-validator Patrick Camphuijsen@cs.uu.nl Abstract PHP is a popular language for building websites, but also notori- ously lax in that almost every

  8. Cofinal types of directed orders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mátrai, Tamás

    , ) directed partial orders #12;Cofinal types (P, ), (Q, ) directed partial orders Tukey reducibility: (P orders Tukey reducibility: (P, ) T (Q, ) if f : P Q X P unbounded = f [X] Q unbounded g : Q P Y Q cofinal = g[Y ] P cofinal #12;Cofinal types (P, ), (Q, ) directed partial orders Tukey reducibility: (P

  9. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  10. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrological survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992. Final technical report, February 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, C.D.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research group contributed titration alkalinity analyses to transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey during 1991 and 1992. The results have been transmitted to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC) of the Department of Energy in a technical data report having two parts: Oceanic CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey of the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shipboard Analyses During 1991 and 1992, Part 1. Alkalinity Measurements on TUNES, Leg 3, 1991. Oceanic CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey of the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shipboard Analyses During 1991 and 1992, Part 2. Alkalinity Measurements on CGC92, Legs 1 and 2, 1992. This report contains a paper entitled, ``Total dissolved inorganic carbon measurements made on WOCE leg P13`` by Andrew G. Dickson. A brief description of how these measurements were made and calibrated has been provided along with a statement of the quality of the measurements. The data themselves have been sent to ORNL CDIAC for archival and distribution.

  11. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Trager, Scott [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)] [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chiavassa, Andrea [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)] [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  12. MOTION AND HOMOGENISATION OF VORTICES IN ANISOTROPIC TYPE-II SUPERCONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jon

    MOTION AND HOMOGENISATION OF VORTICES IN ANISOTROPIC TYPE-II SUPERCONDUCTORS S.J. CHAPMAN #3; G in an anisotropic superconductor is considered. For a system of well separated vortices, each vortex is found-temperature AMS subject classi#12;cations. 82D55 1. Introduction. Type-II superconductors are characterised

  13. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    runaway in Type Ia supernovae: How to run away? oIgnition in Type Ia Supernovae. II. A Three- dimensionalnumber modeling of type Ia supernovae. I. hydrodynamics.

  14. Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class temperature. #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear Fusion 2. There are a few different energy scales

  15. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  16. Finite Temperature Closed Superstring Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We find that the gas of IIA strings undergoes a phase transition into a gas of IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. A gas of free heterotic strings undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless duality transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat but vanishing internal energy at criticality. We examine the consequences of requiring a tachyon-free thermal string spectrum. We show that in the absence of Ramond-Ramond fluxes the IIA and IIB string ensembles are thermodynamically ill-defined. The 10D heterotic superstrings have nonabelian gauge fields and in the presence of a temperature dependent Wilson line background are found to share a stable and tachyon-free ground state at all temperatures starting from zero with gauge group SO(16)xSO(16). The internal energy of the heterotic string is a monotonically increasing function of temperature with a stable and supersymmetric zero temperature limit. Our results point to the necessity of gauge fields in a viable weakly coupled superstring theory. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  17. Scaling of Temperature Dependence of Charge Mobility in Molecular Holstein Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Tikhonov; N. S. Fialko; E. V. Sobolev; V. D. Lakhno

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for 4 types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all 4 types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e. those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

  18. Regular Type III and Type N Approximate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Downes; Paul MacAllevey; Bogdan Nita; Ivor Robinson

    2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New type III and type N approximate solutions which are regular in the linear approximation are shown to exist. For that, we use complex transformations on self-dual Robinson-Trautman metrics rather then the classical approach. The regularity criterion is the boundedness and vanishing at infinity of a scalar obtained by saturating the Bel-Robinson tensor of the first approximation by a time-like vector which is constant with respect to the zeroth approximation.

  19. Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cofield, R.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

  20. Mechanical instability at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaoming Mao; Anton Souslov; Carlos I. Mendoza; T. C. Lubensky

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Many physical systems including lattices near structural phase transitions, glasses, jammed solids, and bio-polymer gels have coordination numbers that place them at the edge of mechanical instability. Their properties are determined by an interplay between soft mechanical modes and thermal fluctuations. In this paper we investigate a simple square-lattice model with a $\\phi^4$ potential between next-nearest-neighbor sites whose quadratic coefficient $\\kappa$ can be tuned from positive negative. We show that its zero-temperature ground state for $\\kappa power-law behavior of the shear modulus as a function of temperature. We expect our study to provide a general framework for the study of finite-temperature mechanical and phase behavior of other systems with a large number of floppy modes.

