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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

On the reduction principle for differential equations with piecewise constant argument of generalized type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce a new type of differential equations with piecewise constant argument (EPCAG), more general than EPCA. The Reduction Principle is proved for EPCAG. The structure of the set of solutions is specified. We establish also the existence of global integral manifolds of quasilinear EPCAG in the so called critical case and investigate the stability of the zero solution.

M. U. Akhmet

2006-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

2

Get Out, Stay Out, and Stay Alive!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This year’s Earth Science Week public field trip is designed to encourage people to get out into the backcountry surrounding the Reno-Sparks area to explore and appreciate our rich geologic history and mining heritage, while at the same time educating people to “Stay Out and Stay Alive ” when it comes to abandoned mine workings. It is for anyone who wants to find out more about local geology, abandoned mine safety, and Nevada mining and environmental concerns. It is also for anyone who wants to collect a variety of volcanic rocks, the ore minerals pyrite and enargite, and 16 million-yearold leaf fossils in diatomite, a sedimentary rock. Local geoscientists will accompany you on the trip to answer questions on any of these topics. In keeping with the theme of National Earth Science Week 2003, “Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring Our Changing World, ” we will learn about some of the ways earth scientists monitor changes in the earth’s crust-measuring the pH of stream water, testing for dissolved solids in mine drainage water, observing groundwater-monitoring wells, looking at water chemistry data from a mined area, and discussing how GPS satellite data can help us monitor tectonic changes in the Earth’s crust. This approximately 60-mile round trip will take us to sites located 20–25 miles north of Reno near the Pyramid Lake Highway. The first two stops will require only high-clearance vehicles, but the last

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Limits on the Time Variation of the Fermi Constant G_F Based on Type Ia Supernova Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The light curve of a type Ia supernova decays at a rate set by the beta-decay lifetimes of the Ni-56 and Co-56 produced in the explosion. This makes such a light curve sensitive to the value of the Fermi constant G_F at the time of the supernova. Using data from the CfA Supernova Archive, we measure the dependence of the light curve decay rate on redshift and place a bound on the time variation of G_F of |(dG_F/dt)/G_F| < 10^(-9) / y.

Ferrero, Alejandro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Bianchi Type-II String Cosmological Models in Normal Gauge for Lyra's Manifold with Constant Deceleration Parameter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study deals with a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-II cosmological models representing massive strings in normal gauge for Lyra's manifold by applying the variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter that yields a constant value of deceleration parameter. The variation law for Hubble's parameter generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential form. Using these two forms, Einstein's modified field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. The energy-momentum tensor for such string as formulated by Letelier (1983) is used to construct massive string cosmological models for which we assume that the expansion ($\\theta$) in the model is proportional to the component $\\sigma^{1}_{~1}$ of the shear tensor $\\sigma^{j}_{i}$. This condition leads to $A = (BC)^{m}$, where A, B and C are the metric coefficients and m is proportionality constant. Our models are in accelerating phase which is consistent to the recent observations. It has been found that the displacement vector $\\beta$ behaves like cosmological term $\\Lambda$ in the normal gauge treatment and the solutions are consistent with recent observations of SNe Ia. It has been found that massive strings dominate in the decelerating universe whereas strings dominate in the accelerating universe. Some physical and geometric behaviour of these models are also discussed.

Shilpi Agarwal; R. K. Pandey; Anirudh Pradhan

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

Staying Informed | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Assurance » Emergency Preparedness » Community Energy Assurance » Emergency Preparedness » Community Guidelines » Staying Informed Staying Informed Staying Informed Staying informed during an energy emergency will help you stay safe and know best how to respond. Pay close attention to reports from officials and energy suppliers using battery-operated radios, computers, mobile phones, other mobile devices, and even newspapers, if you have access to them. Officials and energy suppliers should communicate basic information about what to do during an emergency, and the status of restoration efforts. If you have power, charge your cell phones, laptops, and other mobile devices so they'll have the maximum amount of battery power stored in the event of a power outage. These devices will help you communicate

6

A new exponential-type distribution with constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub and bathtub-shaped failure rate function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new three-parameter exponential-type family of distributions which can be used in modeling survival data, reliability problems and fatigue life studies is introduced. Its failure rate function can be constant, decreasing, increasing, upside-down bathtub ... Keywords: Exponential distribution, Failure rate function, Generalized exponential distribution, Lifetime data

Artur J. Lemonte

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

NIST Physical Constants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Physical Constants. ... Values of Fundamental Physical Constants. ... Searchable Bibliography of Fundamental Constants. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

8

Staying aware of relevant feeds in context  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To stay aware of relevant information and avoid productivity loss, a developer has to continuously read through new incoming information. Our approach supports the integration of dynamic and static information in a development environment that allows ... Keywords: feeds, human-centric software engineering

Thomas Fritz

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Energy Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money! | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money Energy Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money October 29, 2008 - 6:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL With all of...

10

PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel July 30, 2013 - 3:33pm Addthis As a Laboratory Fellow at the Energy Department's Pacific...

11

Microsoft Word - Final stay rate 03.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Prepared by: Michael G. Finn Science and Engineering Education Program Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education November 2003 All opinions expressed in this paper are the author's and do not necessarily reflect policies and views of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). This document was prepared for the Division of Science Resources Studies of the National Science Foundation by ORISE through an interagency agreement with DOE. ORISE is managed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities under DOE contract number DE-AC05-00OR22750. 1 Highlights This study used income and Social Security tax records to estimate the proportion of foreign doctorate recipients from U.S. universities who stayed in the United States after graduation. Findings include the

12

ORISE: Study finds foreign doctorate recipients' stay rates remain...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the United States remains high No evidence that visa restrictions are reducing stay rates, according to report FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Jan. 18, 2012 FY12-12 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The...

13

Stay at Home Fathers: the New Gender Benders.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study compared the gender roles and attitudes toward women?s and men?s social roles of stay at home fathers and employed fathers recruited on the… (more)

Fischer, Jessica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Fundamental Constants on the Web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... PHYSICS Find Your Fundamental Constants on the Web. ... Use of the fundamental constants database also is growing rapidly. ...

15

Fundamental Constants Data Center Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Constants Data Center. Welcome. ... Fundamental Constants and Tests of Theory in Rydberg States of Hydrogenlike Ions" Phys. Rev. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

16

Constant voltage ultracapacitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultracapacitors have attracted lots of attention recently due to their growing use in hybrid vehicles and in energy storage applications for the smart grid. A very undesirable feature of ultracapacitors is the fact that the voltage drops as the capacitor is discharged. DC-DC converters are employed at present to convert the voltage of the ultracapacitor to constant voltage; however

Ezzat G. Bakhoum

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Energy Audit Helps Small Company Stay Competitive | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Audit Helps Small Company Stay Competitive Energy Audit Helps Small Company Stay Competitive Energy Audit Helps Small Company Stay Competitive January 12, 2010 - 12:22pm Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? The recommended improvements from an energy audit are saving the West Linn Paper Company in Oregon an annual cost of about $380,000. In tough economic times, employers across the country are looking for ways to save money and avoid layoffs. By improving energy efficiency, which also helps the environment and ultimately improves our country's security, companies can cut costs - not jobs. West Linn Paper Company in West Linn, Ore., achieves an annual cost savings of about $380,000 thanks to improvements made at the recommendation of the Energy Now through a 2006 Save Energy Now assessment. The savings

18

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace Legendary West Virginia Senior Citizen Stays Warm With New Furnace April 1, 2010 - 7:16pm Addthis Joshua DeLung For the last 56 years, Beulah Sisk has lived in the same house in Princeton, W.Va. Beulah, who worked for 25 years at Lloyd's Pastry Shop, is well known in Princeton. People still see her on the streets today and recognize her as an icon in the community. After a wind storm damaged Beulah's home last year, it came as no surprise when a senior center employee, concerned for Beulah's safety, told her about the weatherization assistance program. "A tree fell on my house and damaged a lot of things, including my furnace," Beulah says. "I tried to have it repaired, but it still

19

Stay Warm in Your Apartment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment October 19, 2009 - 11:43am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Yes, the Ghost of Winters Future has officially knocked on our front doors again. The leaves here in Washington, D.C., have started to turn toward their colorful crescendo, that spectacular finish before their end on the chilly ground. It makes me cold just thinking about it. Like me, you're probably not opening your windows much at night anymore. I'm holding out still, surrendering a little more of my beloved fresh air each night and dreading that first night when I have to pop the heater on. Last night, I only open my window about an inch. I guess that means it's time to think about locking out the cold air once and for all this year.

20

Stay Warm in Your Apartment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment Stay Warm in Your Apartment October 19, 2009 - 11:43am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Yes, the Ghost of Winters Future has officially knocked on our front doors again. The leaves here in Washington, D.C., have started to turn toward their colorful crescendo, that spectacular finish before their end on the chilly ground. It makes me cold just thinking about it. Like me, you're probably not opening your windows much at night anymore. I'm holding out still, surrendering a little more of my beloved fresh air each night and dreading that first night when I have to pop the heater on. Last night, I only open my window about an inch. I guess that means it's time to think about locking out the cold air once and for all this year.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Variation of fundamental constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

V. V. Flambaum

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

22

When constants are important  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors discuss several complexity aspects pertaining to neural networks, commonly known as the curse of dimensionality. The focus will be on: (1) size complexity and depth-size tradeoffs; (2) complexity of learning; and (3) precision and limited interconnectivity. Results have been obtained for each of these problems when dealt with separately, but few things are known as to the links among them. They start by presenting known results and try to establish connections between them. These show that they are facing very difficult problems--exponential growth in either space (i.e. precision and size) and/or time (i.e., learning and depth)--when resorting to neural networks for solving general problems. The paper will present a solution for lowering some constants, by playing on the depth-size tradeoff.

Beiu, V.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator  

SciTech Connect

A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

McIntyre, Timothy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Analysis of the Current Signature in a Constant-Volume Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Current Signature in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber Title Analysis of the Current Signature in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber Publication Type Journal...

25

NIST Fundamental Constants Bibliographic Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NIST Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty, Information at the foundation of modern science and technology from the Physical ...

26

Fundamental Physical Constants from NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NIST Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty, Information at the foundation of modern science and technology from the Physical ...

27

Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money September 21, 2009 - 3:04pm Addthis Allison Casey...

28

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are...

29

Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities, 2007  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Study of the stay rate in the United States of foreign nationals receiving their S/E doctorates from U.S. universities. This study has estimated stay rates in 2007 for persons receiving a doctorate one, two, five, and ten years previously. The two-year stay rate (for 2005 graduates) recovered from the decline experienced earlier in the decade. The five-year stay rate (for 2002 graduates) is lower; the ten-year stay rate (for 1997 graduates) reached a new high.

Dr. Michael G. Finn

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1998 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Constants Data Center. Technical Highlights. NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. This is ...

31

CODATA values of the fundamental constants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CODATA values of the fundamental physical constants. Summary: ... CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants websites at: ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

32

Disclaimer concerning the fundamental constants database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Uncertainty Constants, Units & Uncertainty home page. Disclaimer concerning the fundamental constants database The ...

33

ORISE: Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universiti...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients ORISE Staff Monitor How Well U.S. Does at Attracting and Retaining Foreign Scientists and Engineers International scientists in a...

34

Fundamental Constants Bibliography Now on the Web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... PHYSICS Fundamental Constants Bibliography Now on the Web. Some ... To help researchers working on or with fundamental. constants ...

35

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1999 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS DATA CENTER. ... The FCDC mission is to: provide an international information center on the fundamental constants; ...

36

Fundamental constants in effective theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a discussion between L. B. Okun, G. Veneziano and M. J. Duff, concerning the number of fundamental dimensionful constants in physics [1]. They advocated correspondingly 3, 2 and 0 fundamental constants. Here we consider this problem on example of the effective relativistic quantum field theory, which emerges in the low energy corner of quantum liquids and which reproduces many features of our physics including chiral fermions, gauge fields and dynamical gravity. 1 Introduction. The effective relativistic quantum field theory (RQFT) arising as emergent phenomenon in quantum liquids [2], or in other condensed matter systems [3], allows us to look at the problem of fundamental constants from the outside, i.e. from the point of view of an external observer who does not

G. E. Volovik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

How Do You Save Energy and Stay Cool While Cooking in the Summer? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Stay Cool While Cooking in the Summer? and Stay Cool While Cooking in the Summer? How Do You Save Energy and Stay Cool While Cooking in the Summer? August 19, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Andrea discussed some ways you can keep cooking during the summer while saving energy and staying cool. How do you save energy and stay cool while cooking in the summer? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Energy in the Summer? How Do You Save Energy When Entertaining in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer

38

Cogeneration System Size Optimization Constant Capacity and Constant Demand Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a quasi-linear optimization model for a cogeneration system subject to constant heat and power demands or loads. The linear model is next modified to a non-linear one to account for economies of scale. The models define the necessary and sufficient conditions for system size optimality. Thus, the underlying methodology constitutes the foundation for a subsequent series of more sophisticated cogeneration design models. Several examples are presented to illustrate the models.

Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Valuable bridges : cable-stayed bridges and value engineering in American civil engineering culture, 1969-1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A history and theory of cable-stayed bridges in the context of a cultural discourse on civil construction projects' value, this thesis studies the significance of cable-stayed bridge designs to 'value engineering' objectives ...

Samuels, Fallon M. (Fallon Michele)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

WHY IS THE SOLAR CONSTANT NOT A CONSTANT?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to probe the mechanism of variations of the solar constant on the inter-solar-cycle scale, the total solar irradiance (TSI; the so-called solar constant) in the time interval of 1978 November 7 to 2010 September 20 is decomposed into three components through empirical mode decomposition and time-frequency analyses. The first component is the rotation signal, counting up to 42.31% of the total variation of TSI, which is understood to be mainly caused by large magnetic structures, including sunspot groups. The second is an annual-variation signal, counting up to 15.17% of the total variation, the origin of which is not known at this point in time. Finally, the third is the inter-solar-cycle signal, counting up to 42.52%, which is inferred to be caused by the network magnetic elements in quiet regions, whose magnetic flux ranges from (4.27-38.01) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx.

Li, K. J.; Xu, J. C.; Gao, P. X.; Yang, L. H. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, CAS, Kunming 650011 (China); Feng, W. [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Liang, H. F. [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhan, L. S., E-mail: lkj@ynao.ac.cn [Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001, Jiangxi (China)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner June 29, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy OK. It's officially summer here in Washington, D.C. I'm seeking the coolest, shadiest places possible as I get ready for the hottest few months of the year. It's already been a hot June in much of the country, and it may end up being one of the hottest Junes on record in DC. Naturally, I'm starting to think about how I'm going to stay cool this summer, while trying to minimize my energy use. Drew provided some excellent tips on summertime energy savings in his blog post two weeks ago,

42

DOE's Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" DOE's Energy Savers Website Helps Consumers "Stay Warm, Save Money" October 1, 2008 - 3:43pm Addthis DOE Helps Americans Be Energy Efficient at Home and Save on Energy Costs WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today, on the first day of Energy Awareness Month, launched the Stay Warm, Save Money website and educational outreach campaign to help consumers be more energy efficient and save on energy costs. The information focuses on proactive ways to implement simple, cost-effective, energy saving solutions for both homes and businesses this winter and will expand to year-round home energy efficient tips. The site also features the Department's work to develop

43

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are getting extreme weather this week, with deep freezes, huge blizzards, and ice storms causing various problems across the country. Such weather can cause us to use energy a bit differently to stay warm and keep things running. Depending on where you are, you may be keeping the faucet dripping (so pipes don't freeze), your furnace might be working overtime in the cold, or you may be spending extra time warming up your car. In extreme conditions, it's important to be safe and take your own home and needs into account when taking these extra measures, while still considering your energy use and costs. For example, are your pipes in a

44

Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner June 29, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy OK. It's officially summer here in Washington, D.C. I'm seeking the coolest, shadiest places possible as I get ready for the hottest few months of the year. It's already been a hot June in much of the country, and it may end up being one of the hottest Junes on record in DC. Naturally, I'm starting to think about how I'm going to stay cool this summer, while trying to minimize my energy use. Drew provided some excellent tips on summertime energy savings in his blog post two weeks ago,

45

Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

stay warm this winter Following a colder-than-expected November, U.S. households are forecast to consume more heating fuels than previously expected....resulting in higher heating...

46

Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China (90 percent) and India (86 percent) are very high, while Taiwan (47 percent) and Korea (34 percent) are well below the average for all countries. * A one-year stay rate for...

47

This report provides estimates of stay rates for a large number...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at the time of the SE doctorate award. China and India have the highest stay rates; Korea and Brazil the lowest. The variation is so great that doctorate recipients from China...

48

Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China (92 percent) and India (85 percent) are very high, while Taiwan (50 percent) and Korea (42 percent) are well below the average for all countries. * A one-year stay rate for...

49

Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities, 2005  

SciTech Connect

This is the latest in a series of studies conducted for the National Science Foundation to estimate the proportion of foreign science / engineering doctorate recipients from U.S. universities who stayed in the United States after graduation. Sixty-six percent of those who graduated in 2003 were still in the United States in 2005, a 5 percent decline since the last report. But the five-year stay rate continues to climb, now at 68 percent.

Mike Finn

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1998 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... FUNDAMENTAL CONSTANTS DATA CENTER. MISSION CURRENT DIRECTIONS HIGHLIGHTS FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES MISSION. ...

51

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1994 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Constants Data Center. Technical Highlights. Measurement Uncertainty - 1994 Edition of NIST TN 1297. In ...

52

Constant-Energy Quantum Fingerprinting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a protocol for quantum fingerprinting that, in an ideal implementation, requires only a constant total mean photon number in the communicated signals, independently of the size $n$ of the input bit-strings. The protocol uses states that are arbitrarily close in trace distance to states of $\\order{\\log_2 n}$ qubits, thus exhibiting an exponential separation in communication complexity compared to the classical case. The protocol is robust against experimental imperfections and functions with arbitrarily low probability of error. The basis of our scheme is an implementation of the signal states in terms of a coherent state in a superposition of time-bin modes. Experimentally, this requires only the ability to prepare coherent states of arbitrarily low amplitude and fixed phase, and to interfere them in a balanced beam splitter. The scheme is therefore ready to be realized with current technology. In fact, even in the presence of realistic experimental errors, there exist a large range of input sizes for which our quantum protocol requires communication that can be more than two orders of magnitude smaller than a classical fingerprinting protocol that requires only $2\\sqrt{n}+\\order{1}$ bits of communication.

Juan Miguel Arrazola; Norbert Lütkenhaus

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

53

Nothing is Constant But Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is an old adage - nothing is constant but change. This sage observation is especially true in looking at today's energy picture. The energy crisis is dead. Energy problems are no longer the moral equivalent of war. Personally, I never did fully subscribe to the use of the word crises, I preferred transition instead. However, to people waiting in a gasoline line, I'm sure crises was a suitable description. Today there appears to be plenty of oil and its price has stabilized. We can expect these favorable conditions to continue into the near future barring any sudden and substantial change in international politics. Natural gas is plentiful though its price continues to climb. Also there are many very knowledgeable people in the gas business who believe decontrol will lead to even more ample supplies and possible lower prices. Coal and electricity are best described as being in over abundance. Witness the number of coal mines shut-in and the number of new nuclear power plants recently cancelled or postponed. Complacency in regard to energy problems is setting in.

Kelly, R. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1997 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Constants Data Center. Technical Highlights. New ANSI Standard: US GUM. The ISO Guide to the Expression ...

55

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1999 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Constants Data Center. Technical Highlights. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty. In 1991, the FCDC, in ...

56

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center 1999 - FCDC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Redefinition of the Kilogram. Motivated by recent NIST advances in determining the Planck constant h using a moving-coil ...

57

Time Constant Estimates for Radiosonde Temperature Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To correct time lag errors in radiosonde temperatures the sensor time constant has to be known. Time constants are not published for some widely used sensors and, in some cases, available time constants disagree. This study focuses on ML-405, ML-...

Marcel E. Tschudin; Steven R. Schroeder

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Recovery Act Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course Recovery Act Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course Recovery Act Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course January 7, 2010 - 3:41pm Addthis Joshua DeLung An innovative company in Billerica, Mass., is taking steps to equip a major supermarket chain in the Southwest with high-performance, clean-energy fuel cells for its hundreds-strong forklift fleet. In a recently-started pilot program helped along by money from the Recovery Act, Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc. upgraded 14 forklifts at the South Texas distribution center of H-E-B to test the performance of fuel cells. If H-E-B likes the results, it could deploy additional fuel cells in its forklifts and Nuvera could start hiring new workers into more than 100 green jobs beginning as soon as January 2010. But first, the technology must prove itself on the warehouse floor.

59

Recovery Act Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course Recovery Act Helps Fuel Cell Company Stay on Course January 7, 2010 - 3:41pm Addthis Joshua DeLung An innovative company in Billerica, Mass., is taking steps to equip a major supermarket chain in the Southwest with high-performance, clean-energy fuel cells for its hundreds-strong forklift fleet. In a recently-started pilot program helped along by money from the Recovery Act, Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc. upgraded 14 forklifts at the South Texas distribution center of H-E-B to test the performance of fuel cells. If H-E-B likes the results, it could deploy additional fuel cells in its forklifts and Nuvera could start hiring new workers into more than 100 green jobs beginning as soon as January 2010. But first, the technology must prove itself on the warehouse floor.

60

How Do You Stay Cool and Comfortable in Hot Weather? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool and Comfortable in Hot Weather? Cool and Comfortable in Hot Weather? How Do You Stay Cool and Comfortable in Hot Weather? May 28, 2009 - 5:25pm Addthis As you may have read on the blog over the past few weeks, the Stay Cool, Save Money site offers no-cost and low-cost tips for saving energy during the warm summer months, as well as ideas for long-term investments to help you save year round. Whether you rely on an air conditioner, strategically opened windows (and closed shades), fans, regular dips in the pool, or some other strategy entirely, tell us: How do you stay cool and comfortable in hot weather? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a topic related to energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Retiree Heads Back to Work, Helps Families Stay Afloat | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retiree Heads Back to Work, Helps Families Stay Afloat Retiree Heads Back to Work, Helps Families Stay Afloat Retiree Heads Back to Work, Helps Families Stay Afloat November 10, 2009 - 7:17pm Addthis Mark Morris inspects a furnace. | File photo Mark Morris inspects a furnace. | File photo Joshua DeLung Getting laid off wasn't the only thing putting Americans in a pickle when the recession hit. Mark Morris of South Bend, Ind., is among many in the country who were already retired, but whose 401(k) account took a big hit when the stock market crashed. Mark had retired as a utility-company supervisor in mid-2007, but he lost 40 percent of his retirement money and knew he had to go back to work. So Mark made what he could by working part-time gigs until he heard about a job in September with a local community action agency where he would

62

Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts November 2, 2012 - 2:57pm Addthis The Google Crisis Map has power outage information, shelter and recovery centers, local emergency Twitter feeds, FEMA disaster declared areas and more. | This map is created and maintained by Google.org. To find your location, either enter your location in the box in the upper left corner or click and drag the map. Use the "Layers" button to select which data to display. Amanda Scott Amanda Scott Former Managing Editor, Energy.gov The Obama Administration is working around the clock to support the impacted states and utilities. To keep up to date with the Federal Government's response efforts, visit some of the site listed below.

63

Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Department |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Department Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Department December 19, 2011 - 1:24pm Addthis Department of Energy headquarters during the winter months. | DOE file photo. Department of Energy headquarters during the winter months. | DOE file photo. What does this mean for me? Help your family save money by saving energy with these tips this winter. Click "start now" on Benefits.gov to find out if you're eligible for government assistance, including energy-related costs. Editor's note: This article was originally posted on Benefits.gov. As the days get shorter and temperatures get cooler, those energy bills seem to just keep going up. The average American spends around $2,000 per household on energy costs

64

PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel PNNL Helps the Navy Stay Cool and Conserve Fuel July 30, 2013 - 3:33pm Addthis As a Laboratory Fellow at the Energy Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Pete McGrail and his team are working to develop a more efficient adsorption chiller that could help the Navy cut its fuel costs. | Photo courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. As a Laboratory Fellow at the Energy Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Pete McGrail and his team are working to develop a more efficient adsorption chiller that could help the Navy cut its fuel costs. | Photo courtesy of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Andrew Gumbiner Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy. What are the key facts?

65

Alabama Family Staying Nice and Cozy This Fall | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama Family Staying Nice and Cozy This Fall Alabama Family Staying Nice and Cozy This Fall Alabama Family Staying Nice and Cozy This Fall December 2, 2009 - 5:49pm Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? The Community Action Agency of Talladega, Clay, Calhoun, Randolph and Cleburne Counties received about $1.8 million in Recovery Act money to weatherize homes and is assessing 60 to 70 homes each month. Mary's energy bill is about $300 cheaper now, and she no longer has to take extreme measures to keep her and her three children and grandchild warm. In the winter months, Mary Taylor felt a chilly draft billowing through her Talladega, Ala., home. The energy bills were mounting up higher and higher. In the summer, the sweltering southern heat was too much for her air conditioner to handle, as the cool air leaked out of house as quickly as

66

Come for Solar Decathlon, Stay for the Clean Energy XPO | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Come for Solar Decathlon, Stay for the Clean Energy XPO Come for Solar Decathlon, Stay for the Clean Energy XPO Come for Solar Decathlon, Stay for the Clean Energy XPO September 27, 2013 - 9:49am Addthis In early January 2013, Solar Decathlon teams gathered at the competition site in Irvine, California. | Photo courtesy of Stefano Paltera, Energy Department. In early January 2013, Solar Decathlon teams gathered at the competition site in Irvine, California. | Photo courtesy of Stefano Paltera, Energy Department. Richard King Director, Solar Decathlon How can I participate? Hosted alongside the Solar Decathlon, the clean energy XPO showcases technology innovations and sustainable living through fun, interactive exhibits and activities. Both are open to the public free of charge from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. on Oct. 3-6 and Oct. 10-13.

67

Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts Stay Up To Date on Hurricane Sandy Recovery Efforts November 2, 2012 - 2:57pm Addthis The Google Crisis Map has power outage information, shelter and recovery centers, local emergency Twitter feeds, FEMA disaster declared areas and more. | This map is created and maintained by Google.org. To find your location, either enter your location in the box in the upper left corner or click and drag the map. Use the "Layers" button to select which data to display. Amanda Scott Amanda Scott Former Managing Editor, Energy.gov The Obama Administration is working around the clock to support the impacted states and utilities. To keep up to date with the Federal Government's response efforts, visit some of the site listed below.

68

New Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov New Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov New Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov September 24, 2013 - 5:49pm Addthis The Energy Departments headquarters at the Forrestal Building in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo, credit Quentin Kruger. The Energy Departments headquarters at the Forrestal Building in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo, credit Quentin Kruger. Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Every day on Energy.gov, we strive to provide you with the latest updates on how the Energy Department is meeting its mission. From innovative research at our National Labs to progress in advancing the Presidents climate agenda, Energy.gov online content is part of our ongoing commitment to share who we are, what we do and why it matters to you.

69

New Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov New Ways to Stay Engaged on Energy.gov September 24, 2013 - 5:49pm Addthis The Energy Departments headquarters at the Forrestal Building in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo, credit Quentin Kruger. The Energy Departments headquarters at the Forrestal Building in Washington, DC. | Energy Department photo, credit Quentin Kruger. Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Every day on Energy.gov, we strive to provide you with the latest updates on how the Energy Department is meeting its mission. From innovative research at our National Labs to progress in advancing the Presidents climate agenda, Energy.gov online content is part of our ongoing commitment to share who we are, what we do and why it matters to you.

70

Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Department |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Department Stay Warm and Save Money This Winter with Tips from the Energy Department December 19, 2011 - 1:24pm Addthis Department of Energy headquarters during the winter months. | DOE file photo. Department of Energy headquarters during the winter months. | DOE file photo. What does this mean for me? Help your family save money by saving energy with these tips this winter. Click "start now" on Benefits.gov to find out if you're eligible for government assistance, including energy-related costs. Editor's note: This article was originally posted on Benefits.gov. As the days get shorter and temperatures get cooler, those energy bills seem to just keep going up. The average American spends around $2,000 per household on energy costs

71

Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money September 21, 2009 - 3:04pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Tomorrow is the official first day of fall, and while I always mourn the end of summer, one of the best things about fall is leaf peeping! Last year, we took my father-in-law's red '57 T-bird convertible on a lovely drive through the mountains to see the bright yellow aspens. Something about a car like that draws lots of attention-honks, waves, questions. We basically made friends everywhere we went. As much fun as that was, it wasn't exactly the most fuel-efficient or environmentally friendly excursion. I know we can do better this year; beautiful leaves are less than an hour's

72

Heating Up While Staying Cool? | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heating Up While Staying Cool? Heating Up While Staying Cool? Discovery & Innovation Stories of Discovery & Innovation Brief Science Highlights SBIR/STTR Highlights Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 04.30.13 Heating Up While Staying Cool? Exotic effects at the nanoscale could help shape the future of electronics. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo An image of a remote Joule heating. Image courtesy of John Cumings Artist's rendering of remote Joule heating. Silver blocks are palladium plates. Carbon nanotube is shown in dark blue. If you had to summarize the biggest challenge confronting the field of electronics in a single word today, you might well say, "heat." With the

73

Variable speed constant frequency constant voltage alternator. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A test alternator is operated with digital control of its output frequency for variable shaft speed. The machine is a two-pole alternator with power removed through slip rings. The output frequency of the alternator is controlled by rotating the field by stepping through sixteen coils around the rotor. Usually four coils are active at one time. The rotating field in the stationary coils of the stator is controlled by microcircuits. The control circuits are constructed with available low-cost, low-power integrated circuits (ICs). The test results from the first test alternator indicate the feasibility of using this type of alternator to convert available wind power directly to usable 60 hertz power.

Grannemann, W.W.; Yang, C.E.; Seo, P.H.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Optimized Constant Pressure Stochastic Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recently proposed method for computer simulations in the isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble, based on Langevin-type equations of motion for the particle coordinates and the ``piston'' degree of freedom, is re-derived by straightforward application of the standard Kramers-Moyal formalism. An integration scheme is developed which reduces to a time-reversible symplectic integrator in the limit of vanishing friction. This algorithm is hence expected to be quite stable for small friction, allowing for a large time step. We discuss the optimal choice of parameters, and present some numerical test results.

A. Kolb; B. Duenweg

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

75

Optimized constant pressure stochastic dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recently proposed method for computer simulations in the isothermal– isobaric (NPT) ensemble, based on Langevin–type equations of motion for the particle coordinates and the “piston ” degree of freedom, is re–derived by straightforward application of the standard Kramers–Moyal formalism. An integration scheme is developed which reduces to a time–reversible symplectic integrator in the limit of vanishing friction. This algorithm is hence expected to be quite stable for small friction, allowing for a large time step. We discuss the optimal choice of parameters, and present some numerical test results.

A. Kolb; B. Dünweg

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Foreign nationals who receive science or engineering Ph.D.`s from US universities: Stay rates and characteristics of stayers  

SciTech Connect

This report studies the behavior of foreign nationals who received Ph.D. degrees in science or engineering from US universities during the period 1984--1990. It addresses two distinct questions: What proportion of foreign students stay to work in the United States after graduation; and do foreign students who leave the United States differ from those who stay? Descriptive statistics are provided to answer the first question. These estimates of stay rates have small margins of error because they were produced from the tax payment records of the Social Security Administration. The estimates of stay rates in also provide a partial answer to the second question as well as we are able to provide stay rates for different degree fields and different countries of citizenship, thereby identifying country-specific and field-specific differences in stay rates.

Finn, M.G.; Pennington, L.A.; Anderson, K.H.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Stay Cool for Less Money with a Ceiling Fan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stay Cool for Less Money with a Ceiling Fan Stay Cool for Less Money with a Ceiling Fan Stay Cool for Less Money with a Ceiling Fan May 12, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL After a few late snowstorms here in Colorado, I am more than ready to turn off the heat and enjoy some warm spring weather. We haven't had any heat waves here yet, but many of you have already been trying to stay cool; our friends in Washington, D.C. were sweltering (by comparison) in 90+°F weather just a couple short weeks ago! Whether you're still anticipating snow or have broken out the sandals and tank tops, you may be starting to think about keeping your summer cooling costs down. One easy way to keep cool while saving money is using a ceiling fan. Did you know that a ceiling fan could allow you to raise the thermostat

78

Determining students' intent to stay in it programs: an empirical model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current declining enrollment and attrition trends in IT programs have inspired an emerging body of literature: IT student retention. To shed some insight on whom leaves and stays in IT programs, the authors developed a new construct, computing resilience, ... Keywords: IT resilience, IT students, emotional intelligence, ethnic identity, persistence, retention, student attrition

Tracy L. Lewis; Wanda J. Smith; France Bélanger; K. Vernard Harrington

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Efficient cable arrangement in cable stayed bridges based on sensitivity analysis of aeroelastic behaviour  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Construction of cable supported bridges has experienced a great impulse in the past decade. Bridges having more than 800m of span length were built in France and Japan and some bridges with span length of more than 1km are going to be built, such as ... Keywords: Aeroelastic analysis, Cable configuration, Cable stayed bridges, Efficient structural design, Sensitivity analysis

José Á. Jurado; Félix Nieto; Santiago Hernández; Alejandro Mosquera

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center - Tech. Act. 2001  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physics Laboratory home page. Fundamental Constants Data Center. ... Fundamental Constants Theory. Create an atomic theory ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A small but nonzero cosmological constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent astrophysical observations seem to indicate that the cosmological constant is small but nonzero and positive. The old cosmological constant problem asks why it is so small; we must now ask, in addition, why it is nonzero, and why it is positive. In this essay, we try to kill these three metaphorical birds with one stone. That stone is the unimodular theory of gravity, which is the canonical theory of gravity, except for the way the cosmological constant arises in the theory.

