Sample records for types alkalinity temperature

  1. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  2. Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generated at an oil field undergoing steamflooding using either local ground or surface sources of water. The chemistry of feedwater at a steam generator facility is, therefore, field dependent. The process of steam generation usually produces two...H or temperature. 12 Reed" reported that quartz and other siliceous minerals have very low solubilities at room temperatures, but at elevated temperatures solubilities increase rather sharply. When HCO& ions in steam generator feedwater decompose to COz and OH...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacte- rium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was iso- lated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be pub- lished. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alkaline province of West Texas, near the northern terminusthe Diablo Plateau, West Texas • the lujavritic-tinguaitic

  5. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  6. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  7. Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be substituted for chlorophyll analyses in the alkalinity tolerance evaluation in sorghum, soybeans and citrus (DeCianzio et al. , 1979; Mckenzie et al. , 1984; Sudahono, 1991). Active Fe, a form of Fe effective in chlorophyll formation, is proportional... 1992 ABSTRACT Alkalinity Tolerance of Peach Rootstocks. (May 1992) Yan Shi, B. S. , Fujian Agricultural College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. David H. Byrne Peaches suffer from Fe chlorosis when grown in alkaline soils. A range of alkalinity...

  8. Alkaline metal-doped n-type semiconducting nanotubes as quantum dots Jing Kong, Chongwu Zhou, Erhan Yenilmez, and Hongjie Daia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    . The dispenser consists of a potassium salt and resistive heater, and is placed at about 1 cm away from recorded under a bias V 1 mV incremental step in Vg 25 mV at various temperatures. The conductance

  9. Coexpression of Wild-Type Tyrosinase Enhances Maturation of Temperature-Sensitive Tyrosinase Mutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebert, Daniel N.

    Coexpression of Wild-Type Tyrosinase Enhances Maturation of Temperature-Sensitive Tyrosinase.S.A. Tyrosinase is a type I membrane glycoprotein whose activity is essential for melanin synthesis. Loss of function mutations in tyrosinase is the cause of ocu- locutaneous albinism 1. In the milder oculocuta

  10. Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1992 ABSTRACT Alkalinity Tolerance of Peach Rootstocks. (May 1992) Yan Shi, B. S. , Fujian Agricultural College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. David H. Byrne Peaches suffer from Fe chlorosis when grown in alkaline soils. A range of alkalinity... could be assessed by leaf visual-chlorosis rating and Sped-502 reading instead of extractable leaf-chlorophyll concentration or leaf Fe concentration. Some modifications were suggested for the future evaluation. Bicarbonate was a major factor which...

  11. Temperature and peat type control CO2 and CH4 production in Alaskan permafrost peats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temperature and peat type control CO2 and CH4 production in Alaskan permafrost peats C . C . T R E Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA, 3 Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New carbon (SOC) losses following perma- frost thaw in peat soils across Alaska. We compared the carbon

  12. Effects of weld preheat temperature and heat input on type IV failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Effects of weld preheat temperature and heat input on type IV failure J. A. Francis*1 , G. M. D of a welded joint due to an enhanced rate of creep void formation in the fine grained or intercritically standpoint, and comparatively little effort has been directed at understanding the effects of welding

  13. Upgrading Amerada-type survey clocks for high-temperature geothermal service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, B.H.; Witten, C.L.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Amerada type subsurface recording gauges have been used by the oil and gas industry for many years. These mechanical logging instruments are currently used by the growing goethermal industry. As the gauges were designed for service in low-temperature oil and gas wells, a significant number of failures are occurring at elevated geothermal temperatures. The spring driven mechanical survey clocks appear to be the primary cause of the failures. The clock mechanisms tend to stop or lock-up when exposed to temperatures as high as 300/sup 0/C. This paper summarizes a project that was undertaken to upgrade the survey clocks to 300/sup 0/C capability. The major problems causing clock failure were indentified and corrected by straightforward design modifications together with special lubrication of the moving parts. Several clocks so modified performed reliably, both during laboratory oven tests and during field tests that were performed in actual geothermal wells at temperatures up to 330/sup 0/C.

  14. The ignition process in type Ia supernovae: numerical simulations of core temperature perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Iapichino; M. Brüggen; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of the thermonuclear runaway in a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, leading to the explosion as a type Ia supernova, is studied with hydrodynamical simulations. We investigate the evolution of temperature fluctuations (``bubbles'') in the WD's convective core by means of 2D numerical simulations. We show how the occurrence of the thermonuclear runaway depends on various bubble parameters. The relevance of the progenitor's composition for the ignition process is also discussed.

  15. The ignition process in type Ia supernovae: numerical simulations of core temperature perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iapichino, L; Hillebrandt, W; Niemeyer, J C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of the thermonuclear runaway in a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, leading to the explosion as a type Ia supernova, is studied with hydrodynamical simulations. We investigate the evolution of temperature fluctuations (``bubbles'') in the WD's convective core by means of 2D numerical simulations. We show how the occurrence of the thermonuclear runaway depends on various bubble parameters. The relevance of the progenitor's composition for the ignition process is also discussed.

  16. The oxidation of Type 310S stainless steel in mixed gases at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, J.S. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cavin, O.B.; DeVan, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sheet specimens of Type 310S stainless steel were exposed to air as well as to ``lean`` and ``rich`` sulfidizing atmospheres at temperatures near 900{degrees}C to determine the relationships that exist between the scale structure, the rate of reaction, and the stresses generated during exposure. One goal of this experimental research program was to examine how these factors might be related to the breakdown of protective scales in sulfidizing atmospheres. It was found that the scales formed in air and the ``lean`` atmosphere are protective and non-spalling while those formed in the ``rich`` atmosphere spall, initially react at rates 1000 times greater than counterparts in less aggressive atmospheres, and later exhibit a ``breakaway``-type rapid reaction. Only those scales formed in air provide the cooperative, tractive interfacial forces required to produce uniform dilatation and deformation of the substrate. However, evidence exists for at least localized stresses in all of the scales examined.

  17. The oxidation of Type 310S stainless steel in mixed gases at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, J.S. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Cavin, O.B.; DeVan, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sheet specimens of Type 310S stainless steel were exposed to air as well as to lean'' and rich'' sulfidizing atmospheres at temperatures near 900{degrees}C to determine the relationships that exist between the scale structure, the rate of reaction, and the stresses generated during exposure. One goal of this experimental research program was to examine how these factors might be related to the breakdown of protective scales in sulfidizing atmospheres. It was found that the scales formed in air and the lean'' atmosphere are protective and non-spalling while those formed in the rich'' atmosphere spall, initially react at rates 1000 times greater than counterparts in less aggressive atmospheres, and later exhibit a breakaway''-type rapid reaction. Only those scales formed in air provide the cooperative, tractive interfacial forces required to produce uniform dilatation and deformation of the substrate. However, evidence exists for at least localized stresses in all of the scales examined.

  18. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David B. (Ithaca, NY); Lao, Guifang (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  19. Hot alkaline treatment to stimulate and consolidate the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valera Villarroel, Cesar Amabilis

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to verify experimentally whether sand consolidation by high-temperature alkaline treatment was possible in the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 reservoir. The experiments were conducted using sand samples from a core taken...

  20. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  1. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  2. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  3. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report B. Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Proceedings from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Arlington, Virginia...

  4. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

  5. Standard Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination of Type F-Continuously Welded (CW) Ferromagnetic Pipe and Tubing Above the Curie Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy-Current) Examination of Type F-Continuously Welded (CW) Ferromagnetic Pipe and Tubing Above the Curie Temperature

  6. Temperature dependence of nuclear matter generalized isovector symmetry energy with Skyrme-type interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. L. Braghin

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of the nuclear matter isovector symmetry energy coefficient ($\\cA_{0,1}$) is investigated in the framework of the generalized nuclear polarizability with Skyrme interactions, as worked out in Refs. \\cite{npa,prc}. The variation of $\\cA_{0,1}(T)$ is very small (of the order of 1 MeV) for temperatures (T) in the range of 0 and 18 MeV. Different behaviors with temperature are found strongly depending on the Skyrme parameterization, in particular at densities lower than the saturation density $\\rho_0$.

  7. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudahono

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major... Subject: Horticulture SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Approved as to style and content by: David H. yr (Chair of Com ttee) Robert E. Rouse (Member) ~. Err. tg~i ~PI. ~~ Frank M. Hone (Member) Calvin G...

  10. A Comparison of the Performance of Different PV Module Types in High Ambient Temperatures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Centre for Renewable Energy Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia E-mail: acarr and summer in the temperate climate of Perth, Western Australia. The Perth summer averages over 7 peak sun operation during spring and summer in Perth, Western Australia, at reasonably elevated module temperatures

  11. Oxygen diffusion and reactivity at low temperature on bare amorphous olivine-type silicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minissale, M., E-mail: marco.minissale@obspm.fr; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F. [LERMA-LAMAp, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)] [LERMA-LAMAp, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Observatoire de Paris, ENS, UPMC, UMR 8112 du CNRS, 5 Mail Gay Lussac, 95000 Cergy Pontoise Cedex (France)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The mobility of O atoms at very low temperatures is not generally taken into account, despite O diffusion would add to a series of processes leading to the observed rich molecular diversity in space. We present a study of the mobility and reactivity of O atoms on an amorphous silicate surface. Our results are in the form of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption spectra of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} produced via two pathways: O + O and O{sub 2} + O, investigated in a submonolayer regime and in the range of temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. All the experiments show that ozone is formed efficiently on silicate at any surface temperature between 6.5 and 30 K. The derived upper limit for the activation barriers of O + O and O{sub 2} + O reactions is ?150 K/k{sub b}. Ozone formation at low temperatures indicates that fast diffusion of O atoms is at play even at 6.5 K. Through a series of rate equations included in our model, we also address the reaction mechanisms and show that neither the Eley–Rideal nor the hot atom mechanisms alone can explain the experimental values. The rate of diffusion of O atoms, based on modeling results, is much higher than the one generally expected, and the diffusive process proceeds via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism enhanced by tunnelling. In fact, quantum effects turn out to be a key factor that cannot be neglected in our simulations. Astrophysically, efficient O{sub 3} formation on interstellar dust grains would imply the presence of huge reservoirs of oxygen atoms. Since O{sub 3} is a reservoir of elementary oxygen, and also of OH via its hydrogenation, it could explain the observed concomitance of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O in the ices.

  12. Room-temperature mid-infrared “M”-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum well lasers on InP substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Li, Zong-Lin; Pan, Chien-Hung; Lu, Hong-Ting; Lee, Chien-Ping; Lin, Sheng-Di, E-mail: sdlin@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated experimentally the InP-based “M”-type GaAsSb/InGaAs quantum-well (QW) laser lasing at 2.41??m at room temperature by optical pumping. The threshold power density per QW and extracted internal loss were about 234?W/cm{sup 2} and 20.5?cm{sup ?1}, respectively. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and lasing spectra revealed interesting characteristics for this type of lasers. Two distinct regions in the temperature dependent threshold behavior were observed and the transition temperature was found to coincide with the cross over point of the PL and lasing emission peaks. The current-voltage characteristic of “M”-type QW laser was superior to the inverse “W”-type one due to its thinner barrier for holes. Further improvement of the “M”-type QW structure could lead to a cost-effective mid-infrared light source.

  13. P-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low-temperature technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is obtained. P-type and N-type vertical TFTs have shown symmetric electrical characteristics. DifferentP-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low) ABSTRACT P-type and N-type multi-gate vertical thin film transistors (vertical TFTs) have been fabricated

  14. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  15. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  16. Effects of variations in rate of temperature rise, curing temperature and size of specimen on selected physical properties of concrete made with type III cement and steam cured at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Weldon Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    made with Type III Portland cement, 2. to determine the interrelationships of the physical pro- perties of the steam cured concrete as exhibited by the variation in size of the test specimens, 3. to compare certain physical properties of steam cured... it was believed that Type III Portland cement would respond favorably, to temperatures 1n the higher ranges. Due to this same reasoning the rate of temperature rise was varied between 40 F, 60o F and 80 F per hour. These oombinations of curing temperature...

  17. In-Pile SCC Growth Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water at JMTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiyuki Kaji; Hirokazu Ugachi; Takashi Tsukada; Yoshinori Matsui; Masao Ohmi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Nobuaki Nagata; Koji Dozaki; Hideki Takiguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In general, IASCC can be reproduced on the materials irradiated over a certain threshold fluence level of fast neutron by the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). It is, however, considered that the reproduced IASCC by PIEs must be carefully compared with the actual IASCC in nuclear power plants, because the actual IASCC occurs in the core under simultaneous effects of radiation, stress and high temperature water environment. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. A high temperature water loop facility was installed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to carry out the in-pile IASCC testing under a framework of cooperative research program between JAERI and the JAPC. In-pile IASCC growth tests have been successfully carried out using the compact tension (CT) type specimens of type 304 stainless steel that had been pre-irradiated up to a neutron fluence level around 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} before the in-pile testing since 2004. The tests were carried out in pure water simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant condition. In the paper, results of the in-pile SCC growth tests will be discussed comparing with the result obtained by PIEs from a viewpoint of the synergistic effects on IASCC. (authors)

  18. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awan, Saif Ullah, E-mail: saifullah@comsats.edu.pk, E-mail: ullahphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hasanain, S. K. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Anjum, D. H. [Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab (ANIC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Makkah 23599-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Awan, M. S. [Center for Micro and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, Saqlain A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn{sub 1?y}Li{sub y}O(0.00?y?0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4?×?10{sup 17}/cc to 7.3?×?10{sup 17}/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5?kV/cm (0.11 ?C/cm{sup 2}) and 2.8?kV/cm (0.15 ?C/cm{sup 2}) for y?=?0.08 and y?=?0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ?5.3?×?10{sup 17}/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  19. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. I. Temperature, Surface Gravity, Metallicity, and $v \\sin i$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted high dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and measured the stellar parameters of them. These 50 targets were selected from the solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler photometric data. As a result of these spectroscopic observations, we found that more than half (34 stars) of our 50 targets have no evidence of binary system. We then estimated effective temperature ($T_{\\rm{eff}}$), surface gravity ($\\log g$), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$) of these 34 superflare stars on the basis of our spectroscopic data. The accuracy of our estimations is higher than that of Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) values, and the differences between our values and KIC values ($(\\Delta T_{\\rm{eff}})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 219$K, $(\\Delta \\log g)_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.37$ dex, and $(\\Delta\\rm{[Fe/H]})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.46$ dex) are comparable to the large uncertainties and systematic differences of KIC values ...

  20. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  1. Geosynthetic clay liners in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKelvey, J.A. III [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as secondary barrier layers in environmental applications such as landfills and other impoundment facilities is becoming increasingly more popular among the engineering community, particularly at project sites where earthen materials suitable for barrier layers may not be locally available. Design engineers for these environmental applications are becoming well versed at performing equivalency calculations comparing the performance of geosynthetic materials to their earthen counterparts. For barrier layers, these equivalency calculations would normally compare the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the GCL to a compacted clay liner. Of these properties, the ability of the hydraulic properties to withstand degradation due to permeation of contained leachates is of prominent concern. Such is the case in alkaline environments. The leachate may adversely affect the GCL by minimizing swelling, decreasing adsorption capacity and increasing the permeability of the material. If the effect on the material is significant, the usefulness of this product is diminished, possibly voiding any equivalency comparison to compacted clay liner performance. The design engineer must fully understand what effect, if any, specific leachates will have on the GCL being considered. Accordingly, appropriate performance testing with the leachate in question must be performed during the design phase and confirmed during construction through quality assurance testing. This paper will present the design considerations, required laboratory testing and conformance tests for a recent project that contained an alkaline leachate. Through appropriate testing, a contaminant resistant GCL was shown to possess desired hydraulic properties in the presence of the alkaline leachate.

  2. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Marvin M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Kernohan, Robert H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  3. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  4. Novel alkaline earth copper germanates with ferro and antiferromagnetic S=1/2 chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandao, Paula [University of Aveiro, Portugal; Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new alkaline earth copper(II) germanates were hydrothermally synthesized: CaCuGeO4 center dot H2O (1) and BaCu2Ge3O9 center dot H2O (2), and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) crystallizes in space group P2(1)/c with a=5.1320(2) angstrom, b=16.1637(5) angstrom, c=5.4818(2) angstrom, beta=102.609(2)degrees, V=443.76(3) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This copper germanate contains layers of composition [CuGeO4](infinity)(2-) comprising CuO4 square planes and GeO4 tetrahedra with calcium and water molecules in the inter-layer space. Compound (2) crystallizes in the Cmcm space group with a=5.5593(3) angstrom, b=10.8606(9) angstrom, c=13.5409(8) angstrom, V=817.56(9) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This structure contains GeO6 and CuO6 octahedra as well as GeO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional network of interconnecting six-membered ring channels. The magnetic susceptibility for both samples can be interpreted as S=1/2 chains, in agreement with the copper topology observed in the crystal structure. The susceptibility of (1) exhibits a Bonner-Fisher type behavior, resulting from antiferromagnetic intra-chain interactions without three-dimensional ordering down to 5 K-the lowest measured temperature. This observation, together with the absence of super-exchange paths between the copper chains, make this system particularly promising for the study of low dimensional magnetism. The magnetic properties of (2) show a very weak ferromagnetic near-neighbor interaction along the chain. In this compound a peak the chi T plot seems to indicate the onset of interchain antiferromagentic correlations. However, no ordering temperature is detected in the susceptibility data.