  1. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  2. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  3. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  4. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Sunniva R.; Heuer, Arthur H.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys • Thermodynamic modeling to explain the high degree of carbon solubility possible in austenitic grades under the LTCSS process and experimental validation of model results • Corrosion testing to determine the corrosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Erosion testing to determine the erosion resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Wear testing to quantify the wear resistance improvement possible from the LTCSS process • Fatigue testing for quantifying the extent of improvement from the LTCSS process • Component treating and testing under simulated and in-line commercial operations XRD verified expanded austenite lattice, with no evidence of carbide precipitation. Carbon concentration profiles via Auger and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) showed carbon levels in excess of 12 at. % in treated, type 316 SS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of pulled-to-failure treated tensile specimens showed slip bands and no de-cohesion of the treated layer, verifying that the layer remains ductile. Compressive stresses in excess of 2 GPa (300 ksi) have been calculated at the surface of the case. Phase diagram (CALPHAD) (ThermoCalc) and Wagner dilute solution thermodynamic models were developed that calculate the solubility of carbon in austenite as a function of alloying content for the process time and temperature. Several commercial alloys have been modeled, and the model has been used to design experimental alloys with enhanced affinity for carbon solubility at treatment temperatures. Four experimental alloys were melted, rolled, and manufactured into test specimens, and the LTCSS treatment indicated successfully enhanced results and validated the predictions based on thermodynamic modeling. Electrochemical polarization curves show a 600 to 800 mV increase in pitting potential in treated (900-1000 mV) versus non-treated (200-300 mV) type 316 in chloride solutions. Treated 316L showed crevice-corrosion behavior similar to that of Ti-6Al-4V and Hastelloy C22. Cavitation tests showed significant increases in cavitatio

  5. Multi-phase glass-ceramics as a waste form for combined fission products: alkalis, alkaline earths, lanthanides, and transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, multi-phase silicate-based glass-ceramics were investigated as an alternate waste form for immobilizing non-fissionable products from used nuclear fuel. Currently, borosilicate glass is the waste form selected for immobilization of this waste stream, however, the low thermal stability and solubility of MoO{sub 3} in borosilicate glass translates into a maximum waste loading in the range of 15-20 mass%. Glass-ceramics provide the opportunity to target durable crystalline phases, e.g., powellite, oxyapatite, celsian, and pollucite, that will incorporate MoO{sub 3} as well as other waste components such as lanthanides, alkalis, and alkaline earths at levels 2X the solubility limits of a single-phase glass. In addition a glass-ceramic could provide higher thermal stability, depending upon the properties of the crystalline and amorphous phases. Glass-ceramics were successfully synthesized at waste loadings of 42, 45, and 50 mass% with the following glass additives: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and SiO{sub 2} by slow cooling form from a glass melt. Glass-ceramics were characterized in terms of phase assemblage, morphology, and thermal stability. The targeted phases: powellite and oxyapatite were observed in all of the compositions along with a lanthanide borosilicate, and cerianite. Results of this initial investigation of glass-ceramics show promise as a potential waste form to replace single-phase borosilicate glass.

  6. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3.0 License. Biogeosciences Soil respiration at mean annualI. L. , and Carvalho, J. E. M. : Effects of soil watercontent on soil res- piration in forests and cattle pastures

  7. Electronic Structure of LaOFeP - a Different Type of High Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia Nanoparticles as SelectiveElectronic Structure of

  8. A new type of carbon resistance thermometer with excellent thermal contact at millikelvin temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samkharadze, Nodar; Csáthy, Gábor A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a new brand of commercially available carbon resistor we built a cryogenic thermometer with an extremely good thermal contact to its thermal environment. Because of its superior thermal contact the thermometer is insensitive to low levels of spurious radio frequency heating. We calibrated our thermometer down to 5mK using a quartz tuning fork He-3 viscometer and measured its thermal resistance and thermal response time.

  9. Temperature Resistant Optimal Ratchet Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Alan Celestino; Marcus W Beims

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable periodic structures containing optimal ratchet transport, recently found in the parameter space dissipation versus ratchet parameter [PRL 106, 234101 (2011)], are shown to be resistant to reasonable temperatures, reinforcing the expectation that they are essential to explain the optimal ratchet transport in nature. Critical temperatures for their destruction, valid from the overdamping to close to the conservative limits, are obtained numerically and shown to be connected to the current efficiency, given here analytically. Results are demonstrated for a discrete ratchet model and generalized to the Langevin equation with an additional external oscillating force.