Y. Jack Ng (a; H. Van Dam (b

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Stay Active this Summer (and Save Energy, Money, and the Environment too!)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Active this Summer (and Save Energy, Money, and the Active this Summer (and Save Energy, Money, and the Environment too!) Stay Active this Summer (and Save Energy, Money, and the Environment too!) August 8, 2012 - 2:14pm Addthis John Chu John Chu Communications Specialist with the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Many of us are looking to spend more time outdoors. Like many Americans, I'm thinking about ways to stay physically active and seize the sunny day. Here are five easy things that you can do this summer that will not only help keep you active and get you some Vitamin D, but save money, energy, and the environment too: Bike or walk to work instead of driving. This is a great way to get exercise and save money on gas costs and parking fees, as well as reduce carbon emissions. Walk, run, or exercise outside instead of using a treadmill or

83

How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are getting extreme weather this week, with deep freezes, huge blizzards, and ice storms causing various problems across the country. Such weather can cause us to use energy a bit differently to stay warm and keep things running. Depending on where you are, you may be keeping the faucet dripping (so pipes don't freeze), your furnace might be working overtime in the cold, or you may be spending extra time warming up your car. In extreme conditions, it's important to be safe and take your own home and needs into account when taking these extra measures, while still considering your energy use and costs. For example, are your pipes in a

84

Marshak waves: Constant flux vs constant T-a (slight) paradigm shift  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review the basic scaling laws for Marshak waves and point out the differences in results for wall loss, albedo, and Marshak depth when a constant absorbed flux is considered as opposed to a constant absorbed temperature. Comparisons with LASNEX simulations and with data are presented that imply that a constant absorbed flux is a more appropriate boundary condition.

Rosen, M.D.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

85

A small but nonzero cosmological constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent astrophysical observations seem to indicate that the cosmological constant is small but nonzero and positive. The old cosmological constant problem asks why it is so small; we must now ask, in addition, why it is nonzero (and is in the range found by recent observations), and why it is positive. In this essay, we try to kill these three metaphorical birds with one stone. That stone is the unimodular theory of gravity, which is the ordinary theory of gravity, except for the way the cosmological constant arises in the theory. We argue that the cosmological constant becomes dynamical, and eventually, in terms of the cosmic scale factor $R(t)$, it takes the form $\\Lambda(t) = \\Lambda(t_0)(R(t_0)/R(t))^2$, but not before the epoch corresponding to the redshift parameter $z \\sim 1$.

Y. Jack Ng; H. van Dam

1999-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

86

On the running of the gravitational constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that there is no useful and universal definition of a running gravitational constant, G(E), in the perturbative regime below the Planck scale. By consideration of the loop corrections to several physical processes, we show that the quantum corrections vary greatly, in both magnitude and sign, and do not exhibit the required properties of a running coupling constant. We comment on the potential challenges of these results for the Asymptotic Safety program.

Mohamed M. Anber; John F. Donoghue

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

87

On the running of the gravitational constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that there is no useful and universal definition of a running gravitational constant, G(E), in the perturbative regime below the Planck scale. By consideration of the loop corrections to several physical processes, we show that the quantum corrections vary greatly, in both magnitude and sign, and do not exhibit the required properties of a running coupling constant. We comment on the potential challenges of these results for the Asymptotic Safety program.

Anber, Mohamed M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

NIST Fundamental Constants Data Center - Tech. Act. 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fundamental Constants Data Center. ... Mission. The FCDC mission is to: provide an international information center on the fundamental constants; ...

89

Oscillation Criteria in First Order Neutral Delay Impulsive Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is dealing with the oscillatory properties of first order neutral delay impulsive differential equations and corresponding to them inequalities with constant coefficients. The established sufficient conditions ensure the oscillation of every solution of this type of equations.

Dimitrova, M. B.; Donev, V. I. [Dept. of Mathematics, Technical University of Sofia, branch Sliven, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)

2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

Light Hadron Masses and Decay Constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extraction of the light hadron spectrum from a first-principle Quantum Chromodynamics approach is a profound application for lattice simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics. This review will cover recent lattice results for the masses and decay constants of the light hadrons. In particular, the applicability of different approaches for the extrapolation towards the physical point will be discussed.

Enno E. Scholz

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

91

Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

Stanford University

92

Entropy signature of the running cosmological constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renormalization group (RG) improved cosmologies based upon a RG trajectory of Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with realistic parameter values are investigated using a system of cosmological evolution equations which allows for an unrestricted energy exchange between the vacuum and the matter sector. It is demonstrated that the scale dependence of the gravitational parameters, the cosmological constant in particular, leads to an entropy production in the matter system. The picture emerges that the Universe started out from a state of vanishing entropy, and that the radiation entropy observed today is essentially due to the coarse graining (RG flow) in the quantum gravity sector which is related to the expansion of the Universe. Furthermore, the RG improved field equations are shown to possess solutions with an epoch of power law inflation immediately after the initial singularity. The inflation is driven by the cosmological constant and ends automatically once the RG running has reduced the vacuum energy to the...

Bonanno, Alfio

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Light Dragging, the Origin of Hubble's Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently E. Harrison has argued the Red Shift distance law proposed by Hubble and velocity-distance law developed later on theoretical grounds has no general proof demonstrating the two laws are actually equivalent. It is the purpose of this paper to account for the nebular redshift law of Hubble based on two principles: 1) Spacetime motion and light dragging. 2) An overall spacetime index of refraction based on Hubble's Constant.

Walter J. Christensen Jr

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Variation of fundamental constants: theory and observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fundamental constants is presented including atomic clocks, quasar absorption spectra, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. Assuming linear variation with time we can compare different results. From the quasar absorption spectra: $\\dot{\\mu}/\\mu=(1 \\pm 3) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. A combination of this result and the atomic clock results gives the best limt on variation of $\\alpha$: $\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha=(-0.8 \\pm 0.8) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. The Oklo natural reactor gives the best limit on the variation of $m_s/\\Lambda_{QCD}$ where $m_s$ is the strange quark mass. Huge enhancement of the relative variation effects happens in transitions between close atomic, molecular and nuclear energy levels. We suggest several new cases where the levels are very narrow. Large enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance. Massive bodies (stars or galaxies) can also affect physical constants. They have large scalar charge $S$ proportional to number of particles which produces a Coulomb-like scalar field $U=S/r$. This leads to a variation of the fundamental constants proportional to the gravitational potential, e.g. $\\delta \\alpha/ \\alpha = k_\\alpha \\delta (GM/ r c^2)$. We compare different manifestations of this effect.The strongest limit $k_\\alpha +0.17 k_e= (-3.5\\pm 6) \\times 10^{-7}$.

V. V. Flambaum

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Questions and Answers - Why do protons and neutrons stay together in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge of proton and neutron? Charge of proton and neutron? Previous Question (Charge of proton and neutron?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (How many times bigger is a proton than an electron?) How many times bigger isa proton than an electron? Why do protons and neutrons stay together in the nucleus? The nucleus of an atom is held together by the strong nuclear force that binds together protons and neutrons. Although the strong nuclear force is the strongest of the four fundamental forces, it acts only over very short - typically nuclear - distances. It binds together the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. It also holds together the quarks that make up those protons and neutrons and the other hadrons. Author: Mac Mestayer, Staff Scientist (Other answers by Mac Mestayer)

96

Stay Above Water with an Efficient Swimming Pool | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Above Water with an Efficient Swimming Pool Above Water with an Efficient Swimming Pool Stay Above Water with an Efficient Swimming Pool August 10, 2009 - 10:38am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL All eyes were on the pool recently for swimming's 2009 World Championships in Rome. As a former competitive swimmer (though I was a dog-paddler compared to the likes of Michael Phelps and Ariana Kukors), these events hold a special place in my heart, and I managed to catch a few exciting moments in the competition. I'm no longer involved in the world of swimming, but I can only imagine that interest in the sport has skyrocketed since last year's thrilling Olympics in Beijing. Maybe you or your children were inspired to get serious about swimming; maybe you've even decided to install a pool at your

97

Transmission eigenvalues for operators with constant coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study the interior transmission problem and transmission eigenvalues for multiplicative perturbations of linear partial differential operator of order $\\ge 2$ with constant real coefficients. Under suitable growth conditions on the symbol of the operator and the perturbation, we show the discreteness of the set of transmission eigenvalues and derive sufficient conditions on the existence of transmission eigenvalues. We apply these techniques to the case of the biharmonic operator and the Dirac system. In the hypoelliptic case we present a connection to scattering theory.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

98

Ab-initio computation of Karlsson's constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical calculations by K. G. Karlsson (Astron Astrophys. 239, 50, 1990), G. R. Burbidge and other authors, show that the redshifts Z of the spectral lines emitted by quasars and galaxies accumulate close to Z(m) = mK, where K = 0061 is the "Karlsson's constant" and m some integers. We demonstrate this formula and find exactly K and the allowed values of m, using only rules commonly used in laser spectroscopy, the hypothesis of low pressure atomic hydrogen in 1S state around these stars and the observation of an initially continuous spectrum of a very hot star.

Moret-Bailly Jacques

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

99

Variation of fundamental constants: theory and observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fundamental constants is presented including atomic clocks, quasar absorption spectra, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. Assuming linear variation with time we can compare different results. From the quasar absorption spectra: $\\dot{\\mu}/\\mu=(1 \\pm 3) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. A combination of this result and the atomic clock results gives the best limt on variation of $\\alpha$: $\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha=(-0.8 \\pm 0.8) \\times 10^{-16}$ yr$^{-1}$. The Oklo natural reactor gives the best limit on the variation of $m_s/\\Lambda_{QCD}$ where $m_s$ is the strange quark mass. Huge enhancement of the relative variation effects happens in transitions between close atomic, molecular and nuclear energy levels. We suggest several new cases where the levels are very narrow. Large enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance. Massive bodies (stars or galaxies) can also affect physical constants....

Flambaum, V V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Confining Boundary conditions from dynamical Coupling Constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that it is possible to consistently and gauge invariantly formulate models where the coupling constant is a non trivial function of a scalar field . In the $U(1)$ case the coupling to the gauge field contains a term of the form $g(\\phi)j_\\mu (A^{\\mu} +\\partial^{\\mu}B)$ where $B$ is an auxiliary field and $j_\\mu$ is the Dirac current. The scalar field $\\phi$ determines the local value of the coupling of the gauge field to the Dirac particle. The consistency of the equations determine the condition $\\partial^{\\mu}\\phi j_\\mu = 0$ which implies that the Dirac current cannot have a component in the direction of the gradient of the scalar field. As a consequence, if $\\phi$ has a soliton behaviour, like defining a bubble that connects two vacuua, we obtain that the Dirac current cannot have a flux through the wall of the bubble, defining a confinement mechanism where the fermions are kept inside those bags. Consistent models with time dependent fine structure constant can be also constructed

E. I. Guendelman; R. Steiner

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Constant field gradient planar cavity structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cavity structure is described having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam.

Kang, Yoon W.; Kustom, R.L.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A Spectral General Circulation Model Using a Piecewise-Constant Finite-Element Representation on a Hybrid Vertical Coordinate System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical scheme for the vertical discretization of primitive equations in a generalized pressure-type coordinate is developed through application of the Galerkin formalism with piecewise-constant finite elements: this methodology affords an ...

René Laprise; Claude Girard

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Neutron Stars and the Cosmological Constant Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gravitational aether theory is a modification of general relativity that decouples vacuum energy from gravity, and thus can potentially address the cosmological constant problem. The classical theory is distinguishable from general relativity only in the presence of relativistic pressure (or vorticity). Since the interior of neutron stars has high pressure and as their mass and radius can be measured observationally, they are the perfect laboratory for testing the validity of the aether theory. In this paper, we solve the equations of stellar structure for the gravitational aether theory and find the predicted mass-radius relation of non-rotating neutron stars using two different realistic proposals for the equation of state of nuclear matter. We find that the maximum neutron star mass predicted by the aether theory is 12% - 16% less than the maximum mass predicted by general relativity assuming these two equations of state. We also show that the effect of aether is similar to modifying the equation of state in general relativity. The effective pressure of the neutron star given by the aether theory at a fiducial density differs from the values given by the two nuclear equations of state to an extent that can be constrained using future gravitational wave observations of neutron stars in compact systems. This is a promising way to test the aether theory if further progress is made in constraining the equation of state of nuclear matter in densities above the nuclear saturation density.

Farbod Kamiab; Niayesh Afshordi

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

104

Dark energy, chaotic fields, and fundamental constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To explain the currently observed accelerated expansion of the universe, a large number of different theoretical models are presently being discussed. In one way or another, all of these contain `new physics', though at different levels. The big question is how to select out of infinitely many possible models the right one. Here we discuss a possibility that has so far been somewhat neglected, namely that the new physics underlying dark energy arises out of a gravitationally active amendment of the electroweak and strong sector of the standard model. This amendment basically consists of a rapidly fluctuating gravitationally active dynamics of vacuum fluctuations with a cutoff of the order of the neutrino mass scale. We consider a concrete model for this based on second-quantized self-interacting scalar fields, which evolve in a chaotic way. It is shown that expectations with respect to the chaotic dynamics yield statements on the observed numerical values of the electroweak coupling constants with amazing precision, thus providing evidence for the physical relevance of this model.

Christian Beck

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the TKE to follow 1/t. With an adiabatic condition at the wall it predicts the logarithmic law with von Karman's constant as 1/\\sqrt{2 pi} = 0.399. Likewise rotating couples form dissipative patches almost at rest ($\\rightarrow$ intermittency) wherein the spectrum evolves like an "Apollonian gear" as discussed first by Herrmann, 1990. On this basis the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum is predicted as (1/3)(4 pi)^{2/3}=1.8; in the Lagrangian frequency spectrum it is simply 2. The results are situated well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and DNS results.

Helmut Z. Baumert

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

NIST - Version history of the fundamental constants database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Version history These are the 2010 CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants, the latest CODATA values available. ...

107

Hypersurfaces of constant curvature in asymptotically hyperbolic spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with constant Wein- garten curvature. Math. Ann. , 283(2):The most commonly studied of Wein- garten conditions is f (?

DeConde, David Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NIST Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty, Information at the foundation of modern science and technology from the Physical ...

109

High-Dielectric Constant, High-Temperature Ceramic Capacitors for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth of Thick, On-Axis SiC Epitaxial Layers by High Temperature Halide CVD for High Voltage Power Devices · High-Dielectric Constant, High-Temperature ...

110

Numerical analyses of effective dielectric constant of multiphase microporous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dielectric constant of multiphase porous media are bettermicrostructures of multiphase porous media, and a latticemicrostructures of multiphase porous media and a lattice

Wang, Moran; Pan, Ning

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

A Dual Approach to Estimation With Constant Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Profit Models with Constant Prices Technological Parametersexpected quantities and prices are used as instrumentaldemand functions when prices seem to be the same for all

Paris, Quirino; Caputo, Michael R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Fundamental Constants Data Center 1995/1996 - Tech. ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental Constants Data Center. 1995/1996 Technical Highlights. Guide for the Use of the SI - 1995 Edition of NIST SP 811. ...

113

Modeling the Pseudocubic Lattice Constant of Rare-earth Doped ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A predictive model for the pseudocubic lattice constant based solely on published ionic radii data has been developed and adapted as a model for tolerance ...

114

Supply Fan Control for Constant Air Volume Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since terminal boxes do not have a modulation damper in constant volume (CV) air handling unit (AHU) systems, zone reheat coils have to be modulated to maintain the space temperature with constant supply airflow. This conventional control sequence causes a significant amount of reheat and constant fan power under partial load conditions. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) can be installed on these constant air volume systems. The fan speed can be modulated based on the maximum zone load. This paper present the procedure to control the supply fan speed and analyzes the thermal performance and major fan energy and thermal energy savings without expensive VAV retrofit through the actual system operation.

Cho, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sustainability, Limited Substitutability and Non-Constant Social Discount Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Non-constant Social Discount Rates ? int strict weaktal preservation, and the rate of discount’, Quarterlyhorizon and the discount rate’, Journal of Economic Theory

Traeger, Christian P.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

New Values for Natural Constants Available on NIST Web Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and theories which describe our natural world ... the United States, Canada, Japan, China and Russia. ... best measurement of the molar gas constant in ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

117

Enumeration Algorithm for Determination of Binding Constants in Capillary Electrophoresis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

result in the new migration time. Because the true binding constant and complex mobility values have. With the enumeration algorithm, all possible combinations of the binding constant and the complex mobility in certain and the mobility of the complex formed between the interacting pair, to form a 2-D curve. When the experimental

Chen, David D.Y.

118

Optimal scheduling for constant-rate multi-mode systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constant-rate multi-mode systems are hybrid systems that can switch freely among a finite set of modes, and whose dynamics is specified by a finite number of real-valued variables with mode-dependent constant rates. The schedulability problem for such ... Keywords: cyber-physical systems, green scheduling, hybrid automata, peak minimization, switched systems

Rajeev Alur; Ashutosh Trivedi; Dominik Wojtczak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Problems of Cosmological Variability of Fundamental Physical Constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the fundamental constants which govern most of the common phenomena and are usually given in the handbooks. NoteProblems of Cosmological Variability of Fundamental Physical Constants #3; D. A. Varshalovich, A. Y and astronomical observations aimed at testing the possible space-time variability of fundamental physical

120

Equilibrium surface distributions for constant energy ensembles B. I. Henry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equilibrium surface distributions for constant energy ensembles B. I. Henry Department of Applied distributions are seen [11,12]. In this paper we shall discuss how one calculates the constant energy energy en­ semble are discussed. An equilibrium surface density is introduced and used to calculate

Henry, Bruce Ian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Strict inequalities for connective constants of transitive graphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The connective constant of a graph is the exponential growth rate of the number of self-avoiding walks starting at a given vertex. Strict inequalities are proved for connective constants of vertex-transitive graphs. Firstly, the connective constant decreases strictly when the graph is replaced by a non-trivial quotient graph. Secondly, the connective constant increases strictly when a quasi-transitive family of new edges is added. These results have the following implications for Cayley graphs. The connective constant of a Cayley graph decreases strictly when a new relator is added to the group, and increases strictly when a non-trivial group element is declared to be a generator.

Geoffrey R. Grimmett; Zhongyang Li

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Methodology for extracting local constants from petroleum cracking flows  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A methodology provides for the extraction of local chemical kinetic model constants for use in a reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code with chemical kinetic computations to optimize the operating conditions or design of the system, including retrofit design improvements to existing systems. The coupled CFD and kinetic computer code are used in combination with data obtained from a matrix of experimental tests to extract the kinetic constants. Local fluid dynamic effects are implicitly included in the extracted local kinetic constants for each particular application system to which the methodology is applied. The extracted local kinetic model constants work well over a fairly broad range of operating conditions for specific and complex reaction sets in specific and complex reactor systems. While disclosed in terms of use in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser, the inventive methodology has application in virtually any reaction set to extract constants for any particular application and reaction set formulation. The methodology includes the step of: (1) selecting the test data sets for various conditions; (2) establishing the general trend of the parametric effect on the measured product yields; (3) calculating product yields for the selected test conditions using coupled computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics; (4) adjusting the local kinetic constants to match calculated product yields with experimental data; and (5) validating the determined set of local kinetic constants by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from additional test runs at different operating conditions.

Chang, Shen-Lin (Woodridge, IL); Lottes, Steven A. (Naperville, IL); Zhou, Chenn Q. (Munster, IN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Interplanetary Measures Can Not Bound the Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of a cosmological constant on the precession of the line of apsides is O(\\Lambda c^2 r^3/GM) which is 3(H_\\circ P)^2/8\\pi^2 \\approx 10^{-23} for a vacuum-dominated Universe with Hubble constant H_\\circ = 65 km/sec/Mpc and for the orbital period P = 88 days of Mercury. This is unmeasurably small, so planetary perturbations cannot be used to limit the cosmological constant, contrary to the suggestion by Cardona & Tejeiro (1998).

Edward L. Wright

1998-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

124

Bang-bang-type optimal constant current control of parallel ac-dc power transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

The transient stability of an ac-dc hybrid system can be improved greatly by controlling the power flow of the dc transmission line. In this study the optimal changeover curve of dc current setting value on the phase plane with a quadratic curve are approximated. The coefficients of this curve are calculated in advance taking into account the loading condition of the power system and hence the proposed control scheme can be used for emergency control of the power system. The main conclusions from this study were that: to facilitate transient stability analysis, the dc transmission line is represented by equivalent load admittances, which vary every second with the operating condition of the transmission line; the action of the speed governor increases the damping coefficient of the power system and reduces the control time which means that the admissible range of the dc current setting value can be reduced by increasing the governor gain; and the optimal change-over curve of the dc current setting value is approximated by a quadratic curve, whose coefficients can be calculated in advance taking into account the loading condition of the power system. The suboptimal changeover curve thus obtained makes it possible to change the setting value of dc current without time delay in emergency condition. While the case of three-phase short-circuit fault was specifically discussed, it is possible to extend the results obtained to the case of successful or unsuccessful reclosing. The proposed method could also be applied to multimachine systems by using equivalent network reduction methods.

Kobayashi, H.; Ichiyanagi, K.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A pair of disjoint 3-GDDs of type gtu1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pairwise disjoint 3-GDDs can be used to construct some optimal constant-weight codes. We study the existence of a pair of disjoint 3-GDDs of type g t u 1 and establish that its necessary conditions ... Keywords: 05B05, Constant-composition code, Constant-weight code, Disjoint, Group divisible design, Idempotent Latin square, Modified group divisible design, Resolvable

Yanxun Chang; Yeow Meng Chee; Junling Zhou

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Giant Dielectric Constant Controlled by Maxwell-Wagner Dielectric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Giant Dielectric Constant Controlled Giant Dielectric Constant Controlled by Maxwell-Wagner Dielectric Relaxation in Al2O3/TiO2 Nanolaminates Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition Giant Dielectric Constant Controlled by Maxwell-Wagner Dielectric Relaxation in Al2O3/TiO2 Nanolaminates Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition Nanolaminate consisting of Al2O3 and TiO2 oxide sublayers were synthesized, using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce individual layers with atomic scale control. The main goal of this work is to produce robust high dielectric constant layers based on biocompatible materials, such as Al2O3 and TiO2, suitable to fabricate high-capacitance capacitors for microchip embedded energy storage capacitor for implantable biomedical devices. However, these capacitors based on Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates can provide

127

Determination of Single Crystal Elastic Constants From DS- and DR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

D.L. Anton, T. Khan, R.D. Kissinger, D.L. Klarstrom ... is determined by the two angles 8 and Q. The constants S,,, Su, and S,, characterize the elastic behaviour of ...

128

PWR Field Experience with Elevated, Constant pH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report analyzes chemistry data from several pressurized water reactors (PWRs) operating reactor coolant with elevated, constant pH to determine its effectiveness for managing core performance and dose rate problems stemming from corrosion product and activity transport. The operating data are supplemented with relevant shutdown and startup experience to identify the overall impact of elevated, constant pH on primary system operation.

2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

129

Constraints on quintessence and new physics from fundamental constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in the values of the fundamental constants mu, the proton to electron mass ratio, and alpha, the fine structure constant due to rolling scalar fields have been discussed both in the context of cosmology and in new physics such as Super Symmetry (SUSY) models. This article examines the changes in these fundamental constants in a particular example of such fields, freezing and thawing slow roll quintessence. Constraints are placed on the product of a cosmological quantity, w, the equation of state parameter, and the square of the coupling constants for mu and alpha with the field, zeta_x, x = mu,alpha, using the existing observational limits on the values of Delta x/x. Various examples of slow rolling quintessence models are used to further quantify the constraints. Some of the examples appear to be rejected by the existing data which strongly suggests that conformation to the values of the fundamental constants in the early universe is a standard test that should be applied to any cosmological model or suggested new physics.

Rodger I. Thompson

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

Conformal symmetry of gravity and the cosmological constant problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In absence of matter Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant $\\La$ can be formulated as a scale-free theory depending only on the dimensionless coupling constant G \\Lambda where G is Newton constant. We derive the conformal field theory (CFT) and its improved stress-energy tensor that describe the dynamics of conformally flat perturbations of the metric. The CFT has the form of a constrained \\lambda \\phi^{4} field theory. In the cosmological framework the model describes the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker flat universe. The conformal symmetry of the gravity sector is broken by coupling with matter. The dimensional coupling constants G and \\Lambda are introduced by different terms in this coupling. If the vacuum of quantum matter fields respects the symmetry of the gravity sector, the vacuum energy has to be zero and the ``physical'' cosmological constant is generated by the coupling of gravity with matter. This could explain the tiny value of the observed energy density driving the accelerating expansion of the universe.

Mariano Cadoni

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

131

The quantization of unimodular gravity and the cosmological constant problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantization of unimodular gravity is described, which results in a quantum effective action which is also unimodular, ie a function of a metric with fixed determinant. A consequence is that contributions to the energy momentum tensor of the form of the metric times a spacetime constant, whether classical or quantum, are not sources of curvature in the equations of motion derived from the quantum effective action. This solves the first cosmological constant problem, which is suppressing the enormous contributions to the cosmological constant coming from quantum corrections. We discuss several forms of uniodular gravity and put two of them, including one proposed by Henneaux and Teitelboim, in constrained Hamiltonian form. The path integral is constructed from the latter. Furthermore, the second cosmological constant problem, which is why the measured value is so small, is also addressed by this theory. We argue that a mechanism first proposed by Ng and van Dam for suppressing the cosmological constant by quantum effects obtains at the semiclassical level.

Lee Smolin

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle Spinning NMR Probe for a 11  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle Spinning NMR Probe for a High Temperature, Large Sample Volume, Constant Flow Magic Angle Spinning NMR Probe for a 11.7 T Magnetic Field for In Situ Catalytic Reaction Characterization Project start date: April 1, 2007 EMSL Lead Investigator: Joseph Ford, EMSL High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility Co-investigators: Jian Zhi Hu, Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics, Biological Science Division, FCSD Jesse Sears and David W. Hoyt, EMSL High Field Magnetic Resonance Facility Detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in a catalytic reaction requires identification of the nature of the active sites and the temporal evolution of reaction intermediates. Although optical methods such as UV-visible and infrared (IR) spectroscopies can be used for some types of reactions, these do not

133

Compactifications of F-Theory on Calabi-Yau Threefolds at Constant Coupli ng  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generalizing the work of Sen, we analyze special points in the moduli space of the compactification of the F-theory on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds where the coupling remains constant. These contain points where they can be realized as orbifolds of six torus $T^6$ by $Z_m \\times Z_n (m, n=2, 3, 4, 6)$. At various types of intersection points of singularities, we find that the enhancement of gauge symmetries arises from the intersection of two kinds of singularities. We also argue that when we take the Hirzebruch surface as a base for the Calabi- Yau threefold, the condition for constant coupling corresponds to the case where the point like instantons coalesce, giving rise to enhanced gauge group of $Sp(k)$.

Changhyun Ahn; Soonkeon Nam

1997-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

134

Equilibrium Constant as Solution to the Open Chemical Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to contemporary views, equilibrium constant is relevant only to true thermodynamic equilibria in isolated systems with one chemical reaction. The paper presents a novel formula that ties-up equilibrium constant and chemical system composition at any state, isolated or open as well. Extending the logarithmic logistic map of the Discrete Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria, this formula maps the system population at isolated equilibrium into the population at any open equilibrium at p,T=const, using equilibrium constant as a measure. Real chemical systems comprise multiple subsystems; given the resources are limited, joint solution to the set of such expressions, each relevant to a specific subsystem, gives equilibrium composition for each of them. This result means a fundamental break through in the open systems thermodynamics and leads to formerly unknown opportunities in the analysis of real chemical objects.

Zilbergleyt, B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Early universe constraints on time variation of fundamental constants  

SciTech Connect

We study the time variation of fundamental constants in the early Universe. Using data from primordial light nuclei abundances, cosmic microwave background, and the 2dFGRS power spectrum, we put constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant {alpha} and the Higgs vacuum expectation value without assuming any theoretical framework. A variation in leads to a variation in the electron mass, among other effects. Along the same line, we study the variation of {alpha} and the electron mass m{sub e}. In a purely phenomenological fashion, we derive a relationship between both variations.

Landau, Susana J.; Mosquera, Mercedes E.; Scoccola, Claudia G.; Vucetich, Hector [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria-Pabellon 1, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas. Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas. Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N 1900 La Plata (Argentina); and Instituto de Astrofisica, Paseo del Bosque S/N 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas. Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

THE NON-CONSTANT CTOD/CTOA IN CRACK PROPAGATION  

SciTech Connect

Unlike the common belief that crack propagation behavior can be predicted successfully by employing fracture criteria based on a constant crack tip opening displacement or angle (CTOD/CTOA), this paper shows that the initially non-constant portion of the CTOD/CTOA plays an essential role in predicting the fracture load for a growing crack. Three- and two-dimensional finite element analyses indicate that a severe underestimate of the experimental load vs. crack extension curve would occur if a constant CTOD/CTOA criterion is used. However, the use of a simplified, bilinear CTOD/CTOA criterion including its non-constant portion will closely duplicate the test data. Furthermore, as a result of using the experimental data from J-integral test with various crack length to specimen width ratios (a/W), it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The initially higher values of the CTOD/CTOA are in fact a natural consequence of crack growth process which is refl ected by the J-resistance curve and its slope (tearing modulus).

LAM, POH-SANG

2004-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

137

Radiation in Systems with Near Zero Dielectric Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss radiation effects in systems with near zero dielectric constant. An enhancement of intensity by example of transition and diffusive radiations is demonstrated. A sharp peak in the transition radiation spectral-angular intensity is predicted. Numerical estimates for specific systems are made and possible applications are discussed.

Arakelian, V H

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

An Alternative Solution to the Cosmological Constant Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper it is analyzed the consecuences of a (1,1) dimensional space time at Planck scales. With this hypothesis is proposed an alternative solution to the density energy and the coincidence problem of the cosmological constant. Similarly it is predicted that the density of the dark energy is 4/9 of the critical density in the Universe.

Angel, Garcia Aspeitia Miguel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Prompt Neutron Decay Constant from Feynman Variance Fitting  

SciTech Connect

The use of fast-response liquid scintillators for passive measurements with highly enriched uranium (HEU) castings provides information on the timescale of the fission chain multiplication process for HEU. Thus, these detectors produce time responses characteristic of the HEU and not the moderator around 3He counters. Up to five HEU castings were assembled and the passive time coincidence measurements performed. The prompt neutron decay constants inferred from the Feynman variance data with the arrays of large liquid scintillators are compared with decay constants obtained from previously presented Feynman variance data collected in active interrogation measurements with these same HEU castings. The active measurements used plastic scintillation detectors adjacent to the castings to eliminate time-of-flight effects and showed that the prompt neutron decay constant is clearly not exponential. However, time-of-flight effects in the passive measurements result in exponential behavior and allow the Feynman variance data to be fit with the well-known point kinetics analytical formula. The characterization of the prompt neutron decay constant is investigated by comparing the results of the passive and active measurement data.

McConchie, Seth M [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Von Kármán's Constant in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow: Reevaluated  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field experiment has been carried out with the specific objective in mind to determine the value of von Kármán's constant in atmospheric boundary layer flow, and also to investigate its possible dependence on the surface Rossby number Ro0. Data ...

Ulf Högström

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Parabolic surfaces in hyperbolic space with constant Gaussian curvature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic surfaces in hyperbolic space with constant Gaussian curvature Rafael L´opez Departamento@ugr.es Keywords: hyperbolic space, parabolic surface, Gaussian curvature MSC 2000 subject classification: 53A10, 53C45 Abstract A parabolic surface in hyperbolic space H3 is a surface invariant by a group

López, Rafael

142

Spectral gap for the zero range process with constant rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve an open problem concerning the relaxation time (inverse spectral gap) of the zero range process in $\\mathbf {Z}^d/L\\mathbf {Z}^d$ with constant rate, proving a tight upper bound of $O((\\rho +1)^2L^2)$, where $\\rho$ is the density of particles.

Ben Morris

2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

A Thermal Time-Constant Experiment* KYLE RESSLER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cable, and BASIC Stamp), a DC power supply, and a Windows-based PC computer with a serial I/O connectionA Thermal Time-Constant Experiment* KYLE RESSLER Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Washington University . Parallax `Board-of-EducationTM ' Board . Base Plate (25 cm Ã? 15 cm Ã? 5 mm) . Blower fan (12 V DC, 0.2 A

Nagurka, Mark L.

144

Determining Photosynthesis Rate Constants in Lake Harapan Penang  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lake Harapan was created in 1990 to serve as a runoff detention pond in Universiti Sains Malaysia USM. The lake is eutrophic with occasional high levels of 300 ug/l chl a, with dissolved oxygen reaching 12 - 16 mg/l in the late afternoon and near anaerobic ... Keywords: Photosynthesis, Rate Constants, Dissolved Oxygen

Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Ahmad Izani Md Ismail; Mashhor Mansor

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Jet engine's speed controller with constant pressure chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with an automatic system meant to control a jet engine's rotation speed, through the fuel injection's control, based on a constant pressure chamber controller. One has established the non-linear mathematical model (based on the motion ... Keywords: actuator, control, fuel injection, fuel pump, jet-engine, pressure chamber

Alexandru Nicolae Tudosie

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Dielectric-Constant-Enhanced Hall Mobility in Complex Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high dielectric constant of doped ferroelectric KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} is shown to increase dielectric screening of electron scatterers, and thus to enhance the electronic mobility, overcoming one of the key limitations in the application of functional oxides. These observations are based on transport and optical measurements as well as band structure calculations.