  5. alkaline ph alter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in magnitude and are often opposite in direction. It was also found that during Clyde Marshall; Leslie; F. Nims 37 Subcellular localization of marine bacterial alkaline...

  6. alkali metal alkaline: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for hydrogen, the alkali-metal atoms, the alkaline earth atoms, and the inert gases are tabulated along with the resulting values of the atomic static polarizabilities,...

  7. alkaline phosphatase production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    any soluble alkaline phospha rase activity remaining, and the supernatant solution and pellet separated. The pellet was suspended in 110 ml of the above buffer and homogenized. To...

  8. alkaline water electrolysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane Yongjun Leng,, Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Supporting Information ABSTRACT:...

  9. alkaline single cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through both new materials and membrane electrode processing 10 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  10. alkaline earth metal compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley. FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Cohen, Ronald C. 2 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  11. alkaline secondary cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through both new materials and membrane electrode processing 8 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  12. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation...

  13. alkaline phosphate wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  14. alkaline emissions produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  15. alkaline tank waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  16. alkaline waste solutions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  17. alkaline nuclear wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  18. alkaline nuclear waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  19. Effect of in-pile degradation of the meat thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the plate-type U-Mo dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of in-pile degradation of thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the plate-type research reactor fuels has been assessed using the steady-state heat conduction equation and assuming convection cooling. It was found that due to very low meat thickness, characteristic for this type of fuel, the effect of thermal conductivity degradation on the maximum fuel temperature is minor. For example, the fuel plate featuring 0.635 mm thick meat operating at heat flux of 600 W/cm2 would experience only a 20oC temperature rise if the meat thermal conductivity degrades from 0.8 W/cm-s to 0.3 W/cm-s. While degradation of meat thermal conductivity in dispersion-type U-Mo fuel can be very substantial due to formation of interaction layer between the particles and the matrix, and development of fission gas filled porosity, this simple analysis demonstrates that this phenomenon is unlikely to significantly affect the temperature-based safety margin of the fuel during normal operation.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    ORIGINAL PAPER Recognition of early Carboniferous alkaline granite in the southern Altai orogen for the Bulgen alkaline granite yield crystallization ages of 358 ± 4 Ma (SHRIMP) and 354 ± 4 Ma (LA-orogenic granitoids (460­375 Ma) in this region. The Bulgen granite has high SiO2, total alkalis, rare earth elements

  1. alkaline earth silicate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth silicate First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  2. alkaline earth ions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth ions First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal Ion...

  3. alkaline earth cax: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth cax First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  4. alkaline earth oxides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth oxides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  5. alkaline earth metals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth metals First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal...

  6. alkaline earth atoms: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth atoms First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  7. alkaline earth codoped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth codoped First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  8. alkaline earth compound: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth compound First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline...

  9. alkaline earth metallic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth metallic First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal...

  10. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  11. Influence of fat levels, nonmeat proteins, salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and temperature on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of frankfurter-type sausages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, Caleb Llewellyn

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential which is necessary for nerve impulses, muscle function and cellular utilization of many metabolic components Salt is the principle agent that aids in extraction of salt-soluble proteins and promotes protein swelling as well as and encapsulation...INFLUENCE OF FAT LEVELS, NONMEAT PROTEINS, SALT, SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FRANKFURTER-TYPE SAUSAGES A Thesis by CALEB LLEWELLYN GILCHRIST Submitted to the Graduate College...

  12. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  13. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  14. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazias, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McGreevy, Tim (Morton, IL); Pollard,Michael James (East Peoria, IL); Siebenaler, Chad W. (Peoria, IL); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon. Such solution strengthening enhances the high temperature precipitation-strengthening benefits of fine dispersions of NbC. Such solid solution effects also enhance the stability of the austenite matrix from resistance to excess sigma phase or chrome carbide formation at higher service temperatures. The presence of sulfides is substantially eliminated.

  15. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  16. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  17. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  18. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musharova, Darya

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) process is a tertiary method of oil recovery that has promising results for future development. It has already been implemented in different areas of the United States such as Wyoming, west Texas, also in Canada...

  20. alkaline membrane cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuelAnalysis of PtC electrode performance in a flowing- electrolyte alkaline fuel cell Fikile R 17 October 2011 Accepted 18 October 2011 Available online 12 November 2011...

  1. advanced alkaline water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How does the use of advanced waterHow does the use of advanced water treatment affect energy Keller, Arturo A. 4 Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline...

  2. alkaline massif se: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  3. alkaline hydrothermal reaction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  4. alkaline hydrothermal vent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  5. alkaline phosphatase activities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  6. african alkaline fermentedfood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  7. alkaline phosphatase activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  8. alkaline phosphatase-conjugated oligonucleotide: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  9. alkaline complex south: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  10. alkaline membrane fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  11. alkaline anaerobic respiration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  12. alkaline province located: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  13. alkaline massif kola: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline fusion process is used from waste phosphors. 1. Introduction The recycling of rare earths is of importance for helping for recycling Eu from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ (BMA)...

  14. A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, James Kent

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utant Strain DO4-AP2 24 24 24 30 31 36 39 41 43 43 43 46 46 51 51 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Isoelectric Focussing Page 53 IV. Discussion and Conclusions 56 V. References 65 VI, Vita 68 LIST OF TABLES Tables Page 1.... Fluorescent Readings of 4-methylumbelliferone 25 2. Fluorescent Readings of a-naphthol 25 3. Substrate Specificity of Particulate Alkaline Phosohatase 40 Intracellular Localization of Particulate Alkaline Phos- phatase 45 5. Specific Activity of a...

  15. Observation of room temperature optical absorption in InP/GaAs type-II ultrathin quantum wells and quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. D., E-mail: devsh@rrcat.gov.in; Porwal, S.; Mondal, Puspen; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukherjee, C.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature optical absorption process is observed in ultrathin quantum wells (QWs) and quantum dots (QDs) of InP/GaAs type-II band alignment system using surface photovoltage spectroscopy technique, where no measurable photoluminescence signal is available. Clear signature of absorption edge in the sub band gap region of GaAs barrier layer is observed for the ultrathin QWs and QDs, which red shifts with the amount of deposited InP material. Movement of photogenerated holes towards the sample surface is proposed to be the main mechanism for the generation of surface photovoltage in type-II ultrathin QWs and QDs. QDs of smaller size are found to be free from the dislocations as confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  16. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  17. In situ atomic force microscopy imaging of electroprecipitated nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, R.; Mo, Y.; Scherson, D.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ atomic force microscopy images of nickel hydrous oxide films electrodeposited on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in alkaline electrolytes have shown that a stepwise oxidation leads to irreversible formation of wide crevices throughout the material. Upon subsequent stepwise reduction, the gaps close leaving a hairline type crack which follows the profile of the crevice. These potential induced structural rearrangements have been attributed to stresses induced by differences in the densities of the nickel hydrous oxide in the two oxidation states. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  19. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  20. Study of calcium-containing orthophosphates of NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} structural type by high-temperature X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlova, A. I.; Kanunov, A. E., E-mail: a.kanunov@mail.ru [Nizhni Novgorod State University (Russian Federation); Samoilov, S. G.; Kazakova, A. Yu.; Kazantsev, G. N. [Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)] [Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Orthophosphates Ca{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Ca{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Ca{sub 0.75}Zr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 0.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.5}, and CaMg{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (structural type NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}), having different occupancies of interframework positions by calcium, have been prepared by the sol-gel method with the subsequent thermal treatment of dried gels and investigated by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The analytical indexing of X-ray diffraction patterns is performed within the sp. gr. R3{sup -}. High-temperature X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the behavior of the orthophosphates upon heating: thermal expansion in the temperature range of 20-610 Degree-Sign C (up to 500 Degree-Sign C for Ca{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}). The coefficients of thermal expansion are calculated from the shift of diffraction peaks. The unit-cell parameters of crystals at different temperatures are determined. The dependences of thermal expansion and its anisotropy on the occupancy of cation M positions by calcium are revealed.

  1. Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Andrew M; Horan, James L; Aieta, Niccolo V; Sachdeva, Sonny; Kuo, Mei-Chen; Ren, Hui; Lingutla, Anitha; Emery, Michael; Haugen, Gregory M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Sharma, Neeraj; Coggio, William D; Hamrock, Steven J; Frey, Matthew H

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Original research was carried out at the CSM and the 3M Company from March 2007 through September 2011. The research was aimed at developing new to the world proton electrolyte materials for use in hydrogen fuel cells, in particular with high proton conductivity under hot and dry conditions (>100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH). Broadly stated, the research at 3M and between 3M and CSM that led to new materials took place in two phases: In the first phase, hydrocarbon membranes that could be formed by photopolymerization of monomer mixtures were developed for the purpose of determining the technical feasibility of achieving the program's Go/No-Go decision conductivity target of >100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. In the second phase, attempts were made to extend the achieved conductivity level to fluorinated material systems with the expectation that durability and stability would be improved (over the hydrocarbon material). Highlights included: Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized photocurable terpolymer derived from di-vinyl-silicotungstic acid (85%), n-butyl acrylate, and hexanediol diacrylate were prepared at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit an initial conductivity of 107mS/cm at 120°C and 47%RH (PolyPOM85v) using a Bekktech LLC sample fixture and TestEquity oven. Later independent testing by Bekktech LLC, using a different preheating protocol, on the same material, yielded a conductivity value of approximately 20mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. The difference in measured values is likely to have been the result of an instability of properties for the material or a difference in the measurement method. A dispersed catalyst fuel cell was fabricated and tested using a 150¼m thick HPA-based photocurable membrane (above, PolyPOM75v), exhibiting a current density of greater than 300mA/cm2 at 0.5V (H2/Air 800/1800sccm 70°C/75%RH ambient outlet pressure). Multiple lots of a co-polymer based on poly-trifluorovinylether (TFVE) derived HPA were synthesized and fabricated into films, Generation II films. These materials showed proton conductivities as high as 1 S/cm under high RH conditions. However, the materials suffered from compromised properties due to impure monomers and low molecular weights. Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized fluoropolymer derived from preformed PVDF-HFP (Generation III films) were synthesized and formed into membranes at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit conductivity reaching approximately 75mS/cm at 120°C/40%RH using a Bekktech sample fixture and TestEquity oven (optimized membrane, at close of program). Initial fuel cell fabrication and testing for this new class of membrane yielded negative results (no measureable proton conductivity); however, the specific early membrane that was used for the two 5cm2 MEAs was later determined to have <1 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH using the Bekktech fixture, vs. ca. 200 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH for samples of the later-optimized type described above. Future work in this area (beyond the presently reported contract) should include additional attempts to fabricate and test fuel cells based on the later-optimized Generation II and III polymer. A manufacturing study was performed which predicted no difficulties in any future scale up of the materials.

  2. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, Manuel F. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: mfa@fe.up.pt; Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A. [LEPAE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done for most of potential reactions between components in the batteries as well as between them and the surrounding atmosphere and it reasonably agrees the experimental results. The results obtained show the role of alkaline batteries at the acid gases cleaning process, through the neutralization reactions of some of their components. Therefore, LCA of spent AA alkaline batteries at the municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process must consider this contribution.

  3. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  4. Heat inactivation of alkaline phosphatase in human milk 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odumodu, Chinyelu Uzoamaka

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of bovine mii. k than in similar portions of human milk. The activity of the enzyme was, in general, three times more in colostrum than in normal human milk. A definite alkaline phosphatase acti. vity with stages of lactation wa- indeterminate because.... LIST OF FIGURES. I NTR ODD'CTI ON. vill 1X The Study and Its Purposes. The Objectives. . LITERATURE REVIEW 1 3 Distribution of the Enzyme in Various Milk Portions. Variation of Alkaline Phosphatase in Relation to 'the Progress of Lactation...

  5. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  6. alkaline direct ethanol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline direct ethanol First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Author's personal copy...

  7. alkaline cementitious materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline cementitious materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Discrete element...

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Calcium Carbonate Nucleation in an Alkaline Lake Surface Water, Pyramid Lake, Nevada (X) needed for calcium carbonate nucleation and crystal growth in Pyramid Lake (PL) surface water­16. Notwithstanding high X, calcium carbonate growth did not occur on aragonite single crystals suspended PL surface

  9. Variation in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Jesse Lane

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the serum was stored, the analysis was completed within ten days of the date of collection of the blood sample. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity was determined 17 by the method of Bessy, Lowry, and Brock (194-6), in which 0.1 ml. of serum is used...

  10. Increase in the Export of Alkalinity from North America's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    be fluvially exported. The fluvial export of terrestrial alkalinity is also the major source of oceanic bicarbonate or car- bonate through the weathering of the parent rock material, and the hydrologic cycle trans delivery can alter the export rates of elements with a weathering source (4). It has recently been shown

  11. alkaline earth elements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth elements First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Bose-Einstein condensation of alkaline...

  12. alkaline earth lanthanide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth lanthanide First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  13. alkaline earth ruthenates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth ruthenates First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  14. alkaline earth cations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth cations First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Noncovalent interaction or...

  15. alkaline earth compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth compounds First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  16. alkaline earth transition: Topics by E-print Network

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    alkaline earth transition First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 SU(N) magnetism in chains of...

  17. alkaline earth chalcogenides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth chalcogenides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  18. alkaline earth halogenides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth halogenides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline earth...

  19. alkaline earth metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth metal First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth Metal Ion...

  20. alkali alkaline earth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkali alkaline earth First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Long range interactions between...

  1. alkaline earth plasmas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline earth plasmas First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Static and Dynamic Structure...

  2. alkaline earth chlorides: Topics by E-print Network

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    alkaline earth chlorides First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with...

  3. alkaline air pollution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline air pollution First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air...

  4. Temperature-dependent structural studies of mullite-type Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murshed, M. Mangir [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universitaet Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Nenert, Gwilherm [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Burianek, Manfred [Kristallographie, Universitaet Koeln, Greinstrasse 6, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Robben, Lars [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universitaet Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Muehlberg, Manfred [Kristallographie, Universitaet Koeln, Greinstrasse 6, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Schneider, Hartmut [Kristallographie, Universitaet Koeln, Greinstrasse 6, 50939 Koeln (Germany); Kristallographie, FB Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Fischer, Reinhard X. [Kristallographie, FB Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Gesing, Thorsten M., E-mail: gesing@uni-bremen.de [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universitaet Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Kristallographie, FB Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Bremen, Klagenfurter Strasse, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the temperature-dependent structural studies on the mullite-type Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} compound. The crystal structures were determined using both powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal neutron diffraction. The thermal expansion of the cell parameters from smallest to largest occurred in the order atemperature the FeO{sub 4} tetrahedral distortion starts to increase. The temperature-dependent stereochemically activity of the Bi{sup 3+} 6s{sup 2} lone electron pair was probed by the absolute value of eccentricity parameter. This parameter shows a significant drop at around 773 K. Additionally, the average crystal size and micro-strain of the powder samples were studied. A healing of intrinsic defects is observed with respect to a decreasing micro-strain followed by crystal growth above about 900 K. The temperature-dependent infrared spectra were described in three distinct zones. Deconvolution of the absorption features between 370 cm{sup -1} and 1000 cm{sup -1} required nine fitted bands, and the decomposed Pseudo-Voigt elements were assigned to Fe-O stretching, Fe-O-Fe bending and O-Fe-O bending vibrations. The shift of the observed modes was described with respect to temperature. An effective linewidth parameter {Delta}corr was determined by autocorrelation analysis between 740 cm{sup -1} and 900 cm{sup -1} for each temperature-dependent spectrum. The break of the slope of {Delta}corr at about 773 K was interpreted as the change of some vibrational modes of the FeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The intrinsic effects observed around 773 K are responsible for extrinsic parameter changes found around 900 K. - Graphical abstract: Temperature-dependent stereochemical activity (eccentricity |{Phi}{sub i}|) of the Bi{sup 3+} 6s{sup 2} lone electron pair directing in the non-bonded region of the Bi-O coordination in the Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} iron framework (given as polyhedra). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex expansion-contraction mechanism explains anisotropic thermal expansion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi 6s{sup 2} lone electron pair sphericity influences analyses by FTIR autocorrelation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intrinsic effects at 773 K are responsible for extrinsic parameter changes at 900 K.

  5. Uncertainty in the reactive transport model response to an alkaline perturbation in a clay formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnol, A.; Blanc, P.; Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Gaucher, E.C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degradation of a concrete/clay interface, in Migration'05 -an alkaline plume in a clay barrier, Applied Geochemistry,AN ALKALINE PERTURBATION IN A CLAY FORMATION A. Burnol*, P.

  6. alkaline-earth hafnates bahfo3: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth hafnates bahfo3 First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantum computing with alkaline earth atoms CERN Preprints...

  7. Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance and longer lifetime for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  8. Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell L. An, T.S. Zhao ethanol fuel cell Alkaline-acid Species concentrations Membrane thickness Power density a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell (AA-DEFC) that is composed

  9. Platinum-barium-type L zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Hughes, T.R.

    1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of reforming hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a type L zeolite; (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium. A method is described of dehydrocyclizing acyclic hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a type L zeolite (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium.