  10. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  11. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  12. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  13. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM); Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  14. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  15. RFID tag antenna based temperature sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Rahul

    Temperature monitoring is important in a number of fields, particularly cold supply chain applications. Most commercial wireless temperature sensors consist of transceivers, memory and batteries to maintain a temperature ...

  16. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  17. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  18. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  19. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  20. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  1. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  2. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  3. 3, 771789, 2007 temperatures and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    cooling and the onset of North American glaciation P. Huybers1 and P. Molnar2 1 Department of Earth that gradual cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific led to cooling of North America and the initiation affects North American temperature and ice-ablation. Assuming that the modern relationship holds5 over

  4. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  5. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  6. High temperature synthetic cement retarder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eoff, L.S.; Buster, D.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic cement retarder which provides excellent retardation and compressive strength development has been synthesized. The response properties and temperature ranges of the synthetic retarder far exceed those of commonly used retarders such as lignosulfonates. The chemical nature of the new retarder is discussed and compared to another synthetic retarder.

  7. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  8. HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, R.C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Mexicali,e C e r r o P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja C a l i1979 HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING R.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  10. Alkaline Electrolysis Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RIchard Bourgeois; Steven Sanborn; Eliot Assimakopoulos

    2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, GE developed electrolyzer stack technologies to meet DOE’s goals for low cost electrolysis hydrogen. The main barrier to meeting the targets for electrolyzer cost was in stack assembly and construction. GE’s invention of a single piece or “monolithic” plastic electrolyzer stack reduces these costs considerably. In addition, GE developed low cost cell electrodes using a novel application of metal spray coating technology. Bench scale stack testing and cost modeling indicates that the DOE targets for stack capital cost and efficiency can be met by full-scale production of industrial electrolyzers incorporating GE’s stack technology innovations.

  11. Affinity Purification of Plasmid DNA by Temperature-Triggered Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    E. coli cell lysates to a better purity than that prepared by a standard alkaline purification candidate for large-scale purification of plasmid DNA for sensitive applications such as nonviral gene and Doly, 1979) and CsCl-dye buoyant density-gradient ultra- centrifugation (Sambrook and Russell, 2001

  12. Requirements for Foreign National Payments Type of Payment Visa Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolpert, Robert L

    8233 36% 36% Royalty* NA NA NA NA Yes NA* No Yes W8BEN Varies 1. The visa types listed are the most related to the field of study on the I-20. 10. For Royalty payments the visa doc is not needed when

  13. AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    426 AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS SEP 2 1196: vuUiJo HIM. . SPECIAL and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS -temperature meter 11 Maintenance and trouble -shooting 12 #12;AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER

  14. Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class-Boltzmann equation: L = 4R2 T4 . (d) In fusion energy generation: T . #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear

  15. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  16. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  17. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  18. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  19. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carruthers, William D. (Mesa, AZ); Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  20. Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

  1. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  2. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  3. High-temperature, structural disorder, phase transitions, and piezoelectric properties of GaPO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haines, J.; Cambon, O.; Prudhomme, N.; Fraysse, G.; Keen, D. A.; Chapon, L. C.; Tucker, M. G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 5617, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, cc003, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Department of Physics, Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); and ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium orthophosphate was studied at high temperature up to 1303 K by total neutron scattering and 1173 K by piezoelectric measurements. Rietveld refinements at 1223 K confirm the stability of the structural distortion in the {alpha}-quartz-type phase with an average tilt angle {delta}=18.8 deg. at this temperature. In contrast, reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) refinements of total neutron scattering data indicate that, whereas the degree of structural disorder initially slowly varies over a very large temperature interval in the {alpha}-quartz-type phase, an increase in disorder is observed beginning above 1023 K. Piezoelectric measurements indicate that the quality factor (Q) of GaPO{sub 4} resonators remains stable up to this temperature above which the piezoelectric properties of the material degrade. This degradation can be correlated to the increase in structural disorder. RMC refinements indicate that the high-temperature {beta}-cristobalite-type phase at 1303 K is characterized by significant thermally induced disorder with oxygen atom density forming a continuous ring around the vector joining neighboring gallium and phosphorous atoms. Gallium phosphate may be expected to retain its piezoelectric properties up to within 200 K of the phase transition temperature and as a consequence be used in applications at temperatures slightly above 1000 K.