Siemons, Wolter [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Stability and size of galaxies from Planck's constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stability and characterisitic geometrical and kinematical sizes of galaxies are strictly related to a minimal characteristic action whose value is of order $h$, the Planck constant. We infer that quantum mechanics, in some sense, determines the structure and the size of galaxies.

Salvatore Capozziello; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

appplication for stay  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Applications for Exception Names of Petitioners: CPKelco Cogeneration, et al. Dates of Filings: May 31, 2002, et al. Case Numbers: VEE-0088, et al. This...

149

STAYS PNNL SUITE  

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

002851IBMPC00 STAYSL PNNL Suite  http://radiochemscieng.pnnl.gov/research_areas/research_area_description.asp?id=283 

150

Staying on Track  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk will discuss how diversity has changed over the years at GE Global Research and the latest initiatives and best practices at attracting, developing, and ...

151

Sound damping constant for generalized theories of gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The near-horizon metric for a black brane in anti-de Sitter space and the metric near the AdS boundary both exhibit hydrodynamic behavior. We demonstrate the equivalence of this pair of hydrodynamic systems for the sound mode of a conformal theory. This is first established for Einstein's gravity, but we then show how the sound damping constant will be modified from its Einstein form for a generalized theory. The modified damping constant is expressible as the ratio of a pair of gravitational couplings that are indicative of the sound-channel class of gravitons. This ratio of couplings differs from both that of the shear diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity to entropy ratio. Our analysis is mostly limited to conformal theories, but suggestions are made as to how this restriction might eventually be lifted.

Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, 84105 (Israel); Medved, A. J. M. [Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Photon-Axion-Like Particle Coupling Constant and Cosmological Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimated the photon-pseudoscalar particle mixing constant from the effect of cosmological alignment and cosmological rotation of polarization plane of distant QSOs. This effect is explained in terms of birefringent phenomenon due to photon-pseudoscalar (axion-like) particle mixing in a cosmic magnetic field. On the contrary, one can estimate the strength of the cosmic magnetic field using the constraints on the photon-axion-like particle coupling constant from the CAST experiment and from SNe Ia dimming effect. In a result, the lower limit on the intergalactic ($z\\approx 1\\div 2$) magnetic field appears at the level of about $4\\times 10^{-10}\\div 10^{-11}$ G.

M. Yu. Piotrovich; Yu. N. Gnedin; T. M. Natsvlishvili

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

Is there further evidence for spatial variation of fundamental constants?  

SciTech Connect

Indications of spatial variation of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}, based on study of quasar absorption systems have recently been reported [J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, and M. B. Bainbridge, arXiv:1008.3907.]. The physics that causes this {alpha}-variation should have other observable manifestations, and this motivates us to look for complementary astrophysical effects. In this paper we propose a method to test whether spatial variation of fundamental constants existed during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis and study existing measurements of deuterium abundance for a signal. We also examine existing quasar absorption spectra data that are sensitive to variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu} and x={alpha}{sup 2{mu}}g{sub p} for spatial variation.

Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.; King, J. A.; Curran, S. J.; Webb, J. K. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Thermodynamics of de Sitter Black Holes: Thermal Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the thermodynamic properties associated with the black hole event horizon and the cosmological horizon for black hole solutions in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. We examine thermodynamics of these horizons on the basis of the conserved charges according to Teitelboim's method. In particular, we have succeeded in deriving the generalized Smarr formula among thermodynamical quantities in a simple and natural way. We then show that cosmological constant must decrease when one takes into account the quantum effect. These observations have been obtained if and only if cosmological constant plays the role of a thermodynamical state variable. We also touch upon the relation between inflation of our universe and a phase transition of black holes.

Yuichi Sekiwa

2006-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

Trident pair production in a constant crossed field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the trident process in a constant crossed field, we isolate the one-step mechanism involving a virtual intermediate photon from the two-step mechanism involving a real photon. The one-step process is found to be measurable combining currently-available electron beams with few-cycle laser pulses. The two-step process differs appreciably in magnitude and dynamics from integrating the product of sub-steps over photon lightfront momentum, challenging numerical simulation efforts.

King, B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Nonexpanding impulsive gravitational waves with an arbitrary cosmological constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exact solutions for nonexpanding impulsive waves in a background with nonzero cosmological constant are constructed using a `cut and paste' method. These solutions are presented using a unified approach which covers the cases of de Sitter, anti-de Sitter and Minkowski backgrounds. The metrics are presented in continuous and distributional forms, both of which are conformal to the corresponding metrics for impulsive pp-waves, and for which the limit as $\\Lambda\\to 0$ can be made explicitly.

J. Podolsky; J. B. Griffiths

1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

157

Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to apparatus for producing constant tension in cable or the like when it is unreeled and reeled from a drum or spool under conditions of intermittent demand. The invention is particularly applicable to the handling of superconductive cable, but the invention is also applicable to the unreeling and reeling of other strands, such as electrical cable, wire, cord, other cables, fish line, wrapping paper and numerous other materials.

Lauritzen, T.

1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin  

SciTech Connect

A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

Marra, John J; McNamee, Sara

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

159

Maximal r-Diameter Sets and Solids of Constant Width  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recall the definition of an r-maximal set in a metric space as a maximal subset of diameter r. In the special case when the metric space is Euclidean such a set is exactly a solid of constant diameter r. In the process of reviewing the theory of these objects we provide a simple construction which generates a large class of such solids.

Ethan Akin

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

160

Spacetime of Constant Scalar Curvature in N = 1 Supergravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this short paper we show the existence of solitonic solutions of four dimensional ungauged N = 1 supergravity coupled to arbitrary vector and chiral multiplets whose Ricci scalar curvature is constant. The Ricci scalar of spacetimes indeed depends on the {sigma}-model, namely the complex scalars and their first derivative. Then, we give two explicit models, namely static domain walls and static spherical symmetric black holes which are related to our previous works.

Gunara, Bobby Eka [Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP) (Indonesia); Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Constant threshold correction to electrically charged dilatonic black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of a constant threshold correction to a general non-extreme, static, spherically symmetric, electrically charged black hole solution of the dilatonic Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian, with an arbitrary coupling $\\beta$ between the electromagnetic tensor and the dilaton field. For a small $\\beta$, an exact analytical solution is obtained. For an arbitrary of the metric and the dilaton are presented. In the extremal limit, the close form solution is reduced to an exact analytical form.

Chan, K L

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hydrogen Atom and Time Variation of Fine-Structure Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we have solved the de Sitter special relativistic ($\\mathcal{SR}_{cR}$-) Dirac equation of hydrogen in the earth-QSO(quasar) framework reference by means of the adiabatic approach. The aspects of geometry effects of de Sitter space-time described by Beltrami metric are explored and taken into account. It is found that the $\\mathcal{SR}_{cR}$-Dirac equation of hydrogen is a time dependent quantum Hamiltonian system. We provide an explicit calculation to justify the adiabatic approach in dealing with this time-dependent system. Since the radius of de Sitter sphere $R$ is cosmologically large, the evolution of the system is very slow so that the adiabatic approximation legitimately works with high accuracy. We conclude that the electromagnetic fine-structure constant, the electron mass and the Planck constant are time variations. This prediction of fine-structure constant is consistent with the presently available observation data. For confirming it further, experiments/observations are required.

Mu-Lin Yan

2009-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

163

Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

Adams, Amy Lynn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Award Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Awards Team (505) 667-7824 Email Types of Awards The Awards...

165

Rippled Cosmological Dark Matter from Damped Oscillating Newton Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its General Relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation -> dark matter -> dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the General Relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favorably examined.

Aharon Davidson

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Direct Determination of the Boltzmann Constant by an Optical Method  

SciTech Connect

We have recorded the Doppler profile of a well-isolated rovibrational line in the {nu}{sub 2} band of {sup 14}NH{sub 3}. Ammonia gas was placed in an absorption cell thermalized by a water-ice bath. By extrapolating to zero pressure, we have deduced the Doppler width which gives a first measurement of the Boltzmann constant k{sub B} by laser spectroscopy. A relative uncertainty of 2x10{sup -4} has been obtained. The present determination should be significantly improved in the near future and contribute to a new definition of the kelvin.

Daussy, C.; Guinet, M.; Amy-Klein, A.; Djerroud, K.; Hermier, Y.; Briaudeau, S.; Borde, Ch. J.; Chardonnet, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR CNRS 7538, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris 13, 99, avenue J.-B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

167

Adsorption process producing chronologically constant amount of a residual gas  

SciTech Connect

An adsorption process is disclosed for purifying or fractionating a gaseous feed mixture comprises an adsorption phase, at least one expansion phase, a purging phase and at least one pressure buildup phase. The expansion phase(S) and the purging phase produce residual process gas fractions. The sum total of volume, and/or mass streams of the residual process gas fractions comprises a residual gas stream which is maintained chronologically substantially constant by controlling the volume and/or gas streams of the gas entering the purging phase and maintaining the gas leaving the expansion phase(S) at a substantially constant value, dependent on the desired mass and/or volume quantity of the residual gas stream. The length of the purging phase and of the expansion phase(S) is adjusted accordingly so that the relationship of the length of time of the purging phase to the length of time of the expansion phase(S) is substantially the same as the relationship of the volume and/or mass of the gas fractions obtained during the purging to those obtained during the expansion phase(S), respectively. The control of the purging and of the expansion phase(S) can also be varied in response to a flow rate of a feed gas entering the process.

Benkmann, C.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

168

Positive and Negative Energy Symmetry and the Cosmological Constant Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The action for gravity and the standard model includes, as well as the positive energy fermion and boson fields, negative energy fields. The Hamiltonian for the action leads through a positive and negative energy symmetry of the vacuum to a cancellation of the zero-point vacuum energy and a vanishing cosmological constant in the presence of a gravitational field solving the cosmological constant problem. To guarantee the quasi-stability of the vacuum, we postulate a positive energy sector and a negative energy sector in the universe which are identical copies of the standard model. They interact only weakly through gravity. As in the case of antimatter, the negative energy matter is not found naturally on Earth or in the universe. A positive energy spectrum and a consistent unitary field theory for a pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian is obtained by demanding that the pseudo-Hamiltonian is ${\\cal P}{\\cal T}$ symmetric. The quadratic divergences in the two-point vacuum fluctuations and the self-energy of a scalar field are removed. The finite scalar field self-energy can avoid the Higgs hierarchy problem in the standard model.

J. W. Moffat

2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

169

Silica aerogel: An intrinsically low dielectric constant material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silica aerogels are highly porous solids having unique morphologies in wavelength of visible which both the pores and particles have sizes less than the wavelength of visible light. This fine nanostructure modifies the normal transport mechanisms within aerogels and endows them with a variety of exceptional physical properties. For example, aerogels have the lowest measured thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for any solid material. The intrinsically low dielectric properties of silica aerogels are the direct result of the extremely high achievable porosities, which are controllable over a range from 75% to more than 99.8 %, and which result in measured dielectric constants from 2.0 to less than 1.01. This paper discusses the synthesis of silica aerogels, processing them as thin films, and characterizing their dielectric properties. Existing data and other physical characteristics of bulk aerogels (e.g., thermal stablity, thermal expansion, moisture adsorption, modulus, dielectric strength, etc.), which are useful for evaluating them as potential dielectrics for microelectronics, are also given.

Hrubesh, L.W.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Melanin Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Melanin Types Melanin Types Name: Irfan Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What are different types of melanins? And what are the functions of these types? Replies: Hi Irfan! Melanin is a dark compound or better a photoprotective pigment. Its major role in the skin is to absorb the ultraviolet (UV) light that comes from the sun so the skin is not damaged. Sun exposure usually produces a tan at the skin that represents an increase of melanin pigment in the skin. Melanin is important also in other areas of the body, as the eye and the brain., but it is not completely understood what the melanin pigment does in these areas. Melanin forms a special cell called melanocyte. This cell is found in the skin, in the hair follicle, and in the iris and retina of the eye.

171

Type systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of type systems has emerged as one of the most active areas of research in programming languages, with applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compiler implementation, and security. This chapter discusses the ...

Benjamin C. Pierce

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The Constant Voltage Transformer (CVT) for Mitigating Effects of Voltage Sags on Industrial Equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric quality problems associated with power interactions between distribution and industrial process control systems can be prevented. Surveys of large users that buy power at the transmission and distribution voltages turn up relatively few complaints about the quality of their incoming power, while surveys of small users connected at secondary voltages tum up numerous complaints about the quality of their incoming power. Three major changes in the characteristics of customer loads and power distribution systems have altered the nature of the power quality equation: (I) greater sensitivity of devices and equipment to electric power variations, (2) the interconnection of sensitive loads in extensive networks and automated processes, and (3) an increase in loads that use power electronics in some type of power conversion configuration [1][2]. This paper presents applications of the constant-voltage transformer (CVT) for mitigating the effects of electric service voltage sags on industrial equipment in an oil refinery. Unlike conventional transformers, the CVT or ferro-resonant transformer allows the core to become saturated with magnetic flux, which maintains a relatively constant output voltage during input voltage variations such as undervoltages, overvoltages, and harmonic distortion.

Ferraro, R. J.; Osborne, R.; Stephens, R.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Temperature distribution of a tokamak with a constant heat conductivity  

SciTech Connect

An analytical expression of the detached plasma radius in and ohmically heated tokamak plasma was obtained. The assumption was made that the (anomalous) heat conductivity is constant and independent of minor radius, r. The resultant nonlinear differential equation has a universal solution for the plasma temperature as a function of r. The shape is very similar to the so-called profile consistency model. As the average plasma density increases, the tokamak plasma which is first attached to either limiter or divertor detaches itself from the limiter and forms a toroidal plasma whose boundary is clearly marked by a radiative boundary layer where the power input to the plasma is radiated away. As the plasma density increases, the radius of the plasma shrinks until the surface safety factor becomes less that {approximately}2, whereupon the plasma disruption starts. The density limit calculated by this model agrees with the experimental observation. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Yoshikawa, S.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Brownian dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect, and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions, and, particularly, complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.

Hou, L. J.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Miskovic, Z. L. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Constant current, fast and float rate, variable hysteresis battery charger  

SciTech Connect

A battery charging circuit is described connected to a voltage source and the terminals of a battery for maintaining a charge on the battery comprising: input means connected to the voltage source; current regulating means connected to the input means for providing a constant current output to the battery; resistive means connected to the regulating means for selectively setting charging rate currents provided to the battery by the regulating means; switching means connected to the resistive means for controlling the operation of the resistive means; means for sensing the state of charge of the battery connected across the terminals of the battery; and integrated buffer circuit means connected between sensing means and the switching means to control the operation of the switching means in response to the state of battery charge sensed by the sensing means.

Steblay, B.J.

1987-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

176

Constant power speed range extension of surface mounted PM motors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A circuit and method for controlling a rotating machine (11) in the constant horsepower range above base speed uses an inverter (15) having SCR's (T1-T6) connected in series with the primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) to control turn off of the primary commutation switches and to protect the primary commutation switches from faults. The primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) are controlled by a controller (14), to fire in advance or after a time when the back emf equals the applied voltage, and then to turn off after a precise dwell time, such that suitable power is developed at speeds up to at least six times base speed.

Lawler, Jack Steward (Knoxville, TN); Bailey, John Milton (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hybrid electronic ballast operating the HPS lamp at constant power  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid solid-state ballast that operates high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps at main frequency with constant power through rated life is described. The system utilizes two inductors connected in series and a bidirectional semiconductor switch connected in parallel to one of them. A lamp-starting circuit has also been included in the ballast. The static switch, with phase angle control provided by power feedback, actuates on lamp current compensating variations of the main voltage and increases of lamp arc voltage. The system offers the following: (1) increase of lamp life and system lumen maintenance; (2) power factor and total harmonic distortion of line current comparable to conventional lag ballast; and (3) operating cost savings, both in terms of energy cost and lamp replacement cost.

Kaiser, W. [Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Grain Core Dielectric Constants of Acceptor-doped Oxide Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Nicola H. Perry, Ted C. Yeh, Thomas O. Mason. On-Site Speaker ... Water Uptake and Conduction Property of Nano-grained Fluorite-type Oxides.

179

Fine structure constant in the spacetime of a cosmic string  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the fine structure constant in the spacetime of a cosmic string. In the presence of a cosmic string the value of the fine structure constant reduces. We also discuss on numerical results. The gravitational properties of cosmic strings are strikingly different from those of non-relativistic linear distributions of matter. To explain the origin of the difference, we note that for a static matter distribution with energymomentum tensor, T µ ? = diag (?, ?p1, ?p2, ?p3) , (1) the Newtonian limit of the Einstein equations become ? 2 ? = 4?G (? + p1 + p2 + p3), (2) where ? is the gravitational potential. For non-relativistic matter, pi ? ? and ? 2 ? = 4?G?. Strings, on the other hand, have a large longitudinal tension. For a straight string parallel to the z-axis, p3 = ??, with p1 and p2 vanish when averaged over the string cross-section. Hence, the righthand side of Eq.(2) vanishes, suggesting that straight strings produce no gravitational forece on surrounding matter. This conclusion is confirmed by a full general-relativistic analysis. Another feature distinguishing cosmic strings from more familiar sources is their relativistic motion. As a result, oscillating loops of string can be strong emitters of gravitational radiation. A gravitating string is described by the combined system of Einstein, Higgs and guage field equations. The problem of solving these coupled equations is formidable and no exact solutions have been found to date. Fortunately, for most cosmological applications the problem can be made tractable by adopting two major simplifications. First, assuming that the string thickness is much smaller than all other relevant dimensions, the string can be 1

Forough Nasseri

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Reaction-diffusion systems with constant diffusivities: conditional symmetries and form-preserving transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Q-conditional symmetries (nonclassical symmetries) for a general class of two-component reaction-diffusion systems with constant diffusivities are studied. Using the recently introduced notion of Q-conditional symmetries of the first type (R. Cherniha J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 2010. vol. 43., 405207), an exhaustive list of reaction-diffusion systems admitting such symmetry is derived. The form-preserving transformations for this class of systems are constructed and it is shown that this list contains only non-equivalent systems. The obtained symmetries permit to reduce the reaction-diffusion systems under study to two-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations and to find exact solutions. As a non-trivial example, multiparameter families of exact solutions are explicitly constructed for two nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. A possible interpretation to a biologically motivated model is presented.

Roman Cherniha; Vasyl' Davydovych

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Constant-pressure measurement of steam-water relative permeability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of steady-state experiments have established relative permeability curves for two-phase flow of water in a porous medium. These experiments have minimized uncertainty in pressure, heat loss, and saturation. By attempting to maintain a constant pressure gradient, the experiments have provided a baseline from which to determine the effect of temperature on relative permeability. The use of a flexible heater with an automatic control system made it possible to assume negligible phase change for the mobile fluid. X-ray computer tomography (CT) aided by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative permeability curves assume a shape similar to those obtained by Corey (1954) for the simultaneous flow of nitrogen and water. Close agreement between the curves by Satik (1998), Mahiya (1999), and this study establishes the reliability of the experimental method and instrumentation adopted in these experiments, though some differences may bear further investigation. In particular, the steam phase relative permeability appears to vary much more linearly with saturation than does the water phase relative permeability.

O'Connor, Peter A.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Can hidden correlations mimic a variable fine structure constant?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Murphy et al. (2003a, MNRAS, 345, 609) claim to find evidence of cosmological variations of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ in the spectra of intervening QSO absorption line systems. We find that this result is affected by systematic effects. The $\\alpha$ values estimated in individual line systems depend on the set of atomic transitions used and therefore the quoted dependence on the cosmic age may reflect the fact that different sets of transitions are used at different redshifts. A correlation between line shifts and relative optical depths of the atomic transitions is also present. This correlation is very tight for a high-redshift subsample and accounts for the anomalous dispersion of the $\\alpha$ values found by Murphy et al. (2003a) in this subsample. The above correlations are consistent with a scenario in which gravitational redshift, caused by the gravity of the dark halo, contributes to the shift in frequency of individual components. Gravitational redshift causes differential spectral shifts of the same order as magnitude of those measured. In the presence of line misidentification, these shifts can be interpreted in terms of a variable $\\alpha$. In order to verify the gravitational redshift hypothesis, a direct access to Murphy et al. (2003a) data, or to a large amount of new high resolution data, is necessary.

Rino Bandiera; Edvige Corbelli

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Trapping of Waves by a Constant Slope internal Interface in a Two-Layer Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that “edge” and “continental shelf” waves can be trapped by a constant slope nearshore bottom; in a two-layer ocean of great constant depth, a constant slope internal interface, as well as the associated geostrophic current, can ...

Henri Lacombe

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Type: Renewal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 INCITE Awards 1 INCITE Awards Type: Renewal Title: -Ab Initio Dynamical Simulations for the Prediction of Bulk Properties‖ Principal Investigator: Theresa Windus, Iowa State University Co-Investigators: Brett Bode, Iowa State University Graham Fletcher, Argonne National Laboratory Mark Gordon, Iowa State University Monica Lamm, Iowa State University Michael Schmidt, Iowa State University Scientific Discipline: Chemistry: Physical INCITE Allocation: 10,000,000 processor hours Site: Argonne National Laboratory Machine (Allocation): IBM Blue Gene/P (10,000,000 processor hours) Research Summary: This project uses high-quality electronic structure theory, statistical mechanical methods, and

185

Bacteria Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Types Bacteria Types Name: Evelyn Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What is the significance of S. marcescens,M.luteus, S.epidermidis, and E. Coli? Which of these are gram-positive and gram-negative, and where can these be found? Also, what problems can they cause? When we culture these bacteria, we used four methods: plates, broth, slants, and pour plates. The media was made of TSB, TSA, NAP, and NAD. What is significant about these culturing methods? Replies: I could give you the answer to that question but it is more informative, and fun, to find out yourself. Start with the NCBI library online (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and do a query with the species name, and 'virulence' if you want to know what they're doing to us. Have a look at the taxonomy devision to see how they are related. To find out if they're gram-pos or neg you should do a gram stain if you can. Otherwise you'll find that information in any bacteriology determination guide. Your question about the media is not specific enough so I can't answer it.

186

Abstract--There are two types of drivers in production machine systems: constant velocity (CV) motor and servo-motor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) motor and servo-motor. If a system contains two drivers or more, among which some are of the CV motor while the other are the servo-motor, the system has the so-called hybrid driver architecture is stable. A simulation is performed to show verify the proposed controller. The CV motor has the velocity

Zhang, WJ "Chris"

187

Facility Type!  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ITY: ITY: --&L~ ----------- srct-r~ -----------~------~------- if yee, date contacted ------------- cl Facility Type! i I 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis ] Production 1 Diepasal/Storage 'YPE OF CONTRACT .--------------- 1 Prime J Subcontract&- 1 Purchase Order rl i '1 ! Other information (i.e., ---------~---~--~-------- :ontrait/Pirchaee Order # , I C -qXlJ- --~-------~~-------~~~~~~ I I ~~~---~~~~~~~T~~~ FONTRACTING PERIODi IWNERSHIP: ,I 1 AECIMED AECMED GOVT GOUT &NTtiAC+OR GUN-I OWNED ----- LEEE!? M!s LE!Ps2 -LdJG?- ---L .ANDS ILJILDINGS X2UIPilENT IRE OR RAW HA-I-L :INAL PRODUCT IASTE Z. RESIDUE I I kility l pt I ,-- 7- ,+- &!d,, ' IN&"E~:EW AT SITE -' ---------------- , . Control 0 AEC/tlED managed operations

188

Number: 1894 Type: factoid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... type> Type: factoid Description: How high is the pitcher's mound? ... 2047 Type: factoid Description: How close is Mercury to ...

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

189

Connection between the high energy-scale evolution of the P- and T-odd $?N N$ coupling constant and the strong $?N N$ interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The large energy-scale behaviour of the parity and time-reversal violating (PTV) pion-nucleon coupling constant is analyzed in a model combining renormalization-group techniques and the dressing of the PTV vertex with a pion loop. With the strong $\\pi N N$ vertex as a mixture of the pseudovector and pseudoscalar couplings, we show that depending on the admixture parameter, two qualitatively distinct types of behaviour are obtained for the PTV coupling constant at high energy scales: an asymptotic freedom or a fixed-point. We find a critical value of the admixture parameter which delineates these two scenarios. Several examples of the high-energy scale behaviour of the PTV $\\pi N N$ constant are considered, corresponding to realistic hadronic models of the strong pion-nucleon interaction.

P. G. Blunden; S. Kondratyuk

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with microdeletionsM, Huson S. Mosaic (segmental) neurofibromatosis type 1and type 2: no longer neurofibromatosis type 5. Am J Med

Liang, Christine; Schaffer, Julie V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Spray cooling heat-transfer with subcooled trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon-113) for vertical constant heat flux surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were done using subcooled Freon-113 sprayed vertically downward. Local and average heat transfers were investigated fro Freon-113 sprays with 40 C subcooling, droplet sizes 200-1250{mu}m, and droplet breakup velocities 5-29 m/s. Full-cone type nozzles were used to generate the spray. Test assemblies consisted of 1 to 6 7.62 cm vertical constant heat flux surfaces parallel with each other and aligned horizontally. Distance between heated surfaces was varied from 6.35 to 76.2 mm. Steady state heat fluxes as high as 13 W/cm{sup 2} were achieved. Dependence on the surface distance from axial centerline of the spray was found. For surfaces sufficiently removed from centerline, local and average heat transfers were identical and correlated by a power relation of the form seen for normal-impact sprays which involves the Weber number, a nondimensionalized temperature difference, and a mass flux parameter. For surfaces closer to centerline, the local heat transfer depended on vertical location on the surface while the average heat transfer was described by a semi-log correlation involving the same parameters. The heat transfer was independent of the distance (gap) between the heated surfaces for the gaps investigated.

Kendall, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Holman, J.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

192

Bang-bang Controls and Piecewise Constant ones for Continuous Roesser Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the paper, we prove the bang-bang principle for a continuous linear nonautonomous Roesser system and some approximation result (with respect to piecewise constant controls) for a continuous nonautonomous Roesser system which is linear in the state ... Keywords: Bang---bang principle, Continuous Roesser system, Piecewise constant controls

Dariusz Idczak; Marek Majewski

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Determination of Low-Energy Constants of Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By matching Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD determinations of pseudoscalar meson masses to Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory we determine the low-energy constants $W'_6$, $W'_8$ and their linear combination $c_2$. We explore the dependence of these low-energy constants on the choice of the lattice action and on the number of dynamical flavours.

Gregorio Herdoiza; Karl Jansen; Chris Michael; Konstantin Ottnad; Carsten Urbach

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

194

Direct Test of the Time-Independence of Fundamental Nuclear Constants Using the Oklo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct Test of the Time-Independence of Fundamental Nuclear Constants Using the Oklo Natural Reactor #3; Alexander I. Shlyakhter November 18, 1982 1 Introduction The following eight quantities enter the important natural constants of cosmology and atomic theory are connected by simple mathematical relations

Shlyakhter, Ilya

195

Study of thermal properties of graphene-based structures using the force constant method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal properties of graphene-based materials are theoretically investigated. The fourth-nearest neighbor force constant method for phonon properties is used in conjunction with both the Landauer ballistic and the non-equilibrium Green's function ... Keywords: Force constant method, Graphene, Graphene antidots, Non-equilibrium Green's function, Thermal properties

Hossein Karamitaheri; Neophytos Neophytou; Mahdi Pourfath; Hans Kosina

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

FICS--A PROGRAM TO COMPUTE FEW-GROUP CONSTANTS WITHIN THE KARE DIFFUSION THEORY SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FICS is a group constant program available as an alternative to the WOXX routine within the KARE System. FICS computes diffusion constants and macroscopic cross sections for slowing down, absorption, nu -fission, and total removal in two, three, or four energy groups for each compositional region in the reactor model. The one-group thermal constants are provided by a variational technique which computes an approximate Wigner-Wilkins flux spectrum as a linear combination of two trial spectra. These consist of a low-absorption spectrum and a high-absorption spectrum, covering the energies below 0.625 ev in 32 lethargy intervals. The thermal group constants are determined by averaging lethargy- dependent microscopic cross sections and diffusion constants over the composite spectrum. FICS' thermal constants are temperaturedependent with region temperatures from 68 to 600 nif- F permitted. In the fast energy range, 10 Mev to 0.625 ev, the program computes temperature-independent constants in one, two, or three energy groups. These are determined from stored microscopic cross sections which were obtained by curve fitting to MUFT parameters over a wide range of metal-water ratios. FICS provides optional calculations, some of which modify the group constants for special purposes, while others merely prepare and transmit data to other segments. Included are: automatic Xenon determination; special prescriptions for thin, highly absorbing regions; an adjoint option; a technique for handling window shade'' control rods; automatic calculation of fission products; mixed number density modification; spectrum option; precalculated group constant option, depletion option; AMOK option; and special calculations for r-z synthesis. (auth)

Goodman, D.E.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

STATUS OF IN-REACTOR TENSILE STRAINING OF PURE COPPER AT A CONSTANT STRAIN RATE  

SciTech Connect

Annealed tensile samples of pure copper were irradiated in the fission reactor BR-2 in Mol, Belgium at 90 degrees C with a damage rate of 0.00000006 dpa/sec. The tensile specimens were a sheet-type specimen with a 3-mm gage width and a gage length of 7 mm. The first experiment involved two specimens, one of which was irradiated with no load to provide a comparative specimen to the other specimen, which was loaded at a constant strain rate of 0.00000013 1/s. The uniaxial tensile load was applied 4 hrs after the irradiation rig was inserted into the reactor core. This corresponded to a total displacement damage of 0.00086 dpa accumulated before the tensile test was started. The tensile test was considered complete once the load began rapidly falling and reached 100 MPa, at which level the test was stopped and the load quickly reduced to zero to leave the specimen intact. For these test conditions the specimen reached a total plastic strain of approximately 13 percent when the test was stopped, considerably less than that of unirradiated pure copper tested under the same strain rate, which was on the order of 50 percent total elongation. The second experiment involved two samples irradiated under identical irradiation and test conditions, but in this case the tensile load was not applied until a total dose of 0.01 dpa (approximately 50 hours after insertion into the reactor core) was reached. Once the load was applied, the stress immediately climbed to approximately 150 MPa with little plastic strain, followed by a small yield drop and work hardening up to a maximum stress of approximately 200 MPa. As in the first experiment, the tensile test was stopped when the load began decreasing and reached a level of 100 MPa.

Edwards, Danny J.; Singh, Bachu N.; Tahtinen, S.; Moilanen, P.; Jacquet, P.; Dekeyser, J.

2003-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

198

Type checking and normalisation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is about Martin-Löf's intuitionistic theory of types (type theory). Type theory is at the same time a formal system for mathematical proof and… (more)

Chapman, James Maitland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Hybrid type checking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase distinctions in type theory. Manuscript, 1988. [10]Typechecking dependent types and subtypes. In Lecture notesF. Pfenning. Intersection types and computational effects.

Flanagan, C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Type 2 segmental glomangiomas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

skin disorders: different types of severitiy reflectevidence for dichotomous types of severitiy. Arch Dermatol9. Happle R, König A. Type 2 segmental manifestation of

Hoekzema, Rick; Zonneveld, Ingrid M; Wal, Allard C van der

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Manifestations of a spatial variation of fundamental constants on atomic clocks, Oklo, meteorites, and cosmological phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The remarkable detection of a spatial variation in the fine-structure constant, alpha, from quasar absorption systems must be independently confirmed by complementary searches. In this letter, we discuss how terrestrial measurements of time-variation of the fundamental constants in the laboratory, meteorite data, and analysis of the Oklo nuclear reactor can be used to corroborate the spatial variation seen by astronomers. Furthermore, we show that spatial variation of the fundamental constants may be observable as spatial anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, the accelerated expansion (dark energy), and large-scale structure of the Universe.

J. C. Berengut; V. V. Flambaum

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

202

Dimensions of Wellness Staying Well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include Rohypnol, Seconal, Valium, Librium, and Xanax. Long term effects include: dependency, psychosis one sending cards, cooking meals, buying flowers or rearranging your schedule. Don't continue to give

Fernandez, Eduardo

203

Dogs panting to stay cool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NEWTON's HOME PAGE Privacy Policy NEWTON, Ask A Scientist Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Office of Science NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON's Homepage NEWTON Home Page...

204

Bounds and self-consistent estimates for elastic constants of granular polycrystals composed of orthorhombics or crystal with higher symmetries  

SciTech Connect

Methods for computing Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related self-consistent estimates of elastic constants for polycrystals composed of crystals having orthorhombic symmetry have been known for about three decades. However, these methods are underutilized, perhaps because of some perceived difficulties with implementing the necessary computational procedures. Several simplifications of these techniques are introduced, thereby reducing the overall computational burden, as well as the complications inherent in mapping out the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding curves. The self-consistent estimates of the effective elastic constants are very robust, involving a quickly converging iteration procedure. Once these self-consistent values are known, they may then be used to speed up the computations of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds themselves. It is shown furthermore that the resulting orthorhombic polycrystal code can be used as well to compute both bounds and self-consistent estimates for polycrystals of higher-symmetry tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic (but not trigonal) materials. The self-consistent results found this way are shown to be the same as those obtained using the earlier methods, specifically those methods designed specially for each individual symmetry type. But the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds found using the orthorhombic code are either the same or (more typically) tighter than those found previously for these special cases (i.e., tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic). The improvement in the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds is presumably due to the additional degrees of freedom introduced into the available search space.