  10. Positive bias temperature instability in p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with HfSiON/SiO{sub 2} gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Piyas, E-mail: piyas@vcfw.org [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar College for Women, 39 Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata 700 006 (India); Huang, Heng-Sheng; Chen, Shuang-Yuan [Institute of Mechatronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-Hsi [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 162, Sec. 1, He-Ping E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Li-Wei [Central R and D Division, United Microelectronics Corporation, No. 3, Li-Hsin Rd. II, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation on positive-bias temperature stress (PBTS) induced degradation of nitrided hafnium silicate (HfSiON)/SiO{sub 2} gate stack in n{sup +}-poly crystalline silicon (polySi) gate p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (pMOS) devices. The measurement results indicate that gate dielectric degradation is a composite effect of electron trapping in as-fabricated as well as newly generated neutral traps, resulting a significant amount of stress-induced leakage current and generation of surface states at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Although, a significant amount of interface states are created during PBTS, the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) instability of the HfSiON based pMOS devices is primarily caused by electron trapping and detrapping. It is also shown that PBTS creates both acceptor- and donor-like interface traps via different depassivation mechanisms of the Si{sub 3}???SiH bonds at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface in pMOS devices. However, the number of donor-like interface traps ?N{sub it}{sup D} is significantly greater than that of acceptor-like interface traps ?N{sup A}{sub it}, resulting the PBTS induced net interface traps as donor-like.

  11. Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    - sources · High rates of calcite (CaCO3) precipitation as waters take in atmospheric CO2 Ca2+ + CO3 2- CaCO setting · Two leachate sources: input increases alkalinity (>1500mg/L as CaCO3), pH (>12) and Ca2+ (>600mg/L) · CM2: Pilot CW sized by CaCO3 removal rates from volunteer system · CM3: Monitored through natural

  12. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Baudry, Michelle (Le Pontaroux, FR)

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  13. Probing the Kondo Lattice Model with Alkaline Earth Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

    2009-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth atoms governed by the Kondo Lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  14. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meiser; M. J. Holland

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth-alkaline-like atoms with ultra-narrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements

  15. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  16. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  17. Temperature-Dependent Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of p-type Ce0.9Fe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and n-type Co0.95Pd0.05Te0.05Sb3 Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Robert [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Ni, Jennifer E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective models of the mechanical behavior of thermoelectric materials under device conditions require knowledge of the temperature-dependent elastic properties.Between room temperature and 600 K, Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) measurements of the Young s and shear moduli of three skutterudite thermoelectric materials, n-type Co0.95Pd0.05Te0.05Sb3(both with and without 0.1 atomic % cerium dopant) and p-type Ce0.9Fe3.5Co0.5Sb12, decreased linearly with temperature at a rate between -0.011 GPa/K and -0.013 GPa/K. In contrast the Poisson s ratio was approximately 0.22 for the three materials and was relatively insensitive to temperature.For temperatures > 600 K, the elastic moduli decreased more rapidly and resonance peaks broadened indicating the onset of viscoelastic behavior.The viscoelastic relaxation of the moduli was least for Ce-doped n-type material, for which grain boundary precipitates may inhibit grain boundary sliding which in turn has important implications concerning creep resistance. In addition, powder processing of the n- and p-type materials should be done cautiously since submicron-sized powders of both the n- and p-type powders were pyrophoric

  18. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  19. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  1. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  2. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OFDecember 18,United4Energy 06 Alkaline

  3. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat Pump BasicsAlexander DaneDirector,Alkaline

  4. Complete genome sequence of Truepera radiovictrix type strain (RQ-24T)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rohde, Christine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Munk, Christine [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Deshpande, Shweta [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Truepera radiovictrix Albuquerque et al. 2005 is the type species of the genus Truepera within the phylum Deinococcus/Thermus. T. radiovictrix is of special interest not only because of its isolated phylogenetic location in the order Deinococcales, but also because of its ability to grow under multiple extreme conditions in alkaline, moderately saline, and high temperature habitats. Of particular interest is the fact that, T. radiovictrix is also remarkably resistant to ionizing radiation, a feature it shares with members of the genus Deinococcus. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the family Trueperaceae and the fourth type strain genome sequence from a member of the order Deinococcales. The 3,260,398 bp long genome with its 2,994 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. alkaline-earth metal oxides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley. FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Cohen, Ronald C. 2 Liquid metal batteries : ambipolar electrolysis and alkaline earth electroalloying cells MIT - DSpace...

  6. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  7. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate gels that were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels maintained gel integrity in linear corefloods after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution at 125 F. At 175 F, Xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels were not stable either with or without subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-pol

  8. Effects of variations in rate of temperature rise, curing temperature and size of specimen on selected physical properties of concrete made with type I cement and steam cured at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivieri-Cintron, Elmer

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate of Temperature Rise o Moist Cured a 40 oP/hr 60 F/hr ~ 80 oF/hr 0 oP/hr 1000 0 0 FIG. 2 8 12 16 20 24 TIME ? &ags COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OP PRISMS CURED kT 185oP 28 800 600 W 500 Its 0 400 o Pl '500 Rate of Temperature Rise... 200 0 12 16 TIME - days 20 24 PIG. 4 FLEXURAL STRENGTH OP PRISMS CURED ET 185oP Q EO O I M u M O A o M O EO Rate of Temperature Rise Roist Cured 40 P/bl' 60 oP ~ 80 oP a 120 oF 2 0 Pig. 5 24 12 8 IS TIME - days SONIC RODULUS...

  9. Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 °C). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

  10. Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Mineral replacement rate of olivine by chrysotile and brucite under high alkaline conditions Romain Available online 8 March 2012 Keywords: A1. Mineral replacement rate A1. Serpentinization A1. TG analyses B1. Alkaline medium B2. Chrysotile nanotubes a b s t r a c t Olivine mineral replacement by serpentine is one

  11. Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 26 carbon supported PtRh catalysts and compare their catalytic activities with that of Pt/C in alkaline

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  13. alkaline-earth metals pt: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth metals pt First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effects of Alkaline Earth...

  14. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologiesAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  18. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  19. Novel Refractory Materials for High-Temperature, High-Alkaline Environments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of Energy NorthB O| Department ofDepartmentMEAofof|

  20. alkaline a-type granites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biotite-granodiorites (67 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 47 Release of uranium and thorium from granitic rocks during in situ weathering and initial erosion Texas...

  1. Electrochemical Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Edwards, T.B.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistically designed set of tests determined the effects of current density, temperature, and the concentrations of nitrate/nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate on the recovery of sodium as sodium hydroxide (caustic) from solutions simulating those produced from the Savannah River Site (SRS) In-Tank Precipitation process. These tests included low nitrate and nitrite concentrations which would be produced by electrolytic nitrate/nitrite destruction. The tests used a two compartment electrochemical cell with a Nafion Type 324 ion-exchange membrane. Caustic was successfully recovered from the waste solutions. Evaluation of the testing results indicated that the transport of sodium across the membrane was not significantly affected by any of the varied parameters. The observed variance in the sodium flux is attributed to experimental errors and variations in the performance characteristics of individual pieces of the organic-based Nafion membrane.Additional testing is recommended to determine the maximum current density, to evaluate the chemical durability of the organic membrane as a function of current density and to compare the durability and performance characteristics of the organic-based Nafion membrane with that of other commercially available organic membranes and the inorganic class of membranes under development by Ceramatec and PNNL.

  2. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  3. An investigation into high temperature superconducting flux pump technology with the circular type magnetic flux pump devices and YBaCuO films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires in the last decade has made it possible to wind high quality 2G HTS coils. These 2G HTS coils show promise for future applications such as magnetic...

  4. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta III b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Carl S.

    Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations Carl S. Kirby a,*, Charles A. Cravotta of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (=Ã?net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral p in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity

  5. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  6. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested appeared to alter alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution oil recovery. Total waterflood plus chemical flood oil recovery sequence recoveries were all similar.

  7. Development of alkaline solution separations for potential partitioning of used nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goff, George S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The processing of used nuclear fuel in alkaline solution provides potentially useful new selectivity for separating the actinides from each other and f rom the fission products. Over the ast decade, several research teams around the world have considered dissolution of used fuel in alkaline solution and further partitioning in this medium as an alternative to acid dissolution. The chemistry of the actinides and fission products in alkaline soilltion requires extensive investigation to more carefully evaluate its potential for developing useful separation methods for used nuclear fueI.

  8. New type of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omichi, H.; Katakai, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of adsorbent containing amidoxime groups for the recovery of uranium from seawater was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polymeric fiber followed by amidoximation with hydroxylamine. When amidoxime groups were introduced superficially on the fiber, the amount of uranium adsorbed by the amidoxime groups was higher than that with the amidoxime groups introduced homogeneously in the fiber. The introduction of the poly(acrylic acid) chain and the increase in temperature and flow rate in the adsorption process were effective in increasing the amount of adsorbed uranium. Although alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were found in the adsorbent, the concentration factors for these metals were less than 1/10/sup 3/ of that for uranium. The present adsorbent had a high stability to various treatments such as contact with alkali and seawater. 24 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  10. Decomposition Studies of Triphenylboron, Diphenylborinic Acid and Phenylboric Acid in Aqueous Alkaline Solutions Containing Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson, R. A.

    1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the copper-catalyzed chemical kinetics of triphenylboron, diphenylborinic acid and phenylboric acid (3PB, 2PB and PBA) in aqueous alkaline solution contained in carbon-steel vessels between 40 and 70 degrees C.

  11. Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerling, T.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Halfman, J.D.; Lister, G.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water from 12 meter cores collected in November 1984 show that sulfate is reduced in the sediment column with a net production of alkalinity. Some sodium is lost from the lake and diffuses into the sediment to maintain charge balance. At several meters depth, organic matter is destroyed by methanogenic bacteria, as shown by the high delta /sup 13/C values for dissolved inorganic carbon. Magnesium and calcium molar ratios change with depth; chloride, sodium, and alkalinity also change with depth.

  12. A NEW CONCEPT IN AN ELECTRICALLY RECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of a New Zinc-Air Battery Concept Using Flowingdiagram of the zinc-air battery single cell prototype usedRECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY Philip N. Ross

  13. Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Nita

    Interactions of Silicate Ions with Zinc(II) and Aluminum(III) in Alkaline Aqueous Solution Michel R 16, 2005 We present 29 Si, 27 Al, and 67 Zn NMR evidence to show that silicate ions in alkaline, with aluminate (Al(OH)4 - ). Zincate reacts with monomeric silicate at pH 14-15 to form [(HO)O2Si-O-Zn(OH)3

  14. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  15. Crystal structure and high temperature transport properties of Yb-filled p-type skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Yongkwan [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Puneet, Pooja; Tritt, Terry M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Partially Yb-filled Fe substituted polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with nominal compositions Yb{sub x}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 12}, with varying filler concentrations x, were synthesized by reacting the constituent elements and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. The compositions and filling fractions were confirmed with a combination of Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients for the specimens increase with increasing temperature and plateau at around 750 K. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing Yb filling fraction, and bipolar conduction becomes evident and increases at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.8 was obtained at 750 K for Yb{sub 0.47}Co{sub 2.6}Fe{sub 1.4}Sb{sub 12}. The thermoelectric properties and potential for further optimization are discussed in light of our results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Yb-filled Fe-substituted p-type CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, Yb{sub x}Co{sub 2.5}Fe{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 12}, were structurally and physically characterized. • Both filling fraction and Co-to-Fe ratio affect the transport properties. • High ZT was obtained for the composition with ?50% Yb filling and a slightly lower than nominal Fe content.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  17. THE 3R ANTHRACITE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY Economical Conversion of Browncoal to Anthracite Type Clean Coal by Low Temperature Carbonization Pre-Treatment Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Someus

    The pre ven tive pre-treat ment of low grade solid fu els is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the “end-of-the-pipe ” post treat ment so lu tions. The “3R ” (Re cy cle-Re duce-Re use) in te grated en vi ron-ment con trol tech nol ogy pro vides pre ven tive pre-treat ment of low grade solid fu els, such as brown coal and con tam i nated solid fu els to achieve high grade cleansed fu els with an thra cite and coke com-pa ra ble qual ity. The goal of the 3R tech nol ogy is to pro vide cost ef fi cient and en vi ron men tally sus-tain able so lu tions by pre ven tive pre-treat ment means for ex tended op er a tions of the solid fuel com-bus tion power plants with ca pac ity up to 300 MWe power ca pac i ties. The 3R An thra cite Clean Coal end prod uct and tech nol ogy may ad van ta geously be in te grated to the oxyfuel – oxy-fir ing, Fos ter Wheeler an thra cite arc-fired util ity type boiler and Heat Pipe Re former tech nol o gies in com bi na tion with CO2 cap ture and stor age pro grams. The 3R tech nol ogy is pat ented orig i nal so lu tion. Ad van tages. Feedstock flex i bil ity: ap pli ca tion of pre-treated multi fu els from wider fuel se lec tion and avail abil ity. Im proved burn ing ef fi ciency. Tech nol ogy flex i bil ity: ef fi cient and ad van ta geous inter-link to proven boiler tech nol o gies, such as oxyfuel and arc-fired boil ers. Near zero pol lut ants for haz ard ous-air-pol lut ants: pre ven tive sep a ra tion of halo gens and heavy met als into small vol ume streams prior uti li za tion of cleansed fu els. ?97 % or ganic sul phur re moval achieved by the 3R ther-

  18. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  19. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetatexanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential

  20. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses with the exception of the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gels. Aluminum-polyacrylamide flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9, either in linear corefloods or in dual separate radial core, common manifold corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid tonguing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Chromium acetate gels were stable to injection of alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at 72 F, 125 F and 175 F in linear corefloods. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained diversion capability after injection of an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution in stacked; radial coreflood with a common well bore. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gel used to seal fractured core maintain fracture closure if followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection at 72, 125, and 175 F. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer injected solution were observed. Aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and the silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems did not produce significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid tonguing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels and the xanthan gum-chromium acetate gel system produced incremental oil with the rigid tonguing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differentia

  1. Dispersion coefficients for the interactions of the alkali and alkaline-earth ions and inert gas atoms with a graphene layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Sahoo, B K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Largely motivated by a number of applications, the van der Waals dispersion coefficients ($C_3$s) of the alkali ions (Li$^+$, Na$^+$, K$^+$ and Rb$^+$), the alkaline-earth ions (Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$, Ba$^+$ and Ra$^+$) and the inert gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar and Kr) with a graphene layer are determined precisely within the framework of Dirac model. For these calculations, we have evaluated the dynamic polarizabilities of the above atomic systems very accurately by evaluating the transition matrix elements employing relativistic many-body methods and using the experimental values of the excitation energies. The dispersion coefficients are, finally, given as functions of the separation distance of an atomic system from the graphene layer and the ambiance temperature during the interactions. For easy extraction of these coefficients, we give a logistic fit to the functional forms of the dispersion coefficients in terms of the separation distances at the room temperature.

  2. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  3. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on ?-Al2O3....

  4. Residual alkalinity as tracer to estimate the changes induced by forage cultivation in a non-saline irrigated sodic soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Residual alkalinity as tracer to estimate the changes induced by forage cultivation in a non, 31000 Toulouse, France Short title: Residual alkalinity and reclamation of sodic soil Summary Soil) the large amount of water supplied during cultivation that induced salt leaching. This is the main

  5. Synthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Available online 3 August 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Oxygen reduction Carbon in large quantities from agricultural products or biomass. Hence, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) haveSynthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol

  6. Heat inactivation of alkaline phosphatase in human milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odumodu, Chinyelu Uzoamaka

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and cobalt; and the use of di sodium ethyl enedi amine tetraacetate I EDTA]. Fram ( 1957) further investigated the effect of temperature nd reported results which were essentially in agreement with other workers. Using skim milk, whole milk, 20K cream... was more readily destroyed in colostrum than in normal milk. Other work is proceeding in our laboratory on the heat destruction of bacterial cells in breast milk. 'When that work i s complete, the useful ness of pho sphata-e activity as a marker...

  7. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Reis, Signo T. (Rolla, MO); Velez, Mariano (Rolla, MO); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  8. Author's personal copy An alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cell with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    ), rather than carbon di- oxide (CO2) [5]. Hence, the actual and maximum electron transfer numbers per), and the product of ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media is pre- dominated by acetic acid (CH3COOH), respectively. Under this circumstance, the electron transfer rate (ETR) of the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR

  9. Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing-electrolyte alkaline fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Analysis of Pt/C electrode performance in a flowing- electrolyte alkaline fuel cell Fikile R cell Electrode characterization X-ray micro-computed tomography Microfluidic fuel cell Carbonates a b a microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell as an analytical platform. Both anodes and cathodes were investigated

  10. Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement-mail address: pourchez@emse.fr emse-00449712,version1-18Sep2010 Author manuscript, published in "Cement the potential role of cellulose ethers degradation on the alteration of the cement hydration kinetics

  11. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. As a result, the overall cost of the fuel cell system can for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells E.D. Wang, T.S. Zhao*, W.W. Yang Department of Mechanical Engineering Accepted 29 December 2009 Available online 8 January 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct ethanol fuel cell

  12. Surface structural changes of perovskite oxides during oxygen evolution in alkaline electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Kevin J. (Kevin Joseph)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskite oxides such Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.8O3-6 (BSCF82) are among the most active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution reported to date. In this work it is shown via high resolution ...