  4. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  5. Critical Temperature Associated to Symmetry Breaking of Klein--Gordon fields versus Condensation Temperature in a Weakly interacting Bose--Einstein Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias Castellanos; Tonatiuh Matos

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We deduce the relation between the critical temperature associated to the symmetry breaking of scalar fields with one--loop correction potential immersed in a thermal bath and the condensation temperature of the aforementioned system, assuming a harmonic oscillator type potential. We show that these two temperatures are related through the \\emph{scale} associated to the system. In this aim, we infer the order of magnitude for the \\emph{scale} as a function of the corresponding healing length, in order to give a criterium to compare both temperatures. Additionally, we prove that the condensation temperature is independent of the thermal bath within the semiclassical approximation, for a positive coupling constant, assuming that the thermal bath contribution is the lowest energy associated to the system.

  6. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  7. High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

    2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

  8. Dark fleshed varieties (Bing type) in regular type, light fleshed varieties (Rainier type) in italics Sweet Cherries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dark fleshed varieties (Bing type) in regular type, light fleshed varieties (Rainier type and Royalton. For more information about these and other varieties, visit our web site at www

  9. Country Scotland Type Single malt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzard, Rob

    Country Scotland Type Single malt Distillery Aberfeldy Region Highlands Age 12 years ABV 40% Cask, the perfume characteristics become more spicy, with a bitter hint of Seville oranges in a decidedly dry finish. Drying citrus/oak with a gentle spiciness, held in a warm embrace of cigar smoke, and a little vanilla

  10. Country Scotland Type Single malt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzard, Rob

    Country Scotland Type Single malt Distillery Jura Region Island Name Prophecy ABV 46 Cask French airport Notes Limited annual release: 10,000 bottles only. Nose Some peat, aniseed, oily, dry, pungent, dried hay, and anise round things out. Palate Smoky and dry, a muscular, powerful Jura with notes

  11. The Effects of Initial Condition of Fracture Surfaces, Acid Spending, and Type on Conductivity of Acid Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almomen, Ali Mansour

    2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    . Another area of interest is the variation of conductivity along the fracture due to acid spending. We also investigated the contact time, acid system type, and treatment temperature effects on conductivity using San Andres dolomite cores. The results...

  12. Maintenance Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-TemperatureEnergy Maine State Historic5 * September

  13. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Neutronic Core Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL] [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AHTR is a 3400 MW(t) FHR class reactor design concept intended to serve as a central generating station type power plant. While significant technology development and demonstration remains, the basic design concept appears sound and tolerant of much of the remaining performance uncertainty. No fundamental impediments have been identified that would prevent widespread deployment of the concept. This paper focuses on the preliminary neutronic design studies performed at ORNL during the fiscal year 2011. After a brief presentation of the AHTR design concept, the paper summarizes several neutronic studies performed at ORNL during 2011. An optimization study for the AHTR core is first presented. The temperature and void coefficients of reactivity are then analyzed for a few configurations of interest. A discussion of the limiting factors due to the fast neutron fluence follows. The neutronic studies conclude with a discussion of the control and shutdown options. The studies presented confirm that sound neutronic alternatives exist for the design of the AHTR to maintain full passive safety features and reasonable operation conditions.

  14. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  16. Automatic Utterance Type Detection Using Suprasegmental Features 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Helen

    that different types of utterances have different suprasegmental characteristics. The categorisation of these utterance types is based on the theory of conversation games and consists of 12 move types (e.g. reply to a question, wh-question, acknowledgement...

  17. University of Illinois Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) University of Illinois Project 29609 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of ferritic alloys for advanced reactor applications. The FeCr-based alloy system is considered the lead alloy system for a variety of advanced reactor components and applications. Irradiations of FeCr alloy samples were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in a static capsule in the A-11 position of the ATR.

  18. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    center, (ii) a pool of high humidity spreading to the coast, and (iii) temperatures between 0 and -5 C at the coastal area. Goree and Younkin (1966) described favored locations for the occurrence of heavy snow with respect to certain atmospheric.... Precipitation Type Precipitation type is dependent on the thermal structure of the lower atmosphere. Temperatures below freezing (0 C) from the level where precipitation forms to the surface result in snow. A layer of significant depth above the surface...