Berryman, J. G.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Writing with Complex Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

29] Middendorp, J. 2004. Dutch type. 010 Publishers. [30]A. Hyland. 1992. Twentieth-century type. Laurence King. [7]Robertson. 2005. From Movable Type to Moving Type-Evolution

Lewis, Jason; Nadeau, Bruno

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Optimal Constant-Time Approximation Algorithms and (Unconditional) Inapproximability Results for Every Bounded-Degree CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raghavendra (STOC 2008) gave an elegant and surprising result: if Khot's Unique Games Conjecture (STOC 2002) is true, then for every constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), the best approximation ratio is attained by a certain simple semidefinite programming and a rounding scheme for it. In this paper, we show that a similar result holds for constant-time approximation algorithms in the bounded-degree model. Specifically, we present the followings: (i) For every CSP, we construct an oracle that serves an access, in constant time, to a nearly optimal solution of a basic LP relaxation of the CSP. (ii) Using the oracle, we present a constant-time rounding scheme that achieves an approximation ratio coincident with the integrality gap of the basic LP. (iii) We give a generic conversion from integrality gaps of basic LPs to hardness results. All of those results are ``unconditional.'' Therefore, for every bounded-degree CSP, we give the best constant-time approximation algorithm among all.

Yoshida, Yuichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Constant Potential Vorticity Hydraulically Controlled Flow—Complexities from Passage Shape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Velocity, surface height profiles, and volume flux are calculated for critically controlled flow of a layer of rotating fluid from a channel to an exit passage. The upstream fluid possesses constant potential vorticity. These are models of an ...

J. A. Whitehead

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Objective Analysis of Constant Altitude Aircraft Measurements in Thunderstorm Inflow Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective numerical techniques are applied in analyzing constant altitude aircraft measurements obtained from coordinated research flights in thunderstorm inflow regions. The approach combines meteorological and flight track data from dual or ...

J. C. Fankhauser; C. J. Biter; C. G. Mohr; R. L. Vaughan

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Three-dimensional metrics as deformations of a constant curvature metric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Any three-dimensional Riemannian metric can be locally obtained by deforming a constant curvature metric along one direction. The general interest of this result, both in geometry and physics, and related open problems are stressed.

B. Coll; J. Llosa; D. Soler

2001-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

A New Value of the von Kármán Constant: Implications and Implementation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The von Kármán constant k occurs throughout the mathematics that describe the atmospheric boundary layer. In particular, because k was originally included in the definition of the Obukhov length, its value has both explicit and implicit effects ...

Edgar L. Andreas

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fractal properties in fundamental force coupling constants, in atomic energies, and in elementary particle masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the discrete-scale invariance theory, we show that the coupling constants of fundamental forces, the atomic masses and energies, and the elementary particle masses, obey to the fractal properties.

Boris Tatischeff

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

212

The Harmonic Constant Datum Method: Options for Overcoming Datum Discontinuities at Mixed–Diurnal Tidal Transitions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The harmonic constant datum (HCD) method is a computationally efficient way of estimating tidal datums relative to mean sea level, without the need to compute long time series. However, datum discontinuities can occur between mixed and diurnal ...

Harold O. Mofjeld; Angie J. Venturato; Frank I. González; Vasily V. Titov; Jean C. Newman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Few-Group Baffle and/or Reflector Constants for Diffusion Calculation Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate calculation of neutron leakage in LWR cores is critical to effective fuel management and safety analysis. The definitive baffle and reflector constants developed in this study allow engineers to more accurately perform such few-group diffusion analyses.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Phenomenological scaling laws relating the observed galactic dimensions to Planck action constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the characteristic observed radius, velocity, and temperature of a typical galaxy can be inferred from Planck action constant through a phenomenological scaling law on all cosmological scales.

Salvatore Capozziello; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

abstract data type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Definition of abstract data type, possibly with links to more information and implementations. NIST. abstract data type. (definition). ...

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

Large-Nc estimate of the chiral low-energy constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chiral low-energy constants incorporate short-distance information from the dynamics involving heavier degrees of freedom not present in the chiral Lagrangian. We have studied the contribution of the lightest resonances to the chiral low-energy constants, up to O(p^6), within a systematic procedure guided by the large-Nc limit of QCD and also including short-distance asymptotic constraints.

J. Portoles

2007-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

217

Sequence of the dog immunoglobulin alpha and epsilon constant region genes  

SciTech Connect

The immunoglobulin alpha (IGHAC) and epsilon (IGHEC) germline constant region genes were isolated from a dog liver genomic DNA library. Sequence analysis indicates that the dog IGHEC gene is encoded by four exons spread out over 1.7 kilobases (kb). The IGHAC sequence encompasses 1.5 kb and includes all three constant region coding exons. The complete exon/intron sequence of these genes is described. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Patel, M.; Selinger, D.; Mark, G.E.; Hollis, G.F.; Hickey, G.J. [Merck Research Labs., Rathway, NJ (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

On the distribution of estimators of diffusion constants for Brownian motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the distribution of various estimators for extracting the diffusion constant of single Brownian trajectories obtained by fitting the squared displacement of the trajectory. The analysis of the problem can be framed in terms of quadratic functionals of Brownian motion that correspond to the Euclidean path integral for simple Harmonic oscillators with time dependent frequencies. Explicit analytical results are given for the distribution of the diffusion constant estimator in a number of cases and our results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

Denis Boyer; David S. Dean

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

Characterization of high-power lithium-ion cells during constant current cycling. Part I. Cycle performance and electrochemical diagnostics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Twelve-cm{sup 2} pouch type lithium-ion cells were assembled with graphite anodes, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathodes and 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC/DEC electrolyte. These pouch cells were cycled at different depths of discharge (100 percent and 70 percent DOD) at room temperature to investigate cycle performance and pulse power capability. The capacity loss and power fade of the cells cycled over 100 percent DOD was significantly faster than the cell cycled over 70 percent DOD. The overall cell impedance increased with cycling, although the ohmic resistance from the electrolyte was almost constant. From electrochemical analysis of each electrode after cycling, structural and/or impedance changes in the cathode are responsible for most of the capacity and power fade, not the consumption of cycleable Li from side-reactions.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

220

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

222

Type systems for dummies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We extend Pure Type Systems with a function turning each term M of type A into a dummy |M| of the same type (|.| is not an identity, in that M ? |M|). Intuitively, a dummy represents an unknown, canonical object of the given type: dummies are opaque ... Keywords: canonical element, proof irrelevance, pure type system

Andrea Asperti; Ferruccio Guidi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Model of variable speed constant frequency double fed wind power generation system and analysis of its operating performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure of variable speed constant frequency double fed wind power generation system (WPGS) was analyzed, and its model was established. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, constant power control and vector control for WPGS were discussed. ... Keywords: operating performance, variable speed constant frequency, vector control, wind power generation system

Pan Tinglong; Ji Zhicheng

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

ARM - Measurement - Cloud type  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

type ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as...

225

Variation of fundamental constants in space and time: theory and observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of recent works devoted to the temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental constants and dependence of the fundamental constants on the gravitational potential (violation of local position invariance) is presented. We discuss the variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha=e^2/\\hbar c$, strong interaction and fundamental masses (Higgs vacuum), e.g. the electron-to-proton mass ratio $\\mu=m_e/M_p$ or $X_e=m_e/\\Lambda_{QCD}$ and $X_q=m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD}$. We also present new results from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data and propose new measurements of enhanced effects in atoms, nuclei and molecules, both in quasar and laboratory spectra.

Flambaum, V V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Constant-temperature level densities in the quasi-continuum of Th and U isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle-gamma coincidences have been measured to obtain gamma-ray spectra as a function of excitation energy for 231-233Th and 237-239U. The level densities, which were extracted using the Oslo method, show a constant temperature behavior. The isotopes display very similar temperatures in the quasi-continuum, however, the even-odd isotopes reveal a constant entropy increase Delta S compared to their even-even neighbors. The entropy excess depends on available orbitals for the last unpaired valence neutron of the heated nuclear system. Also, experimental microcanonical temperature and heat capacity have been extracted. Several poles in the heat capacity curve support the idea that an almost continuous melting of Cooper pairs is responsible for the constant-temperature behavior.

M. Guttormsen; B. Jurado; J. N. Wilson; M. Aiche; L. A. Bernstein; Q. Ducasse; F. Giacoppo; A. Goergen; F. Gunsing; T. W. Hagen; A. C. Larsen; M. Lebois; B. Leniau; T. Renstroem; S. J. Rose; S. Siem; T. Tornyi; G. M. Tveten; M. Wiedeking

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

227

Direct Test of the Time-Independence of Fundamental Nuclear Constants Using the Oklo Natural Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[NOTE: This 1983 preprint is being uploaded to arXiv.org after the death of its author, who supported online distribution of his work. Contact info of the submitter is at http://ilya.cc .] The positions of neutron resonances have been shown to be highly sensitive to the variation of fundamental nuclear constants. The analysis of the measured isotopic shifts in the natural fossil reactor at Oklo gives the following restrictions on the possible rates of the interaction constants variation: strong ~2x10^-19 yr^-1, electromagnetic ~5x10^-18 yr^-1, weak ~10^-12 yr^-1. These limits permit to exclude all the versions of nuclear constants contemporary variation discussed in the literature. URL: http://alexonline.info >. For more recent analyses see hep-ph/9606486, hep-ph/0205206 and astro-ph/0204069 .

Alexander I. Shlyakhter

2003-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

How Measuring the Planck Constant gets to an Electronic Kilogram Standard  

SciTech Connect

The best measurement of the Planck constant is now derived from the watt balance method. This method measures mechanical power, in reference units of the kilogram (artifact mass standard), second (atomic clocks), and meter (lasers), in ratio to electrical power, in reference units of the volt (Josephson effect) and ohm (quantum Hall effect). Of these reference standards, only the kilogram is still an artifact standard. Thus a high precision measurement of the Planck constant is equivalent to monitoring the SI kilogram artifact, and may be used to redefine the kilogram. This talk will summarize the complexity of making a Planck constant measurement, where there are interesting aspects of basic physics that appear when the ultimate precision of the standards laboratory is applied to obtain an uncertainty of 20 parts in a billion.

Steiner, Richard

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A note on the effect of the cosmological constant on the bending of light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We take another look at the equations behind the description of light bending in a Universe with a cosmological constant. We show that even within the impact parameter entering into the photon's differential equation, and which is defined here with exclusive reference to the beam of light as it bends around the central mass, lies the contribution of the cosmological constant. The latter is shown to enter in a novel way into the equation. When the latter is solved our approach implies, beyond the first two orders in the mass-term and the lowest-order in the cosmological constant, a slightly different expression for the bending angle from what is previously found in the literature.

Fayçal Hammad

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Standard thermal energy group structure for generation of thermal group constants from ENDF/B data  

SciTech Connect

The final specifications of a standard energy group structure for the generation of thermal group constants from ENDF/B data are presented. The report represents the work of a committee appointed by the Codes and Formats Subcommittee of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group and is a parallel effort to work being done in the epithermal energy range. The thermal energy group structure specified in this report was accepted November 10, 1972, by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group as the standard for generation of thermal group constants from ENDF/B data. The standard thermal group structure specified in this report is consistent with past design experience and thermal spectrum codes, and incorporates specific features for effects known to be important in nuclear design applications in the thermal energy range. Specific recommendations are made as to methods to be used for generation of thermal group constants. (auth)

Finch, D.R.

1974-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Phenyl radical thermolysis and rate constants for phenyl + O{sub 2}  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}I has been used to prepare in-situ known initial concentrations of phenyl radicals at high temperatures. These can be degraded by direct decomposition at T > 1350 K giving H + C{sub 6}H{sub 4}. Using H-atom ARAS, rate constants for C{sub 6}H{sub 5} dissociation have been measured. Using the same ARAS technique, constants for C{sub 6}H{sub 5} dissociation have been measured. Using the same ARAS technique, the H- and O-atoms formed from the reaction, C{sub 6}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2}, have both been measured. The rate constant results are discussed along with lower T measurements in terms of RRKM calculations using published ab initio electronic structure determinations of transition states.

Kumaran, S.S.; Michael, J.V.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

B and D meson decay constants from 2+1 flavor improved staggered simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We give an update on simulation results for the decay constants f{sub B}; f{sub B{sub s}}, f{sub D} and f{sub D{sub s}}. These decay constants are important for precision tests of the standard model, in particular entering as inputs to the global CKM unitarity triangle fit. The results presented here make use of the MILC (2+1)-flavor asqtad ensembles, with heavy quarks incorporated using the clover action with the Fermilab method. Partially quenched, staggered chiral perturbation theory is used to extract the decay constants at the physical point. In addition, we give error projections for a new analysis in progress, based on an extended data set.

Neil, E.T.; Bailey, Jon A.; Bazavov, A.; Bernard, C.; Bouchard, C.M.; DeTar, C.; Di Pierro, M.; El-Khadra, A.X.; Evans, R.T.; Freeland, E.; Gamiz, E.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Variation of fundamental constants in space and time: theory and observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review of recent works devoted to the temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental constants and dependence of the fundamental constants on the gravitational potential (violation of local position invariance) is presented. We discuss the variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha=e^2/\\hbar c$, strong interaction and fundamental masses (Higgs vacuum), e.g. the electron-to-proton mass ratio $\\mu=m_e/M_p$ or $X_e=m_e/\\Lambda_{QCD}$ and $X_q=m_q/\\Lambda_{QCD}$. We also present new results from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data and propose new measurements of enhanced effects in atoms, nuclei and molecules, both in quasar and laboratory spectra.

V. V. Flambaum

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

234

Dynamical System Analysis of Cosmologies with Running Cosmological Constant from Quantum Einstein Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a mechanism that induces a time-dependent vacuum energy on cosmological scales. It is based on the instability induced renormalization triggered by the low energy quantum fluctuations in a Universe with a positive cosmological constant. We employ the dynamical systems approach to study the qualitative behavior of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies where the cosmological constant is dynamically evolving according with this nonperturbative scaling at low energies. It will be shown that it is possible to realize a "two regimes" dark energy phases, where an unstable early phase of power-law evolution of the scale factor is followed by an accelerated expansion era at late times.

Bonanno, Alfio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Note on the Local Cosmological Constant and the Dark Energy Coincidence Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been suggested that the Dark Energy Coincidence Problem could be interpreted as a possible link between the cosmological constant and a massive graviton. We show that by using that link and models for the graviton mass a dark energy density can be obtained that is indeed very close to measurements by WMAP. As a consequence of the models, the cosmological constant was found to depend on the density of matter. A brief outline of the cosmological consequences such as the effect on the black hole solution is given.

M. Tajmar

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

236

Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Circuitry for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrut to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on.

Brown, Roger A. (Amsterdam, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Electronic constant current and current pulse signal generator for nuclear instrumentation testing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Circuitry is described for testing the ability of an intermediate range nuclear instrument to detect and measure a constant current and a periodic current pulse. The invention simulates the resistance and capacitance of the signal connection of a nuclear instrument ion chamber detector and interconnecting cable. An LED flasher/oscillator illuminates an LED at a periodic rate established by a timing capacitor and circuitry internal to the flasher/oscillator. When the LED is on, a periodic current pulse is applied to the instrument. When the LED is off, a constant current is applied. An inductor opposes battery current flow when the LED is on. 1 figures.

Brown, R.A.

1994-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

238

Type-checking injective pure type systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injective pure type systems form a large class of pure type systems for which one can compute by purely syntactic means two sorts elmt(?∣M) and sort(?∣M), where ? is a pseudo-context and M is a pseudo-term, ...

Gilles Barthe

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Typing constraint logic programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a prescriptive type system with parametric polymorphism and subtyping for constraint logic programs. The aim of this type system is to detect programming errors statically. It introduces a type discipline for constraint logic programs and ... Keywords: Constraint logic programming, Metaprogramming, Prolog, subtyping, type systems

François Fages; Emmanuel Coquery

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla Govind Nair* and ADC of the rat eyes were measured at 50 3 50 3 800 lm at 7 Tesla. Profiles of T1, T2, T2* and ADC

Duong, Timothy Q.

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241

WEINHOLD’LENGTH IN AN ISOCHORIC THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM AT CONSTANT HEAT CAPACITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to study thermodynamic length of an isochoric two dimensional thermodynamic system with constant heat capacity. We find that length is related to the heat flow into the substance. We give examples of Ideal gas and Van der Waals gas. 1.

Carmela Mazzuti; Manuel Santoro

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Kinetics and Dissociation Constants (pKa) of Polyamines of Importance in Post-Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 3 Kinetics and Dissociation Constants (pKa) of Polyamines of Importance in Post-CombustionDate(Web):May3,2012|doi:10.1021/bk-2012-1097.ch003 In Recent Advances in Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Chemistry amines by 62%. 1. Introduction In order to satisfy environmental combustion standards, acid gases

East, Allan L. L.

243

Photon emission in a constant magnetic field in 2+1 dimensional space-time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate by the proper-time method the amplitude of the two-photon emission by a charged fermion in a constant magnetic field in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. The relevant dynamics reduces to that of a supesymmetric quantum-mechanical system with one bosonic and one fermionic degrees of freedom.

J. T. S. Amaral; S. I. Zlatev

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

244

Work function control at metal high-dielectric-constant gate oxide interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been difficulty in finding metals of sufficiently large or small effective work function to act as metal electrodes on high-dielectric-constant gate oxides. To understand the factors affecting the effective work function, we have calculated ... Keywords: High K oxides, Metal gates

K. Tse; J. Robertson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of SiO2 aerogel film with low dielectric constant to intermetal dielectrics Moon-Ho Jo aerogel film was characterized from its structural and chemical viewpoints. High porosity of material infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for their chemical states. The improved electrical properties of SiO2 aerogel

Jo, Moon-Ho

246

Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant Torque and Electrical Drives, Paderborn, Germany Abstract--Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) gain weakening range. Operation during flux weakening, however, causes stress to the magnets of the motor

Noé, Reinhold

247

Trapped Lee Waves Observed during PYREX by Constant Volume Balloons: Comparison with Meso-NH Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objective of the present paper is the use of a constant volume balloon (CVB) as a tool to (i) study trapped lee waves and (ii) assess the forecasting capability of a nonhydrostatic numerical model. Then, CVB data obtained during the ...

Ernest N’Dri Koffi; Marc Georgelin; Bruno Benech; Evelyne Richard

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

System design and simulation of constant temperature box using semiconductor refrigeration device  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the variation law of temperature in three-dimensional space, which is cooled by the refrigeration provided by the cold side of a semiconductor. The mathematical model of the temperature field of the semiconductor refrigeration ... Keywords: constant temperature box, forced convection, mathematical modelling, numerical simulation, semiconductor refrigeration, system design

Hui Zhang; Kuang-Chao Fan; Jun Wang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A QCDSR calculation for the {phi}D{sub s}D{sub s} coupling constant  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we use the QCD Sum Rules (QCDSR) technique to obtain informations about the strong coupling constant of the three meson vertex {phi}D{sub s}D{sub s}. The calculation is done for the case where the {phi} meson is considered off-shell.

Rodrigues, B. O.; Chiapparini, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 20550-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bracco, M. E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rod. Presidente Dutra Km 298, Polo Industrial, 27537-000 , Resende, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

250

The B{sub s}B*K coupling constant using QCDSR  

SciTech Connect

In this work we evaluate the coupling constant for the vertex B{sub s}B*K by the QCD Sum Rules. The result was obtained using the heaviest particle off shell of this vertex, the B{sub s} meson, and the lightest particle off shell, the K meson.

Cerqueira, A. Jr.; Rodrigues, B. O. [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bracco, M. E. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, DMFC, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rod. Presidente Dutra km 298, 27537-000, Resende, RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

251

Constant Time Sliding Window Filter SLAM as a Basis for Metric Visual Perception  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Robotics and Automation, pages 1099­1104, Washington, DC, 2001. [17] G. Sibley. Sliding window filters, pages 652­659, Washington, DC, 2004. [16] C. F. Olson, L. H. Matthies, M. Schoppers, and M. W. MaimoneConstant Time Sliding Window Filter SLAM as a Basis for Metric Visual Perception Gabe Sibley, Larry

Sibley, Gabe

252

Weinhold'length in an isochoric thermodynamic system at constant heat capacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to study thermodynamic length of an isochoric two dimensional thermodynamic system with constant heat capacity. We find that length is related to the heat flow into the substance. We give examples of Ideal gas and Van der Waals gas.

Manuel Santoro

2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

253

Darboux transformations for (1+2)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations with constant diffusion matrix  

SciTech Connect

We construct a Darboux transformation for (1+2)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equations with constant diffusion matrix. Our transformation is based on the two-dimensional supersymmetry formalism for the Schroedinger equation. The transformed Fokker-Planck equation and its solutions are obtained in explicit form.

Schulze-Halberg, Axel [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Extended analysis of constant-height hydraulic fractures for the estimation of in-situ crack-opening modulus from bottomhole pressure records  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fractures created in oil and gas bearing rock formations can be made to propagate for a limited time at approximately constant height if favorable stress, deformation modulus or fracture toughness barriers to height growth exist and if the fracture design is suitably optimized to exploit these favorable conditions and reduce height growth. In this report, a unified theoretical formulation for the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) and Christianovitch-Geertsma-De Klerk-Daneshy (CGDD) constant height fracture models is first presented. For a fracture fluid injection rate that varies as an arbitrary power of time, growth laws for fracturing fluid pressure, fracture width, and flow rate are rigorously derived for PKN and CGDD types of fractures. These similarity solutions account for non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow, transient fluid storage and generalized power-law fluid leak-off to the rock formation. They include and extend the results currently available in the literature for PKN and CGDD fractures. The results for PKN and CGDD fractures are then generalized to obtain an approximate hybrid CGDD-PKN fracture model that can be applied to constant height fractures of arbitrary length/height aspect ratio and arbitrary cross-sectional shape. Characteristic times for fracture extension are identified and estimates are given for the transition times when the fracture evolves from a CGDD-type fracture at small aspect ratio to a PKN-type fracture at large aspect ratio. These results are useful for interpreting fracturing data and for designing fractures for crack-opening modulus measurements.

Wijesinghe, A.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Accurate quantum thermal rate constants for the three-dimensional H+H/sub 2/ reaction  

SciTech Connect

The rate constants for the three-dimensional H+H/sub 2/ reaction on the Liu--Siegbahn--Truhlar--Horowitz (LSTH) surface are calculated using Pack--Parker hyperspherical (APH) coordinates and a /ital C//sub 2/ital v// symmetry adapted direct product discrete variable representation (DVR). The /ital C//sub 2/ital v// symmetry decomposition and the parity decoupling on the basis are performed for the internal coordinate xi. The symmetry decomposition results in a block diagonal representation of the flux and Hamiltonian operators. The multisurface flux is introduced to represent the multichannel reactive flux. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the /ital J/=0 internal Hamiltonian are obtained by sequential diagonalization and truncation. The individual symmetry blocks of the flux operator are propagated by the corresponding blocks of the Hamiltonian, and the /ital J/=0 rate constant /ital k//sup 0/(/ital T/) is obtained as a sum of the rate constants calculated for each block. /ital k//sup 0/(/ital T/) is compared with the exact /ital k//sup 0/(/ital T/) obtained from thermal averaging of the /ital J/=0 reaction probabilities; the errors are within 5%--20% up to /ital T/=1500 K. The sequential diagonalization--truncation method reduces the size of the Hamiltonian greatly, but the resulting Hamiltonian matrix still describes the time evolution very accurately. For the /ital J//ne/0 rate constant calculations, the truncated internal Hamiltonian eigenvector basis is used to construct reduced (/ital JK//sub /ital J//) blocks of the Hamiltonian. The individual (/ital JK//sub /ital J//) blocks are diagonalized neglecting Coriolis coupling and treating the off-diagonal /ital K//sub /ital J//+-2 couplings by second order perturbation theory. The full wave function is parity decoupled. The rate constant is obtained as a sum over /ital J/ of (2/ital J/+1)/ital k//sup /ital J//(/ital T/).

Park, T. J.; Light, J. C.

1989-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Rate constants for OH with selected large alkanes : shock-tube measurements and an improved group scheme.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temperature rate constant experiments on OH with the five large (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}) saturated hydrocarbons n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (2,2,3,3-TMB), n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane (2,3-DMB) were performed with the reflected-shock-tube technique using multipass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. Single-point determinations at {approx}1200 K on n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-TMB, n-hexane, and 2,3-DMB were previously reported by Cohen and co-workers; however, the present work substantially extends the database to both lower and higher temperature. The present experiments span a wide temperature range, 789-1308 K, and represent the first direct measurements of rate constants at T > 800 K for n-pentane. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length of {approx}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high OH concentration detection sensitivity permitted pseudo-first-order analyses for unambiguously measuring rate constants. The experimental results can be expressed in Arrhenius form in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} as follows: K{sub OH+n-heptane} = (2.48 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1927 {+-} 69 K)/T] (838-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = (8.26 {+-} 0.89) x 10{sup -11} exp[(-1337 {+-} 94 K)/T] (789-1061 K); K{sub OH+n-pentane} = (1.60 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1903 {+-} 146 K)/T] (823-1308 K); K{sub OH+n-hexane} = (2.79 {+-} 0.39) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-2301 {+-} 134 K)/T] (798-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = (1.27 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1617 {+-} 118 K)/T] (843-1292 K). The available experimental data, along with lower-T determinations, were used to obtain evaluations of the experimental rate constants over the temperature range from {approx}230 to 1300 K for most of the title reactions. These extended-temperature-range evaluations, given as three-parameter fits, are as follows: k{sub OH+n-heptane} = 2.059 x 10{sup -5}T{sup 1.401} exp(33 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (241-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = 6.835 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.886} exp(-365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (290-1180 K); k{sub OH+n-pentane} = 2.495 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.649} exp(80 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (224-1308 K); k{sub OH+n-hexane} = 3.959 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.218} exp(443 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (292-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = 2.287 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.958} exp(365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (220-1292 K). The experimental data and the evaluations obtained for these five larger alkanes in the present work were used along with prior data/evaluations obtained in this laboratory for H abstractions by OH from a series of smaller alkanes (C{sub 3}?C{sub 5}) to devise rate rules for abstractions from various types of primary, secondary, and tertiary H atoms. Specifically, the current scheme was applied with good success to H abstractions by OH from a series of n-alkanes (n-octane through n-hexadecane). The total rate constants using this group scheme for reactions of OH with selected large alkanes are given as three-parameter fits in this article. The rate constants for the various abstraction channels in any large n-alkane can also be obtained using the groups listed in this article. The present group scheme serves to reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for OH + alkane reactions.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Regular Object Types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regular expression types have been proposed as a foundation for statically typed processing of XML and similar forms of tree-structured data. To date, however, regular expression types have been explored in special-purpose languages (e.g., XDuce, CDuce, and XQuery) with type systems designed around regular expression types "from the ground up." The goal of the Xtatic language is to bring regular expression types to a broad audience by offering them as a lightweight extension of a popular object-oriented language, C#. We develop...

Vladimir Gapeyev; Benjamin C. Pierce

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

I. Determination of chemical reaction rate constants by numerical nonlinear analysis: differential methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary emphasis of this work on kinetics is to illustrate the a posteriori approach to applications, where focus on data leads to novel outcomes, rather than the a priori tendencies of applied analysis which imposes constructs on the nature of the observable. The secondary intention is the development of appropriate methods consonant with experimental definitions. By focusing on gradients, it is possible to determine both the average and instantaneous rate constants that can monitor changes in the rate constant with concentration changes as suggested by this theory. Here, methods are developed and discussed utilizing nonlinear analysis which does not require exact knowledge of initial concentrations. These methods are compared with those derived from standard methodology. These gradient methods are shown to be consistent with the ones from standard methods and could readily serve as alternatives for studies where there are limits or unknowns in the initial conditions, such as in the burgeoning fields of ...

Jesudason, Christopher G

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Darboux transforms and simple factor dressing of constant mean curvature surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define a transformation on harmonic maps from a Riemann surface into the 2-sphere which depends on a complex parameter, the so-called mu-Darboux transformation. In the case when the harmonic map N is the Gauss map of a constant mean curvature surface f and the parameter is real, the mu-Darboux transformation of -N is the Gauss map of a classical Darboux transform f. More generally, for all complex parameter the transformation on the harmonic Gauss map of f is induced by a (generalized) Darboux transformation on f. We show that this operation on harmonic maps coincides with simple factor dressing, and thus generalize results on classical Darboux transforms of constant mean curvature surfaces: every mu-Darboux transform is a simple factor dressing, and vice versa.

Burstall, F E; Leschke, K; Quintino, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Colombani, Jean

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Jean Colombani

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

264

Control Humidity With Single-Duct, Single-Zone, Constant Air Volume System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lecture hall of the Richardson Petroleum Building at Texas A&M University is a large lecture hall, with a total floor area of approximately 2500 ft^2. The lecture hall was served by a constant air volume (CAV) air handling unit (AHU) which had no reheat coil. This resulted in high room humidity levels although the room temperature was satisfied for part load conditions, especially when there was very little sensible load from the room. This paper presents Continuous Commissioning efforts (CC), which turned this inefficient, humid lecture hall into a comfortable learning environment. This case study also explores other possibilities to solve the humidity control problem with single-duct, single-zone constant air volume systems.

Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Selecting Efficient Phase Estimation With Constant-Precision Phase Shift Operators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the cost of three phase estimation procedures that require only constant-precision phase shift operators. The cost is in terms of the number of elementary gates, not just the number of measurements. Faster phase estimation requires the minimal number of measurements with a \\log * factor of reduction when the required precision n is large. The arbitrary constant-precision approach (ACPA) requires the minimal number of elementary gates with a minimal factor of 14 of reduction in comparison to Kitaev's approach. The reduction factor increases as the precision gets higher in ACPA. Kitaev's approach is with a reduction factor of 14 in comparison to the faster phase estimation in terms of elementary gate counts.

Chen-Fu Chiang

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

266

Applicability of Boussinesq approximation in a turbulent fluid with constant properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equations of motion describing buoyant fluids are often simplified using a set of approximations proposed by J. Boussinesq one century ago. To resume, they consist in assuming constant fluid properties, incompressibility and conservation of calories during heat transport. Assuming fulfilment of the first requirement (constant fluid properties), we derive a set of 4 criteria for assessing the validity of the two other requirements in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. The first criterion $\\alpha \\Delta \\ll 1 $ simply results from the incompressibility condition in the thermal boundary layer ($\\alpha$ and $\\Delta$ are the thermal expansion coefficient and the temperature difference driving the flow). The 3 other criteria are proportional or quadratic with the density stratification or, equivalently with the temperature difference resulting from the adiabatic gradient across the cell $\\Delta_{h}$. Numerical evaluations with air, water and cryogenic helium show that most laboratory experiments are free f...

Roche, Philippe-Emmanuel P -E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Performance Analysis of Dual-Fan, Dual-Duct Constant Volume Air-Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units introduce outside air directly into the cooling duct and use two variable speed devices to independently maintain the static pressure of the hot and the cold air ducts. Analytical models have been developed to compare fan power and thermal energy consumption of dualfan, dual-duct constant volume air-handling units with single-fan, dual-duct constant volume airhandling units. This study shows that the dual-fan, dual-duct system uses less fan power and less thermal energy during winter, and uses more thermal energy during summer. Thermal energy performance can be significantly improved if the thermal energy penalty can be decreased or eliminated.

Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

On the third- and fourth-order constants of incompressible isotropic elasticity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider the constitutive law for an isotropic elastic solid with the strain-energy function expanded up to the fourth order in the strain, and the stress up to the third order in the strain. The stress-strain relation can then be inverted to give the strain in terms of the stress with a view to considering the incompressible limit. For this purpose, use of the logarithmic strain tensor is of particular value. It enables the limiting values of all nine fourth-order elastic constants in the incompressible limit to be evaluated precisely and rigorously. In particular, it is explained why the three constants of fourth-order incompressible elasticity $\\mu$, $\\bar{A}$, and $\\bar D$ are of the same order of magnitude. Several examples of application of the results follow, including determination of the acoustoelastic coefficients in incompressible solids and the limiting values of the coefficients of nonlinearity for elastic wave propagation.

Michel Destrade; Ray W. Ogden

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Constraints on Field Theoretical Models for Variation of the Fine Structure Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent theoretical ideas and observational claims suggest that the fine structure constant alpha may be variable. We examine a spectrum of models in which alpha is a function of a scalar field. Specifically, we consider three scenarios: oscillating alpha, monotonic time variation of alpha, and time-independent alpha that is spatially varying. We examine the constraints imposed upon these theories by cosmological observations, particle detector experiments, and ``fifth force'' experiments. These constraints are very strong on models involving oscillation, but cannot compete with bounds from the Oklo sub-nuclear reactor on models with monotonic time-like variation of alpha. One particular model with spatial variation is consistent with all current experimental and observational measurements, including those from two seemingly conflicting measurements of the fine structure constant using the many multiplet method on absorption lines.