  13. MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL, Universidade de Sa~o Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Dr. Lineu Prestes, 338, 05508-900, Sa~o Paulo, Brazil 2 Soil-saline lake of Nhecola^ndia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, and then to identify the mechanisms

  14. Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Natural Arsenic in Groundwater and Alkaline Lakes at the upper Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Brazil L, Brazil d Université de Provence, Aix Marseille 1, France e Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Três Lagoas, Brazil f Laboratoire de Géomophologie Appliquée, Université de

  15. The structure and energetics of $^3$He and $^4$He nanodroplets doped with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Hernando; R. Mayol; M. Pi; M. Barranco; F. Ancilotto; O. B{ü}nermann; F. Stienkemeier

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present systematic results, based on density functional calculations, for the structure and energetics of $^3$He and $^4$He nanodroplets doped with alkaline earth atoms. We predict that alkaline earth atoms from Mg to Ba go to the center of $^3$He drops, whereas Ca, Sr, and Ba reside in a deep dimple at the surface of $^4$He drops, and Mg is at their center. For Ca and Sr, the structure of the dimples is shown to be very sensitive to the He-alkaline earth pair potentials used in the calculations. The $5s5p\\leftarrow5s^2$ transition of strontium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets of either isotope has been probed in absorption experiments. The spectra show that strontium is solvated inside $^3$He nanodroplets, supporting the calculations. In the light of our findings, we emphasize the relevance of the heavier alkaline earth atoms for analyzing mixed $^3$He-$^4$He nanodroplets, and in particular, we suggest their use to experimentally probe the $^3$He-$^4$He interface.

  16. Separating natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean: The potential alkalinity method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the atmosphere to the ocean on a similar time scale and that they penetrate into the ocean in a similar mannerSeparating natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon in the ocean: The potential alkalinity method M. Key Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

  17. alkaline-earth silicate phosphors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth silicate phosphors First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Diffusion Raman...

  18. alkaline-earth dihalide molecules: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth dihalide molecules First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 EDM searches based on...

  19. alkaline-earth elements studied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkaline-earth elements studied First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A theoretical study of...

  20. alkali halide-alkaline earth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alkali halide-alkaline earth First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Long range interactions...

  1. Noncovalent interaction or chemical bonding between alkaline earth cations and benzene? A quantum chemistry study using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Joel L.

    Noncovalent interaction or chemical bonding between alkaline earth cations and benzene? A quantum earth metal ion±benzene complexes were performed using the density-functional theory (DFT) B3LYP and ab of the al- kaline earth metal ions to benzene may be attributed to s±p and p±p interactions, which are signi

  2. Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Geothermal fluxes of alkalinity in the Narayani river system of central Nepal Matthew J. Evans hot springs flow within the steeply incised gorges of the central Nepal Himalayan front. The spring of central Nepal, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q08011, doi:10.1029/2004GC000719. G 3 G 3Geochemistry

  3. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  4. Nepheline syenites and related magmatic fluids in the Ditr u Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania Andrs Fall *, Robert J. Bodnar and Csaba Szab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnar, Robert J.

    Nepheline syenites and related magmatic fluids in the Ditr u Alkaline Massif, Transylvania, Romania Carpathians, in Romania, and is a Mesozoic alkaline igneous complex formed during an extensional phase

  5. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  6. Mechanism of CO Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Media J. S. Spendelow, J. D. Goodpaster, P. J. A. Kenis, and A. Wieckowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of the mechanism of CO oxidation on Pt surfaces would be useful in optimizing Pt-based catalysts for fuel cell fuel cells (DMFCs) and reformate- fed hydrogen fuel cells.1-11 Alkaline electrolytes have been shown carbonation in alkaline media complicates the use of alkaline electrolytes for fuel cells.16 Fuel cells

  7. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  8. Dark-state suppression and optimization of laser cooling and fluorescence in a trapped alkaline-earth-metal single ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Lindvall; M. Merimaa; I. Tittonen; A. A. Madej

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation and destabilization of dark states in a single trapped 88Sr+ ion caused by the cooling and repumping laser fields required for Doppler cooling and fluorescence detection of the ion. By numerically solving the time-dependent density matrix equations for the eight-level system consisting of the sublevels of the 5s 2S1/2, 5p 2P1/2, and 4d 2D3/2 states, we analyze the different types of dark states and how to prevent them in order to maximize the scattering rate, which is crucial for both the cooling and the detection of the ion. The influence of the laser linewidths and ion motion on the scattering rate and the dark resonances is studied. The calculations are then compared with experimental results obtained with an endcap ion trap system located at the National Research Council of Canada and found to be in good agreement. The results are applicable also to other alkaline earth ions and isotopes without hyperfine structure.

  9. Anodically electrodeposited Co+Ni mixed oxide electrode: preparation and electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Gang [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: wugang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Derui [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Mitsuo, Kurachi [Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8283 (Japan); Xu Boqing [Innovative Catalysis Program, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co+Ni mixed oxides on Ni substrate were prepared through anodic electrodeposition from Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with five different Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratios beside only Co{sup 2+}. By the electrochemical measurements, the optimum performance in electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media was obtained on the Co+Ni mixed oxide deposited from the solution containing Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} ratio of 1:1. The mixed oxide is corresponding to about 68at% Co contents with spinel-type NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase and porosity surface structure. The electrochemical kinetic parameters including exchange current density, Tafel slopes, reaction order with respect to [OH{sup -}] and standard electrochemical enthalpy of activation were analyzed also. A possible mechanism involving the formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate in a slow electrochemical step was presented, which accounts for the values of the experimental results.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  11. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  12. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Beck, P [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville; Rowe, E [Fisk University, Nashville; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  13. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  15. The synthesis and crystal structures of the first rare-earth alkaline-earth selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca and Sr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, P.S. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: psberd@inorg.chem.msu.ru; Olenev, A.V.; Dolgikh, V.A. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Lightfoot, P. [EaStChem, School of Chemistry, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new alkaline-earth Nd selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr) were obtained using crystal growth from alkaline-earth chloride melts in quartz tubes. These new compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic system in space group C cca (no. 68). The compounds were studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that both compounds adopt the same structure type, constructed by complex [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs separated by chloride anion layers perpendicular to the longest cell parameter. The SeO{sub 3} groups show a pyramidal shape and may be described as SeO{sub 3}E tetrahedra. Such SeO{sub 3} groups decorate the Nd-O skeletons forming the [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs. - Graphical abstract: Two new alkaline-earth Nd selenite chlorides MNd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}Cl{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr) were synthesized. These structures are constructed by [M{sub 11}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 12}]{sup 8+} slabs separated by chloride anion layers.

  16. ORNL/CDIAC-160 Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/CDIAC-160 NDP-094 Climatological Distributions of pH, pCO2, Total CO2, Alkalinity, and CaCO3, Alkalinity, and CaCO3 Saturation in the Global Surface Ocean. ORNL/CDIAC-160, NDP-094. Carbon Dioxide, total CO2 concentration (TCO2), and the degree of CaCO3 saturation for the global surface ocean waters

  17. Luminescence properties of Eu-activated alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Yanlin, E-mail: huang@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Xigang, E-mail: wangxigang@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qin, Lin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Center for Marine-Integrated Biomedical Technology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • A novel yellow-emitting alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} was first developed. • Under excitation with UV or near UV light the silicate presents broad emission band centered at 580 nm. - Abstract: Yellow-emitting phosphors of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} was prepared by wet chemistry sol–gel method. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM measurements were applied to characterize the structure and morphology, respectively. The luminescence properties were investigated by the photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, decay curve (lifetimes), CIE coordinates and the internal quantum efficiencies. The excitation spectra can match well with the emission light of near UV-LED chips (360–400 nm). Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} presents a symmetric emission band from 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} ? 4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) transitions of Eu{sup 2+} ions on doping below 3.0 mol%. On increasing Eu-doping levels, the sample contains two kinds of emission centers, i.e., Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, which present the characteristic broad band (5d ? 4f) and narrower (4f ? 4f) luminescence lines, respectively. The energy transfer, the luminescence thermal stability (activation energy ?E for thermal quenching) and luminescence mechanism of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 6}O{sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were discussed by analyzing the relationship between the luminescence characteristics and the crystal structure.

  18. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  19. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  20. Photovoltaic cell efficiency at elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Katherine Leung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar cell could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic hybrid power generator, we tested the change in efficiency due to higher temperatures of three types of solar ...

  1. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  2. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  3. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  4. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Osamu Tochiyama [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

  5. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperly, William R. (Summit, NJ); Deane, Barry C. (East Brunswick, NJ); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  6. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  7. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  8. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  9. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  11. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  12. Investigations Into the Nature of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work accomplished in fiscal year (FY) 2013, exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Various aspects of FY 2013’s work were sponsored both by Washington River Protection Solutions and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection; because of this commonality, both sponsors’ work is summarized in this report. There were three tasks in this FY 2013 study. The first task involved examining the speciation of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ in alkaline solution by 99Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The second task involved the purchase and installation of a microcalorimeter suitable to study the binding affinity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ with various inorganic and organic compounds relevant to Hanford tank wastes, although the actual measure of such binding affinities is scheduled to occur in future FYs. The third task involved examining the chemical reactivity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ as relevant to the development of a [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ spectroelectrochemical sensor based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

  13. CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, lead are shrink wrapped and secured with bands to keep them intact during transportation to a permitted recycling

  14. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  15. Award Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugust AugustInstruments on theAward Types Types of

  16. Temperature-dependent structural property and power factor of n type thermoelectric Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, K.; Das, Diptasikha [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)] [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra, E-mail: arbphy@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India) [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Center for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, JD-2, Sector-III, Saltlake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Mandal, P.; Srihari, Velaga [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)] [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Deb, A. K. [Department of Physics, Raiganj College (University College), Uttar Dinajpur 733 134 (India)] [Department of Physics, Raiganj College (University College), Uttar Dinajpur 733 134 (India)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal variation of structural property, linear thermal expansion coefficient (?), resistivity (?), thermopower (S), and power factor (PF) of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} (x?=?0.10 and 0.14) samples are reported. Temperature-dependent powder diffraction experiments indicate that samples do not undergo any structural phase transition. Rietveld refinement technique has been used to perform detailed structural analysis. Temperature dependence of ? is found to be stronger for Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10}. Also, PF for direct band gap Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} is higher as compared to that for indirect band gap Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}. Role of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering on ?, S, and PF has been discussed.

  17. Methanol Dehydrogenation and Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Jacob S. Spendelow, Jason D. Goodpaster, Paul J. A. Kenis, and Andrzej Wieckowski*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Methanol Dehydrogenation and Oxidation on Pt(111) in Alkaline Solutions Jacob S. Spendelow, Jason D, and oxidation of methanol on Pt(111) in alkaline solutions has been examined from a fundamental mechanistic.COhasbeenconfirmedasthemainpoisoningspecies,affectingtherateofmethanoldehydrogenation primarily through repulsive interactions with methanol dehydrogenation intermediates. At direct methanol

  18. Design and Test of a Carbon-Tolerant Alkaline Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquidi-Macdonald, M; Grimes, P; Tewari, A; Sambhy, V; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Sen, Ayusman; Grimes, Patrick; Tewari, Ashutosh; Sambhy, Varun

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new results which may constitute a breakthrough in the effort to develop fuel cells truly suitable for use in cars and trucks. For decades, researchers have known that the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) is much cheaper to make, more efficient and more durable than the more popular PEM fuel cell; however, "carbon poisoning" (either from CO2 in air or from contaminants in reformed methanol) causes big problems in the kind of oxygen-hydrogen AFC commonly used in space. This paper reports successful tests of a technique for coating the electrodes with polystyrene which, in conjunction with older common-sense techniques, appears to solve the problem. This kind of design is applicable to cars run on hydrogen fuel, on reformed methanol or even direct methanol. Developing a test methodology was a major part of the work. A foreword by one of the sponsors at NSF discusses the larger importance of this work for energy security and the environment.

  19. Parity violating radiative emission of neutrino pair in heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yoshimura; N. Sasao; S. Uetake

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable excited states ${}^3P_2, {}^3P_0$ of heavy alkaline earth atoms of even isotopes are studied for parity violating (PV) effects in radiative emission of neutrino pair (RENP). PV terms arise from interference between two diagrams containing neutrino pair emission of valence spin current and nuclear electroweak charge density proportional to the number of neutrons in nucleus. This mechanism gives large PV effects, since it does not suffer from the suppression of 1/(electron mass) usually present for non-relativistic atomic electrons. A controllable magnetic field is crucial to identify RENP process by measuring PV observables. Results of PV asymmetries under the magnetic field reversal and the photon circular polarization reversal are presented for an example of Yb atom.

  20. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... of thermostat, and the relationship between room temperature set point and return air temperature. The Role Of Thermostat Traditional pneumatic thermostat is a proportional (P) type controller. It senses the space temperature changes and produces...

  1. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Quarterly] report, March 31--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost- effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. Last quarter we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous emulsification in alkali/acidic crude oil systems with and without added surfactant. We have observed that the roll cell size and formation time depend strongly on the pH and ionic strength of the alkaline solution. For a particular roll cell size, the addition of surfactant causes the cells to take longer to form, causing an interfacial resistance to mass transfer and making the interface more rigid. We have shown that interfacial turbulence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for spontaneous emulsification. Low interfacial tension is also a necessary condition. This quarter a microwave interferometric procedure was developed for the determination of low water content (0. 5 to 10 vol%) of water-in-oil macroemulsions. The apparatus operates at a frequency of 23.48 GHz in the K-band microwave region. The procedure is based on the large differences in dielectric properties between water and oil, and it utilizes the variation in phase shift as sample path length is varied. Measurements are accurate to within 0.5 vol% water.

  2. Influence of Alkaline Co-Contaminants on Technetium Mobility in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Jansik, Danielle P.; McKinley, James P.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pertechnetate was slowly reduced in a natural, untreated arid sediment under anaerobic conditions (0.02 nmol g-1 h-1), which could occur in low permeability zones in the field, most of which was quickly oxidized. A small portion of the surface Tc may be incorporated into slowly dissolving surface phases, so was not readily oxidized/remobilized into pore water. In contrast, pertechnetate reduction in an anaerobic sediment containing adsorbed ferrous iron as the reductant was rapid (15 to 600 nmol g-1 h-1), and nearly all (96 - 98%) was rapidly oxidized/remobilized (2.6 to 6.8 nmol g-1 h-1) within hours. Tc reduction in an anaerobic sediment containing 0.5 to 10 mM sulfide showed a relatively slow reduction rate (0.01 to 0.03 nmol g-1 h-1) that was similar to observations in the natural sediment. Pertechnetate infiltration into sediment with a highly alkaline water resulted in rapid reduction (0.07 to 0.2 nmol g-1 h-1) from ferrous iron released during biotite or magnetite dissolution. Oxidation of NaOH-treated sediments resulted in slow Tc oxidation (~0.05 nmol g-1 h-1) of a small fraction of the surface Tc (13% to 23%). The Tc remaining on the surface was TcIV (by XANES), and autoradiography and elemental maps of Tc (by electron microprobe) showed Tc was present associated with specific minerals, rather than being evenly distributed on the surface. Dissolution of quartz, montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite also occurred in the alkaline water, resulting in significant aqueous silica and aluminum. Over time, aluminosilicates cancrinite, zeolite and sodalite were precipitating. These precipitates may be coating surface Tc(IV) phases, limiting reoxidation.

  3. Evaluation of building and occupant response to temperature and humidity: non-traditional heat stress considerations A comparison of different construction types used by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nalbone, Joseph Torey

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    stifling hot in the summer and damp cold in the winter. The design and construction of dedicated prison facilities continued to progress slowly, but is was not until the 18th century and a review of world prisons by John Howard (State of the Prisons... at Dallas Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. James C. Rock This study examined the effects of construction types on the indoor environment of selected prison facilities in the State of Texas. Three collocated facilities of the Texas Department...

  4. Bull. Soc. gol. Fr., 2008, no The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey): a Late

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., 2008, no 4 The alkaline intraplate volcanism of the Antalya nappes (Turkey-words. ­ Alkali basalt, Intraplate volcanism, Triassic (Upper), Neotethys, Turkey, Geochemistry. Abstract. ­ Late belonging to the Kara Dere ­ Sayrun unit of the Middle Antalya nappes, southwestern Turkey. New

  5. Historical and Short-Term Controls on Sulfate Reduction and Alkalinity Generation in Three Aquatic Ecosystems of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    precipitation, pyrite, sediments #12;Introduction First described as acid rain in 1852 by Scottish chemist Angus.19 to 13.47 mEq m-2 y-1 in freshwater sediments. Keywords: Sulfate reduction, alkalinity, acid Smith, all forms of atmospheric acid deposition continue to be an environmental problem faced

  6. Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from1 hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    under high-carbonate alkalinity2 3 Romain Lafaya, b , German Montes-Hernandeza, *, Emilie Janotsb experiments in order to investigate the simultaneous25 serpentinization and carbonation of olivine-situ and in-situ mineral sequestration of27 CO2). For this case, specific experimental conditions were

  7. An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao the performance of anion exchange membrane (AEM) direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is that state-of-the-art AEMs exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM- DEFCs) have received ever-increasing attention, mainly

  8. Oscillatory Increases in Alkalinity Anticipate Growth and May Regulate Actin Dynamics in Pollen Tubes of Lily W OA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 b Integrative Cell Biology Laboratory, Durham University, Durham DH1 alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical

  9. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  10. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise (Ris Orangis, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

    1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  11. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  12. Temperature effects on the electronic conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascaro, Mark Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature electronic conductivity and temperature dependence of conductivity were measured for samples of carbon nanotubes of three types: pristine; functionalized with a nitrobenzene covalent functionalization, ...