  19. Spectrometer Type Connes'-type 4-port Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prototype. CFC11 CFC12 HNO3 O3 CO2 27.6 km 25.3 km 23.0 km 20.7 km 18.4 km 16.1 km 13.8 km 11.5 km 9.2 km dependence. O3, CO2 and H2O spectral lines are also visible. The surface is obscured by clouds (detectors of the spectrum (top) and the variation of brightness temperatures across the detector array (bottom) CO2 H2O, N2O

  20. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten-rhenium and platinum rhodium thermocouples can be avoided. INL is also developing an Ultrasonic Thermometry (UT) capability. In addition to small size, UT’s offer several potential advantages over other temperature sensors. Measurements may be made near the melting point of the sensor material, potentially allowing monitoring of temperatures up to 3000 C. In addition, because no electrical insulation is required, shunting effects are avoided. Most attractive, however, is the ability to introduce acoustic discontinuities to the sensor, as this enables temperature measurements at several points along the sensor length. As discussed in this paper, the suite of temperature monitors offered by INL is not only available to ATR users, but also to users at other MTRs.

  1. Finite-temperature phase diagram of a spin-polarized ultracold Fermi gas in a highly elongated harmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queensland, University of

    manuscript received 10 April 2008; published 1 August 2008 We investigate the finite-temperature properties-temperature phase diagram. For typical interactions, we find that the exotic FFLO phase survives below one of lithium atoms with unequal spin populations 8­13 . This type of matter is of great interest

  2. Analysis of roll gap heat transfers in hot steel strip rolling through roll temperature sensors and heat transfer models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analysis of roll gap heat transfers in hot steel strip rolling through roll temperature sensors and heat transfer models N. Legrand1,a , N. Labbe1,b D. Weisz-Patrault2,c , A. Ehrlacher2,d , T. Luks3,e heat transfers during pilot hot steel strip rolling. Two types of temperature sensors (drilled and slot

  3. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  4. High-temperature corrosion in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operation at much elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitate development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The present paper characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over a wide temperature range of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials with potential for application in these systems. An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate materials for advanced combustion systems. Several candidate materials have been identified for evaluation. The candidates included advanced metallic alloys, monolithic ceramics, ceramic particulate/ceramic matrix composites, ceramic fiber/ceramic matrix composites, and ceramic whisker/ceramic matrix composites. The materials examined so far included nickel-base superalloys, alumina, stabilized zirconia, different types of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Coupon specimens of several of the materials have been tested in an air environment at 1000, 1200, and 1400{degree}C for 168 h. In addition, specimens were exposed to sodium-sulfate-containing salts at temperatures of 1000 and 1200{degree}C for 168 h. Extensive microstructural analyses were conducted on the exposed specimens to evaluate the corrosion performance of the materials for service in air and fireside environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Additional tests are underway with several of the materials to evaluate their corrosion performance as a function of salt chemistry, alkali vapor concentration, gas chemistry, exposure temperature, and exposure time.

  5. Processes yielding high superconducting temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beal-Monod, M.T.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that any microscopic description of the new high-T/sub c/ superconductors should take into account a number of important points concerning strong couplings, whatever their nature: absence of the MacMillan limit, absence of a Migdal theorem, and importance of the Brovman-Kagan type of vertices with different singularities depending on the dimensionality. As a consequence, the applicability of standard techniques such as the Eliashberg theory in particular, may be questioned in high-T/sub c/ superconductors.

  6. Temperature Dependence of the EUV Responsivity of Silicon Photodiodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kjornrattanawanich,B.; Korde, R.; Boyer, C.; Holland, G.; Seely, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsivity of silicon photodiodes was measured from -100 C to +50 C in the 3 to 250 nm wavelength range using synchrotron and laboratory radiation sources. Two types of silicon photodiodes were studied, the AXUV series having a thin nitrided silicon dioxide surface layer and the SXUV series having a thin metal silicide surface layer. Depending on the wavelength, the responsivity increases with temperature with the rates 0.013%/C to 0.053%/C for the AXUV photodiode and 0.020%/C to 0.084%/C for the SXUV photodiode. The increase in responsivity is consistent with the decrease in the silicon bandgap energy which causes a decrease in the pair creation energy. These results are particularly important for dose measurement in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography steppers and sources since the detector temperature often increases because of the high EUV intensities involved.

  7. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, Claudette G. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO.sub.3 type that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy corrosion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26-30 at. % aluminum, 0.5-10 at. % chromium, 0.02-0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron.

  8. Iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for high temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKamey, C.G.; Liu, C.T.