Charles L. Steinhardt

2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

270

Types of Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation...

271

AN EXAMPLE OF ASYMPTOTICALLY CHOW UNSTABLE MANIFOLDS WITH CONSTANT SCALAR CURVATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In [2] Donaldson proved that if a polarized manifold (V, L) has constant scalar curvature Kähler metrics in c1(L) and its automorphism group Aut(V, L) is discrete, (V, L) is asymptotically Chow stable. In this paper, we shall show an example which implies that the above result does not hold in the case when Aut(V, L) is not discrete.

Hajime Ono; et al.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

SERVO SYSTEM FOR MAGNETIC CONTROLLED CONSTANT INTENSITY FLAT TOP BEAM SPILL- OUT  

SciTech Connect

It is noted that a uniform flat-top beam spill-out cannot be obtained in the Cosmotron by manual control. A servo system is proposed which will control this spill-out by sensing the external beam intensity, and correcting the magnet voltage to keep this intensity constant. This servo must operate through the transfer function of the main ignitron system and the flat-top filter. An analysis of these special transfer functions is presented. (J.R.D.)

Cottingham, J.G.

1961-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaluation of Constant Elevated pH Demonstration at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory data and limited field experience suggest that constant elevated pH, when optimized, will reduce the release of corrosion products from ex-core pressurized water reactor (PWR) surfaces and therefore the amount transported and deposited on fuel assemblies. However, the impact of elevated pH and higher lithium concentrations required to achieve the desired pH must first be evaluated and then demonstrated prior to widespread industry application. This interim report summarizes the results of oper...

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

274

Large deviation properties of constant rate data streams sharing a buffer with variable rate cross traffic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a constant rate data stream which shares a buffer with a variable rate data stream. A first come first serve service discipline is applied at the buffer. After service at the first buffer the variable rate traffic leaves the system, whereas ... Keywords: 68M20, 90B15, Markov-modulated fluid sources, fluid model, large buffer asymptotics, many sources asymptotics, on-off sources, primary 60F10, queueing network, secondary 60K25

Kurt Majewski

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Horava-Lifshitz cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes $G$ variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying $G$ corrections.

M. R. Setare; Mubasher Jamil

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

276

Correlation between the extraordinary Hall constant and electrical resistivity minima in Co-rich metallic glasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hall effect has been studied in some Co-rich ferromagnetic metallic glasses which show resistivity (rho) minima at low temperatures. It is found that the extraordinary Hall constant (R-s) shows a corresponding minimum. The scaling relation R(s)similar torho(n) holds with nsimilar or equal to2 showing the dominance of quantum transport in these high-resistive disordered systems. The temperature dependences of magnetization and electrical resistivity are also interpreted in terms of existing theories.

Majumdar, AK; Khatua, PK; Rathnayaka, KDD; Naugle, Donald G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth’s climate system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] The equilibrium sensitivity of Earth’s climate is determined as the quotient of the relaxation time constant of the system and the pertinent global heat capacity. The heat capacity of the global ocean, obtained from regression of ocean heat content versus global mean surface temperature, GMST, is 14 ± 6 W a m 2 K 1, equivalent to 110 m of ocean water; other sinks raise the effective planetary heat capacity to 17 ± 7 W a m 2 K 1 (all uncertainties are 1-sigma estimates). The time constant pertinent to changes in GMST is determined from autocorrelation of that quantity over 1880–2004 to be 5 ± 1 a. The resultant equilibrium climate sensitivity, 0.30 ± 0.14 K/(W m 2), corresponds to an equilibrium temperature increase for doubled CO2 of 1.1 ± 0.5 K. The short time constant implies that GMST is in near equilibrium with applied forcings and hence that net climate forcing over the twentieth century can be obtained from the observed temperature increase over this period, 0.57 ± 0.08 K, as 1.9 ± 0.9 W m 2. For this forcing considered the sum of radiative forcing by incremental greenhouse gases, 2.2 ± 0.3 W m 2, and other forcings, other forcing agents, mainly incremental tropospheric aerosols, are inferred to have exerted only a slight forcing over the twentieth century of 0.3 ± 1.0 W m 2.

Stephen E. Schwartz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

SU(2) Low-Energy Constants from Mixed-Action Lattice QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the pion mass and pion decay constant is performed using mixed-action Lattice QCD calculations with domain-wall valence quarks on ensembles of rooted, staggered n_f = 2+1 MILC configurations. Calculations were performed at two lattice spacings of b~0.125 fm and b~0.09 fm, at two strange quark masses, multiple light quark masses, and a number of lattice volumes. The ratios of light quark to strange quark masses are in the range 0.1 quark action. A consistency is demonstrated between a chiral perturbation theory analysis at fixed lattice spacing combined with a leading order continuum extrapolation, and the mixed-action chiral perturbation theory analysis which explicitly includes the leading order discretization effects. Chiral corrections to the pion decay constant are found to give f_\\pi / f = 1.062(26)(+42-40) where f is the decay constant in the chiral limit. The most recent scale setting by the MILC Collaboration yields a postdiction of f_\\pi = 128.2(3.6)(+4.4-6.0)(+1.2-3.3) MeV at the physical pion mass.

Silas Beane, William Detmold, Parikshit Junnarkar, T.C. Luu, Konstantinos Orginos, Assumpta Parreno, Martin Savage, Aaron Torok, Andre Walker-Loud

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Aluminum hydrolysis constants to 250[degrees]C from boehmite solubility measurements  

SciTech Connect

Boehmite solubilities were measured at 150, 200, and 250[degrees]C at pH values from 1 to 10 at 100 bars total pressure and used to determine the stability constants for the mononuclear aluminum hydroxide complexes Al(OH)[sup 2+], Al(OH)[sup +][sub 2], Al(OH)[sub 0][sub 3], AL(OH)[sup -][sub 4], and the solubility product of boehmite. Buffer solutions of HCl-KCl, acetic acid-sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid, and boric acid-potassium hydroxide were used to control pH. Our solubility data are in good agreement with boehmite solubility measurements in perchloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions reported by KUYUNKO et al. (1983). The stability constants for the aluminum hydroxide species were determined from the solubility data using a Ridge regression technique. The results indicate that aluminum ion hydrolysis becomes stronger at higher temperatures, and the stability field of the neutral complex Al(OH)[sup 0][sub 3] becomes larger. The results are used to provide a set of equilibrium constants for aluminum hydroxide complex formation and boehmite hydrolysis from 0-300[degrees]C.

Bourcier, W.L.; Knauss, K.G.; Jackson, K.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

HUBBLE CONSTANT, LENSING, AND TIME DELAY IN RELATIVISTIC MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect

The time delay in galaxy gravitational lensing systems has been used to determine the value of the Hubble constant. As with other dynamical phenomena on the galaxy scale, dark matter is often invoked in gravitational lensing to account for the 'missing mass' (the apparent discrepancy between the dynamical mass and the luminous mass). Alternatively, modified gravity can be used to explain the discrepancy. In this paper, we adopt the tensor-vector-scalar gravity (TeVe S), a relativistic version of Modified Newtonian Dynamics, to study gravitational lensing phenomena and derive the formulae needed to evaluate the Hubble constant. We test our method on quasar lensing by elliptical galaxies in the literature. We focus on double-image systems with time delay measurement. Three candidates are suitable for our study: HE 2149-2745, FBQ J0951+2635, and SBS 0909+532. The Hubble constant obtained is consistent with the value used to fit the cosmic microwave background result in a neutrino cosmological model.

Tian, Yong [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 320 (China); Ko, Chung-Ming [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics and Center for Complex Systems, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 320 (China); Chiu, Mu-Chen, E-mail: yonngtian@gmail.com, E-mail: cmko@astro.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: mcc@roe.ac.uk [Scottish University Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, the Royal Observatory, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Gyromagnetic factors and atomic clock constraints on the variation of fundamental constants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the effect of the coupled variations of fundamental constants on the nucleon magnetic moment. The nucleon g-factor enters into the interpretation of the measurements of variations in the fine-structure constant, {alpha}, in both the laboratory (through atomic clock measurements) and in astrophysical systems (e.g. through measurements of the 21 cm transitions). A null result can be translated into a limit on the variation of a set of fundamental constants, that is usually reduced to {alpha}. However, in specific models, particularly unification models, changes in {alpha} are always accompanied by corresponding changes in other fundamental quantities such as the QCD scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. This work tracks the changes in the nucleon g-factors induced from changes in {Lambda}{sub QCD} and the light quark masses. In principle, these coupled variations can improve the bounds on the variation of {alpha} by an order of magnitude from existing atomic clock and astrophysical measurements. Unfortunately, the calculation of the dependence of g-factors on fundamental parameters is notoriously model-dependent.

Luo Feng [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Olive, Keith A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Universite Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Astrophysics, Cosmology Gravitation Centre, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Evaluating Bounds and Estimators for Constants of Random Polycrystals Composed of Orthotropic Elastic Materials  

SciTech Connect

While the well-known Voigt and Reuss (VR) bounds, and the Voigt-Reuss-Hill (VRH) elastic constant estimators for random polycrystals are all straightforwardly calculated once the elastic constants of anisotropic crystals are known, the Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds and related self-consistent (SC) estimators for the same constants are, by comparison, more difficult to compute. Recent work has shown how to simplify (to some extent) these harder to compute HS bounds and SC estimators. An overview and analysis of a subsampling of these results is presented here with the main point being to show whether or not this extra work (i.e., in calculating both the HS bounds and the SC estimates) does provide added value since, in particular, the VRH estimators often do not fall within the HS bounds, while the SC estimators (for good reasons) have always been found to do so. The quantitative differences between the SC and the VRH estimators in the eight cases considered are often quite small however, being on the order of ±1%. These quantitative results hold true even though these polycrystal Voigt-Reuss-Hill estimators more typically (but not always) fall outside the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds, while the self-consistent estimators always fall inside (or on the boundaries of) these same bounds.

Berryman, J. G.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Geometric Origin of Physical Constants in a Kaluza-Klein Tetrad Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An important feature of Kaluza-Klein theories is their ability to relate fundamental physical constants to the radii of higher dimensions. In previous Kaluza-Klein theory, which unifies the electromagnetic field with gravity as dimensionless components of a Kaluza-Klein metric, i) all fields have the same physical dimensions, ii) the Lagrangian has no explicit dependence on any physical constants except mass, and hence iii) all physical constants in the field equations except for mass originate from geometry. While it seems natural in Kaluza-Klein theory to add fermion fields by defining higher dimensional bispinor fields on the Kaluza-Klein manifold, these Kaluza-Klein theories do not satisfy conditions (i), (ii), and (iii). In this paper, we show how conditions (i), (ii), and (iii) can be satisfied by including bispinor fields in a tetrad formulation of the Kaluza-Klein model, as well as in an equivalent teleparallel model. This demonstrates an unexpected feature of Dirac's bispinor equation, since conditions (i), (ii), (iii) imply a special relation among the terms in the Kaluza-Klein or teleparallel Lagrangian that would not be satisfied in general.

Frank Reifler; Randall Morris

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

Determining the leaching characteristics of solidified/stabilized wastes using constant pH leaching tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solidification/Stabilization treatment using Portland cement is an established procedure in the management of hazardous wastes. The technology is relatively simple, cheap, and highly reliable in prohibiting the migration of hazardous contaminants into groundwater. The success of this technology is measured by the amount of contaminants retained in the solidified matrix system. The most widely-used procedure to determine the amount that can leach out of the solidified waste is the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), which was developed by the EPA. The TCLP, however, lacks control on the shape and dimensions of the samples, as well as the pH at which the test takes place. Thus, it does not provide a true leaching characteristic of the contaminants through the solidified matrix. By keeping the pH at a constant value and using samples with fixed dimensions, the TCLP can be vastly improved. These conditions allow most of the contaminants to leach out of the matrix at controlled conditions. Consequently, the characteristics of the leaching process can be measured more accurately. The procedure developed in this research, the Constant pH Leaching Test (CPLT), is a modification of the TCLP. It is designed to measure the leaching rates of a fixed-dimension sample at a constant pH. In addition to measuring the leaching rates, the research also investigated the effects of different water-to-cement ratios, pH of the acid baths, and concentrations of the acid baths.

Sofjan, Indratjahja

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

Debreczeny, M.P.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Using a Family of Dividing Surfaces Normal to the Minimum EnergyPath for Quantum Instanton Rate Constants  

SciTech Connect

One of the outstanding issues in the quantum instanton (QI) theory (or any transition state-type theory) for thermal rate constants of chemical reactions is the choice of an appropriate ''dividing surface'' (DS) that separates reactants and products. (In the general version of the QI theory, there are actually two dividing surfaces involved.) This paper shows one simple and general way for choosing DS's for use in QI Theory, namely using the family of (hyper) planes normal to the minimum energy path (MEP) on the potential energy surface at various distances s along it. Here the reaction coordinate is not one of the dynamical coordinates of the system (which will in general be the Cartesian coordinates of the atoms), but rather simply a parameter which specifies the DS. It is also shown how this idea can be implemented for an N-atom system in 3d space in a way that preserves overall translational and rotational invariance. Numerical application to a simple system (the colliner H + H{sub 2} reaction) is presented to illustrate the procedure.

Li, Yimin; Miller, Wlliam H.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

Type B Drum packages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities.

Edwards, W.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

TYPE OF UPERATICIN  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Process i Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis 0 Production 0 DisposalStorage a Facility Type 0 Manufacturing q University, a Research Organizatiori 0 Government Sponsored...

289

TYPES OF FIELD TESTING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TYPES OF FIELD TESTING Convincing proof of energy savings and performance in a specific building and occupant context If direct proof of savings is desired, the only feasible...

290

Noninvasive valve monitor using constant magnetic and/or DC electromagnetic field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

One or more sources of steady magnetic field are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. The constant magnetic field is transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. A magnetic field detector carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the magnetic field at its location. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, there is an alteration in the magnetic field in the valve, and a consequent change in the detected magnetic field. Changes in the detected signal provide an indication of the position and motion of the valve internals.

Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.

1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

Noninvasive valve monitor using constant magnetic and/or DC electromagnetic field  

SciTech Connect

One or more sources of steady magnetic field are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. The constant magnetic field is transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. A magnetic field detector carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the magnetic field at its location. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, there is an alteration in the magnetic field in the valve, and a consequent change in the detected magnetic field. Changes in the detected signal provide an indication of the position and motion of the valve internals.

Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Linet-Tian solution with a positive cosmological constant in four and higher dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The static, apparently cylindrically symmetric vacuum solution of Linet and Tian for the case of a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is shown to have toroidal symmetry and, besides $\\Lambda$, to include three arbitrary parameters. It possesses two curvature singularities, of which one can be removed by matching it across a toroidal surface to a corresponding region of the dust-filled Einstein static universe. In four dimensions, this clarifies the geometrical properties, the coordinate ranges and the meaning of the parameters in this solution. Some other properties and limiting cases of this space-time are described. Its generalisation to any higher number of dimensions is also explicitly given.

J. B. Griffiths; J. Podolsky

2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

293

From Cavendish to PLANCK: Constraining Newton's gravitational constant with CMB temperature and polarization anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

We present new constraints on cosmic variations of Newton's gravitational constant by making use of the latest CMB data from WMAP, BOOMERANG, CBI and ACBAR experiments and independent constraints coming from big bang nucleosynthesis. We found that current CMB data provide constraints at the {approx}10% level, that can be improved to {approx}3% by including big bang nucleosynthesis data. We show that future data expected from the Planck satellite could constrain G at the {approx}1.5% level while an ultimate, cosmic variance limited, CMB experiment could reach a precision of about 0.4%, competitive with current laboratory measurements.

Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Smoot, George F.; Zahn, Oliver [Physics Department, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome, Italy, and Laboratoire Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite' Paris Diderot - 75205 PARIS cedex 13 (Italy); Physics Department and INFN, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', Ple Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley California 94720 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Variation of stability constants of thorium and uranium oxalate complexes with ionic strength  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of Th(IV) and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by a solution of TTA and HDEHP, respectively, in toluene was used to obtain stability constants of their oxalate complexes in 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 M ionic strength (NaClO{sub 2}) solutions. The complexes formed were the MOx, MHOx, MOx{sub 2} and M(HOx){sub 2} (M = Th, UO{sub 2}) species. The values were analyzed by the Specific Interaction Theory and agreed to I {le} 3 M but required an additional term for fitting at I > 3 M.

Erten, H.N; Mohammed, A.K.; Choppin, G.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

From the Cosmological Constant: Higgs Boson, Dark Matter, and Quantum Gravity Scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest discovery targets for the Higgs boson, dark matter, and quantum gravity mass scales, motivated by the Dirac equation for the electron in deSitter space, and a sixth-order constraint between the electron QED parameters and the cosmological constant. We go on to show that this constraint can be viewed as a structural parameter of the electron, and leads naturally to a new cosmic horizon. A dual fourth-order constraint implies a second-order one, from which the electron neutrino mass is derived.

James R. Bogan

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

296

Testing of Dark Energy and a Solution of the Cosmological Constant Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A probable solution of the cosmological constant problem was recently found. We propose that dark energy of the Universe is vacuum energy. Our Universe during its expansion is spending its vacuum energy for creation of new quantum states, but in the quantum regime phase transitions were more effective in reducing the vacuum energy than creation of new quantum states. Here we show how the 123 crisis orders of the vacuum energy are reduced by conventional physical processes in both the quantum and classical regimes of the Universe evolution. Numeral estimates of dark energy evolution are also presented.

Burdyuzha, Vladimir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Testing of Dark Energy and a Solution of the Cosmological Constant Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A probable solution of the cosmological constant problem was recently found. We propose that dark energy of the Universe is vacuum energy. Our Universe during its expansion is spending its vacuum energy for creation of new quantum states, but in the quantum regime phase transitions were more effective in reducing the vacuum energy than creation of new quantum states. Here we show how the 123 crisis orders of the vacuum energy are reduced by conventional physical processes in both the quantum and classical regimes of the Universe evolution. Numeral estimates of dark energy evolution are also presented.

Vladimir Burdyuzha

2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

298

Experimental Test of the "Isotropic" Approximation for Granular Materials using p=constant Compression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental data from axially symmetric compression test at constant mean pressure p on Hostun sand from Bouvard experiments are used to study the validity of an "isotropic" modelling as a function of the density .The isotropic assumption is found to be quite good for loose samples and/or in the range of large pressure. For smaller mean pressure, anisotropic response is observed at few percents of axial deformation. Relation with anisotropic distribution of local force is made. Pacs # : 5.40 ; 45.70 ; 62.20 ; 83.70.Fn

P. Evesque

2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nuclear Data in Oklo and Time-Variability of Fundamental Coupling Constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We re-examined Shlyakhter's analysis of the Sm data in Oklo. With a special care of minimizing contamination due to the inflow of the isotope after the end of the reactor activity, we confirmed that his result on the time-variability of the fine-structure constant, $|\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha |\\lsim 10^{-17}{\\rm y}^{-1}$, was basically correct. In addition to this upper bound, however, we obtained another result that indicates a different value of $\\alpha$ 2 billion years ago. We add comments on the recent result from QSO's.

Yasunori Fujii; Akira Iwamoto; Tokio Fukahori; Toshihiko Ohnuki; Masayuki Nakagawa; Hiroshi Hidaka; Yasuji Oura; Peter Moller

2002-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

300

Discriminative sum types locate the source of type errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a type system for locating the source of type errors in an applied lambda calculus with ML-style polymorphism. The system is based on discriminative sum types---known from work on soft typing---with annotation subtyping and recursive types. ... Keywords: polymorphism, type errors, type inference

Matthias Neubauer; Peter Thiemann

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Equation of State in Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics: variable versus constant adiabatic index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of the equation of state for a perfectly conducting, relativistic magnetized fluid is the main subject of this work. The ideal constant $\\Gamma$-law equation of state, commonly adopted in a wide range of astrophysical applications, is compared with a more realistic equation of state that better approximates the single-specie relativistic gas. The paper focus on three different topics. First, the influence of a more realistic equation of state on the propagation of fast magneto-sonic shocks is investigated. This calls into question the validity of the constant $\\Gamma$-law equation of state in problems where the temperature of the gas substantially changes across hydromagnetic waves. Second, we present a new inversion scheme to recover primitive variables (such as rest-mass density and pressure) from conservative ones that allows for a general equation of state and avoids catastrophic numerical cancellations in the non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. Finally, selected numerical tests of astrophysical relevance (including magnetized accretion flows around Kerr black holes) are compared using different equations of state. Our main conclusion is that the choice of a realistic equation of state can considerably bear upon the solution when transitions from cold to hot gas (or viceversa) are present. Under these circumstances, a polytropic equation of state can significantly endanger the solution.

A. Mignone; Jonathan C. McKinney

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

I. Determination of chemical reaction rate constants by numerical nonlinear analysis: differential methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary emphasis of this work on kinetics is to illustrate the a posteriori approach to applications, where focus on data leads to novel outcomes, rather than the a priori tendencies of applied analysis which imposes constructs on the nature of the observable. The secondary intention is the development of appropriate methods consonant with experimental definitions. By focusing on gradients, it is possible to determine both the average and instantaneous rate constants that can monitor changes in the rate constant with concentration changes as suggested by this theory. Here, methods are developed and discussed utilizing nonlinear analysis which does not require exact knowledge of initial concentrations. These methods are compared with those derived from standard methodology. These gradient methods are shown to be consistent with the ones from standard methods and could readily serve as alternatives for studies where there are limits or unknowns in the initial conditions, such as in the burgeoning fields of astrophysics and astrochemistry, forensics, archeology and biology . All four reactions studied exhibited semi sinusoidal-like change with reactant concentration change which standard methods cannot detect, which seems to constitute the observation of a new effect that is not predicted by current formulations, where the possibility that the observations are due to artifacts from instrumental errors or the optimization method is reasoned as unlikely since the experiments were conducted by different groups at very different times with different classes of reactions.

Christopher G. Jesudason

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

303

Properties of potential modelling three benchmarks: the cosmological constant, inflation and three generations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue for a model of low-energy correction to the inflationary potential as caused by the gauge-mediated breaking down the supersymmetry at the scale of $\\mu_\\textsc{x}\\sim 10^4$ GeV, that provides us with the seesaw mechanism of thin domain wall fluctuations in the flat vacuum. The fluctuations are responsible for the vacuum with the cosmological constant at the scale of $\\mu_\\Lambda\\sim 10^{-2}$ eV suppressed by the Planckian mass $m_\\mathtt{Pl}$ via $\\mu_\\Lambda\\sim\\mu_\\textsc{x}^2/m_\\mathtt{Pl}$. The appropriate vacuum state is occupied after the inflation with quartic coupling constant $\\lambda\\sim\\mu_\\textsc{x}/m_\\mathtt{Pl}\\sim 10^{-14}$ inherently related with the bare mass scale of $\\widetilde m\\sim\\sqrt{\\mu_\\textsc{x}m_\\mathtt{Pl}}\\sim 10^{12}$ GeV determining the thickness of domain walls $\\delta r\\sim1/\\widetilde m$. Such the parameters of potential are still marginally consistent with the observed inhomogeneity of matter density in the Universe. The inflationary evolution suggests the vacuum structure compatible with three fermionic generations of matter as well as with observed hierarchies of masses and mixing in the Standard Model.

V. V. Kiselev; S. A. Timofeev

2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

304

A fundamental scale of mass for black holes from the cosmological constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of a positive cosmological constant leads naturally to two fundamental scales of length, being the De Sitter horizon and the radius of the cell associated with a holographic degree of freedom. Associated with each of those scales of length are a macroscopic gravitational mass and a microscopic quantum mechanical mass. Three of those four fundamental masses have been discussed in the literature, and this present work identifies the physical significance of the remaining mass, being the gravitational mass associated with the holographic length. That mass, which is of the order 10^{12}kg and inversely proportional to the sixth root of the cosmological constant, represents the mass of the black hole whose evaporation time is equal to the fundamental cosmic time, which is of the order the current age of the universe. It also represents the minimum mass of a black hole that is capable of accreting a particle whose Compton wavelength is equal to the fundamental holographic length, which is of the order the Compton wavelength of the nucleon.

Scott Funkhouser

2007-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

305

Elastic capsules in shear flow: Analytical solutions for constant and time-dependent shear rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics of microcapsules in linear shear flow within a reduced model with two degrees of freedom. In previous work for steady shear flow, the dynamic phases of this model, i.e. swinging, tumbling and intermittent behaviour, have been identified using numerical methods. In this paper, we integrate the equations of motion in the quasi-spherical limit analytically for time-constant and time-dependent shear flow using matched asymptotic expansions. Using this method, we find analytical expressions for the mean tumbling rate in general time-dependent shear flow. The capsule dynamics is studied in more detail when the inverse shear rate is harmonically modulated around a constant mean value for which a dynamic phase diagram is constructed. By a judicious choice of both modulation frequency and phase, tumbling motion can be induced even if the mean shear rate corresponds to the swinging regime. We derive expressions for the amplitude and width of the resonance peaks as a function of the modulation frequency.

Steffen Kessler; Reimar Finken; Udo Seifert

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

306

Generating Minimally Coupled Einstein-Scalar Field Solutions from Vacuum Solutions with Arbitrary Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper generalizes two previously known techniques for generating minimally coupled Einstein-scalar field solutions in 4 dimensions; the Buchdahl and Fonarev transformations. By applying this solution generation technique, minimally coupled Einstein-scalar field solutions can be generated from vacuum solutions with arbitrary cosmological constant in arbitrary dimension. The only requirement to a seed solution is that it posesses a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector field. The generalization that allows us to use seed solutions with arbitrary cosmological constant uncovers a new class of Einstein-scalar field solutions that has previously not been studied. We apply the new solution transformation to the (A)dS4 vacuum solution. Transforming the resulting Einstein-scalar field solution to the conformal frame, a two-parameter family of spatially finite, expanding and accelerating cosmological solutions are found that are conformally isometric to the Einstein static universe RxS^3. We study null geodesics and find that for any observer, the solution has a cosmological horizon at an angular distance of pi/2 away from the observer. We find that a subset of these solutions can be naturally interpreted as expanding cosmologies in which a scalar black hole is formed at late times. The conformally coupled scalar field satisfies the weak energy condition as long as the energy density is positive, while the strong energy condition is generally violated.

Kjell Tangen

2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

An Improved Type Reduction Algorithm for Type-2 Fuzzy Sets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Type reduction does the work of computing the centroid of a type-2 fuzzy set. The result is a type-1 fuzzy set from which a corresponding… (more)

Su, Yao-Lung

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers, Screw Type Ac Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor, Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Traders, ...

309

Pityriasis rubra pilaris, type IV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pityriasis rubra pilaris, type IV Jennifer Bragg MD,rubra pilaris (PRP), type IV (circumscribed juvenile).Type IV PRP develops in prepubertal children, is typically

Bragg, Jennifer; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Orlow, Seth J; Schaffer, Julie V

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Pityriasis rubra pilaris, type 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pityriasis rubra pilaris, type 1 Alexandria V Booth MD andhemorrhages [ 1 ]. Five types of pityriasis rubra pilarisand prognosis. The five types include the classic adult and

Booth, Alexandria V; Ma, Linglei

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

{lambda}{alpha}DM: Observational constraints on unified dark matter with constant speed of sound  

SciTech Connect

We consider the hypothesis that dark energy and dark matter are the two faces of a single dark component, a unified dark matter (UDM) that we assume can be modeled by the affine equation of state (EoS) P=p{sub 0}+{alpha}{rho}, resulting in an effective cosmological constant {rho}{sub {lambda}}=-p{sub 0}/(1+{alpha}). The affine EoS arises from the simple assumption that the speed of sound is constant; it may be seen as an approximation to an unknown barotropic EoS P=P({rho}), and may as well represent the tracking solution for the dynamics of a scalar field with appropriate potential. Furthermore, in principle the affine EoS allows the UDM to be phantom. We constrain the parameters of the model, {alpha} and {omega}{sub {lambda}}, using data from a suite of different cosmological observations, and perform a comparison with the standard {lambda}CDM model, containing both cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. First considering a flat cosmology, we find that the UDM model with affine EoS fits the joint observations very well, better than {lambda}CDM, with best-fit values {alpha}=0.01{+-}0.02 and {omega}{sub {lambda}}=0.70{+-}0.04 (95% confidence intervals). The standard model (best-fit {omega}{sub {lambda}}=0.71{+-}0.04), having one less parameter, is preferred by a Bayesian model comparison. However, the affine EoS is at least as good as the standard model if a flat curvature is not assumed as a prior for {lambda}CDM. For the latter, the best-fit values are {omega}{sub K}=-0.02{sub -0.02}{sup +0.01} and {omega}{sub {lambda}}=0.71{+-}0.04, i.e. a closed model is preferred. A phantom UDM with affine EoS is ruled out well beyond 3{sigma}.

Balbi, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Bruni, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Mercantile House, Portsmouth PO1 2EG (United Kingdom); Quercellini, Claudia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Channel specific rate constants relevant to the thermal decomposition of disilane.  

SciTech Connect

Rate constants for the thermal dissociation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} are predicted with a novel transition state model. The saddle points for dissociation on the Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} potential energy surface are lower in energy than the corresponding separated products, as confirmed by high level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. Thus, the dissociations of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} to produce SiH{sub 2} + SiH{sub 4} (R1) and H{sub 3}SiSiH + H{sub 2} (R2) both proceed through tight inner transition states followed by loose outer transition states. The present 'dual' transition state model couples variational phase space theory treatments of the outer transition states with ab initio based fixed harmonic vibrator treatments of the inner transition states to obtain effective numbers of states for the two transition states acting in series. It is found that, at least near room temperature, such a dual transition state model is generally required for the proper description of each of the dissociations. Only at quite high temperatures, i.e., above 2000 K for (R1) and 600 K for (R2), does a single fixed inner transition state provide an adequate description. Similarly, only at quite low temperatures (below 100 and 10 K for (R1) and (R2), respectively) does a single outer transition state provide an adequate description. Pressure dependent rate constants are obtained from solutions to the multichannel master equation. These calculations confirm that dissociation channel (R2) is negligible under conditions relevant to the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. Rate constants for the chemical activation reactions, SiH{sub 2} + SiH{sub 4} {yields} Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} (R-1) and SiH{sub 2} + SiH{sub 4} {yields} H{sub 3}SiSiH + H{sub 2} (R3), are also evaluated within the dual transition state model. It is found that reaction R3 is the dominant channel for low pressures and high temperatures, i.e., below 100 Torr for temperatures above 1100 K.

Matsumoto, Keiji (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Koshi, Mitsuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Tonokura, Kenichi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Types of Thermocouples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Properties of standard thermocouples...Table 1 Properties of standard thermocouples Type Thermoelements Base composition Melting point, °C Resisivity nΩ · m Recommended

314

Manufacturer: Panasonic Battery Type: ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Battery Specifi cations Manufacturer: Panasonic Battery Type: Nickel Metal Hydride Rated Capacity: 5.5 Ahr Rated Power: Not Available Nominal Pack Voltage: 158.4 VDC Nominal Cell...

315

The dynamics of 1D Bloch electrons in constant electric fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the dynamics of a 1D Bloch electron subjected to a constant electric field. The periodic potential is supposed to be less singular than the $\\delta $-like potential (Dirac comb). We give a rigorous proof of Ao's result \\cite{Ao} that for a large class of initial conditions (high momentum regime) there is no localization in momentum space. The proof is based on the mathematical substantiation of the two simplifying assumptions made in physical literature: the transitions between far away bands can be neglected and the transitions at the quasi-crossing can be described by Landau-Zener like formulae. Using the connection between the above model and the driven quantum ring (DQR) shown by Avron and Nemirovski \\cite{AvN}, our results imply the increase of energy for weakly singular such DQR and appropiate initial conditions.

F. Bentosela; P. Duclos; G. Nenciu; V. Moldoveanu

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

Primordial black holes as a probe of the early universe and a varying gravitational constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss recent developments in the study of primordial black holes, focussing particularly on their formation and quantum evaporation. Such studies can place important constraints on models of the early Universe. An especially interesting development has been the realization that such constraints may be severely modified if the value of the gravitational "constant" G varies with cosmological epoch, a possibility which arises in many scenarios for the early Universe. The nature of the modification depends upon whether the value of $G$ near a black hole maintains the value it had at its formation epoch (corresponding to gravitational memory) or whether it tracks the background cosmological value. This is still uncertain but we discuss various approaches which might help to resolve the issue.

B. J. Carr

2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

Colossal dielectric constant and relaxation behaviors in Pr:SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sr{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics (0.00{<=}x{<=}0.03) were prepared by a traditional solid-state reaction method. Two relaxation processes (marked as A and B) of the Sr{sub 0.09}Pr{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were investigated by analyzing the E{sub a} values obtained from the Arrhenius law. Colossal dielectric constant (CDC) was first obtained in Sr{sub 0.09}Pr{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramics, whose permittivity was up to 3000 (1 kHz, room temperature), greater than that of pure SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics and samples with more Pr addition (x=0.02 and 0.03). This CDC behavior was related to the internal barrier layer capacitance mechanism.