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Different Alkaline Catalysts on Biodiesel Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cynthia Ofori-boateng; Ebenezer M. Kwofie; Moses Y. Mensah

    Abstract: A major challenge in the biodiesel industry is the comparatively high cost of raw materials for production. A cost build-up analysis of biodiesel production from J. curcas oil shows that catalyst alone contributes about 50.9 % of the total production cost. This paper aims at highlighting the effects of two different commonly used catalysts on the yield of biodiesel. Samples of biodiesel were produced by three different methods namely single stage transesterification (SST), double stage transesterification (DST) and foolproof (FP) processes in which sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were used. The effects of each catalyst on the production yield were analyzed and compared. NaOH gave production yields of 79%, 81% and 84 % for the SST, DST and FP processes respectively. KOH produced comparatively lower yields of 68%, 71 % and 75 % for SST, DST and fool proof processes respectively. Although the use of KOH slightly raises the cost of biodiesel production as compared to NaOH, the local production of KOH from cocoa husks could minimize the production cost. Abbreviations: BDF = Biodiesel fuel; PDF = Petroleum diesel fuel; DF = Diesel fuel Key words: Transesterification Alkaline catalysts Biodiesel yield Biodiesel KOH NaOH

  14. The Characterization of Eu2+-Doped Mixed Alkaline-Earth Iodide Scintillator Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, John S [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Wisniewski, D. [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toru?, Poland; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Cherepy, Nerine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-performance inorganic scintillator, SrI2:Eu2+, when activated with divalent europium in the concentration range of 3 to 6%, has shown great promise for use in applications that require high-energy-resolution gamma-ray detection. We have recently grown and tested crystals in which other alkaline-earth ions have been partially substituted for Sr ions. Specifically, europium-doped single crystals have been grown in which up to 30 at % of the strontium ions have been substituted for either by barium, magnesium, or calcium ions. In the case of the strontium iodide scintillator host, a material that is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure, there are three other column IIA elements that are obvious choices for investigations whose purpose is to realize potential improvements in the performance of SrI2:Eu2+-based scintillators via the replacement of strontium ions with either Mg2+, Ca2+, or Ba2+. Light yields of up to 81,400 photons/MeV with an associated energy resolution of 3.7% (fwhm for 662 keV gamma-rays) have been observed in the case of a partial substitution of Ba2+ for Sr2+. The measured decay times ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 s, while the peak emission wavelengths ranged from 432 to 438 nm.

  15. Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  16. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  17. Version 3.01 SOP 3b --Total alkalinity (open cell) July 1, 2008 Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is monitored using a pH glass electrode/reference electrode cell, and the total alkalinity is computed from to weigh1 200 g to within 0.01 g, · 125 cm3 plastic screw-cap bottle with cap. 4.2 Titration cell assembly system. The system is used to buffer the e.m.f. of the combination pH glass electrode/reference electrode

  18. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  19. Coronal Temperature as an Age Indicator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwankyung Sung; M. S. Bessell; Hugues Sana

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-ray spectra of late type stars can generally be well fitted by a two temperature component model of the corona. We fnd that the temperature of both components are strong functions of stellar age, although the temperature of the hotter plasma in the corona shows a larger scatter and is probably affected by the activity of stars, such as flares. We confirm the power-law decay of the temperature of the hot plasma, but the temperature of the cool component decays linearly with log (age).

  20. Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

    temperature thermal energy, mechanical and absorption type heat pumps have been proposed and developed so far. This paper addresses itself to the concept of a heat reaction chemical heat pump (HRCHP). The HRCHP concept is aimed to upgrade low temperature...

  1. Dedicated to Sharing Information About Water Management and the Florida LAKEWATCH Program Volume 66 (2014) Total Color and Total Alkalinity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Volume 66 (2014) Florida LAKEWATCH Total Color and Total Alkalinity Analysis Recently on total phosphorus, total nitrogen and chlorophyll were similar between equivalent to FDEP's, which were collected using stringent quality assurance (QA

  2. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A. [NMD and Associates, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  3. ambient high temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between 25C and 27C. The types of modules 3 Terminology Poikilotherms body temperature ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q ...

  4. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  5. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  6. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type Topic 2 Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources, Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells, and...

  7. atmospheric temperature response: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  8. atmospheric temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  9. Deltaic sedimentation in saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Response to environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renaut, R.W. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Tiercelin, J.J. (Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Domaines Oceaniques)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Bogoria is a meromictic, saline (90 g/l TDS), alkaline (pH: 10.3) lake with Na-CO[sub 3]-Cl waters, located in a narrow half-graben in the central Kenya Rift. It is fed by hot springs, direct precipitation, and a series of ephemeral streams that discharge into the lake via small deltas and fan-deltas. Examination of the exposed deltas and >50 short cores from the lake floor, have revealed a wide range of deltaic and prodeltaic sediments, including turbidites and subaqueous debris-flow deposits. Studies of 3 long cores and the exposed delta stratigraphy have shown how the style of deltaic sedimentation has responded to environmental changes during the last 30,000 years. During humid periods when lake level is high the lake waters are fresher and less dense. Theoretically, high sediment yield and more constant discharge may promote underflow (hyperpycnal flow), generating low-density turbidity currents. In contrast, during low stages with dense brine, the less dense, inflowing waters carry fine sediment plumes toward the center of the lake where they settle from suspension (hypopycnal flow). Although applicable as a general model, the sediment record shows that reality is more complex. Variations in meromixis and level of the chemocline, together with local and temporal differences in sediment yield and discharge, may permit density flows even when the lake is under a predominant hypopycnal regime. During periods of aridity when sodium carbonate evaporites were forming, exposed delta plains were subject to desiccation with local development of calcrete and zeolitic paleosols.

  10. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  11. Americium/Lanthanide Separations in Alkaline Solutions for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, George S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Long, Kristy Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reilly, Sean D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Runde, Wolfgang H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Project goals: Can used nuclear fuel be partitioned by dissolution in alkaline aqueous solution to give a solution of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium and a filterable solid containing nearly all of the lanthanide fission products and certain other fission products? What is the chemistry of Am/Cm/Ln in oxidative carbonate solutions? Can higher oxidation states of Am be stabilized and exploited? Conclusions: Am(VI) is kinetically stable in 0.5-2.0 M carbonate solutions for hours. Aliquat 336 in toluene has been successfully shown to extract U(VI) and Pu(VI) from carbonate solutions. (Stepanov et al 2011). Higher carbonate concentration gives lower D, SF{sub U/Eu} for = 4 in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Experiments with Am(VI) were unsuccessful due to reduction by the organics. Multiple sources of reducing organics...more optimization. Reduction experiments of Am(VI) in dodecane/octanol/Aliquat 336 show that after 5 minutes of contact, only 30-40% of the Am(VI) has been reduced. Long enough to perform an extraction. Shorter contact times, lower T, and lower Aliquat 336 concentration still did not result in any significant extraction of Am. Anion exchange experiments using a strong base anion exchanger show uptake of U(VI) with minimal uptake of Nd(III). Experiments with Am(VI) indicate Am sorption with a Kd of 9 (10 minute contact) but sorption mechanism is not yet understood. SF{sub U/Nd} for = 7 and SF{sub U/Eu} for = 19 after 24 hours in 1 M K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.

  12. Geochemical evolution of highly alkaline and saline tank wasteplumes during seepage through vadose zone sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Serne, R. Jeff

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leakage of highly saline and alkaline radioactive waste from storage tanks into underlying sediments is a serious environmental problem at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This study focuses on geochemical evolution of tank waste plumes resulting from interactions between the waste solution and sediment. A synthetic tank waste solution was infused into unsaturated Hanford sediment columns (0.2, 0.6, and 2 m )maintained at 70 C to simulate the field contamination process. Spatially and temporally resolved geochemical profiles of the waste plume were obtained. Thorough OH- neutralization (from an initial pH 14 down to 6.3) was observed. Three broad zones of pore solutions were identified to categorize the dominant geochemical reactions: the silicate dissolution zone (pH>10), pH-neutralized zone (pH 10 to 6.5), and displaced native sediment pore water (pH 6.5 to 8). Elevated concentrations of Si, Fe, and K in plume fluids and their depleted concentrations in plume sediments reflected dissolution of primary minerals within the silicate dissolution zone. The very high Na concentrations in the waste solution resulted in rapid and complete cation exchange, reflected in high concentrations of Ca and Mg at the plume front. The plume-sediment profiles also showed deposition of hydrated solids and carbonates. Fair correspondence was obtained between these results and analyses of field borehole samples from a waste plume at the Hanford Site. Results of this study provide a well-defined framework for understanding waste plumes in the more complex field setting and for understanding geochemical factors controlling transport of contaminant species carried in waste solutions that leaked from single-shell storage tanks in the past.

  13. Geochemical evolution of highly alkaline and saline tank waste plumes during seepage through vadose zone sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Serne, R JEFFREY.

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leakage of highly saline and alkaline radioactive waste from storage tanks into underlying sediments is a serious environmental problem at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This study focuses on geochemical evolution of tank waste plumes resulting from interactions between the waste solution and sediment. A synthetic tank waste solution was infused into unsaturated Hanford sediment columns (0.2, 0.6, and 2 m) maintained at 70C to simulate the field contamination process. Spatially and temporally resolved geochemical profiles of the waste plume were obtained. Thorough OH neutralization (from an initial pH 14 down to 6.3) was observed. Three broad zones of pore solutions were identified to categorize the dominant geochemical reactions: the silicate dissolution zone (pH > 10), pH-neutralized zone (pH 10 to 6.5), and displaced native sediment pore water (pH 6.5 to 8). Elevated concentrations of Si, Fe, and K in plume fluids and their depleted concentrations in plume sediments reflected dissolution of primary minerals within the silicate dissolution zone. The very high Na concentrations in the waste solution resulted in rapid and complete cation exchange, reflected in high concentrations of Ca and Mg at the plume front. The plume-sediment profiles also showed deposition of hydrated solids and carbonates. Fair correspondence was obtained between these results and analyses of field borehole samples from a waste plume at the Hanford Site. Results of this study provide a well-defined framework for understanding waste plumes in the more complex field setting and for understanding geochemical factors controlling transport of contaminant species carried in waste solutions that leaked from single-shell storage tanks in the past.

  14. Proactive Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling High-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery Proactive Design of n-Type (In, Ce) Filled Skutterudites Enabling High-Temperature...

  15. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  16. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  17. Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY February 2013 Academic Writing Guide Part 2 ­ Assignment Types: This section outlines the basic types of written assignments, providing structural elements and examples. #12;2 II. Assignment Types 1. Essay Writing

  18. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  19. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  20. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  1. Magnetic insulation at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedecke, G. H.; Davis, Brian T.; Chen, Chiping [Physics Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 and Raytheon Missile Systems, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (United States); Intense Beam Theoretical Research Group, Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and Raytheon Missile Systems, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, Arizona 85706 (United States)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A finite-temperature non-neutral plasma (FTNNP) theory of magnetically insulated (MI) electron flows in crossed-field vacuum devices is developed and applied in planar geometry. It is shown that, in contrast to the single type of MI flow predicted by traditional cold-plasma treatments, the nonlinear FTNNP equations admit five types of steady flow, of which three types are MI flows, including flows in which the electric field and/or the tangential velocity at the cathode may be zero or nonzero. It is also shown that finite-temperature Vlasov-Poisson treatments yield solutions for electron number densities and electrostatic potentials that are a subset of the FTNNP solutions. The algorithms that are used to solve the FTNNP equations numerically are discussed, and the numerical results are presented for several examples of the three types of MI flow. Results include prediction of the existence, boundaries, number density profiles, and other properties of sheaths of electrons in the anode-cathode gap.

  2. In situ x-ray absorption fine structure and optical reflectance studies of electrodeposited nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.; Bae, I. T.; Mo, Y.; Antonio, M. R.; Scherson, D. A.; Chemistry; Case Western Reserve Univ.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and optical reflectance spectroscopy (RS) have been used to examine in situ electronic and structural aspects of nickel hydrous oxide, a-Ni(OH)2(hyd), electrodes supported on gold in alkaline electrolytes as a function of their state of charge. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of a-Ni(OH)2(hyd) electrodes in the uncharged (UC, or discharged) and overcharged (OC, or fully charged) states yielded, in each case, a single set of two distinct nearest-neighbor shells, with distances, d(Ni-O)1 = 2.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} and d(Ni-Ni)1 = 3.11 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} for UC, and d(Ni-O)1 = 1.87 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} and d(Ni-Ni)1 = 2.83 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} for OC. The in situ EXAFS of films allowed to self-discharge following overcharge could be fit with contributions from both sets of shells, suggesting that only two types of nickel sites are sufficient to account for the redox chemistry of this material. These data, in addition to information derived both from quantitative X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and optical RS in the visible range, indicate that the excess anodic charge, i.e., beyond the one-electron oxidation of Ni2+ sites, observed during the first oxidation of freshly prepared a-Ni(OH)2(hyd) electrodes may not be related to oxidation state changes involving nickel sites in the lattice, and, therefore, do not support the existence of nickel sites with a formal oxidation state higher than three for charged or overcharged electrodes in this media.

  3. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual report for the period January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Mundorf, W.R.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. {open_quotes}Detailed Evaluation of the West Kiehl Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and Its Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods{close_quotes} objective is to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  4. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  5. Author's personal copy Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    handling by R. Fuge a b s t r a c t The global warming of Earth's near-surface, air and oceans in recent the first industrial revolution that trans- formed the agrarian societies. Electricity allowed the for change. The global surface average temperature will increase 2­ 4.5 °C when the atmospheric CO2

  6. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L. [Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1996-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  7. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  8. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  9. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  10. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... understand how this reset scheme responds to building load change, thus resulting in supply air temperature reset, it is helpful to explain the role of thermostat. In the following section, we explain the way how the thermostat works, the type...

  11. 07-1 07-1Temperature Definition: The translational (e.g., wiggling around) energy . . .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koppelman, David M.

    07-1 07-1Temperature Definition: The translational (e.g., wiggling around) energy . . . . . . in most systems of interest. Instead, temperature scales are defined. There are two types: · The thermodynamic temperature scale. "Really" measures temperature. · Practical temperature scales. Approximations

  12. New type of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from seawater. III. Recycle use of adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omichi, H.; Katakai, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An amidoxime-group adsorbent for recovering uranium from seawater was made by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polymeric fiber, followed by amidoximation. Uranium adsorption of the adsorbent contacted with seawater in a column increased with the increase in flow rate, then leveled off. The relationship between uranium adsorption in a batch process and the ratio of the amount of seawater to that of adsorbent was found to be effective in evaluating adsorbent contacted with any amount of seawater. The conditioning of the adsorbent with an alkaline solution at higher temperature (approx.80/sup 0/C) after the acid desorption recovered the adsorption ability to the original level. This made it possible to apply the adsorbent to recycle use. On the other hand, the adsorbent conditioned at room temperature or that without conditioning lost adsorption ability during recycle use. The increase in water uptake was observed as one of the physical changes produced during recycle use of the alkaline-conditioned adsorbent, while the decrease in water uptake was observed with the unconditioned adsorbent. The IR spectra of the adsorbent showed a probability of reactions of amidoxime groups with acid and alkaline solutions, which can explain the change in uranium adsorption during the adsorption-desorption cycle.

  13. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane Yongjun Leng,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    density of most types of batteries, and (3) scalability of hydrogen technologies for grid- scale electrolyte water electrolysis, non-precious metals can be used as the electrocatalysts for the hydrogen M KOH, can react with carbonate anions formed by adsorption of carbon dioxide from the air to form

  14. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in Lawrence Field. Geologic and geocellular modeling needed for reservoir characterization and res

  15. Radiation heat transfer in multitube, alkaline-metal thermal-to-electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tournier, J.M.P.; El-Genk, M.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor anode, multitube Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) are being considered for a number of space missions, such as the NASA Pluto/Express (PX) and Europa missions, scheduled for the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. These static converters can achieve a high fraction of Carnot efficiency at relatively low operating temperatures. An optimized cell can potentially provide a conversion efficiency between 20 and 30 percent, when operated at a hot-side temperature of 1000--1200 K and a cold-side temperature of 550--650 K. A comprehensive modeling and testing program of vapor anode, multitube AMTEC cells has been underway for more than three years at the Air Force Research Laboratory`s Power and Thermal Group (AFRL/VSDVP), jointly with the University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the readiness of AMTECs for flight on future US Air Force space missions. A fast, integrated AMTEC Performance and Evaluation Analysis Model (APEAM) has been developed to support ongoing vacuum tests at AFRL and perform analyses and investigate potential design changes to improve the PX-cell performance. This model consists of three major components (Tournier and El-Genk 1998a, b): (a) a sodium vapor pressure loss model, which describes continuum, transition and free-molecule flow regimes in the low-pressure cavity of the cell; (b) an electrochemical and electrical circuit model; and (c) a radiation/conduction heat transfer model, for calculating parasitic heat losses. This Technical Note describes the methodology used to calculate the radiation view factors within the enclosure of the PX-cells, and the numerical procedure developed in this work to determine the radiation heat transport and temperatures within the cell cavity.