    1990-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved iron aluminide alloy of the DO[sub 3] type is described that has increased room temperature ductility and improved high elevated temperature strength. The alloy system further is resistant to corrosive attack in the environments of advanced energy conversion systems such as those using fossil fuels. The resultant alloy is relatively inexpensive as contrasted to nickel based and high nickel steels currently utilized for structural components. The alloy system consists essentially of 26--30 at. % aluminum, 0.5--10 at. % chromium, 0.02--0.3 at. % boron plus carbon, up to 2 at. % molybdenum, up to 1 at. % niobium, up to 0.5 at. % zirconium, up to 0.1 at. % yttrium, up to 0.5 at. % vanadium and the balance iron. 3 figs.

  9. Temperature Sensor Data Michael W. Bigrigg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    in the room. Sensor networks can be used to identify larger trends in temperature which could be used to report energy usage, HVAC problems, computer failures based on high temperatures, and fire evacuation

  10. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rempe, Joy L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knudson, Darrell L. (Firth, ID); Condie, Keith G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curt (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  11. Temperature-Dependent Chemical Properties of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Silberstein #12;What is a fuel cell? #12;Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Two phase ionomer (ionic polymer temperatures (thermal history) and relative humidities Temperatures 150o C for 1 hour 100o C, 90o C, 80o C, 70o

  12. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  13. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  14. An experimental study of temperature of burning coal particle in fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirko Komatina; Vasilije Manovic; Dragoljub Dakic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temperature of coal particle during combustion in fluidized bed (FB). It is necessary to know the coal particle temperature in order to predict kinetics of chemical reactions within and at the surface of coal particle, accurate NOx and SO{sub 2} emission, fragmentation, attrition, the possibility of ash melting, etc. The experimental investigations were conducted in order to obtain the reliable data on the temperature of particle burning in the FB. A method using thermocouple was developed and applied for measurements. Thermocouple was inserted in the center of the particle shaped into spherical form with various diameters: 5, 7, 8, and 10 mm. Two characteristic types of low-rank Serbian coals were investigated. Experiments were done at the FB temperature in the range of 590-710{sup o}C. Two types of experiments were performed: (I) combustion using air as fluidization gas and (ii) devolatilization with N{sub 2} followed by combustion of obtained char in air. The temperature histories of particles during all stages after introducing in the FB were analyzed. Temperature difference between the burning particle and the FB was defined as a criterion, for comparison. It was shown that the temperature profile depends on the type of the coal and the particle size. The higher temperature difference between the burning particle and the FB was obtained for smaller particles and for lignite (130-180{sup o}C) in comparison to the brown coal (70-130{sup o}C). The obtained results indicated that a primary role in the temperature history of coal particle have the mass and heat transfer through combusting particle. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  16. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  17. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  18. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  19. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  20. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Microstructural changes in unsupported nanocrystalline yttrium stabilized zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}:16%Y, or YSZ) thin films were examined as a function of temperature and annealing time in order to determine the grain growth exponent and the mechanisms of pinhole formation. Grain growth and pinhole formation were measured using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), normal imaging mode transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Grain growth was found to vary with a time exponent of about one half before pinhole formation and about one third after. Pinhole formation in 70 nm thick films occurred at temperatures near 600 C, corresponding to a grain size of about 15 nm, or a grain size to film thickness ration of approximately 0.25. The deposition of films on porous substrates is hampered by the penetration of the polymer precursor solution into the substrate whose pores as > 0.2 {micro}m, therefore much attention has to be paid to the development of porous colloidal oxide films onto surfaces. Thus during this line period we have been studying these films. Optical properties have proven to be an excellent way to study the quality of these nanoporous films. The influence of porosity and densification on optical properties of films on sapphire substrates that were prepared from water colloidal suspensions of small ({approx}5nm) particles of ceria was investigated. The colloidal ceria films have initially very porous structure (porosity about 50%) and densification starts at about 600 C accompanied by grain growth. The concurrence of these two processes makes it difficult to interpret the results of the optical spectrophotometry, but the combination of transmittance and reflectance measurements provides enough data to separate these two influences and to calculate the porosity, particle size and energy band gap separately. XRD, SEM, ellipsometry and mechanical profilometry were used to confirm the results obtained from the spectrophotometric measurements. All these methods gave results, which are in good agreement: the change in the porosity from 50% to 15% and the particle size increased from 5 to 65nm in the temperature region from 400 to 1000 C. An important result of the investigation is the fact that the main optical properties of the coating such as refractive index and band gap energy depend only on the porosity, but not on the grain size. The grain size influences the scattering properties of the coating, which allows the grain size to be estimated from optical measurements.