Liu Cheng; Liu Peng; Zhou Jianping; Su Lina; Cao Lei [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062 (China); He Ying; Zhang Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Intergrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Longitudinal electric conductivity and dielectric permeability in quantum plasma with constant collision frequency in Mermin' approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed deducing of formulas for longitudinal electric conductivity and dielectric permeability in the quantum degenerate collisional plasma with constant collision frequency in Mermin' approach is given. The kinetic Schr\\"{o}dinger-Boltzmann equation in momentum space in relaxation approximation is used. It is shown that when collision frequency of plasma particles tends to zero (plasma passes to collisionless one), the deduced formula for dielectric function passes to the known Lindhard' formula for collisionless plasmas. It is shown that the deduced formula for dielectric permeability coincides with known Mermin's formula. Graphic research of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function is made. Graphic comparison of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function for quantum and classical plasma also is made. The module of derivative dielectric function also has been investigated graphically.

A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

319

Longitudinal electric conductivity and dielectric permeability in quantum plasma with constant collision frequency in Mermin' approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed deducing of formulas for longitudinal electric conductivity and dielectric permeability in the quantum degenerate collisional plasma with constant collision frequency in Mermin' approach is given. The kinetic Schr\\"{o}dinger-Boltzmann equation in momentum space in relaxation approximation is used. It is shown that when collision frequency of plasma particles tends to zero (plasma passes to collisionless one), the deduced formula for dielectric function passes to the known Lindhard' formula for collisionless plasmas. It is shown that the deduced formula for dielectric permeability coincides with known Mermin's formula. Graphic research of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function is made. Graphic comparison of the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function for quantum and classical plasma also is made. The module of derivative dielectric function also has been investigated graphically.

Latyshev, A V

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

U-dbms: a database system for managing constantly-evolving data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many systems, sensors are used to acquire information from external environments such as temperature, pressure and locations. Due to continuous changes in these values, and limited resources (e.g., network bandwidth and battery power), it is often infeasible for the database to store the exact values at all times. Queries that uses these old values can produce invalid results. In order to manage the uncertainty between the actual sensor value and the database value, we propose a system called U-DBMS. U-DBMS extends the database system with uncertainty management functionalities. In particular, each data value is represented as an interval and a probability distribution function, and it can be processed with probabilistic query operators to produce imprecise (but correct) answers. This demonstration presents a PostgreSQL-based system that handles uncertainty and probabilistic queries for constantly-evolving data. 1

Reynold Cheng; Sarvjeet Singh; Sunil Prabhakar

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A proposed method for reducing the sticking constant in muon catalyzed fusion  

SciTech Connect

We present a method of reducing the effective sticking coefficient involving reacceleration of the He..mu.. ion-by-ion cyclotron resonance. It is necessary to work with the target D--T in solid or liquid form, and the target has to be divided into many thin rods or pellets of order 100 microns in radius. The idea is to impose a magnetic field and a rotating electric field. A balance is achieved between drag in the rods or pellets and acceleration in the region between, so that the He..mu.. ion is held at a constant velocity until stripping occurs. Although stripping is greatly reduced, the idea is not practical as it stands because of the large alpha particle heat produced in the target. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Kulsrud, R.M.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

JConstHide: A Framework for Java Source Code Constant Hiding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software obfuscation or obscuring a software is an approach to defeat the practice of reverse engineering a software for using its functionality illegally in the development of another software. Java applications are more amenable to reverse engineering and re-engineering attacks through methods such as decompilation because Java class files store the program in a semi complied form called byte codes. The existing obfuscation systems obfuscate the Java class files. Obfuscated source code produce obfuscated byte codes and hence two level obfuscation (source code and byte code level) of the program makes it more resilient to reverse engineering attacks . But source code obfuscation is much more difficult due to richer set of programming constructs and the scope of the different variables used in the program and only very little progress has been made on this front. We in this paper are proposing a framework named JConstHide for hiding constants, especially integers in the java source codes, to defeat reverse en...

Sivadasan, Praveen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Constant-pressure production in solution-gas-drive reservoirs; Transient flow  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents procedures to obtain reservoir parameters from constant-pressure drawdown data in solution-gas-drive reservoirs. A novel procedure to determine the mechanical skin factor is introduced. Examples, including a field case, illustrate the use of this procedure. An estimate of the drainage area can be obtained with the derivative of rate data. A theoretical basis for analyzing data by the pressure-squared, p{sup 2}, approach is presented; this procedure permits the approximate determination of sandface effective permeabilities in the transient flow period. For damaged wells, it is possible to obtain rough estimates of the size of the skin zone and the ratio of reservoir/skin-zone permeability when early transient data are available. The expression of the appropriate dimensionless rate in terms of physical properties for solution-gas-drive systems is presented. Finally, this paper presents a procedure to obtain an estimate of the change in sandface saturation during the transient flow period.

Camacho, R.G. (National Univ. of Mexico/PEMEX (MX))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Investigation of the fundamental constants stability based on the reactor Oklo burn-up analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The burn-up for SC56-1472 sample of the natural Oklo reactor zone 3 was calculated using the modern Monte Carlo codes. We reconstructed the neutron spectrum in the core by means of the isotope ratios: $^{147}$Sm/$^{148}$Sm and $^{176}$Lu/$^{175}$Lu. These ratios unambiguously determine the spectrum index and core temperature. The effective neutron absorption cross section of $^{149}$Sm calculated using this spectrum was compared with experimental one. The disagreement between these two values allows to limit a possible shift of the low laying resonance of $^{149}$Sm even more . Then, these limits were converted to the limits for the change of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$. We found that for the rate of $\\alpha$ change the inequality $|\\delta \\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha| \\le 5\\cdot 10^{-18}$ is fulfilled, which is of the next higher order than our previous limit.

M. S. Onegin

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Type I Tanks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I Tanks I Tanks * 12 Type I tanks were built between 1951-53 * 750,000 gallon capacity; 75 feet in diameter by 24 ½ feet high * Partial secondary containment with leak detection * Contain approximately 10 percent of the waste volume * 7 Type I tanks have leaked waste into the tank annulus; the amount of waste stored in these tanks is kept below the known leak sites that have appeared over the decades of

326

Modified Nose-Hoover thermostat for solid state for constant temperature molecular dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect

Nose-Hoover (NH) thermostat methods incorporated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been widely used to simulate the instantaneous system temperature and feedback energy in a canonical ensemble. The method simply relates the kinetic energy to the system temperature via the particles' momenta based on the ideal gas law. However, when used in a tightly bound system such as solids, the method may suffer from deriving a lower system temperature and potentially inducing early breaking of atomic bonds at relatively high temperature due to the neglect of the effect of the potential energy of atoms based on solid state physics. In this paper, a modified NH thermostat method is proposed for solid system. The method takes into account the contribution of phonons by virtue of the vibrational energy of lattice and the zero-point energy, derived based on the Debye theory. Proof of the equivalence of the method and the canonical ensemble is first made. The modified NH thermostat is tested on different gold nanocrystals to characterize their melting point and constant volume specific heat, and also their size and temperature dependence. Results show that the modified NH method can give much more comparable results to both the literature experimental and theoretical data than the standard NH. Most importantly, the present model is the only one, among the six thermostat algorithms under comparison, that can accurately reproduce the experimental data and also the T{sup 3}-law at temperature below the Debye temperature, where the specific heat of a solid at constant volume is proportional to the cube of temperature.

Chen, Wen-Hwa, E-mail: whchen@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 10622, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hung [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsien-Chie [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

327

A new white dwarf constraint on the rate of change of the gravitational constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we derive a bound on the rate of change of the gravitational constant G coming from the pulsating white dwarf G117-B15A. This star is a ZZ Ceti pulsator extensively studied with astroseismological techniques for last three decades. The most recent determination of {\\dot P} = (2.3 \\pm 1.4) * 10^{-15} s/s^{-1} for the 215.2s fundamental mode agrees very well with predictions of the best fit theoretical model. The rate of change of the oscillation period can be explained by two effects: the cooling (dominant factor) and change of gravitational binding energy (residual gravitational contraction). Since the white dwarfs are pulsating in g-modes whose frequencies are related to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency (explicitly dependent on G) observational determination of the change of the period (more precisely the difference between observed and calculated \\dot P) can be used to set the upper bound on the rate of change of G. In the light of the current data concerning G117-B15A we derive the following bound: |{\\frac {\\dot G}{G}}| \\leq 4.10 \\times 10^{-10} yr^{-1}. Our result is model independent in the sense that it does not need to invoke a concrete physical theory (such like Brans-Dicke theory)underlying the temporal variability of G. We also demonstrate that varying gravitational constant G does not modify cooling of white dwarfs in a significant way. This result implies that some earlier claims present in the literature that varying G can be reflected in the WD luminosity function are not correct.

Marek Biesiada; Beata Malec

2003-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

328

Numerical Simulations of Buoyant Ekman Layers in the Presence of Variable Stratification. Part I: Constant Interior Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the turbulent buoyant Ekman layer in the presence of variable stratification help explain a transport mechanism for the detachment of the boundary layer flow around the front. Initially, a constant, ...

A. Romanou; G. L. Weatherly

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A simplified constant-liquidity price index for U.S. commercial property based on the RCA database  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis builds on the endogenous relationship between transaction price and volume in commercial real estate markets in order to construct a simple "constant-liquidity price index" (SCLI) applicable to general transaction ...

Wang, Yali S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Errors in the Determination of the Solar Constant by the Langley Method Due to the Presence of Volcanic Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy in the determination or the solar constant by means of the Langley method is strongly influenced by the spatial inhomogeneities of the atmospheric aerosol. Volcanos frequently inject aerosol into the upper troposphere and lower ...

Richard M. Schotland; James E. Hartman

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

3!NEEi_S1 3!NEEi_S1 past: -~~~-~~~~~-~~~---------- current: ------------_------------- Owner contacted q yes g no; if ye=, date contacted TYPE OF OPERATION --~~__--~-~~~---- 5 Research & Development 5 Facility Type 0 Production scale testing c1 Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process z Theareti cal Studi es Sample Sr Analysis 0 Production D Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRACT ---------------- 0 Manufacturing 0 University 0 Research Clrganization B Government Cpanaored Faci 1 i ty 0 Other ~~---~~---_--~~-----_ a Prime 13 Subcontract& D PurcSase Order 0 Other information (i.e., cost + fixed fee, unit price, time & material, +z) ----_----------------------- Cantract/Purchaae Order #-d-z=&-/) -2_7~-------------Is_------------ PERIOD: CONTRACTING I%~(?) - 1465

332

The Napier Type System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Persistent programming is concerned with the construction of large and long lived systems of data. In designing and building persistent object systems, we are attempting to regularise the activities that are performed on data by programming languages, operating systems, database management systems and file systems. We have identified the following areas of research which we are investigating in the context of persistent systems. They are: controlling complexity, protection of data, orthogonal persistence, controlled system evolution and concurrent computation. In this paper, we describe the data modelling facilities of the Napier type system. We also demonstrate the flexible and incremental nature of the type checking mechanism that is required for persistent programming. The type system is central to the nature of the Napier language and we will demonstrate how it has been designed to solve problems in the five areas identified above.

R. Morrison; A.L. Brown; R. Carrick; R.C.H. Connor; A. Dearle; M.P. Atkinson

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Types of quantum information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of ``classical information.'' Various examples (some updating earlier work) are given of theorems which relate different incompatible kinds of information, and thus have no counterparts in classical information theory.

Robert B. Griffiths

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Conditional belief types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study type spaces where a player’s type at a state is a conditional probability on the space. We axiomatize these type spaces using conditional belief operators, and examine three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be unconditionally certain of her beliefs. Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. The echo axiom implies that conditioning on an event is the same as conditioning on the event being certain, which formalizes the standard informal interpretation of conditioning in probability theory. The echo axiom also implies that the conditional probability given an event is a prior of the unconditional probability. The game-theoretic application of our model, which we treat in the context of an example, sheds light on a number of basic issues in the analysis of extensive form games. Type spaces are closely related to the sphere models of counterfactual conditionals and to models of hypothetical knowledge, and we discuss these relationships in detail.

Alfredo Di; Tillio Joseph; Y. Halpern; Dov Samet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Spray type wet scrubber  

SciTech Connect

A spray type wet scrubber includes a plurality of spray nozzles installed in parallel banks across the path of gas stream within the scrubber body, and partition walls held upright in grating fashion to divide the path of gas stream into a plurality of passages, each of which accommodates one of the spray nozzles.

Atsukawa, M.; Tatani, A.

1978-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

336

Types of Multinet System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A limiting factor in research on combining classifiers is a lack of awareness of the full range of available modular structures. One reason for this is that there is as yet little agreement on a means of describing and classifying types of multiple classifier ...

Amanda J. C. Sharkey

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

High-dielectric-constant ferroelectric thin film and bulk ceramic capacitors for power electronics.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant effort is presently focused on reducing the size and weight of power electronic modules. To achieve these goals in high-power capacitors, alternative materials and fabrication processes are needed. Thin film (<0.5 {micro}m) and bulk capacitors that use perovskite-based ferroelectric dielectrics are promising alternative technologies. Ferroelectrics possess high dielectric constants, thus offering substantial increases in volumetric capacitance. In thin film form, these materials display low loss and high breakdown strength. The unique properties of some of these materials, such as a nonlinear dielectric response or a high energy-storage capacity accompanying a phase change, can be exploited for power electronic capacitors. Prototype capacitors of two such materials, (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3}, have been fabricated in both thin film and bulk ceramic form. The influence of fabrication conditions on dielectric properties has been studied. Initial studies have demonstrated the viability of perovskite ferroelectrics for next-generation capacitor components.

Auciello, O. H.; Baldo, P.; Baumann, P.; Erck, R. A.; Giumarra, J.; Im, J.; Kaufman, D. Y.; Lanagan, M. T.; Pan, M. J.; Streiffer, S. K.; Zebrowski, J.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

338

Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid wasting energy and presenting simple regulation methods, fuzzy regulation strategies for CAV systems are studied in this research. A CAV system of an office building is modeled and simulated with the Designer's Simulation Toolkit (DeST). The operating parameters are calculated based on the instantaneous load obtained from simulation. The operation of the system is divided into five stages according to different conception of “cold” or “hot” in different seasons. The relationship between the outdoor air temperature and the fresh air volume, and the supply air temperature is presented in the form of fuzzy rules. Then the building is simulated under different load conditions and the operating parameters are obtained from fuzzy reasoning. Finally, the effect of fuzzy strategies on energy consumption is analyzed and compared with the effects of the operating parameters obtained from simulation. The results show that energy consumption using a fuzzy regulation strategy is close to the energy consumption of knowing the exact load of the building, while the fuzzy regulation strategy can largely simplify the regulation of the air conditioning system.

Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Matter density perturbations and effective gravitational constant in modified gravity models of dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the equation of matter density perturbations on sub-horizon scales for a general Lagrangian density f(R, phi, X) that is a function of a Ricci scalar R, a scalar field phi and a kinetic term X=-(nabla phi)^2/2. This is useful to constrain modified gravity dark energy models from observations of large-scale structure and weak lensing. We obtain the solutions for the matter perturbation delta_m as well as the gravitational potential Phi for some analytically solvable models. In a f(R) dark energy model with the Lagrangian density f(R)=alpha R^{1+m}-Lambda, the growth rates of perturbations exhibit notable differences from those in the standard Einstein gravity unless m is very close to 0. In scalar-tensor models with the Lagrangian density f=F(phi)R+2p(phi,X) we relate the models with coupled dark energy scenarios in the Einstein frame and reproduce the equations of perturbations known in the current literature by making a conformal transformation. We also estimate the evolution of perturbations in both Jordan and Einstein frames when the energy fraction of dark energy is constant during the matter-dominated epoch.

Shinji Tsujikawa

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

Method for providing variable output gas-fired furnace with a constant temperature rise and efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for providing a variable output gas-fired furnace means with a constant temperature rise and efficiency where the furnace means includes burners, a blower, a thermostat and a delay timer, the method comprising the steps of: sensing the temperature in an area to be conditioned; comparing the sensed temperature to a predetermined set point; if the sensed temperature deviates from the predetermined set point by more than a predetermined amount, gas is supplied to the burners and the blower is started; determining the reference revolution per minute of the blower; determining the reference cubic feet per minute delivered by the blower; determining the manifold pressure; determining whether the furnace is in a high heat or a low heat mode of operation; determining the desired cubic feet per minute delivered by the blower for the current mode of operation; reading the actual revolution per minute of the blower; adjusting the speed of the blower motor if the actual and desired revolution per minute of the blower are not the same; determining whether the thermostat is satisfied; if the thermostat is not satisfied, returning to the step of determining the manifold pressure; and if the thermostat is satisfied, shutting off the gas and starting the delay timer.

Ballard, G.W.; Thompson, K.D.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Evaluation and Application of the Constant Flow Technique in Testing Low-Permeability Geo-Materials  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessment of facilities involved in geological disposal of hazardous waste, including radioactive nuclear waste, is generally performed through mass transport simulations combined with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. Transport of contaminants, such as radionuclides, through an engineered and/or natural barrier system is mainly controlled by advection, dispersion, sorption, and chain decay. Ideally, waste disposal facilities should be constructed in the geological environments where groundwater is not existent, or groundwater is static, or its flow is extremely slow. Potential fluid flow, however, may be induced by thermal convection and/or gas generation, and thus accurate evaluation of hydraulic properties, specifically the permeability and specific storage, along with diffusive transport properties of engineered and natural barrier materials, is of fundamental importance for safety assessment. The engineered and natural barrier materials for isolating hazardous wastes are hydraulically tight, and special techniques are generally required to obtain both rapid and accurate determination of their hydraulic properties. In this paper, the constant flow technique is introduced and evaluated. The capability of this technique in testing low-permeability geo-materials are illustrated through practical applications to a bentonite-sand mixture and rock samples having low permeabilities. (authors)

Nakajima, H.; Takeda, M.; Zhang, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Research Center for Deep Geological Environments, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Continuous fermentation of food scraps with constant pH control to produce carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global energy demands combined with environmental restrictions are fueling a move to alternative energy sources. Biofuels are formed from biomass; the MixAlco process is one such method. In this work, food scraps are explored as a potential feedstock to the MixAlco process. Batch fermentation with various temperatures, buffers, and pH control methods elucidated the behavior of food scraps during fermentation. The pH and reactor configuration were limiting factors when maximizing production. A fermentor was developed and tested with constant pH control. This resulted in elevated concentration (100 g/L) and selectivity (82%) of desired products. The fermentation resulted in elevated concentrations, but low conversion of solids. The undigested material may serve as a nutrient source for fermenting lignocellulosic feedstocks. Combining various nutrient sources with lignocellulose, such as bagasse, resulted in additional production and further conversion. Multiple nutrient sources were tested resulting in total acid concentration ranging from 20.2 to 34.5 g/L.

Coleman Jr., Stanley Albert

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 {mu}m and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 {mu}m, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 {mu}m to 0.74 at 8.45 {mu}m. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 {mu}m to 7.84 at 8.45 {mu}m. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range.

Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Exploring variations in the fundamental constants with ELTs: The CODEX spectrograph on OWL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmological variations in the fine structure constant, alpha, can be probed through precise velocity measurements of metallic absorption lines from intervening gas clouds seen in spectra of distant quasars. Data from the Keck/HIRES instrument support a variation in alpha of 6 parts per million. Such a variation would have profound implications, possibly providing a window into the extra spatial dimensions required by unified theories such as string/M-theory. However, recent results from VLT/UVES suggest no variation in alpha. The COsmic Dynamics EXperiment (CODEX) spectrograph currently being designed for the ESO OWL telescope (Pasquini et al 2005) with a resolution high enough to properly resolve even the narrowest of metallic absorption lines, R>150,000, will achieve a 2-to-3 order-of-magnitude precision increase in Delta\\alpha/alpha. This will rival the precision available from the Oklo natural fission reactor and upcoming satellite-borne atomic clock experiments. Given the vital constraints on fundamental physics possible, the ELT community must consider such a high-resolution optical spectrograph like CODEX.

Paolo Molaro; Michael T. Murphy; Sergei Levshakov

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

Chameleonic dilaton, nonequivalent frames, and the cosmological constant problem in quantum string theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chameleonic behavior of the string theory dilaton is suggested. Some of the possible consequences of the chameleonic string dilaton are analyzed in detail. In particular, (1) we suggest a new stringy solution to the cosmological constant problem and (2) we point out the nonequivalence of different conformal frames at the quantum level. In order to obtain these results, we start taking into account the (strong coupling) string loop expansion in the string frame (S-frame), therefore the so-called form factors are present in the effective action. The correct dark energy scale is recovered in the Einstein frame (E-frame) without unnatural fine-tunings and this result is robust against all quantum corrections, granted that we assume a proper structure of the S-frame form factors in the strong coupling regime. At this stage, the possibility still exists that a certain amount of fine-tuning may be required to satisfy some phenomenological constraints. Moreover in the E-frame, in our proposal, all the interactions are switched off on cosmological length scales (i.e., the theory is IR-free), while higher derivative gravitational terms might be present locally (on short distances) and it remains to be seen whether these facts clash with phenomenology. A detailed phenomenological analysis is definitely necessary to clarify these points.

Zanzi, Andrea [Via Pioppa 261, 44123 Pontegradella, Ferrara (Italy)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Future Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium in a Universe Dominated by a Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We simulate the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a universe dominated by a cosmological constant. We find that within a few Hubble times from the present epoch, the baryons will have two primary phases: one phase composed of low-density, low-temperature, diffuse, ionized gas which cools exponentially with cosmic time due to adiabatic expansion, and a second phase of high-density, high-temperature gas in virialized dark matter halos which cools much more slowly by atomic processes. The mass fraction of gas in halos converges to ~40% at late times, about twice its calculated value at the present epoch. We find that in a few Hubble times, the large scale filaments in the present-day IGM will rarefy and fade away into the low-temperature IGM, and only islands of virialized gas will maintain their physical structure. We do not find evidence for fragmentation of the diffuse IGM at later times. More than 99% of the gas mass will maintain a steady ionization fraction above 80% within a few Hubble times. The diffuse IGM will get extremely cold and dilute but remain highly ionized, as its recombination time will dramatically exceed the age of the universe.

Kentaro Nagamine; Abraham Loeb

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

347

Flat Central Density Profile and Constant DM Surface Density in Galaxies from Scalar Field Dark Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model proposes that galaxies form by condensation of a scalar field (SF) very early in the universe forming Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) drops, i.e., in this model haloes of galaxies are gigantic drops of SF. Here big structures form like in the LCDM model, by hierarchy, thus all the predictions of the LCDM model at big scales are reproduced by SFDM. This model predicts that all galaxies must be very similar and exist for bigger redshifts than in the LCDM model. In this work we show that BEC dark matter haloes fit high-resolution rotation curves of a sample of thirteen low surface brightness galaxies. We compare our fits to those obtained using a Navarro-Frenk-White and Pseudo-Isothermal (PI) profiles and found a better agreement with the SFDM and PI profiles. The mean value of the logarithmic inner density slopes is -0.27 +/- 0.18. As a second result we find a natural way to define the core radius with the advantage of being model-independent. Using this new definition in the BEC density profile we find that the recent observation of the constant dark matter central surface density can be reproduced. We conclude that in light of the difficulties that the standard model is currently facing the SFDM model can be a worthy alternative to keep exploring further.

Victor H. Robles; Tonatiuh Matos

2012-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

348

TRI–PP–98–37 Comment on ’Induced Pseudoscalar Coupling Constant ’ by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent preprint Cheon and Cheoun have derived from a chiral model an additional term, not usually appearing in the standard matrix element for radiative muon capture. Using that term they generate a large correction to the RMC spectrum which tends to resolve the problem caused by the too large value of gP found in the TRIUMF RMC experiment. In this comment we observe first that their extra term leads to an amplitude which is not gauge invariant and second that such a term should be present, in a gauge invariant way, in an earlier full chiral perturbation theory calculation, which however found negligible contributions from terms of this order. Typeset using REVTEX 1 A recent TRIUMF experiment [1] on radiative muon capture (RMC) on the proton found a value of the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant gP which was almost 1.5 times the value predicted by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. This experiment was analyzed using the standard approach [2] and in particular the explicit formalism of Beder and Fearing

Il-tong Cheon; Myung Ki Cheoun (nucl-th; Harold W. Fearing

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Scripting the type inference process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To improve the quality of type error messages in functional programming languages,we propose four techniques which influence the behaviour of constraint-based type inference processes. These techniques take the form of externally supplied type inference ... Keywords: constraints, directives, domain-specific programming, type errors, type inference

Bastiaan Heeren; Jurriaan Hage; S. Doaitse Swierstra

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The R-W Metric Has No Constant Curvature When Scalar Factor R(t) Changes With Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The real physics meaning of constant k in the Robertson-Walker metric is discussed when scalar factor R(t) is relative to time. Based on the curvature formula of the Riemannian geometry strictly, the spatial curvature of the R-W metric is calculated. The result indicates that the spatial curvature of the R-W metric is not a constant when R(t) changes with time and the constant in the R-W metric k does not represent spatial curvature factor. It can only be considered as an adjustable parameter relative to the Hubble constant. The result is completely different from the current understanding which is based on specious estimation actually, in stead of strict calculation. In light of this result, many conclusions in the current cosmology, such as the values of the Hubble constant, dark material and dark energy densities, should be re-estimated. In this way, we may get rid of the current puzzle situation of cosmology thoroughly.

Mei Xiaochun

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

351

FTIR Emission Spectra and Molecular Constants for DCl HCl is an important gas which is used as an absolute wavenumber standard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOTE FTIR Emission Spectra and Molecular Constants for DCl HCl is an important gas which is used and calcium chloride in a tantalum boat were heated to 1000°C in a tube furnace, while D2 gas was passed , . . . etc. are the usual inertial rotation and centrifugal distortion constants. The constants obtained from

Le Roy, Robert J.

352

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

~~__--------_____ ~~__--------_____ q Research & Development q Production scale testing Cl Pilat Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies a Sample & Analysis c] Production 0 Disposal/Storage TYPE OF CONTRACT ~~__-------_--__ 0 Prime 0 Subcontractor 0 Purchase Order a d//F- a Faci 1 i ty Type a tlanuf acturi ng 0 University q Research Organization 0 Government Sponsored Facility a other --------------__----- Other information (i.e., cost + fixed fee, unit price, time & material, qtr) ------- -1------------------_L______ Contract/Purchase Order # CONTRACTING PE?IOD- 42 --------------L---- --------- ----------------_---______ OWNERSHIP: AEC/MED AEC/tlED OWNED ----- LE_A_sEE GOUT GO' JT CONTRACTOR E!!!!E!z LEASED - ----_ ---_OW_E!L LANDS BUILDINGS

353

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Owner c:ontacted Owner c:ontacted TYPE OF OPERATION ----------------_ jJ Research & Development 0 Production scale testing Cl Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process i Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis B Production 0 Disposal/Storage $r Prime 0 Subcontract& 0 Purchase Order 0 Facility Type 0 Manufacturing 0 University 0 Research Organization a Other information (i.e., cost + fixed fern, unit price,' time & mate ~r~~-r~~tf~-_~_-_~-~f-~~J~ d ial, etc)_kl/Jlfits ---- -7---- -- Contract/Purchase Order # w?@7-e?-b $ 6, i;,_~~~~~----------------- - ----- C_O!!IF!KXYE-PEELEg: -lTlL-/L?~J --------------------------- OWNERSHXP: AEWHEC AEC/HED' GOVT GB' JT SiXiRACTOR CONiRkCiGR WEE LEAs_EE a!!!%? IEEE!? --------_ ..---LEASED ._ OWNED LANDS BUILDINGS EQUIPMENT

354

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

OWNEF? (S) OWNEF? (S) Current: ____ LcrcJksLG! _________ Owner contacted n yes WI-IO; if yes, date contacted-- TYPE OF OPERATION ----_-------_---- m Research & Development Cl Pilot Scale Cl Disposal/Storaqe TYPE OF CDNTRACT ---__------__--- q Prime 0 Subcnntractor Cl Purchase Order 0 Other infcrmation (i.e., cnst + fixed fee, unit price, time 84 materi+, e.tc) v-7Y07-&G-W ---------------------------- Contract/Pur&aae Order # 0 -?+7- FJc-(CL --___--------~----_______________ CONTRACTING PEXIOD: fl& ,&I;'"'-?;': (&e-?)_-- ' ------------------ OWNERSHIP: AEC/MED GEC/MED SOVT GOVT CONTRACTOR CCNTRACTOR OWNE3 LEASE3 OWNE3 LEASED OWNE3 ----- ------ ----- ------ -__------- LE.352 LANDS u u q BUILDINGS EQUIPMENT 0 FINAL PRODUCT WASTE G RESIDUE a

355

Effective May 1, 2013, UT System rolled out the use of Concur for online booking of business travel. The University of Texas at Dallas faculty and staff can utilize one simple tool to book their flights, car rentals, and hotel stays.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The University of Texas at Dallas faculty and staff can utilize one simple tool to book their flights, car rentals, and hotel stays. Advantages of Booking through Concur: Ease of booking all travel necessities Personal Credit Card (for hotels or non-direct bill car rentals) #12;#12;Travel Arrangers and Assistants

O'Toole, Alice J.

356

Solar-type Variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rich acoustic oscillation spectrum in solar-type variables make these stars particularly interesting for studying fluid-dynamical aspects of the stellar interior. I present a summary of the properties of solar-like oscillations, how they are excited and damped and discuss some of the recent progress in using asteroseismic diagnostic techniques for analysing low-degree acoustic modes. Also the effects of stellar-cycle variations in low-mass main-sequence stars are addressed.

Houdek, Gunter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Practical pluggable types for Java  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces the Checker Framework, which supports adding pluggable type systems to the Java language in a backward-compatible way. A type system designer defines type qualifiers and their semantics, and a compiler ...

Papi, Matthew M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Disk Accretion Flow Driven by Large-Scale Magnetic Fields: Solutions with Constant Specific Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Abridged) We study the dynamical evolution of a stationary, axisymmetric, and perfectly conducting cold accretion disk containing a large-scale magnetic field around a Kerr black hole, trying to understand the relation between accretion and the transportation of angular momentum and energy. We solve the radial momentum equation for solutions corresponding to an accretion flow that starts from a subsonic state at infinity, smoothly passes the fast critical point, then supersonically falls into the horizon of the black hole. The solutions always have the following features: 1) The specific energy of fluid particles remains constant but the specific angular momentum is effectively removed by the magnetic field. 2) At large radii, where the disk motion is dominantly rotational, the energy density of the magnetic field is equipartitioned with the rotational energy density of the disk. 3) Inside the fast critical point, where radial motion becomes important, the ratio of the electromagnetic energy density to the kinetic energy density drops quickly. The results indicate that: 1) Disk accretion does not necessarily imply energy dissipation since magnetic fields do not have to transport or dissipate a lot of energy as they effectively transport angular momentum. 2) When resistivity is small, the large-scale magnetic field is amplified by the shearing rotation of the disk until the magnetic energy density is equipartitioned with the rotational energy density, ending up with a geometrically thick disk. This is in contrast with the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields where if the resistivity is nonzero the magnetic energy density is likely to be equipartitioned with the kinetic energy density associated with local random motions (e.g., turbulence), making a thin Keplerian disk possible.

Li-Xin Li

2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

359

Blackbody radiation shift, multipole polarizabilities, oscillator strengths, lifetimes, hyperfine constants, and excitation energies in Ca+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A systematic study of Ca+ atomic properties is carried out using high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Reduced matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes are determined for the levels up to n = 7. Recommended values and estimates of their uncertainties are provided for a large number of electric-dipole transitions. Electric-dipole scalar polarizabilities for the 5s, 6s, 7s, 8s, 4p, 5p, 3d, and 4d states and tensor polarizabilities for the 4p, 5p, 3d, and 4d states in Ca+ are calculated. Methods are developed to accurately treat the contributions from highly-excited states, resulting in significant (factor of 3) improvement in accuracy of the 3d_{5/2} static polarizability value, 31.8(3) a.u., in comparison with the previous calculation [Arora et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 064501 (2007)]. The blackbody radiation (BBR) shift of the 4s - 3d_{5/2} clock transition in Ca+ is calculated to be 0.381(4) Hz at room temperature, T=300K. Electric-quadrupole 4s -nd and electric-octupole 4s -nf matrix elements are calculated to obtain the ground state multipole E2 and E3 static polarizabilities. The hyperfine constants A are determined for the low-lying levels up to n = 7. The quadratic Stark effect on hyperfine structure levels of 43Ca+ ground state is investigated. These calculations provide recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of Ca+ atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.

M. S. Safronova; U. I. Safronova

2010-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

360

CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H. [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Boley, Aaron C., E-mail: scamicha@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Extended Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor Through Dual Mode Inverter Control  

SciTech Connect

The trapezoidal back electromotive force (emf) brushless direct current (dc) motor (BDCM) with surface-mounted magnets has high-power density and efficiency especially when rare-earth magnet materials are used. Traction applications, such as electric vehicles, could benefit significantly from the use of such motors. Unfortunately, a practical means for driving the motor over a constant power speed ratio (CPSR) of 5:1 or more has not yet been developed. A key feature of these motors is that they have low internal inductance. The phase advance method is effective in controlling the motor power over such a speed range, but the current at high speed may be several times greater than that required at the base speed. The increase in current during high-speed operation is due to the low motor inductance and the action of the bypass diodes of the inverter. The use of such a control would require increased current rating of the inverter semiconductors and additional cooling for the inverter, where the conduction losses increase proportionally with current, and especially for the motor, where the losses increase with the square of the current. The high current problems of phase advance can be mitigated by adding series inductance; however, this reduces power density, requires significant increase in supply voltage, and leaves the CPSR performance of the system highly sensitive to variations in the available voltage. A new inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance BDCMs over the CPSR that would be required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC). It is shown that the BDCM has an infinite CPSR when it is driven by the DMIC.