  16. Types of Commissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several commissioning types exist to address the specific needs of equipment and systems across both new and existing buildings. The following commissioning types provide a good overview.

  17. Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles for Protection and Delayed Release of Enzymes in Alkaline pH and at Elevated Temperature during Hydraulic Fracturing of Oil Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barati Ghahfarokhi, Reza; Johnson, Stephen J.; McCool, Stan; Green, Don W.; Willhite, G. Paul; Liang, Jenn-Tai

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyethylenimine-dextran sulfate polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) were used to entrap two enzymes used to degrade polymer gels following hydraulic fracturing of oil wells in order to obtain delayed release and to protect ...

  18. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  19. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3SrTiO3 thin films on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    by a 20-nm-thick SrTiO3 001 buffer layer. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy studies. INTRODUCTION Perovskite manganites RE 1-x AE xMnO3, where RE =rare earth and AE=alkaline earth formTemperature dependence of magnetic properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3Ã?SrTiO3 thin films on silicon

  20. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  1. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  2. Fast nondestructive temperature measurement of two-electron atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cristiani, Matteo; Valenzuela, Tristan; Gothe, Hannes; Eschner, Juergen [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the technique originally proposed by [Honda et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, R934 (1999)] to measure the temperature of ytterbium and alkaline-earth-metal atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The method is based on the analysis of excitation spectra obtained by probing the {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination line. Thanks to a careful analysis and modeling of the effects caused by the MOT light on the probe transition we overcome the resolution and precision limits encountered in previous works. Ground-state light shift and Rabi broadening are measured and successfully compared with calculated values. This knowledge allows us to properly extract the Doppler contribution to the linewidth, thus obtaining a reliable measurement of the cloud temperature. We finally show how spectroscopy on free-falling atoms provides an alternative method to determine the sample temperature which resembles the standard time-of-flight technique.

  3. A Carbon-Supported Copper Complex of 3,5-Diamino-1,2,4-triazole as a Cathode Catalyst for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Fuel Cell Applications Fikile R. Brushett, Matthew S. Thorum, Nicholas S. Lioutas, Matthew S. Naughton-tri/C) is investigated as a cathode material using an alkaline microfluidic H2/O2 fuel cell. The absolute Cu be realized by optimizing catalyst and electrode preparation procedures. Fuel cell-based systems hold promise

  4. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  5. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  6. The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature futures Conclusions The Volatility of Temperature and Pricing of Weather Derivatives Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration with J Universit¨at Ulm, April 2007 #12;The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature

  7. Possibility of n-type and p-type carrier coupling in the excitonic enhancement model of superconducting mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.W. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Ching, W.Y. (Missouri Univ., Kansas City, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the possibility of both n-type and p-type carrier coupling in the excitonic enhancement model (EEM) for high temperature superconductivity. It is argued that p-type quasi-particles will generally lead to a higher T{sub c} than the n-type. The differences between EEM model and other exciton-related models are illuminated by the corresponding Feynman diagrams for the carrier coupling.

  8. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  9. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  10. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  11. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  12. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  13. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are produced. The hourly precipitation-type climatologist present the probabilities for particular precipitation types (frozen, freezing, rain, and mixed) for 2F? temperature intervals from 8F? to 44F?. The synoptic precipitation-type climatologist provide...

  14. Interactions of Aqueous U(VI) with Soil Minerals in Slightly Alkaline Natural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium (U) is a common contaminant at numerous surface and subsurface sites around the world. This paper covers some important aspects of the aqueous hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] interactions with soil minerals that are present in contaminated soils and sediments. The retention of U via interactions with soil minerals has significant consequences for the prediction of its short – and long – term behavior in soils and geological systems. Studies of the nature and type of these interactions have provided the necessary evidence for assessing the geochemical behavior of U in natural systems under different physical, biogeochemical, hydrological, and reducing or oxidizing conditions. Over the last 20 years, aqueous U(VI):solid phase interactions have been studied by geochemists, soil chemists, soil mineralogists and soil microbiologists, and the progress in some areas is remarkable. Although a mechanistic description and understanding of the complex interactions involving U and soil minerals of natural systems is currently impossible, results from carefully designed and executed experiments with these materials have improved our understanding of the heterogeneous system’s behavior and U contaminant mobility and transport. There are, however, areas that need further exploration and study. Numerous research publications were reviewed in this paper to present important findings coming out of the research, to reveal the current level of the understanding of the U(VI) interactions with soil minerals, and to provide ideas for future needs and research directions.

  15. Kinetic studies of the [NpO? (CO?)?]?? ion at alkaline conditions using ¹³C NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasci, Adele F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Harley, Stephen J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, William H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate ligand-exchange rates on the [NpO? (CO?)?]?? ion were determined using a saturation-transfer ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse sequence in the pH range of 8.1 ? pH ? 10.5. Over the pH range 9.3 ? pH ? 10.5, which compares most directly with previous work of Stout et al.,1 we find an average rate, activation energy, enthalpy, and entropy of k298ex = 40.6(±4.3) s?¹, Ea =45.1(±3.8) kJ mol?¹, ?H = 42.6(±3.8) kJ mol?¹, and ?S = -72(±13) J mol?¹ K?¹, respectively. These activation parameters are similar to the Stout et al. results at pH 9.4. However, their room-temperature rate at pH 9.4, k298ex = 143(±1.0) s?¹, is ~3 times faster than what we experimentally determined at pH 9.3: k298ex = 45.4(±5.3) s?¹. Our rates for [NpO? (CO?)?]?? are also faster by a factor of ~3 relative to the isoelectronic [UO?(CO?)?]?? as reported by Brucher et al.2 of k298ex = 13(±3) s?¹. Consistent with results for the [UO?(CO?)?]?? ion, we find evidence for a proton-enhanced pathway for carbonate exchange for the [NpO?(CO?)?]?? ion at pH < 9.0.

  16. Novel room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Amita

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one 'spintronic' device that exploits both charge and 'spin' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 mu-m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (<4 at. percent) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2+ state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2+ state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS, revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

  17. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  18. Temperature Correction to Casimir-Lifshitz Free Energy at Low Temperatures: Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simen A. Ellingsen; Iver Brevik; Johan S. H\\oye; Kimball A. Milton

    2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force and free energy at low temperatures has been the subject of focus for some time. We calculate the temperature correction to the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy between two parallel plates made of dielectric material possessing a constant conductivity at low temperatures, described through a Drude-type dielectric function. For the transverse magnetic (TM) mode such a calculation is new. A further calculation for the case of the TE mode is thereafter presented which extends and generalizes previous work for metals. A numerical study is undertaken to verify the correctness of the analytic results.

  19. High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

  20. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  1. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  2. Direct gap photoluminescence of n-type tensile-strained Ge-on-Si

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xiaochen

    Room temperature direct gap photoluminescence (PL) was observed from n-type tensile-strained epitaxial Ge-on-Si. The PL intensity increases with n-type doping due to a higher electron population in the direct ? valley as ...

  3. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  4. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  5. Finite Temperature Effective Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present, from first principles, a direct method for evaluating the exact fermion propagator in the presence of a general background field at finite temperature, which can be used to determine the finite temperature effective action for the system. As applications, we determine the complete one loop finite temperature effective actions for 0+1 dimensional QED as well as the Schwinger model. These effective actions, which are derived in the real time (closed time path) formalism, generate systematically all the Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory and also show that the retarded (advanced) amplitudes vanish in these theories.

  6. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  7. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  8. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  9. Temperature in the Throat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dariush Kaviani; Amir Esmaeil Mosaffa

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating D-branes in warped Calabi-Yau throats have induced metrics with thermal horizons and Hawking temperatures a la Unruh effect. We solve the equations of motion for slow rotating probe branes and derive their induced metrics in the UV/IR solutions of warped conifold throats. Our analysis shows that horizons and temperatures of expected features form on the world volume of the rotating probe brane in terms of conserved charges in the UV solutions of the conifold throat. In certain limits, we find world volume horizons and temperatures of the form similar to those of rotating probes in the AdS throat.

  10. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  11. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  12. Alkaline Biofiltration of H2S Odors A R M A N D O G O N Z A L E Z -S A N C H E Z , ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkaline Biofiltration of H2S Odors A R M A N D O G O N Z ´A L E Z - S ´A N C H E Z , , S E R G I. Accepted July 8, 2008. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very common odor nuisance which is best controlled by chemical or biological scrubbing. Under alkaline pH, the amount of H2S that can be solubilized

  13. Typed Self-Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    type T y[O]. The operator IsIs is self-applicative, in thatargument t is any of Is[O] or IsIs, and otherwise behavesproof constant introduced by IsIs proves that the type of t

  14. Self Contained Temperature Actuated Control Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirkle, F.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATER ESL-IE-79-04-39 Proceedings from the First Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 '"'" Steam Tracer_ ====='11 Steam Main Strainer _ - Drip Leg "\\1 1/2 CTV 180 BDB '-----~ Strainer ~ 1/2 CTV 180 BDB V...I _,Ai y~/ t 7~ ~~:r~ /J TYPE '/.0 F35ADB TYPE '/.0 F190BRB WINTERIZATION OF EXPOSED OVERHEAD PIPE TEMPERATURE CONTROL ON WATER BETWEEN BUILDINGS COOLED AIR COMPRESSOR Fig. 19 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 REFERENCES 1. Roy, J.G., "Tracer Steam...

  15. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 #12;#12;Contents Learn about Diabetes ............................................................ 1 What is diabetes? .............................................................. 2 What

  16. O'KKLT at Finite Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilia Anguelova; Vincenzo Calo

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study whether finite temperature corrections decompactify the internal space in KKLT compactifications with an uplifting sector given by a system that exhibits metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking. More precisely, we calculate the one-loop temperature corrections to the effective potential of the volume modulus in the KKLT model coupled to the quantum corrected O'Raifeartaigh model. We prove that for the original KKLT model, namely with one exponent in the non-perturbative superpotential, the finite temperature potential is runaway when at zero temperature there is a dS minimum. On the other hand, for a non-perturbative superpotential of the race-track type with two exponents, we demonstrate that the temperature-dependent part of the effective potential can have local minima at finite field vevs. However, rather unexpectedly, it turns out that these minima do not affect the structure of the full effective potential and so the volume modulus is stabilized at the local minimum of the zero temperature potential for the whole range of validity of the supergravity approximation.

  17. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations of Mn-oxide rich cathodic material from spent disposable alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krekeler, Mark P.S. [Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)], E-mail: mark.krekeler@gmail.com

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to investigate the spent cathodic material of a single common brand of disposable alkaline batteries. Mn-oxide particles are anhedral and irregular in shape and compose an estimated 99-95% of the <10 {mu}m size fraction of sample material. Diameters of particles vary widely and typically are between 50 nm and 3 {mu}m; however, most particles are approximately 200-400 nm in diameter. Chemical composition varies for Mn-oxide particles with concentrations being SiO{sub 2} (0.00-1.52 wt%), TiO{sub 2} (0.49-4.58 wt%), MnO (65.85-92.06 wt%), ZnO (1.00-7.53 wt%), K{sub 2}O (4.97-20.48 wt%) and SO{sub 3} (0.43-2.21 wt%). Discrete prismatic zinc crystals occur and vary from a maximum of approximately 0.8 {mu}m long x 0.15 {mu}m wide, to 100 nm long x 20 nm wide. Titanium metal was also observed in samples and composes approximately 0.25-1.0% of the <10 {mu}m size fraction of sample material. Results of this study suggest that battery components may be recycled in some special applications. Examples are low energy-low material requirement products such as paint pigments and Zn nanoparticles. This investigation provides detailed constraints on the nature of spent cathodic materials to improve existing recycling methods and develop new technologies.

  19. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  20. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  1. Anisotropic criteria for the type of superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, Vladimir G [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical criterion for classification of superconductors as type I or type II based on the isotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory is generalized to arbitrary temperatures for materials with anisotropic Fermi surfaces and order parameters. We argue that the relevant quantity for this classification is the ratio of the upper and thermodynamic critical fields Hc2/Hc, rather than the traditional ratio of the penetration depth and the coherence length ?/?. Even in the isotropic case, Hc2/Hc coincides with 2??/? only at the critical temperature Tc and they differ as T decreases, the long-known fact. Anisotropies of Fermi surfaces and order parameters may amplify this difference and render false the criterion based on the value of ?=?/?.

  2. Temperature Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, David

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

  3. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  4. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  5. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

  6. R-symmetry and Supersymmetry Breaking at Finite Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. F. Moreno; F. A. Schaposnik

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the spontaneous $U(1)_R$ symmetry breaking at finite temperature for the simple O'Raifeartaigh-type model introduced in [1] in connection with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. We calculate the finite temperature effective potential (free energy) to one loop order and study the thermal evolution of the model. We find that the R-symmetry breaking occurs through a second order phase transition. Its associated meta-stable supersymmetry breaking vacuum is thermodynamically favored at high temperatures and the model remains trapped in this state by a potential barrier, as the temperature lowers all the way until T=0.

  7. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  8. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  9. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  10. Fejer-type inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitroi, F C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to present some new Fejer-type results for convex functions. Improvements of Young's inequality (the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality) and other applications to special means are pointed as well.

  11. Document Type: Subject Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    Title: Authors: Source: Document Type: Subject Terms: Abstract: Full Text Word Count: ISSN at creating team results. In fact, it's priceless. Managers in Western corporations have received a lifetime

  12. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  13. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  14. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Press, Canberra, Australia, 224 p. Gerasimovsky,University Press, Canberra, Australia, 369 p. Gerasimovsky,

  15. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenland," in Uranium Exploration Geology, Int. AtomicMigration of Uranium and Thorium—Exploration Significance,"interesting for future uranium exploration. The c r i t e r

  16. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical elements uranium zirconium niobium beryllium rarerare earths, niobium, zirconium, uranium, and thorium.respect, uranium and thorium are niobium in carbonatitcs.

  17. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Thorium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, Exemplified byabundance by gamma-ray spectrometry and, on the basis ofand thorium by gamma-ray spectrometry; exemplified by

  18. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heinrich; Petrology and Mineralogy of the Mt. Rosa Area, ElDana 1958 A textbook of mineralogy with an extended treatiseon crystallography and physical mineralogy, Dana, E.S. , and

  19. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W.W. Patton, Jr. , 1974. "Petrology of the Nepheline SyenitePart I. Geology and Petrology," l? D. 'Nauka , Moscow^ USSR,E. B. & E. Wm. Heinrich; Petrology and Mineralogy of the Mt.

  20. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mississippi," Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. , v. 22(7),Coastal Plain," Amer. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. , v. 33(8), ppArkansas," Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. , v. 63, pp 271-294.

  1. Alkaline Membrane Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM -Alicia Moulton About Us AliciaRPTnnnn

  2. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  3. Transition temperature in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.; Christ, N. H.; Mawhinney, R. D. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Datta, S.; Jung, C.; Schmidt, C.; Umeda, T. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Heide, J. van der; Kaczmarek, O.; Laermann, E.; Miao, C. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Karsch, F. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Petreczky, P. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Petrov, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed for various light to strange quark mass ratios in the range, 0.05{<=}m-circumflex{sub l}/m-circumflex{sub s}{<=}0.5, and with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m-circumflex{sub l}{yields}0) and continuum (aT{identical_to}1/N{sub {tau}}{yields}0) limits we find for the transition temperature at the physical point T{sub c}r{sub 0}=0.457(7) where the scale is set by the Sommer-scale parameter r{sub 0} defined as the distance in the static quark potential at which the slope takes on the value (dV{sub qq}(r)/dr){sub r=r{sub 0}}=1.65/r{sub 0}{sup 2}. Using the currently best known value for r{sub 0} this translates to a transition temperature T{sub c}=192(7)(4) MeV. The transition temperature in the chiral limit is about 3% smaller. We discuss current ambiguities in the determination of T{sub c} in physical units and also comment on the universal scaling behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the chiral limit.

  4. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  5. Low Temperature Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.0036 0.0038 0.004 0.0042 Inverse Temperature, 1K Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww) (BID 1935), 4.1V, 3 Sep. Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww)...

  6. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  7. Temperature Temperature is the physical property of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexeenko, Alina

    Temperature Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlines the common notion and said to be at the same temperature. If a thermometer is placed in a gas container then the thermal zero. #12;Temperature The energy exchange between gas and thermometer is through collisions of gas

  8. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  9. Hysteresis and Noise from Electronic Nematicity in High-Temperature Superconductors E. W. Carlson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Erica

    -temperature superconductors, in addition to superconductivity, there may exist various other types of order which breakHysteresis and Noise from Electronic Nematicity in High-Temperature Superconductors E. W. Carlson,1 reported in recent noise [8] and hysteresis [9,10] measure- ments on high-temperature superconductors

  10. Low temperature transport in p-doped InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, S.; Jespersen, T. S.; Madsen, M. H.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J. [Center for Quantum Devices and Nano-Science Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Center for Quantum Devices and Nano-Science Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present low temperature electrical measurements of p-type Indium Arsenide nanowires grown via molecular beam epitaxy using Beryllium as a dopant. Growth of p-type wires without stacking faults is demonstrated. Devices in field-effect geometries exhibit ambipolar behavior, and the temperature dependence of electron and hole field effect mobilities are extracted. At low temperatures, we observe reproducible conductance fluctuations as a result of quantum interference, and magnetoconductance data show weak antilocalization.