Lawler, J.S.

2000-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

362

Practical pluggable types for Java.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper introduces the Checker Framework, which supports adding pluggable type systems to the Java language in a backward-compatible way. A type system designer defines… (more)

Papi, Matthew M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Interaction of carbon dioxide laser radiation with a nanotube array in the presence of a constant electric field  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the current density on the leading edge width of the alternating (high-frequency) field amplitude is studied at various constant (or unsteady) fields. The dependence of amplified microwaves in the two-millimeter range on a longitudinal coordinate is determined. The problem of submillimeter radiation generation in a system of parallel carbon nanotubes exposed to two-frequency carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} laser) laser radiation in the presence of a constant (or unsteady) field is studied. The possibility of using freely oriented carbon nanotubes parallel to each other is shown.

Sadykov, N. R., E-mail: n.r.sadykov@rambler.ru [Branch of South Ural State University (Russian Federation); Scorkin, N. A. [Snezhinsk Physics and Technology Institute of the National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Type inference for datalog with complex type hierarchies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Type inference for Datalog can be understood as the problem of mapping programs to a sublanguage for which containment is decidable. To wit, given a program in Datalog, a schema describing the types of extensional relations, and a user-supplied set of ... Keywords: datalog, type inference, type system

Max Schäfer; Oege de Moor

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

_---------_-- _---------_-- Research & Development 0 Production scale testing Cl Pilat Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample SC Analysis !J Production 0 Dis.posal/Storage 0 Prime ." 0 Subcontract& 0 Purchase Order 0 Facility Type 0 Manufacturing 0 University 0 Research Org&ization 0 Government Sponsored Facility Cl Other ---------_---__-____- Other information (i.e., cost + fixed fee, unit price, time & material, gtr) Coni+act/Purchase Order # ---------------------_--_________ C!2kEE~_CIL_N_G-EE~LE~: /5J--L-,r4 53 -------------------------------------- OWNERSHIP: AEC/MED AEC/MED GOVT GOVT CONTRACTOR CONTRACTOR !w!!E? ___--- " EWNED LEASED L_EesEE OWNED LEASED ---------_ --_------ LANDS BUILDINGS ' EQUIPMENT

366

The Greenest Way to Stay Cool - NREL  

Coolerado The ‘Elevator Brief” Patented Heat Exchanger that cools air using 50 -90% less energy – peak demand and total KWh -than conventional AC

367

Staying current with your distribution's security updates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many attacks go after software for which a fix is already available. Get the new version working fast.

Jeremy Turner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Extended-stay hotel as home.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Housing plays an important interpersonal and sociopolitical role in American culture. Perceptions of personal achievement and life satisfaction in adulthood are often determined by the… (more)

Lewinson, Terri Wingate

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Forecast Technical Document Forecast Types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forecast Technical Document Forecast Types A document describing how different forecast types are implemented in the 2011 Production Forecast system. Tom Jenkins Robert Matthews Ewan Mackie Lesley Halsall #12;PF2011 ­ Forecast Types Background Different `types' of forecast are possible for a specified area

370

Generation of electromagnetic radiation based on nanotubes under a constant electric field and an electromagnetic wave field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possible generation of radiation in the millimeter range based on nanotubes by an alternating (rapidly oscillating) electric field under a constant (or nonstationary) electric field is studied. Radiation enhancement is based on a periodic dependence of the current in nanotubes in such electric fields. The results of a mathematical simulation are presented.

Sadykov, N. R., E-mail: sadykov@rambler.ru; Scorkin, N. A. [South Ural State University (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Constant power cycling for accelerated ageing of supercapacitors Kreczanik Paul, Martin Christian, Venet Pascal, Clerc Guy, Rojat Gerard, Zitouni Younes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constant power cycling for accelerated ageing of supercapacitors Kreczanik Paul, Martin Christian the competitive pole (Lyon Urban Truck and Bus 2015). Keywords «Supercapacitor», «Power cycling», «Lifetime», «Accelerated ageing», «Ageing law» Abstract This paper deals with the lifetime of supercapacitors used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

On the Stability of a Fluid with Specialized Density Stratification. Part I: Baroclinic Instability and Constant Bottom Slope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-layer model is used to study the stability of large-scale oceanic zonal flows over topography. The mean density profile employed has upper and lower layers of constant densities ?1* and ?3*, respectively (?1*

D. G. Wright

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Derivation of conditions for a Brans-Dicke coupling constant of order unity be consistent with solar system bounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide proofs of some assumptions recently made by F. O. Minotti to conclude on the possibility that an additional scalar field minimally coupled to gravity may help to reconcile a Brans-Dicke coupling constant $\\omega$ of the order unity with solar system bounds.

Mbelek, Jean Paul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Derivation of conditions for a Brans-Dicke coupling constant of order unity be consistent with solar system bounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide proofs of some assumptions recently made by F. O. Minotti to conclude on the possibility that an additional scalar field minimally coupled to gravity may help to reconcile a Brans-Dicke coupling constant $\\omega$ of the order unity with solar system bounds.

Jean Paul Mbelek

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Uncertainty quantification of few group diffusion theory constants generated by the B1 theory-augmented Monte Carlo method  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to quantify uncertainties of fuel pin cell or fuel assembly (FA) homogenized few group diffusion theory constants generated from the B1 theory-augmented Monte Carlo (MC) method. A mathematical formulation of the first kind is presented to quantify uncertainties of the few group constants in terms of the two major sources of the MC method; statistical and nuclear cross section and nuclide number density input data uncertainties. The formulation is incorporated into the Seoul National Univ. MC code McCARD. It is then used to compute the uncertainties of the burnup-dependent homogenized two group constants of a low-enriched UO{sub 2} fuel pin cell and a PWR FA on the condition that nuclear cross section input data of U-235 and U-238 from JENDL 3.3 library and nuclide number densities from the solution to fuel depletion equations have uncertainties. The contribution of the MC input data uncertainties to the uncertainties of the two group constants of the two fuel systems is separated from that of the statistical uncertainties. The utilities of uncertainty quantifications are then discussed from the standpoints of safety analysis of existing power reactors, development of new fuel or reactor system design, and improvement of covariance files of the evaluated nuclear data libraries. (authors)

Park, H. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daedeokdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, H. J.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National Univ., 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Introduction of corrections taking into account interdependence of multigroup constants to the results of multigroup perturbation theory calculations  

SciTech Connect

In multigroup calculations of reactivity and sensitivity coefficients, methodical errors can appear if the interdependence of multigroup constants is not taken into account. For this effect to be taken into account, so-called implicit components of the aforementioned values are introduced. A simple technique for computing these values is proposed. It is based on the use of subgroup parameters.

Raskach, K. F., E-mail: raskachkf@mail.ru [Obninsk Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cosmological Consequences of Topological Defects: Dark Energy and Varying Fundamental Constants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated domain wall networks as a possible candidate to explain the present accelerated expansion of the universe. We discuss various requirements that any stable lattice of frustrated walls must obey and propose a class of `ideal' model (in terms of its potential to lead to network frustration). By using the results of the largest and most accurate three-dimensional field theory simulations of domain wall networks with junctions, we find compelling evidence for a gradual approach to scaling. We conjecture that, even though one can build (by hand) lattices that would be stable, no such lattices will ever come out of realistic domain wall forming cosmological phase transitions. We consider cosmic strings and magnetic monopoles in Bekenstein-type models and show that there is a class of models of this type for which the classical Nielsen-Olesen vortex and 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles are still valid solutions. We show that Equivalence Principle constraints impose tight limits on the allowed variations of $\\alpha$ induced by string networks on cosmological scales. We show that the results obtained using the spherical infall model for an infinite wavelength inhomogeneity are inconsistent with the results of a local linearized gravity study and we argue in favor of the second approach. We also criticize the claim that the value of $\\alpha$ inside collapsed regions could be significantly different from the background one on the basis of these findings.

J. Menezes

2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

378

Type inference for generic Haskell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The more expressive a type system, the more type information has to be provided in a program. Having to provide a type is sometimes a pain, but lacking expressivity is often even worse. There is a continuous struggle between expressivity and (type-)verbosity. However, even very expressive type systems allow type inference for parts of a program. Generic Haskell is an extension of Haskell that supports defining generic functions. Generic Haskell assumes that the type of a generic function is explicitly specified. This is often no problem, but sometimes it is rather painful to have to specify a type – in particular for generic functions with many dependencies – and sometimes the specified type can be generalized. In this paper, we identify three type inference problems specific to generic functions, and present (partial) solutions to each of them. 1

Alexey Rodriguez; Johan Jeuring; Andres Löh

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

An interpretation of Robinson-Trautman type N solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Robinson-Trautman type N solutions, which describe expanding gravitational waves, are investigated for all possible values of the cosmological constant Lambda and the curvature parameter epsilon. The wave surfaces are always (hemi-)spherical, with successive surfaces displaced in a way which depends on epsilon. Explicit sandwich waves of this class are studied in Minkowski, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter backgrounds. A particular family of such solutions which can be used to represent snapping or decaying cosmic strings is considered in detail, and its singularity and global structure is presented.

J. B. Griffiths; J. Podolsky; P. Docherty

2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

380

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

______ ______ 0 Research & Development 9 Faciiity Type 0 Production scale testing Cl Pilot Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis Production Di aposal /Storage g ;E:"V',;=:;;';"" IJ Research Organization 0 Government Sponeored Facility q Other --------------------- 0 Prime q ,@ Subcontract& Other information (i.e., cost 0 Purchase Order + fixed fee, unit price, time ?8 material, etc) -------mm----+------------- Contract/Purchase Order # CONTRACTING PERIODr c&L&.& rqs-z i i -----~_--~~~_----_ -------------------------------------- OWNERSHIP8 CIEC/tlED CIEC/MED GOUT WNED LE&xU _o!!EED LANDS BUILDINGS EQUIPMENT iii E : ORE OR RAW MATL IJ : E FINCIL PRODUCT [7 WCISTE b RESIDUE q GOUT

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

TYPE OF OPERATION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

----------------- ----------------- 0 Research & Development .a Production scale testing 0 Pilat Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Thearetical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis 0 Production *i DiaposalKitorage Cl Facility Tybe q Government Sponsored Facility Other R.L- 6:e 14 1 1 ---------- --------- I I I TYPE OF CONTRACT ~-__-----------_ fl Prime *I 0 Subcantractbr Other infuriation (i.e., L.t + fixed fee, kit price, 0 Purchase Order time k mat*iik, gtc) /I -~---------'-t-----------~- ----------II---------------- Contract/Purchase Order # I EP!EBEII!G-PEEI9E: ---------------------------------~---- , OWNERSHiP: : I I j ,' / 1 AEC/tlED AEC/MED GOUT GOUT E!!NE_D LEASEI! !z%!NE_D CONTTACTOR CONTf?qCTOR LEASE?? ---w!En- ---LEL3SEI! i I I I LANDS BUILDINGS EIXIIPMENT

382

A type system for CHR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a generic type system for the Constraint Handling Rules (CHR), a rewriting rule language for implementing constraint solvers. CHR being a high-level extension of a host language, such as Prolog or Java, this type system is parameterized by the type system of the host language. We show the consistency of the type system for CHR w.r.t. its operational semantics. We also study the case when the host language is a constraint logic programming language, typed with the prescriptive type system we developed in our previous work. In particular, we show the consistency of the resulting type system w.r.t. the extended execution model CLP+CHR. This system is implemented through an extension of our type checker TCLP for constraint logic languages. We report on experimental results about the type-checking of 12 CHR solvers and programs, including TCLP itself.

Emmanuel Coquery; François Fages

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Pluggable type-checking for custom type qualifiers in Java  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have created a framework for adding custom type qualifiers to the Javalanguage in a backward-compatible way. The type system designer definesthe qualifiers and creates a compiler plug-in that enforces theirsemantics. ...

Papi, Matthew M.

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Type Driven Theory of Predication with Complex Types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates several models of the complex type • which is needed to analyze copredication. Previous accounts are shown to be inadequate and a new account both of • and copredication is proposed. Keywords: categorial interpretation,, coercion,, complex types,, copredication,, dot(•)types, lambda calculus,

Nicholas Asher

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Tornado type wind turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Generic and maximal Jordan types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2007 ... •(G,k) we exhibit a “generic Jordan type” of M. In the very special ... specializes to the non-trivial observation that the Jordan type obtained by.

387

Natural Emergence of Cosmological Constant and Dark Radiation from Stephenson-Kilmister-Yang-Camenzind Theory of Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the Stephenson-Kilmister-Yang (SKY) equation combined with Camenzind's matter current term naturally provides the cosmological constant and dark radiation as integration constants of the SKYC field equation. To characterize the property of the dark radiation, we develop a method to separate it from the ordinary radiation. We found a special property of Camenzind's matter current, namely that the solution space for radiation in fact belongs to that of the vacuum solution of SKY equation. We also found that his matter current does not obey the conservation condition suggested by Kilmister. Finally, we discuss the possible role of dark radiation emergent from the SKYC theory in recent cosmic-microwave-background observations and its implications to the inflation scenario.

Chen, Pisin; Tung, Nien-En

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Quantization of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, we quantize three Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation. The models differ from each other by the constant curvature of their spatial sections, which may be positive, negative or zero. They give rise to Wheeler-DeWitt equations for the scale factor which have the form of the Schroedinger equation for the quartic anharmonic oscillator. We find their eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by using a method first developed by Chhajlany and Malnev. After that, we use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets for each case and evaluate the time-dependent expectation value of the scale factors, which are found to oscillate between finite maximum and minimum values. Since the expectation values of the scale factors never vanish, we have an initial indication that these models may not have singularities at the quantum level.

Monerat, G.A.; Silva, E.V. Correa; Oliveira-Neto, G. [Departamento de Matematica e Computacao, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Estrada Resende-Riachuelo, s/no, Morada da Colina, CEP 27523-000, Resende-RJ (Brazil); Filho, L.G. Ferreira [Departamento de Mecanica e Energia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Estrada Resende-Riachuelo, s/no, Morada da Colina, CEP 27523-000 , Resende-RJ (Brazil); Lemos, N.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/no, Boa Viagem, CEP 24210-340, Niteroi-RJ (Brazil)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

A Conical Tear Drop as a Vacuum-Energy Drain for the Solution of the Cosmological Constant Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a partial solution to the cosmological constant problem by using the simple observation that a three-brane in a six-dimensional bulk is flat. A model is presented in which Standard Model vacuum energy is always absorbed by the transverse space. The latter is a tear-drop like space with a conical singularity, which preserves bulk supersymmetry and gives rise to conventional macroscopic 4D gravity with no cosmological constant. Its cone acts like a drain, depleting vacuum energy from the three-brane to the tear drop increasing its volume. We stress that although gravity is treated classically, Standard Model is handled quantum-field theoretically and the model is robust against Standard Model corrections and particular details. The price paid is the presence of boundaries which are nevertheless physically harmless by appropriate boundary conditions.

Alex Kehagias

2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

Three-Nucleon Low-Energy Constants From The Consistency Of Interactions And Currents In Chiral Effective Field Theory  

SciTech Connect

The chiral low-energy constants cD and cE are constrained by means of accurate ab initio calculations of the A = 3 binding energies and, for the first time, of the triton {beta} decay. We demonstrate that these low-energy observables allow a robust determination of the two undetermined constants. The consistency of the interactions and currents in chiral effective field theory is key to this remarkable result. The two- plus three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory defined by properties of the A = 2 system and the present determination of c{sub D} and c{sub E} are successful in predicting properties of the A = 3, and 4 systems.

Gazit, D; Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

391

Dyon Solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills Theory on a Cylindrical Symmetric Space Time with Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated numerically dyon-like solutions of the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system on a cylindrically symmetric space time with a cosmological constant. We find a new kind of behaviour not found in the spherically symmetric models. For positive values of $\\Lambda$ we have an oscillatory behaviour of the magnetic component of the YM field around the r-axis, so there is an arbitrary number of nodes. For increasing positive $\\Lambda$, the frequency increases also and the solution breaks down at finite radius, indicating a singularity. The electric component, however, approaches a constant value. After further increasing $\\Lambda$, this global behaviour repeats itself at a larger r while the former singular behaviour disappears. For increasing negative $\\Lambda$, the oscillatory behaviour disappears and the magnetic and electric components behave like the scalar and gauge field in the Abelian cosmic string model.

Reinoud J. Slagter

2004-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

392

Integrable, molecular-type solutions of the extended Skyrme-Faddeev model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct molecular type vortex solutions in the integrable sector of the extended Skyrme-Faddeev (ESF) model.The solutions are a holomorphic type which satisfies the zero curvature condition.For some constrained values of the coupling constants, special vortex solutions exist.For other values, special forms of the potential are employed for the stability of the molecular type solution.The solutions satisfy the zero curvature condition, and then they necessarily have an infinite number of conserved current. We numerically check their existence in terms of the simulated annealing method.

Nobuyuki Sawado; Yuta Tamaki

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

393

Apparatus for adjusting and maintaining humidity of a gas at a constant value within a closed system  

SciTech Connect

An improved apparatus was developed for maintaining the humidity of a gas at a constant value within a closed system for long periods of time by using saturated salt solutions and isolating the sample environment from the salt environment. This apparatus avoids many problems associated with humidity/temperature chambers and off-the-shelf laboratory equipment, such as desiccators, that are being used for environmental studies under controlled conditions of humidity and temperature. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Walters, R.R.; Abernathy, B.

1986-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

B-meson decay constants with domain-wall light quarks and nonperturbatively tuned relativistic b-quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on our progress to obtain the decay constants f_B and f_Bs from lattice-QCD simulations on the RBC-UKQCD Collaborations 2+1 flavor domain-wall Iwasaki lattices. Using domain-wall light quarks and relativistic b-quarks we analyze data with several partially quenched light-quark masses at two lattice spacings of a approx 0.11 fm and a approx 0.08 fm.

Oliver Witzel

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Appendix B National Type Evaluation Technical Committee ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The submitter believes that test weight tolerances are too tight for field operation ... new technology, if you plot the dielectric constant of wet sand as a ...

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

396

String or branelike solutions in four-dimensional Einstein gravity in the presence of a cosmological constant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate string or branelike solutions for four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant. For the case of negative cosmological constant, the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black string is the only warped stringlike solution. The general solutions for nonwarped branelike configurations are found and they are characterized by the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass density and two tensions. Interestingly, the sum of these tensions is equal to the minus of the mass density. Other than the well-known black string and soliton spacetimes, all the static solutions possess naked singularities. The time-dependent solutions can be regarded as the anti-de Sitter extension of the well-known Kasner solutions. The speciality of those static regular solutions and the implication of singular solutions are also discussed in the context of cylindrical matter collapse. For the case of positive cosmological constant, the Kasner-de Sitter spacetime appears as time-dependent solutions and all static solutions are found to be naked singular.

Lee, Youngone [Department of Physics and Institute of Basic Sciences, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggi 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gungwon [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), 334 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeong-Chan [School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jungjai [Department of Physics and Institute of Basic Sciences, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggi 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Evolutionary Analysis of 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-Type 1, -Type 2, -Type 3 and 17beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-Type 2 in Fish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metabolized by 11 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1and type 2 andhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 and type 2. A. 11 -HSD1

Baker, Michael E

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Two-loop renormalization constants and high energy $2\\rightarrow 2$ scattering amplitudes in the Higgs sector of the standard model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the complete matrix of two-body scattering amplitudes for the scattering of longitudinally polarized gauge bosons $W_L^\\pm$, $Z_L$ and Higgs bosons to two loops in the high-energy, heavy-Higgs limit $\\sqrt{s}\\gg M_H\\gg M_W$. Use of the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem reduces the problem to one involving only the scalar fields $w^\\pm$, $z$ (the Goldstone bosons of the original theory) and the Higgs boson. Renormalization of the scattering amplitudes requires the calculation of the self-energy functions $\\Pi _i^0(M_i^2)$, the renormalization constants $Z_i$, and the bare quartic Higgs coupling $\\lambda _0$ to two loops. The results will be useful in other calculations. To facilitate the calculations, we introduce a powerful new technique for evaluating integrals over Feynman parameters in dimensional regularization which is based on a Barnes' type representation of the binomial expansion. We also collect some useful integrals which extend the tables given by Devoto and Duke.

Peter N. Maher; Loyal Durand; Kurt Riesselmann

1993-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

TYPE OF OPERATION R Research & Development T& Facility Type  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

-- R Research & Development T& Facility Type 0 Production scale testing a Pilat scale Y-. Bench Scale Process i Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis 0 Productian 0 Disposal...

400

From Typing Constraints to Typed Constraint Systems in CHR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Typing constraint programs requires the exibility of subtyping to properly express coercions between constraint domains. The typing of constraint logic programs as done in the TCLP system for example involves solving complex subtyping constraints. In this paper we present an implementation in CHR of Pottier's algorithm for checking the satisfiability of subtype inequalities. We show that when combined with a CHR implementation of an untyped constraint system, a simple merge of both CHR programs gives rise to a new typed constraint system which enjoys nice semantical properties. This is illustrated with examples of typed unification and TCLP programs.

Emmanuel Coquery; François Fages; Projet Contraintes Inria-rocquencourt

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Optimal control of a concentrated system on the class of piecewise constant functions under uncertainty in the parameters and initial conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyze optimal control problems for objects described by systems of ordinary differential equations on the class of piecewise constant control functions with uncertain initial information about the parameters of the initial conditions and ... Keywords: inaccurate information, initial conditions, interval of constancy, parameter of an object, piecewise constant control

K. R. Aida-Zade; A. B. Rahimov

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Constructive proof of the existence of equilibrium in competitive economy with sequentially locally non-constant excess demand functions by Sperner's lemma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Sperner's lemma for modified partition of a simplex we will constructively prove the existence of equilibrium in competitive economy with sequentially locally non-constant excess demand functions. And we will show the converse result that the existence of equilibrium in competitive economy with sequentially locally non-constant excess demand functions implies Sperner's lemma. We follow the Bishop style constructive mathematics.

Tanaka, Yasuhito

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Lab 4 -Motor Constants and Sensor Calibration Consider a DC servo motor which is connected to a power supply. The motor inertia is Jm. The rotational  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lab 4 - Motor Constants and Sensor Calibration PRE-LAB Consider a DC servo motor which is connected to a power supply. The motor inertia is Jm. The rotational damping in the motor is bm. The motor produces a torque Tm = Kmi where Km is the motor's torque constant and i is the current from the power supply. a

Stanford University

404

Window Types | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Window Types Window Types Window Types June 18, 2012 - 8:06am Addthis A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto What does this mean for me? If you have old windows, they are likely losing large amounts of energy through the frames and glazing. By upgrading old windows, you can reduce heating and cooling costs in your home. Windows come in a number of different frame and glazing types. By combining an energy-efficient frame choice with a glazing type tailored to your climate and application, you can customize each of your home's windows. Types of Window Frames Improving the thermal resistance of the frame can contribute to a window's

405

Window Types | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Window Types Window Types Window Types June 18, 2012 - 8:06am Addthis A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto What does this mean for me? If you have old windows, they are likely losing large amounts of energy through the frames and glazing. By upgrading old windows, you can reduce heating and cooling costs in your home. Windows come in a number of different frame and glazing types. By combining an energy-efficient frame choice with a glazing type tailored to your climate and application, you can customize each of your home's windows. Types of Window Frames Improving the thermal resistance of the frame can contribute to a window's

406

Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.  

SciTech Connect

Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

A Physically-Intuitive Method for Calculation of the Local Lattice Constant from a High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Image by Fourier Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a physically-intuitive method to calculate the local lattice constant as a function of position in a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image by performing a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform. We apply a Gaussian filter with appropriate spatial full-width-half-max (FWHM) bandwidth to the image centered at the desired location to calculate the local lattice constant (as opposed to the average lattice constant). Fourier analysis of the filtered image yields the vertical and horizontal lattice constants at this location. The process is repeated by stepping the Gaussian filter across the image to produce a set of local lattice constants in the vertical and horizontal direction as a function of position in the image. The method has been implemented in a freely available tool on nanoHUB.

Teherani, James T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Type error slicing in implicitly typed higher-order languages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous methods have generally identified the location of a type error as a particular program point or the program subtree rooted at that point. We present a new approach that identifies the location of a type error as a set of program points (a slice) ...

Christian Haack; J. B. Wells

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Infrastructure Failure - Types and Frequency  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Infrastructure Failure - Types and Frequency. Small events that have no impact on supplies Events that require supply/demand responses Events that result in a ...

410

National Type Evaluation Technical Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... checked on an in-motion railway track scale ... Type of Test: (no change) Rail Scale Testing ... or digital), hydraulic, vibrating wire, piezoelectric, or other. ...

2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

411

Exploiting breakdown of the similarity relation for diffuse light transport: simultaneous retrieval of scattering anisotropy and diffusion constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As manifested in the similarity relation of diffuse light transport, it is difficult to assess single scattering characteristics from multiply scattered light. We take advantage of the limited validity of the diffusion approximation of light transport and demonstrate, experimentally and numerically, that even deep into the multiple scattering regime, time-resolved detection of transmitted light allows simultaneous assessment of both single scattering anisotropy and scattering mean free path, and therefore also macroscopic parameters like the diffusion constant and the transport mean free path. This is achieved via careful assessment of early light and matching against Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer.

Svensson, Tomas; Alerstam, Erik; Vynck, Kevin; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Casimir dependence of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a strong constant chromo-electric background field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transverse distribution of gluon and quark-antiquark pairs produced from a strong constant chromo-electric field depends on two gauge invariant quantities, $C_1=E^aE^a$ and $C_2=[d_{abc}E^aE^bE^c]^2$, as shown earlier in [G.C. Nayak and P. van Nieuwenhuizen, Phys. Rev. D 71, 125001 (2005)] for gluons and in [G.C. Nayak, Phys. Rev. D 72, 125010 (2005)] for quarks. Here, we discuss the explicit dependence of the distribution on the second Casimir invariant, C_2, and show the dependence is at most a 15% effect.

Fred Cooper; John F. Dawson; Bogdan Mihaila

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

413

Casimir dependence of transverse distribution of pairs produced from a strong constant chromo-electric background field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transverse distribution of gluon and quark-antiquark pairs produced from a strong constant chromo-electric field depends on two gauge invariant quantities, $C_1=E^aE^a$ and $C_2=[d_{abc}E^aE^bE^c]^2$, as shown earlier in [G.C. Nayak and P. van Nieuwenhuizen, Phys. Rev. D 71, 125001 (2005)] for gluons and in [G.C. Nayak, Phys. Rev. D 72, 125010 (2005)] for quarks. Here, we discuss the explicit dependence of the distribution on the second Casimir invariant, C_2, and show the dependence is at most a 15% effect.

Cooper, Fred; Mihaila, Bogdan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Apparatus for adjusting and maintaining the humidity of gas at a constant value within a closed system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The humidity of a gas within a closed system is maintained at constant level by providing a saturated salt solution within a lower chamber in communication with an upper chamber conjointly defined by upper and lower container sections in sealing contact with each other to establish a closed container. A partition wall separates the salt solution from the test region in the upper chamber. A tube extending through the partition plate allows humidified gas to pass from the lower to the upper chamber. A glass wool plug or membranous material within the tube prevents migration of salt into the test region.

Abernathy, Bethel R. (Franklin, OH); Walters, Ronald R. (Germantown, OH)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Apparatus for adjusting and maintaining the humidity of gas at a constant value within a closed system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The humidity of a gas within a closed system is maintained at constant level by providing a saturated salt solution within a lower chamber in communication with an upper chamber conjointly defined by upper and lower container sections in sealing contact with each other to establish a closed container. A partition wall separates the salt solution from the test region in the upper chamber. A tube extending through the partition plate allows humidified gas to pass from the lower to the upper chamber. A glass wool plug or membranous material within the tube prevents migration of salt into the test region.

Abernathy, B.R.; Walters, R.R.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

416

Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Types  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lighting Types Lighting Types The following are the most widely used types of lighting equipment used in commercial buildings. Characteristics such as energy efficiency, light quality, and lifetime vary by lamp type. Standard Fluorescent A fluorescent lamp consists of a sealed gas-filled tube. The gas in the tube consists of a mixture of low pressure mercury vapor and an inert gas such as argon. The inner surface of the tube has a coating of phosphor powder. When an electrical current is applied to electrodes in the tube, the mercury vapor emits ultraviolet radiation which then causes the phosphor coating to emit visible light (the process is termed fluorescence). A ballast is required to regulate and control the current and voltage. Two types of ballasts are used, magnetic and electronic. Electronic ballasts

417

A type system for CHR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a generic type system for the Constraint Handling Rules (CHR), a rewriting rule language for implementing constraint solvers. CHR being a high-level extension of a host language, such as Prolog or Java, this type system is parameterized ...

Emmanuel Coquery; François Fages

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A manifold of possible physics-laws in a universe where the planck constant and speed of light parameters vary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I assume a universe whereby the speed of light and the planck constant are not constants but instead parameters that vary locally in time-and space. When describing motion, I am able to derive a modified path integral description at the quantum level, which offers a natural extension of quantum mechanics. At the microscopic level, this path integral intuitively describes a physics with many quantum realities thus leading to a novel concept of manifold of physics, which can be looked at as a novel action principle. This paradigm reflects the notion that the observed laws of physics on any given scale are determined by the underlying distribution of the fundamental parameters (i.e Quantum Mechanics is just one point on this manifold), thus leading to many possible physical-law based behaviors. By choosing a Gaussian distribution of the parameters, a quadratic action term appears in the path-integral, which in turns leads to a complex classical action (and by continuation a new description for inertia) at the classical level. In the accompanying manuscript the classical doublet equation of motion is applied to the Newtonian gravitation field, and a MOND-like, dark-energy-like, and pioneer-anomaly-like solutions are derived.

Roee Amit

2008-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

419

Decay constants of B and D mesons from improved relativistic lattice QCD with two flavours of sea quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the B and D meson decay constants in lattice QCD with two (Nf=2) flavours of light dynamical quarks, using an O(a)-improved Wilson action for both light and heavy quarks and a renormalization-group improved gauge action. Simulations are made at three values of lattice spacing a=0.22, 0.16, 0.11 fm and four values of sea quark mass in the range m_PS/m_V \\~= 0.8-0.6. Our estimate for the continuum values of the decay constants are fBd = 208(10)(11) MeV, fBs = 250(10)(13)(^{+8}_{-0}) MeV, fDd = 225(14)(14) MeV, fDs = 267(13)(17)(^{+10}_{-0}) MeV for Nf=2 where the statistical and systematic errors are separately listed, and the third error for fBs and fDs show uncertainty of determination of strange quark mass. We also carry out a set of quenched simulations using the same action to make a direct examination of sea quark effects. Taking the ratio of results for Nf=2 and Nf=0, we obtain fb^{Nf=2}/fb^{Nf=0} = 1.11(6), fbs^{Nf=2}/fbs^{Nf=0} = 1.14(5), fd^{Nf=2}/\\fd^{Nf=0} = 1.03(6), fds^...

Khan, A A; Burkhalter, R; Ejiri, S; Fukugita, M; Hashimoto, S; Ishizuka, N; Iwasaki, Y; Kanaya, K; Kaneko, T; Kuramashi, Y; Manke, T; Nagai, K; Okawa, M; Shanahan, H P; Ukawa, A; Yoshié, T

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown {\\it a priori}. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman SU(3) symmetry group matrices. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that generalized Stokes Operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization density matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometric properties of the polarization ellipse

R. D. Mota; M. A. Xicotencatl; V. D. Granados

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy consumption. Both reset strategies make engineering sense as long as the reset schedules are reasonable. Quite often the decision to use one over the other is made with the assumption that they will all achieve some sorts of energy savings. However, the impact of these two strategies on AHU energy consumption could be very different. A comparison of these two commonly used supply air temperature reset strategies for a single-duct constant air volume system is presented in this paper. It is shown that from either the building energy consumption or building comfort point of view, the reset strategy based on outside air temperature is inherently better than that based on return air temperature. Significant amount of heating energy savings can be achieved by switching from return air temperature based reset to outside air temperature based reset. The reset strategy can also benefit variable air volume (VAV) AHUs. An improved supply air temperature set point reset control strategy is proposed by combining and staging the outside air and return air temperature based resets.

Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra  

SciTech Connect

A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO{sub 2} in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China); Mao, S. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China); Zhang, Z. M. [Centre of Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China)] [Centre of Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China (China); Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S. [Advanced Surface Chemical Analysis Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)] [Advanced Surface Chemical Analysis Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Natural Nuclear Reactor Oklo and Variation of Fundamental Constants Part 1: Computation of Neutronics of Fresh Core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using modern methods of reactor physics we have performed full-scale calculations of the natural reactor Oklo. For reliability we have used recent version of two Monte Carlo codes: Russian code MCU REA and world wide known code MCNP (USA). Both codes produce similar results. We have constructed a computer model of the reactor Oklo zone RZ2 which takes into account all details of design and composition. The calculations were performed for three fresh cores with different uranium contents. Multiplication factors, reactivities and neutron fluxes were calculated. We have estimated also the temperature and void effects for the fresh core. As would be expected, we have found for the fresh core a significant difference between reactor and Maxwell spectra, which was used before for averaging cross sections in the Oklo reactor. The averaged cross section of Sm-149 and its dependence on the shift of resonance position (due to variation of fundamental constants) are significantly different from previous results. Contrary to results of some previous papers we find no evidence for the change of the fine structure constant in the past and obtain new, most accurate limits on its variation with time: -4 10^{-17}year^{-1} < d alpha/dt/alpha < 3 10^{-17} year^{-1} A further improvement in the accuracy of the limits can be achieved by taking account of the core burnup. These calculations are in progress.