  11. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  12. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, Brian DeVon; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts.

  13. Notice Type: Presolicitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    each Accessory Kit for furnace hoist P/N: HTP40000A05.020, 1 each Highest temperature vacuum tube furnace P/N: HTP4000A89.000-00, 1 each Sample carrier system for TG measurements P/N: HTP40000A52.000-00, 1 each Furnace power supply system for 2400 degree C tungsten furnace P/N: HTP40000A30.010-00, 1

  14. EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Porter

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 °C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 °C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 °C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 °C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design ‘fixes’, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

  15. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH){sub 3}, Fe(OH){sub 3}, Cr(OH){sub 3}, and Mn(OH){sub 2} obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400.

  16. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust around Type Ia supernovae Lifan Wang 1,2 LawrenceIa. Subject headings: Supernovae: General, Dust, Extinctionline) bands for Type Ia supernovae. (a), upper panel, shows

  17. Wolter type i LAMAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catura, R.C.; Joki, E.G.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

  18. Thermionic Converter Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner,B. J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  19. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  20. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  1. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and InstrumentsInstrumentsTemperature

  2. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:HoldingsTechint Spa JumpTVCEtTemperature" Showing 9

  3. Temperature Maps and Data

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)ThousandNumber andCrudeTemperature Maps and Data

  4. Temperature Maps and Data

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)ThousandNumber andCrudeTemperature Maps and

  5. Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de donnes (Abstract Data Type)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Sylvie

    Rappels: 4) Piles #12;Types abstraits de données (Abstract Data Type) IFT2015, A2009, Sylvie Hamel Université de Montréal 1Piles Type de données Un ensemble de valeurs Un ensemble d'opérations Structure de Université de Montréal 2Piles #12;Type abstrait de données PILE (§4.2) Garde en mémoire des objets

  6. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  7. Biogeochemical redox cycling in hyper alkaline sediment-water systems. Ian Burke, Rob Mortimer and Doug Stewart (Civil Engineering)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    kiln contrusted at Harper Hill in Derbyshire by the Buxton Lime Company was biggest of its type and was in operation continuously, 24/7, from 1872 until it was closed in 1944. (The kiln was demolished in 1980 of the kiln, and groundwater in contact with this waste has become saturated in Ca-, Na-, and K- hydroxides

  8. Biogeochemical redox cycling in hyper alkaline sediment-water systems. Ian Burke, Rob Mortimer and Doug Stewart (Civil Engineering)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    kiln constructed at Harper Hill in Derbyshire by the Buxton Lime Company was biggest of its type and was in operation continuously, 24/7, from 1872 until it was closed in 1944. (The kiln was demolished in 1980 of the kiln, and groundwater in contact with this waste has become saturated in Ca-, Na-, and K- hydroxides

  9. A note on the string spectrum at the Hagedorn temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Madrigal; P. Talavera

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss semi-classical string configurations at finite temperature. We find that those soliton solution in the background describing type IIA strings disappear or become divergent when we approach the Hagedorn temperature in the strong coupling regime. These findings together with a semi-classical analysis for the Hawking radiation let us to think that Hawking radiation is mainly driven by the existence of highly excited states. As by side, we check that beside the thermodynamical instability the system is dynamical unstable before reaching the Hagedorn temperature.

  10. The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

  11. Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity By Ohm's Law, resistance will dim. Low temperature superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike was explained by BCS theory. BCS theory explains superconductivity microscopically

  12. Low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Bingchen; Shen, Xiaonan; Shang, Jingzhi; Cong, Chunxiao; Yang, Weihuang; Eginligil, Mustafa, E-mail: yuting@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: meginligil@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 (Singapore); Yu, Ting, E-mail: yuting@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: meginligil@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117546 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High photoresponse can be achieved in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the response times are inconveniently limited by defects. Here, we report low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide prepared by exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. The exfoliated device exhibits n-type behaviour; while the CVD device exhibits intrinsic behaviour. In off state, the CVD device has four times larger ratio of photoresponse for laser on/off and photoresponse decay–rise times are 0.1 s (limited by our setup), while the exfoliated device has few seconds. These findings are discussed in terms of charge trapping and localization.

  13. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  14. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  15. Algorithms for Temperature-Aware Task Scheduling in Microprocessor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chrobak, Marek; Hurand, Mathilde; Robert, Julien

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study scheduling problems motivated by recently developed techniques for microprocessor thermal management at the operating systems level. The general scenario can be described as follows. The microprocessor's temperature is controlled by the hardware thermal management system that continuously monitors the chip temperature and automatically reduces the processor's speed as soon as the thermal threshold is exceeded. Some tasks are more CPU-intensive than other and thus generate more heat during execution. The cooling system operates non-stop, reducing (at an exponential rate) the deviation of the processor's temperature from the ambient temperature. As a result, the processor's temperature, and thus the performance as well, depends on the order of the task execution. Given a variety of possible underlying architectures, models for cooling and for hardware thermal management, as well as types of tasks, this scenario gives rise to a plethora of interesting and never studied scheduling problems. We focus on s...

  16. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  17. Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

  18. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office Press ReleasesPost-Closure BenefitsAppointment Types

  19. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy Lybeck

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: 1. Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing – 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. 2. Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram – 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  20. Ordered iron aluminide alloys having an improved room-temperature ductility and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for improving the room temperature ductility and strength of iron aluminide intermetallic alloys. The process involves thermomechanically working an iron aluminide alloy by means which produce an elongated grain structure. The worked alloy is then heated at a temperature in the range of about 650.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to produce a B2-type crystal structure. The alloy is rapidly cooled in a moisture free atmosphere to retain the B2-type crystal structure at room temperature, thus providing an alloy having improved room temperature ductility and strength.

  1. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

  2. Effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical properties of concrete containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical properties of concrete containing haematite and A. Beycioglu5 Concretes containing different proportions of haematite (15, 30, 45 and 60%) were of concretes were determined according to ASTM C39 and ASTM C469. A rule based Mamdani type fuzzy logic model

  3. Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de donnes (Abstract Data Type)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Sylvie

    Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de données (Abstract Data Type) IFT2015, A2009, Sylvie Hamel Université de Montréal 1Piles Type de données Un ensemble de valeurs Un ensemble d'opérations Structure de Université de Montréal 2Piles Type abstrait de données PILE (§4.2) Garde en mémoire des objets arbitraires

  4. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  5. INTRODUCTION Among different types of rechargeable batteries, polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    evolution in a sample prismatic lithium-ion battery (EiG ePLB C020), subjected to transient heat generation International doi:10.4271/2012-01-0334 saepcelec.saejournals.org Temperature Rise in Prismatic Polymer Lithium-IonINTRODUCTION Among different types of rechargeable batteries, polymer lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells

  6. Effects of Radiation and Temperature on Iodide Sorption by Surfactant-Modified Bentonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choung, Sungwook; Kim, Min Kyung; Yang, Jungseok; Kim, Min-Gyu; Um, Wooyong

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Bentonite, which is used as an engineered barrier in geological repositories, is ineffective for sorbing anionic radionuclides because of its negatively charged surface. This study modified raw bentonite using a cationic surfactant (i.e., hexadecyltrimethylammonium [HDTMA]-Br) to improve its sorption capability for radioactive iodide. The effects of temperature and radiation on the iodide sorption of surfactant-modified bentonite (SMB) were evaluated under alkaline pH condition similar to that found in repository environments. Different amounts of surfactant, equivalent to the 50, 100, and 200% cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite, were used to produce the HDTMA-SMB for iodide sorption. The sorption reaction of the SMB with iodide reached equilibrium rapidly within 10 min regardless of temperature and radiation conditions. The rate of iodide sorption increased as the amount of the added surfactant was increased and nonlinear sorption behavior was exhibited. However, high temperature and ?-irradiation (60Co) resulted in significantly (~2–10 times) lower iodide Kd values for the SMB. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis suggested that the decrease in iodide sorption may be caused by weakened physical electrostatic force between the HDTMA and iodide, and by the surfactant becoming detached from the SMB during the heating and irradiation processes.

  7. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  8. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  9. Effective temperature scale and bolometric corrections from 2MASS photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Masana; C. Jordi; I. Ribas

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method to determine effective temperatures, angular semi-diameters and bolometric corrections for population I and II FGK type stars based on V and 2MASS IR photometry. Accurate calibration is accomplished by using a sample of solar analogues, whose average temperature is assumed to be equal to the solar effective temperature of 5777 K. By taking into account all possible sources of error we estimate associated uncertainties better than 1% in effective temperature and in the range 1.0-2.5% in angular semi-diameter for unreddened stars. Comparison of our new temperatures with other determinations extracted from the literature indicates, in general, remarkably good agreement. These results suggest that the effective temperaure scale of FGK stars is currently established with an accuracy better than 0.5%-1%. The application of the method to a sample of 10999 dwarfs in the Hipparcos catalogue allows us to define temperature and bolometric correction (K band) calibrations as a function of (V-K), [m/H] and log g. Bolometric corrections in the V and K bands as a function of effective temperature, [m/H] and log g are also given. We provide effective temperatures, angular semi-diameters, radii and bolometric corrections in the V and K bands for the 10999 FGK stars in our sample with the corresponding uncertainties.

  10. Mechanism design with approximate types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zeyuan Allen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mechanism design, we replace the strong assumption that each player knows his own payoff type exactly with the more realistic assumption that he knows it only approximately: each player i only knows that his true type ...

  11. Types of Farming in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .......... .......-.----------------------. 8 Labor -..-.....-----...------------------------------------------------. 9 Land Tenure .--.----....---....--------------------------------- 9 Number and Size of Farms ....----...----.-._--------- 10 Capital... -------------...-------.---------------------------- 21 Hogs -......-....--------------------------------------------------- 22 Poultry .-.---.-.....--.-..------.---------------------------------- 22 Horses and Mules ---..-....---..--..------------------------ 23 Types of Farming and Type-of-farming...

  12. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  13. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; See, Clem A.; Lam, Oanh P.; Minister, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, and Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pa?s.

  14. Temperature control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A silicon-based sleeve type chemical reaction chamber that combines heaters, such as doped polysilicon for heating, and bulk silicon for convection cooling. The reaction chamber combines a critical ratio of silicon and non-silicon based materials to provide the thermal properties desired. For example, the chamber may combine a critical ratio of silicon and silicon nitride to the volume of material to be heated (e.g., a liquid) in order to provide uniform heating, yet low power requirements. The reaction chamber will also allow the introduction of a secondary tube (e.g., plastic) into the reaction sleeve that contains the reaction mixture thereby alleviating any potential materials incompatibility issues. The reaction chamber may be utilized in any chemical reaction system for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction, which are examples of a synthetic, thermal-cycling-based reaction. The reaction chamber may also be used in synthesis instruments, particularly those for DNA amplification and synthesis.

  15. Duality Phase Transition in Type I String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the duality phase transition in the unoriented type I theory of open and closed strings is_first order_. The order parameter is the semiclassical approximation to the heavy quark-antiquark potential at finite temperature, extracted from the covariant off-shell string amplitude with Wilson loop boundaries wrapped around the Euclidean time direction. Remarkably, precise calculations can be carried out on either side of the phase boundary at the string scale T_C = 1/2\\pi \\alpha^{'1/2} by utilizing the T-dual, type IB and type I', descriptions of the short string gas of massless gluon radiation. We will calculate the change in the duality transition temperature in the presence of an electromagnetic background field.

  16. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  17. Hotline IV ?High Temperature ESP

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hotline IV - High Temperature ESP Brindesh Dhruva (principal Inv.) Michael Dowling (presenter) Schlumberger Track Name May 18, 2010 This presentation does not contain any...

  18. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  19. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  20. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  1. Bond Strength Degradation for CFRP and Steel reinforcing Bars in Concrete at Elevated Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maluk, Cristian; Bisby, Luke; Terrasi, Giovanni; Green, Mark

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature is a complex phenomenon which is influenced by a number of interrelated factors, including the type of prestressing, degradation of the concrete, CFRP, and steel, differential thermal expansion, thermal gradients and stresses, release of moisture...

  2. Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and the response time. Rutile-structured tin oxide (SnO2) is an n-type semiconducting material widely used in gas

  3. A dependent nominal type theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nominal abstract syntax is an approach to representing names and binding pioneered by Gabbay and Pitts. So far nominal techniques have mostly been studied using classical logic or model theory, not type theory. Nominal extensions to simple, dependent and ML-like polymorphic languages have been studied, but decidability and normalization results have only been established for simple nominal type theories. We present a LF-style dependent type theory extended with name-abstraction types, prove soundness and decidability of beta-eta-equivalence checking, discuss adequacy and canonical forms via an example, and discuss extensions such as dependently-typed recursion and induction principles.

  4. Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, Sara

    We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50 days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the ...

  5. Finite temperature topological order in 2D topological color codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehdi Kargarian

    2009-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the topological order at finite temperature in two-dimensional color code is studied. The topological entropy is used to measure the behavior of the topological order. Topological order in color code arises from the colored string-net structures. By imposing the hard constrained limit the exact solution of the entanglement entropy becomes possible. For finite size systems, by raising the temperature, one type of string-net structure is thermalized and the associative topological entropy vanishes. In the thermodynamic limit the underlying topological order is fragile even at very low temperatures. Taking first the thermodynamic limit and then the zero-temperature limit and vice versa does not commute, and their difference is related only to the topology of regions. The contribution of the colors and symmetry of the model in the topological entropy is also discussed. It is shown how the gauge symmetry of the color code underlies the topological entropy.

  6. Low temperature irradiation tests on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Sample cool down by He gas loop 10K ­ 20K Fast neutron flux Measured by Ni activation in 2010 1.4xK #12;reactor Cryogenics #12;Al-Cu-Mg He gas temperature near sample 12K Resistance changesLow temperature irradiation tests on stabilizer materials using reactor neutrons at KUR Makoto

  7. Detecting temperature fluctuations at equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixit, Purushottam D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gibbs and Boltzmann definitions of temperature agree only in the macroscopic limit. The ambiguity in identifying the equilibrium temperature of a finite sized `small' system exchanging energy with a bath is usually understood as a limitation of conventional statistical mechanics. We interpret this ambiguity as resulting from a stochastically fluctuating temperature coupled with the phase space variables giving rise to a broad temperature distribution. With this ansatz, we develop the equilibrium statistics and dynamics of small systems. Numerical evidence using an analytically tractable model shows that the effects of temperature fluctuations can be detected in equilibrium and dynamical properties of the phase space of the small system. Our theory generalizes statistical mechanics to small systems relevant to biophysics and nanotechnology.

  8. Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal Electrical Power Generation Systems Using Oilfield Fluids Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature...

  9. On the asymptotic homotopy type of inductive limit Type ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this note we exhibit large classes of (projeetionless) stable, nuclear C*- algebras whose asymptotic homotopy type is determined by K-theoretical data.

  10. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract—The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

  11. Behavior of type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless in 55% lithium bromide heavy brine environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itzhak, D.; Elias, O. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical tensile specimens of AISI type 304 (UNS S30400) and type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steels (SS) were tested under constant-load conditions in 55% lithium bromide (LiBr) heavy brines at temperatures of 120 C and 140 C. Elongation and open-circuit potential (OCP) were recorded during the tensile test. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted, and the failed surface fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tested SS were subjected to stress corrosion under the test environments. Sensitivity was affected strongly by pH values. In LiBr brine of pH = 11.6, the passivation processes were more effective than in brine of pH = 6 [approximately] 8. Because of effective passivation behavior in brine of pH = 11.6, lower values of [delta]l[sub 0] were measured, indicating lower dislocation relaxation processes and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

  12. Temperature control method for series-connected reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, L.M.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is claimed for controlling the temperature and composition of a vapor feedstream into a second reactor connected in series flow arrangement with a first reactor. The effluent stream from the first reactor containing vapor and liquid fractions is first cooled against a vapor stream and then further cooled against a suitable external fluid, then is phase separated to provide vapor and liquid fractions. The separated vapor fraction is reheated against the first reactor effluent stream and passed at an intermediate temperature into the second reactor. The first reactor is preferably an ebullated bed type catalytic reactor and the second reactor is preferably a fixed bed type catalytic reactor which is operated at an inlet temperature 20/sup 0/-200/sup 0/ F. lower than the first reactor effluent stream temperature. If desired, the effluent stream from the first reactor can be initially phase separated into vapor and liquid factions, and the vapor fraction only passed to the first heat exchange step for cooling to a first lower temperature.

  13. Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse # 1 Lu 430/Lu 400 24 White box style 2 Lu No bulbs 0 N/A Seed harvest room F32 T8/TL 841 90 bulbs VIGS Room F032 /741/ECO 60 bulbs Chamber Model Bulb

  14. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  15. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  16. P-type SiGe/Si Superlattice Cooler Xiaofeng Fan, Gehong Zeng, Edward Croke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P-type SiGe/Si Superlattice Cooler Xiaofeng Fan, Gehong Zeng, Edward Croke1 , Gerry Robinson, Chris and characterization of single element p-type SiGe/Si superlattice coolers are described. Superlattice structures were]. SiGe is a good thermoelectric material especially for high temperature applications [11

  17. Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Consortium 2008 DOE Merit Review - UW-ERC 1 Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Profs. Rolf Reitz, P. Farrell, D. Foster, J. Ghandhi, C. Rutland, S. Sanders Engine...

  18. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  19. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  20. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  1. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  2. Study of electrodeposited nickel-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten, cobalt-molybdenum, and cobalt-tungsten as hydrogen electrodes in alkaline water electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, C.; Piron, D.L.; Sleb, A.; Paradis, P. (Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Metallurgie et de Genie des Materiaux)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposited nickel-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten, cobalt-molybdenum, and cobalt-tungsten were characterized for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the electrolysis of 30 w/o KOH alkaline water at 25 C. The rate-determining step (rds) of the HER was suggested based on the Tafel slope of polarization and the capacitance of electrode-solution interface determined by ac impedance measurement. The HER on the nickel- and cobalt-based codeposits was enhanced significantly compared with that o the electrolytic nickel and cobalt with comparable deposit loadings. The decrease in the HER overpotential was more pronounced on the molybdenum-containing codeposits, particularly on cobalt-molybdenum which also showed a high stability. The enhancement of the HER was attributed to both the synergetic composition and the increased active surface of the codeposits. The real electrocatalytic activity of te electrodes and the effect of their and the increased active surface of the codeposits. The real electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes and the effect of their surface increase were distinguished quantitatively. The linear relations between HER overpotential and surface roughness factor of the electrodes on a Y-log(X) plot were obtained experimentally and interpreted based on the Tafel law.

  3. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of foreign metal ions in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.A.; Scherson, D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Antonio, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Carr, R. (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States))

    1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aspects of the structural and electronic properties of hydrous oxide films of composite (9:1) Ni/Co and (9:1) Ni/Fe, prepared by electrodeposition, have been examined in alkaline electrolytes using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). An analysis of the X-ray absorption near the edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for the Co and Fe K-edges of these composite hydrous oxides revealed that, regardless of the oxidation state of nickel sites in the films, the guest metal ions are present as Co[sup 3+] and Fe[sup 3+] and that the cobalt-oxygen distance d(Co-O) = 1.9 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom] and d(Fe-O) = 1.92 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom]. The latter values are in excellent agreement with d(Me-O) (Me = Co or Fe) in CoOOH and [beta]- and [gamma]-FeOOH, respectively, determined by conventional X-ray diffraction. Two clearly defined Me-Ni first coordination shells could be observed in the Fourier transforms (FT) of the K-edge EXAFS of the guest metal recorded at a potential at which both Ni[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 3+] sites are expected to be present. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Ab initio properties of the ground-state polar and paramagnetic europium-alkali-metal-atom and europium-alkaline-earth-metal-atom molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomza, Micha?

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of the electronic ground state of the polar and paramagnetic europium-$S$-state-atom molecules have been investigated. Ab initio techniques have been applied to compute the potential energy curves for the europium-alkali-metal-atom, Eu$X$ ($X$=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), europium-alkaline-earth-metal-atom, Eu$Y$ ($Y$=Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), and europium-ytterbium, EuYb, molecules in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the high-spin electronic ground state. The spin restricted open-shell coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, RCCSD(T), was employed and the scalar relativistic effects within the small-core energy-consistent pseudopotentials were included. The permanent electric dipole moments and static electric dipole polarizabilities were computed. The leading long-range coefficients describing the dispersion interaction between atoms at large internuclear distances $C_6$ are also reported. The EuK, EuRb, and EuCs molecules are examples of species poss...

  5. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, J. Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hau-Riege, Stefan (Fremont, CA); Walton, Chris (Oakland, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  6. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    runaway in Type Ia supernovae: How to run away? oIgnition in Type Ia Supernovae. II. A Three- dimensionalnumber modeling of type Ia supernovae. I. hydrodynamics.

  7. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  8. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  9. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  10. Scaling of Temperature Dependence of Charge Mobility in Molecular Holstein Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Tikhonov; N. S. Fialko; E. V. Sobolev; V. D. Lakhno

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of a charge mobility in a model DNA based on Holstein Hamiltonian is calculated for 4 types of homogeneous sequences It has turned out that upon rescaling all 4 types are quite similar. Two types of rescaling, i.e. those for low and intermediate temperatures, are found. The curves obtained are approximated on a logarithmic scale by cubic polynomials. We believe that for model homogeneous biopolymers with parameters close to the designed ones, one can assess the value of the charge mobility without carrying out resource-intensive direct simulation, just by using a suitable approximating function.

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These endeavors have lead us to a solution which we think is quite unique and should allow us to obtain flaw free dense films of thickness in the 0.5 to 5 {micro}m range at processing temperatures {le} 900{sup o}. The process involves the deposition of a slurry of nanocrystalline YSZ onto a presintered porous LSM substrate. The key element in the deposition is that the slurry contains sufficient YSZ polymer precursor to allow adhesion of the YSZ particles to each other and the surface after annealing at about 600 C. This allows the formation of a porous film of 0.5 to 5 {micro}m thick which adheres to the surface. After formation of this film, YSZ polymer precursor is allowed to impregnate the porous surface layer (capillary forces tend to confine the polymer solution in the nanoporous layer). After several impregnation/heat treatment cycles, a dense film results. Within the next few months, this process should be developed to the point that single cell measurements can be made on 0.5 to 5 {micro}m films on a LSM substrate. This type of processing allows the formation of essentially flaw free films over areas > 1 cm{sup 2}.

  12. The Temperature and Opacity of Atomic Hydrogen in Spiral Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Braun

    1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the resolved neutral hydrogen emission properties of a sample of eleven of the nearest spiral galaxies. Between 60 and 90% of the total HI line flux within the optical disk is due to a high brightness network (HBN) of emission features which are marginally resolved in their narrow dimension at about 150 pc and have a face-on covering factor of about 15%. Averaged line profiles of this component are systematically non-Gaussian with a narrow core (less than about 6 km/s FWHM) superposed on broad Lorentzian wings (30 km/s FWHM). An upper limit to the gas temperature of 300 K follows directly from the narrow line profiles, while simple modeling suggests kinetic temperatures equal to the peak emission brightness temperature (80-200 K) in all cases but the outer disks of low mass galaxies, where the HBN becomes optically thin to the 21 cm line. Positive radial gradients in the derived kinetic temperature are found in all spiral galaxies. The distributions of brightness temperature with radius in our sample form a nested system with galaxies of earlier morphological type systematically displaced to lower temperature at all radii. The fractional line flux due to the HBN plummets abruptly near the edge of the optical disk where a diffuse outer gas disk takes over. We identify the HBN with the Cool Neutral Medium.

  13. Oceanic CO{sub 2} measurements for the WOCE hydrological survey in the Pacific Ocean; Shipboard alkalinity analyses during 1991 and 1992. Final technical report, February 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, C.D.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research group contributed titration alkalinity analyses to transects of the WOCE Hydrological Survey during 1991 and 1992. The results have been transmitted to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC) of the Department of Energy in a technical data report having two parts: Oceanic CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey of the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shipboard Analyses During 1991 and 1992, Part 1. Alkalinity Measurements on TUNES, Leg 3, 1991. Oceanic CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey of the Pacific Ocean, 1990--1991: Shipboard Analyses During 1991 and 1992, Part 2. Alkalinity Measurements on CGC92, Legs 1 and 2, 1992. This report contains a paper entitled, ``Total dissolved inorganic carbon measurements made on WOCE leg P13`` by Andrew G. Dickson. A brief description of how these measurements were made and calibrated has been provided along with a statement of the quality of the measurements. The data themselves have been sent to ORNL CDIAC for archival and distribution.

  14. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  15. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Trager, Scott [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)] [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chiavassa, Andrea [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)] [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  16. Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class temperature. #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear Fusion 2. There are a few different energy scales

  17. Regular Type III and Type N Approximate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Downes; Paul MacAllevey; Bogdan Nita; Ivor Robinson

    2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New type III and type N approximate solutions which are regular in the linear approximation are shown to exist. For that, we use complex transformations on self-dual Robinson-Trautman metrics rather then the classical approach. The regularity criterion is the boundedness and vanishing at infinity of a scalar obtained by saturating the Bel-Robinson tensor of the first approximation by a time-like vector which is constant with respect to the zeroth approximation.

  18. Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cofield, R.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

  19. Finite Temperature Closed Superstring Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We find that the gas of IIA strings undergoes a phase transition into a gas of IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. A gas of free heterotic strings undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless duality transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat but vanishing internal energy at criticality. We examine the consequences of requiring a tachyon-free thermal string spectrum. We show that in the absence of Ramond-Ramond fluxes the IIA and IIB string ensembles are thermodynamically ill-defined. The 10D heterotic superstrings have nonabelian gauge fields and in the presence of a temperature dependent Wilson line background are found to share a stable and tachyon-free ground state at all temperatures starting from zero with gauge group SO(16)xSO(16). The internal energy of the heterotic string is a monotonically increasing function of temperature with a stable and supersymmetric zero temperature limit. Our results point to the necessity of gauge fields in a viable weakly coupled superstring theory. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  20. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  1. On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantor, M. [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany) [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Ioffe Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Moseev, D., E-mail: dmitry.moseev@ipp.mpg.de [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Association Euratom-FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Salewski, M. [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Ris o Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)] [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Ris o Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results in a measurement bias of the deduced velocity distribution function and hence the deduced kinetic temperature. For particles with a normal velocity distribution function, mistracking biases the obtained velocity distribution function towards small velocities at the expense of large velocities, i.e., the inferred velocity distribution is more peaked and its tail is less pronounced. The kinetic temperature is therefore systematically underestimated in measurements. We give a prescription to mitigate this type of error.

  2. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM); Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  3. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  4. Sustained concrete attack by low-temperature, fragmented core debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Bradley, D.R.; Blose, R.E.; Ross, J.W.; Gilbert, D.W.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four experiments were performed to study the interactions between low-temperature core debris and concretes typical of reactor structures. The tests addressed accident situations where the core debris is at elevated temperature, but not molten. Concrete crucibles were formed in right-circular cylinders with 45 kg of steel spheres (approx.3-mm diameter) as the debris simulant. The debris was heated by an inductive power supply to nominal temperatures of 1473 K to 1673 K. Two tests were performed on each of two concrete types using either basalt or limestone aggregate. For each concrete, one test was performed with water atop the debris while the second had no water added. The results show that low-temperature core debris will erode either basalt or limestone-common sand concretes. Downward erosion rates of 3 to 4 cm/hr were recorded for both concrete types. The limestone concrete produced a crust layer within the debris bed that was effective in preventing the downward intrusion of water. The basalt concrete crust was formed above the debris and consisted of numerous, convoluted, thin layers. Carbon dioxide and water release from the decomposition of concrete were partially reduced by the metallic debris to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen, respectively. The overlying water pool did not effect the reduction reactions.

  5. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  6. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  7. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  8. Mechanical instability at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaoming Mao; Anton Souslov; Carlos I. Mendoza; T. C. Lubensky

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Many physical systems including lattices near structural phase transitions, glasses, jammed solids, and bio-polymer gels have coordination numbers that place them at the edge of mechanical instability. Their properties are determined by an interplay between soft mechanical modes and thermal fluctuations. In this paper we investigate a simple square-lattice model with a $\\phi^4$ potential between next-nearest-neighbor sites whose quadratic coefficient $\\kappa$ can be tuned from positive negative. We show that its zero-temperature ground state for $\\kappa power-law behavior of the shear modulus as a function of temperature. We expect our study to provide a general framework for the study of finite-temperature mechanical and phase behavior of other systems with a large number of floppy modes.

  9. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  10. RFID tag antenna based temperature sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Rahul

    Temperature monitoring is important in a number of fields, particularly cold supply chain applications. Most commercial wireless temperature sensors consist of transceivers, memory and batteries to maintain a temperature ...

  11. Temperature dependence of the indentation size effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Oliver

    The influence of temperature on the indentation size effect is explored experimentally. Copper is indented on a custom-built high-temperature nanoindenter at temperatures between ambient and 200 °C, in an inert atmosphere ...

  12. Community-level physiological proles of bacteria and fungi: plate type and incubation temperature inuences on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    differences in the microbial communities from these soils in situ. ß 2003 Federation of European microbial community structure with ecosystem function has been impeded, in part, because many corroborated by other microbial com- munity measures, including plate counts [11^14], fatty acid methyl ester

  13. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3.0 License. Biogeosciences Soil respiration at mean annualI. L. , and Carvalho, J. E. M. : Effects of soil watercontent on soil res- piration in forests and cattle pastures

  14. The effects of flour types and storage temperatures on the staling of wheat flour tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelekci, Nurettin Nuri

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1 4. 8 3 5 TX93U3137 28. 3 2. 1 32. 1 49. 3 45 9 10. 8 11. 3 8. 0 2. 9 TX96U1143 28. 9 2. 1 63. 1 55. 6 40. 7 10 6 11. 2 5. 4 2. 8 TX95U4806 31. 2 2. 3 53. 9 50. 0 45. 3 12. 1 11. 1 4. 4 3. 9 TX96U1029 32. 9 2. 4 54. 8 52. 6 40. 6 10. 5 11. 1 4... 59 63 64 69 VITA. 73 vs 1 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Formulation of Tortillas for Hot Pressing . . 13 Stress Relaxation in Compression Mode Setting for the Texture Analyzer. 14 Effects of Wheat Cultivars Grown in Uvalde (2000) on Kernel...

  15. Electronic Structure of LaOFeP - a Different Type of High Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports -ElectronicElectronicSuperconductor

  16. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  17. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  18. Temperature Resistant Optimal Ratchet Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Alan Celestino; Marcus W Beims

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable periodic structures containing optimal ratchet transport, recently found in the parameter space dissipation versus ratchet parameter [PRL 106, 234101 (2011)], are shown to be resistant to reasonable temperatures, reinforcing the expectation that they are essential to explain the optimal ratchet transport in nature. Critical temperatures for their destruction, valid from the overdamping to close to the conservative limits, are obtained numerically and shown to be connected to the current efficiency, given here analytically. Results are demonstrated for a discrete ratchet model and generalized to the Langevin equation with an additional external oscillating force.

  19. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  20. Multi-phase glass-ceramics as a waste form for combined fission products: alkalis, alkaline earths, lanthanides, and transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, multi-phase silicate-based glass-ceramics were investigated as an alternate waste form for immobilizing non-fissionable products from used nuclear fuel. Currently, borosilicate glass is the waste form selected for immobilization of this waste stream, however, the low thermal stability and solubility of MoO{sub 3} in borosilicate glass translates into a maximum waste loading in the range of 15-20 mass%. Glass-ceramics provide the opportunity to target durable crystalline phases, e.g., powellite, oxyapatite, celsian, and pollucite, that will incorporate MoO{sub 3} as well as other waste components such as lanthanides, alkalis, and alkaline earths at levels 2X the solubility limits of a single-phase glass. In addition a glass-ceramic could provide higher thermal stability, depending upon the properties of the crystalline and amorphous phases. Glass-ceramics were successfully synthesized at waste loadings of 42, 45, and 50 mass% with the following glass additives: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and SiO{sub 2} by slow cooling form from a glass melt. Glass-ceramics were characterized in terms of phase assemblage, morphology, and thermal stability. The targeted phases: powellite and oxyapatite were observed in all of the compositions along with a lanthanide borosilicate, and cerianite. Results of this initial investigation of glass-ceramics show promise as a potential waste form to replace single-phase borosilicate glass.

  1. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use...

  2. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  3. Variable Temperature UHV STM/AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature UHV STMAFM The Omicron variable temperature ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (VTSTM) is designed to study the structure of both clean and...

  4. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  5. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  6. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  7. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  8. Temperature and cooling management in computing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayoub, Raid

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Work Temperature and coolingthan 1%. Future research directions Temperature and coolingcooling are critical aspects of design in today’s and future

  9. SPREADSHEET DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT FOR SATURATION TEMPERATURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JO J

    2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the methodology for determining the saturation temperature in waste tanks. The saturation temperature is used to calculate neutral buoyancy ratio.

  10. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal...

  11. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  12. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D...

  13. Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate Layer Compression for Ar Adsorbed on Pt (111). Temperature Independent Physisorption Kinetics and Adsorbate Layer...

  14. High temperature synthetic cement retarder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eoff, L.S.; Buster, D.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic cement retarder which provides excellent retardation and compressive strength development has been synthesized. The response properties and temperature ranges of the synthetic retarder far exceed those of commonly used retarders such as lignosulfonates. The chemical nature of the new retarder is discussed and compared to another synthetic retarder.

  15. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, R.C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Cerro P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Mexicali,e C e r r o P r i e t o Geothermal F i e l d , Baja C a l i1979 HIGH TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR ENGINEERING R.

  17. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  18. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  19. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  20. Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

    1998-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.