Yu. V. Petrov; A. I. Nazarov; M. S. Onegin; V. Yu. Petrov; E. G. Sakhnovsky

2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

424

The Energy of Bianchi Type I and II Universes in Teleparallel Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For certain models, the energy of the universe which includes the energy of both the matter and the gravitational fields is obtained by using the quasilocal energy-momentum in teleparallel gravity. It is shown that in the case of the Bianchi type I and II universes, not only the total energy but also the quasilocal energy-momentum for any region vanishes independently of the three dimensionless coupling constants of teleparallel gravity.

Lau Loi So; T. Vargas

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

425

Gradual typing with unification-based inference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static and dynamic type systems have well-known strengths and weaknesses. Gradual typing provides the benefits of both in a single language by giving the programmer control over which portions of the program are statically checked based on the ... Keywords: dynamic typing, gradual typing, simply typed lambda calculus, static typing, type inference, unification

Jeremy G. Siek; Manish Vachharajani

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Partial Type Inference with Higher-Order Types.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The language MLF is an extension of System-F that permits robust first-order partial type inference with second-order polymorphism. We propose an extension of MLF's graphical… (more)

HERMS, PAOLO

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

428

P-type gallium nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Type Ia Supernovae Project at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Type Ia Supernovae Type Ia Supernovae Supernova-1.jpg Update: Recent Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences News about supernovae: read more... Key Challenges: Understanding Type Ia...

430

Property:InfographicType | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Property Name InfographicType Property Type String Description The type of document as a string. This property is used by References and...

431

Typed MSR: Syntax and Examples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many design flaws and incorrect analyses of cryptographic protocols can be traced to inadequate specification languages for message components, environment assumptions, and goals. In this paper, we present MSR, a strongly typed specification language ...

Iliano Cervesato

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Adding dynamic types to C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developers using statically typed languages such as C? and Java are increasingly having to interoperate with APIs and object models defined in dynamic languages. This impedance mismatch results in code that is difficult to understand, awkward to ...

Gavin Bierman; Erik Meijer; Mads Torgersen

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Field Trial of impressed current, sacrificial anode, constant voltage and intermittent cathodic protection on a steel reinforced coastal bridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equipment has been designed and installed for a field trial being conducted on a coastal reinforced concrete bridge with a newly installed cathodic protection (CP) system. The purpose of the field trial is to determine the optimum form of intermittent CP for protecting coastal bridges. The forms of CP that were considered for the field trial are: (1) impressed current CP as the control; (2) currentinterrupted ICCP; (3) corrosion rate monitoring device controlled ICCP; (4) constant voltage CP; and (5) sacrificial anode CP. Once the test is initiated, the performance of these four forms of CP on a coastal RC bridge and their effectiveness in providing protection to reinforcing steel will be is compared with that achieved by present Oregon Department of Transportation ICCP practices. Details are presented on the set up of the experiment and the logic used to control CP intermittently. The field trial is scheduled to be started early 2007.

Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Williamson, K.M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Cryer, C.B. (ODOT); Tran, H. (ODOT)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Bounds and self-consistent estimates for elastic constants of polycrystals of hcp solid He{sup 4}  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in methods for computing both Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related selfconsistent (or CPA) estimates of elastic constants for polycrystals composed of randomly oriented crystals can be applied successfully to hexagonal close packed solid He{sup 4}. In particular, since the shear modulus C{sub 44} of hexagonal close-packed solid He is known to undergo large temperature variations when 20 mK {<=}#20; T {<=}#20; 200 mK, bounds and estimates computed with this class of effective medium methods, while using C{sub 44} {r_arrow} 0 as a proxy for melting, are found to be both qualitatively and quantitatively very similar to prior results obtained using Monte Carlo methods. Hashin- Shtrikman bounds provide significantly tighter constraints on the polycrystal behavior than do the traditional Voigt and Reuss bounds.

Berryman, J. G.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Dependence of the Vertical Excitation Energy of Benzene on the Size and Force Constant of the Excited State  

SciTech Connect

Griffing1 computed the vertical excitation energy for the first electronic transition of benzene as a function of the carbon-carbon distance (rn) within the Sklar valence bond (SVB) and Goeppert-Mayer and Sklar molecular orbital (G1SMO) methods to evaluate the change on excitation of the carbon-carbon equilibrium internuclear separation (rn0) and of the corresponding stretching force constant, f. While ring expansion was correctly predicted, both methods appeared to predict that f increases on excitation, contrary to experiment. We shall demonstrate a) that Griffing's paradox may be resolved if terms higher than the second power in rn are included in the energy expressions for the states and b) that a Huckel calculation leads to results qualitatively similar to those obtained from the more elaborate calculations.

Ehrenson, S; Wolfsberg, Max

1966-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

436

Instability of a Mixed Layer Model and the Generation of Near-Inertial Motion. Part I: Constant Mixed Layer Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability of Niiler's model of a deepening mixed layer was investigated assuming the deepening rate was negligible. Two basically different instability mechanisms appeared. One is a mixture of a Kelvin-Helmholtz type and parallel flow viscous ...

John Kroll

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Cosmological Variation of the Fine Structure Constant from an Ultra-Light Scalar Field: The Effects of Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmological variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ due to the evolution of a spatially homogeneous ultra-light scalar field ($m \\sim H_0$) during the matter and $\\Lambda$ dominated eras is analyzed. Agreement of $\\Delta \\alpha/\\alpha$ with the value suggested by recent observations of quasar absorption lines is obtained by adjusting a single parameter, the coupling of the scalar field to matter. Asymptotically $\\alpha(t)$ in this model goes to a constant value $\\bar{\\alpha} \\approx \\alpha_0$ in the early radiation and the late $\\Lambda$ dominated eras. The coupling of the scalar field to (nonrelativistic) matter drives $\\alpha$ slightly away from $\\bar{\\alpha}$ in the epochs when the density of matter is important. Simultaneous agreement with the more restrictive bounds on the variation $|\\Delta \\alpha/\\alpha|$ from the Oklo natural fission reactor and from meteorite samples can be achieved if the mass of the scalar field is on the order of 0.5--0.6 $H_\\Lambda$, where $H_\\Lambda = \\Omega_\\Lambda^{1/2} H_0$. Depending on the scalar field mass, $\\alpha$ may be slightly smaller or larger than $\\alpha_0$ at the times of big bang nucleosynthesis, the emission of the cosmic microwave background, the formation of early solar system meteorites, and the Oklo reactor. The effects on the evolution of $\\alpha$ due to nonzero mass for the scalar field are emphasized. An order of magnitude improvement in the laboratory technique could lead to a detection of $(\\dot{\\alpha}/\\alpha)_0$.

Carl L. Gardner

2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

438

Stability constants important to the understanding of plutonium in environmental waters, hydroxy and carbonate complexation of PuO{sub 2}{sup +}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation constants for the reactions PuO{sub 2}{sup +} + H{sub 2}O = PuO{sub 2}(OH) + H{sup +} and PuO{sub 2}{sup +} + CO{sub 3}{sup 2} = PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sup {minus}} were determined in aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The molar absorptivity of the PuO{sub 2}{sup +} band at 569 nm decreased with increasing hydroxide concentration. Similarly, spectral changes occurred between 540 and 580 nm as the carbonate concentration was increased. The absorption data were analyzed by the non-linear least-squares program SQUAD to yield complexation constants. Using the specific ion interaction theory, both complexation constants were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. These thermodynamic complexation constants were combined with the oxidation-reduction potentials of Pu to obtain Eh versus pH diagrams. 120 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

Bennett, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Nuclear Science Div.

1990-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Space–Time Description of Nonstationary Trapped Lee Waves Using ST Radars, Aircraft, and Constant Volume Balloons during the PYREX Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The third intensive observation period (IOP3) of PYREX was a case of strong lee waves generated by a southerly wind crossing the Pyrenees chain. Upstream radiosounds and measurements obtained by aircraft along the chain transect and by constant ...

J-L. Caccia; B. Benech; V. Klaus

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Characteristics of Emitted Carbonyl Compounds by using Biodiesel fuel with constant H2/O2 in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The emission tests were conducted under steady-state cycle condition in a heavy-duty diesel engine using 0% to 30% ratios of biodiesel fuel with constant H2/O2… (more)

Shih, Jia-Yu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

On the Use of a Wider Class of Linear Systems for the Design of Constant-Coefficients Semi-Implicit Time Schemes in NWP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linearization of the meteorological equations around a specified reference state, usually applied in NWP to define the linear system of constant-coefficients semi-implicit schemes, is outlined as an unnecessarily restrictive approach that may ...

P. Bénard

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Critical study on the development and design of an automated multicapillary electrophoresis instrument with collection of mutant DNA fractions using Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE) is a separation tool based on the cooperative melting equilibrium principle that is used to detect mutations as low as of 106. This technique has already demonstrated ...

Kao, Leslie E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER VAPOR CALIBRATION CONSTANTS DERIVED FROM IN-SITU AND DISTANT SOUNDINGS FOR A RAMAN-LIDAR OPERATING IN THE AMAZON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERCOMPARISON OF WATER VAPOR CALIBRATION CONSTANTS DERIVED FROM IN-SITU AND DISTANT SOUNDINGS such measurements on tropical regions. Indeed, there were important field campaigns in the Amazon that explored some

Barbosa, Henrique

444

Using Henry's Constant for Determining the Amount of Isoprene in the Liquid Phase The amount of isoprene in the gas phase (mols)1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure 101,000 (Pa)2. Volume of the liquid phase3. Things you need to know Math Amount of isoprene in gas = ideal gas constant 8.314 J mol-1 K-1 T = temperature of liquid phase units °K (which is 273.1 + °C) CUsing Henry's Constant for Determining the Amount of Isoprene in the Liquid Phase The amount

Last, Robert L.

445

Generativity and dynamic opacity for abstract types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard formalism for explaining abstract types is existential quantification. While it provides a sufficient model for type abstraction in entirely statically typed languages, it proves to be too weak for languages enriched with forms of dynamic ... Keywords: abstract types, dynamic typing, encapsulation, existential types, generativity, opacity

Andreas Rossberg

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Superspace Type II 4D Supergravity from Type II Superstring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the equations of motion of type II 4D supergravity in superspace. This is achieved by coupling the Type II Berkovits' hybrid superstring to an N=2 curved background and requiring that the sigma-model has N=(2,2) superconformal invariance at one loop. We show that there are no anomalies in the fermionic OPE's and the complete set of compensator's equations is derived from the energy-momentum tensor. The equations of motion describe a hypertensorial and vectorial multiplet coupled to a U(1)\\times U(1) N=2 Poincar\\`e Supergravity.

Daniel L. Nedel

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Hydrogen and helium traces in type Ib-c supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spectroscopic properties of a selected optical photospheric spectra of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are investigated.Special attention is devoted to traces of hydrogen at early phases. The generated spectra are found to match the observed ones reasonably well, including a list of only 23 candidate ions. Guided by SN Ib 1990I, the observed trough near 6300\\AA is attributed to H$\\alpha$ in almost all Type Ib events, although in some objects it becomes too weak to be discernible, especially at later phases. Alternative line identifications are discussed. Differences in the way hydrogen manifests its presence within CCSNe are highlighted. In Type Ib SNe, the H$\\alpha$ contrast velocity (i.e. line velocity minus the photospheric velocity) seems to increase with time at early epochs, reaching values as high as 8000 km s$^{-1}$ around 15-20 days after maximum and then remains almost constant. The derived photospheric velocities, indicate a lower velocity for Type II SNe 1987A and 1999em as compared to SN Ic 1994I and SN IIb 1993J, while Type Ib events display a somewhat larger variation. The scatter, around day 20, is measured to be $\\sim$5000 km s$^{-1}$. Following two simple approaches, rough estimates of ejecta and hydrogen masses are given. A mass of hydrogen of approximately 0.02 $M_\\odot$ is obtained for SN 1990I, while SNe 1983N and 2000H ejected $\\sim$0.008 $M_\\odot$ and $\\sim$0.08 $M_\\odot$ of hydrogen, respectively. SN 1993J has a higher hydrogen mass, $\\sim 0.7$ $M_\\odot$ with a large uncertainty. A low mass and thin hydrogen layer with very high ejection velocities above the helium shell, is thus the most likely scenario for Type Ib SNe. Some interesting and curious issues relating to oxygen lines suggest future investigations.

A. Elmhamdi; I. J. Danziger; D. Branch; B. Leibundgut; E. Baron; R. P. Kirshner

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

448

Types of Reuse | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Property » Property Reuse » Types of Reuse Services » Property » Property Reuse » Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse Types of Reuse The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below. Agriculture Many of the LM lands in the west are surrounded by open rangeland administered by the Bureau of Land Management or large ranches that are primarily used for grazing. LM promotes agricultural uses of lands that are surrounded by existing agricultural operations. Agricultural uses, such as cultivation of crops, could be combined with habitat improvements or

449

Description of CBECS Building Types  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Description of Building Types Description of Building Types Description of CBECS Building Types In the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), buildings are classified according to principal activity, which is the primary business, commerce, or function carried on within each building. Buildings used for more than one of the activities described below are assigned to the activity occupying the most floorspace at the time of the interview. Thus, a building assigned to a particular principal activity category may be used for other activities in a portion of its space or at some time during the year. In the 1999 CBECS, respondents were asked to place their building into a sub-category that was a more specific activity than has been collected in prior surveys. This was done to ensure the quality of the data; after data collection, the subcategories were combined into these more general building categories, which are consistent with prior CBECS surveys.

450

Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maintenance Types Maintenance Types to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Maintenance Types on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Federal Requirements Program Management Commissioning Metering Computerized Maintenance Management Systems Maintenance Types Reactive Preventive Predictive Reliability-Centered Major Equipment Types Resources Contacts

451

Hadamard type operations for qubits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We obtain the most general ensemble of qubits, for which it is possible to design a universal Hadamard gate. These states when geometrically represented on the Bloch sphere, give a new trajectory. We further consider some Hadamard `type' of operations and find ensembles of states for which such transformations hold. Unequal superposition of a qubit and its orthogonal complement is also investigated.

Arpita Maitra; Preeti Parashar

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

452

Leptonic decay-constant ratio f_{K^+}/f_{pi^+} from lattice QCD with physical light quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A calculation of the ratio of leptonic decay constants f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} makes possible a precise determination of the ratio of CKM matrix elements |V_{us}|/|V_{ud}| in the Standard Model, and places a stringent constraint on the scale of new physics that would lead to deviations from unitarity in the first row of the CKM matrix. We compute f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} numerically in unquenched lattice QCD using gauge-field ensembles recently generated that include four flavors of dynamical quarks: up, down, strange, and charm. We analyze data at four lattice spacings a ~ 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 fm with simulated pion masses down to the physical value 135 MeV. We obtain f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} = 1.1947(26)(37), where the errors are statistical and total systematic, respectively. This is our first physics result from our N_f = 2+1+1 ensembles, and the first calculation of f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} from lattice-QCD simulations at the physical point. Our result is the most precise lattice-QCD determination of f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+}, with an error comparable to the current world average. When combined with experimental measurements of the leptonic branching fractions, it leads to a precise determination of |V_{us}|/|V_{ud}| = 0.2309(9)(4) where the errors are theoretical and experimental, respectively.

A. Bazavov; C. Bernard; C. DeTar; J. Foley; W. Freeman; Steven Gottlieb; U. M. Heller; J. E. Hetrick; J. Kim; J. Laiho; L. Levkova; M. Lightman; J. Osborn; S. Qiu; R. L. Sugar; D. Toussaint; R. S. Van de Water; R. Zhou

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

453

Direct measurement of the pseudoscalar decay constant, {ital f}{sub {ital D}{sub {ital s}}}  

SciTech Connect

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) experiment has observed purely leptonic decays of the {ital D}{sub {ital s}} meson in the reaction {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup +}{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup {minus}} at a c.m. energy of 4.03 GeV. Three events are observed in which one {ital D}{sub {ital s}} decays hadronically to {phi}{pi}, {ital K}{ovr {sup 0}}{ital K}, and the other decays leptonically to {mu}{nu}{sub {mu}} or {tau}{nu}{sub {tau}}. With the assumption of {mu}{minus}{tau} universality, values of the branching fraction, {ital B}({ital D}{sub {ital s}}{r_arrow}{mu}{nu}{sub {mu}})=(1.5{sub {minus}0.6{minus}0.2}{sup +1.3+0.3})%, and the {ital D}{sub {ital s}} pseudoscalar decay constant, {ital f}{sub {ital D}{sub {ital s}}}=(4.3{sub {minus}1.3{minus}0.4}{sup +1.5+0.4}){times}10{sup 2} MeV, are obtained.

Bai, J.Z.; Bardon, O.; Blum, I.; Breakstone, A.; Burnett, T.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.J.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cowan, R.F.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Du, Z.Z.; Dunwoodie, W.; Fan, X.L.; Fang, J.; Fero, M.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gratton, P.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Harris, F.A.; Hatanaka, M.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.; Hitlin, D.G.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, H.B.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Izen, J.M.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, Y.; Jones, L.; Kang, S.H.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kim, B.K.; Lai, Y.F.; Lan, H.B.; Lang, P.F.; Lankford, A.; Li, F.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.; Li, X.N.; Lin, S.Z.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.A.; Lou, X.C.; Lowery, B.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Malchow, R.; Mandelkern, M.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Olsen, S.L.; Oyang, J.; Paluselli, D.; Pan, L.J.; Panetta, J.; Porter, F.; Prabhakar, E.; Qi, N.D.; Que, Y.K.; Quigley, J.; Rong, G.; Schernau, M.; Schmid, B.; Schultz, J.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Shi, X.R.; Smith, A.; Soderstrom, E.; Song, X.F.; Standifird, J.; Stoker, D.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Sun, S.J.; Synodinos, J.; Tan, Y.P.; Tang, S.Q.; Toki, W.; Tong, G.L.; Torrence, E.; Wang, F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Whittaker, S.; Wilson, R.; Wisniewski, W.J.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xu, D.Z.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xue, S.T.; Yamamoto, R.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, W.; Yao, H.B.; Ye, M.H.; Ye, S.Z.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, W.X.; Zheng, J.P.; (BES Collabo..

1995-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

and Nikolskii-type inequalities for exponential sums - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. 1 term exponential sums with constant first term. Schmidt [898 ] proved that there is a constantA@ (n) depending only on n so that ?. &. ' ??BDCFE ,G -HE ?.

455

Description of CBECS Building Types  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) > Description of Building Types Description of CBECS Building Types In the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), buildings are classified according to principal activity, which is the primary business, commerce, or function carried on within each building. Buildings used for more than one of the activities described below are assigned to the activity occupying the most floorspace at the time of the interview. Thus, a building assigned to a particular principal activity category may be used for other activities in a portion of its space or at some time during the year. In the 1999 and 2003 CBECS, respondents were asked to place their building into a sub-category that was a more specific activity than has been collected in prior surveys. This was done to ensure the quality of the data; after data collection, the subcategories were combined into these more general building categories, which are consistent with prior CBECS surveys.

456

Henry's Law Constants of Methane, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Ethanol from 273 to 498 K: Prediction from Molecular Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

noindent Henry's law constants of the solutes methane, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the solvent ethanol are predicted by molecular simulation. The molecular models for the solutes are taken from previous work. For the solvent ethanol, a new rigid anisotropic united atom molecular model based on Lennard-Jones and Coulombic interactions is developed. It is adjusted to experimental pure component saturated liquid density and vapor pressure data. Henry's law constants are calculated by evaluating the infinite dilution residual chemical potentials of the solutes from 273 to 498K with Widom's test particle insertion. The prediction of Henry's Law constants without the use of binary experimental data on the basis of the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rule agree well with experimental data, deviations are 20%, except for carbon dioxide for which deviations of 70% are reached. Quantitative agreement is achieved by using the modified Lorentz-Berthelot combining rule which is adjusted to one experimental mixture ...

Schnabel, T; Hasse, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Type I vs type II spiral ganglion neurons exhibit differential survival and neuritogenesis during cochlear development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GD: Membrane properties of type II spiral ganglion neuronesJP, Ryan AF, Housley GD: Type III intermediate filamentinhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons

Barclay, Meagan; Ryan, Allen F; Housley, Gary D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CClF/sub 2/-CClF/sub 2/ known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Results indicate that for the range of Reynolds and Froude numbers considered, the liquid film is likely to be turbulent rather than laminar. The study also shows that two-dimensional effects are important, and the flow is never fully developed either in the film or the core. In addition, the new approach for the turbulent film is capable of predicting a local net flow rate that may be upward, downward, stationary, or stalled. An actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114. Results indicate that the theory can be used to predict the pressure gradient in the two-phase region based on laboratory measurements.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A Scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. Emphasis is placed upon the latter case since the range of experimental measurements of pressure, temperature, and void fraction collected in this study fall in the slug-churn''- annular'' flow regimes. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. Turbulent stresses are modeled by using Prandtl's mixing-length theory. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CCIF{sub 2}-CCIF{sub 2} known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. The compressibility is accounted for through the acceleration pressure gradient of the core and not directly through the Mach number. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Finally, an actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated; it is based on actual field data from New Zealand. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Federal Energy Management Program: Types of Commissioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Commissioning to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Types of Commissioning on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Types of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

JOM: Author Tools - Types of Papers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Author Tools > Types of Papers. Types of Papers ... Explores materials usage and development throughout history. These articles must contain new ...

462

Type IIB Orientifolds, F-theory, Type I Strings on Orbifolds and Type I - Heterotic Duality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider six and four dimensional ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric orientifolds of Type IIB compactified on orbifolds. We give the conditions under which the perturbative world-sheet orientifold approach is adequate, and list the four dimensional ${\\cal N}=1$ orientifolds (which are rather constrained) that satisfy these conditions. We argue that in most cases orientifolds contain non-perturbative sectors that are missing in the world-sheet approach. These non-perturbative sectors can be thought of as arising from D-branes wrapping various collapsed 2-cycles in the orbifold. Using these observations, we explain certain ``puzzles'' in the literature on four dimensional orientifolds. In particular, in some four dimensional orientifolds the ``naive'' tadpole cancellation conditions have no solution. However, these tadpole cancellation conditions are derived using the world-sheet approach which we argue to be inadequate in these cases due to appearance of additional non-perturbative sectors. The main tools in our analyses are the map between F-theory and orientifold vacua and Type I-heterotic duality. Utilizing the consistency conditions we have found in this paper, we discuss consistent four dimensional chiral ${\\cal N}=1$ Type I vacua which are non-perturbative from the heterotic viewpoint.

Zurab Kakushadze; Gary Shiu; S. -H. Henry Tye

1998-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

463

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, J.A.

1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

465

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

466

Two New Types of Ultrafast Aircraft Thermometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new version of an ultrafast aircraft resistance thermometer (UFT-F) with a time constant of the order 10?4 s,for use in both cloudy and cloudless air, is described. It evolved from an earlier version (UFT-S). Its sensing element is similar to ...

Krzysztof E. Haman; Szymon P. Malinowski; Bo?ena D. Stru?; Reinhold Busen; Andrzej Stefko

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Improving MPI communication via data type fission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Message Passing Interface (MPI) messages are centered around transmitting instances of MPI data types. The data types represented in MPI terms are usually modeled after data types native to the application. If a user does not want to transmit a field ... Keywords: MPI, communication, data type fission, static transformation

Ben Perry; Martin Swany

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Explaining ML type errors by data flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel approach to explaining ML type errors: Since the type system inhibits data flows that would abort the program at run-time, our type checker identifies as explanations those data flows that violate the typing rules. It also detects ...

Holger Gast

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

2 Global Gas Turbine News August 2008 There is an old saying that the only constant in life is change. Our  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Global Gas Turbine News August 2008 There is an old saying that the only constant in life to improve gas turbines over the last 50 years, it has also played an active role in fostering a global our community. One area of discussion has been the role of turbomachinery outside of the gas turbine

Daraio, Chiara

470

The effect of PECVD plasma decomposition on the wettability and dielectric constant changes in silicon modified DLC films for potential MEMS and low stiction applications  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out investigations aimed at understanding the mechanism responsible for a water contact angle increase of up to ten degrees and a decrease in dielectric constant in silicon modified hydrogenated amorphous carbon films compared to unmodified hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. Our investigations based on surface chemical constituent analysis using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SIMS, FTIR, contact angle / surface energy measurements and spectroscopic ellipsometry suggests the presence of hydrophobic chemical entities on the surface of the films. This observation is consistent with earlier theoretical plasma chemistry predictions and observed Raman peak shifts in the films. These surface hydrophobic entities also have a lower polarizability than the bonds in the un-modified films thereby reducing the dielectric constant of the silicon modified films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ellipsometric dielectric constant measurement is directly related to the surface energy through Hamaker's constant. Our current finding is expected to be of benefit to understanding stiction, friction and lubrication in areas that range from nano-tribology to microfluidics.

Ogwu, A. A. [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, High Street, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Okpalugo, T. I. T. [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, High Street, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nanotechnology Institute, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McLaughlin, J. A. D. [Nanotechnology Institute, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Comparison on control strategies of the grid-side converter of variable speed constant frequency doubly-fed wind power generation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct power control, vector control based on d-q synchronous rotating reference frame and ?-? static reference frame for the grid-side converter of variable speed constant frequency doubly-fed wind turbines are analyzed. System simulation ... Keywords: ?-? static reference frame, d-q rotating reference frame, direct power control, doubly-fed wind power generation system, grid-side converter

Xian-Ming Zhou; Ting-Long Pan; Zhi-Cheng Ji

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Property:ProjectType | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ProjectType ProjectType Jump to: navigation, search Property Name ProjectType Property Type Page Description A descriptive type for a project. This property uses pages as for its values, each of which should describe the type in detail. Pages using the property "ProjectType" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Akutan Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + Alligator Geothermal Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + Alum Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + Aurora Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + B Bald Mountain Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + Baltazor Springs Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + Barren Hills Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System + Black Rock I Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal System +

473

Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting Control Lighting Control Types to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Lighting Control Types on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories Product Designation Process Low Standby Power Energy & Cost Savings Calculators Model Acquisitions Language Working Group Resources Technology Deployment Renewable Energy

474

Toeplitz CAR flows and type I factorizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toeplitz CAR flows are a class of E_0-semigroups including the first type III example constructed by R. T. Powers. We show that the Toeplitz CAR flows contain uncountably many mutually non cocycle conjugate E_0-semigroups of type III. We also generalize the type III criterion for Toeplitz CAR flows employed by Powers (and later refined by W. Arveson), and show that Toeplitz CAR flows are always either of type I or type III.

Izumi, Masaki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Notes on the compatibility of type Ia supernovae data and varying--$G$ cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational data for type Ia supernovae, shows that the expansion of the universe is accelerated. This accelerated expansion can be described by a cosmological constant or by dark energy models like quintessence. An interesting question may be raised here. Is it possible to describe the accelerated expansion of universe using varying--$G$ cosmological models? Here we shall show that the price for having accelerated expansion in slow--varying--$G$ models (in which the dynamical terms of $G$ are ignored) is to have highly non--conserved matter and also that it is in contradiction with other data.

Shojai, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Hydrogen in Type Ic Supernovae?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By definition, a Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) does not have conspicuous lines of hydrogen or helium in its optical spectrum. SNe Ic usually are modelled in terms of the gravitational collapse of bare carbon-oxygen cores. We consider the possibility that the spectra of ordinary (SN 1994I-like) SNe Ic have been misinterpreted, and that SNe Ic eject hydrogen. An absorption feature usually attributed to a blend of Si II 6355 and C II 6580 may be produced by H-alpha. If SN 1994I-like SNe Ic eject hydrogen, the possibility that hypernova (SN 1998bw-like) SNe Ic, some of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, also eject hydrogen should be considered. The implications of hydrogen for SN Ic progenitors and explosion models are briefly discussed.

David Branch; David J. Jeffery; Timothy R. Young; E. Baron

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

477

Stage 1 behavior in a stress corrosion study of Type 304 stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

In stress corrosion studies, crack velocity plotted with respect to stress intensity generally yields a characteristic curve with three distinct regions. Stage I exhibits a threshold (K{sub ISCC}) followed by a rapid increase in crack velocity (da/dt) for small changes in stress intensity. Stage II is characterized by an essentially constant crack velocity with increases in the stress intensity. Stage III exhibits a rapid increase in crack velocity for small increases in stress intensity leading to fracture. Stage I behavior has been poorly characterized in literature due to previous emphasis on determining the threshold K{sub ISCC} and difficulty and uncertainty in measuring of a large increase in crack velocity with only incremental changes in stress intensity. Tests were conducted in the stage I regime to measure crack velocity as a function of constant stress intensity. Constant K specimens were prepared according to the Mostovoy design, (a tapered double cantilever beam). Specimens were prepared from Type 304 stainless steel containing 0.06 wt% C solution annealed at 1100C for 1 hour, water quenched, and annealed at 625C for 24 hours to produce sensitization. A sodium thiosulfate solution at 50{degree}C was chosen as the test environment.

Lund, A.L. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Comparison of entropy production rates in two different types of self-organized flows: Benard convection and zonal flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different types of self-organizing and sustaining ordered motion in fluids or plasmas--one is a Benard convection (or streamer) and the other is a zonal flow--have been compared by introducing a thermodynamic phenomenological model and evaluating the corresponding entropy production rates (EP). These two systems have different topologies in their equivalent circuits: the Benard convection is modeled by parallel connection of linear and nonlinear conductances, while the zonal flow is modeled by series connection. The ''power supply'' that drives the systems is also a determinant of operating modes. When the energy flux is a control parameter (as in usual plasma experiments), the driver is modeled by a constant-current power supply, and when the temperature difference between two separate boundaries is controlled (as in usual computational studies), the driver is modeled by a constant-voltage power supply. The parallel (series)-connection system tends to minimize (maximize) the total EP when a constant-current power supply drives the system. This minimum/maximum relation flips when a constant-voltage power supply is connected.

Kawazura, Y.; Yoshida, Z. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Type C: Caldera Resource | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

C: Caldera Resource C: Caldera Resource Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Type C: Caldera Resource Dictionary.png Type C: Caldera Resource: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Brophy Occurrence Models This classification scheme was developed by Brophy, as reported in Updating the Classification of Geothermal Resources. Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource Type B: Andesitic Volcanic Resource Type C: Caldera Resource Type D: Sedimentary-hosted, Volcanic-related Resource Type E: Extensional Tectonic, Fault-Controlled Resource Type F: Oceanic-ridge, Basaltic Resource Caldera resources may be found in many tectonic settings but are defined by their caldera structures which control the flow of the fluids in the system.

480

What is the fastest type of energy?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is the fastest type of energy? Since almost all forms of radiation move at the speed of light, we can determine that there are SEVERAL types of energies that are equally fast....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type stays constant" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Fuel Ethanol Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Stock Type: Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes: Show Data By: Product: Stock Type: Area: Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 View History; U ...

482

Vehicle Specifications Battery Type: Li-Ion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

267 V Rated Capacity (C3): 80 Ah Cooling Method: Glycol Water mix heat exchanger Powertrain Motor Type: 3 Phase Permanent Magnet Number of Motors: One Motor Cooling Type: Oil to...

483

DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.09.007 Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature. 1

Jean Colombani

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Does the universe obey the energy conservation law by a constant mass or an increasing mass with radius during its evolution?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How the energy conservation law is obeyed by the universe during its evolution is an important but not yet unanimously resolved question. Does the universe have a constant mass during its evolution or has its mass been increasing with its radius? Here, we evaluate the two contending propositions within the context of the Friedmann equations and the standard big bang theory. We find that though both propositions appeal to the Friedmann equations for validity, an increasing mass with increasing radius is more in harmony with the thermal history of the big bang model. In addition, temperature and flatness problems that plague the constant mass proposal are mitigated by the increasing mass with radius proposal. We conclude that the universe has been increasing in mass and radius in obedience to the energy conservation law.

Akinbo Ojo

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

485

Crystal of GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention relates to a novel, bacterial GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB enzyme, and the crystal structure thereof.

Swairjo, Manal A.; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

486

Lighting Type at Home and at Work  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Information on what types of lights are used at home and at work (data from 1995 CBECS and 1993 RECS).

Information Center

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Search by Fuel or Vehicle Type  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Type Select Year... 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000...

488

{sup 13}C and {sup 17}O NMR binding constant studies of uranyl carbonate complexes in near-neutral aqueous solution. Yucca Mountain Project Milestone Report 3351  

SciTech Connect

Valuable structural information, much of it unavailable by other methods, can be obtained about complexes in solution through NMR spectroscopy. From chemical shift and intensity measurements of complexed species, NMR can serve as a species-specific structural probe for molecules in solution and can be used to validate thermodynamic constants used in geochemical modeling. Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to study the speciation of uranium(VI) ions in aqueous carbonate solutions as a function of pH, ionic strength, carbonate concentration, uranium concentration, and temperature. Carbon-13 and oxygen-17 NMR spectroscopy were used to monitor the fractions, and hence thermodynamic binding constants of two different uranyl species U0{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} and (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 6{minus}} in aqueous solution. Synthetic buffer solutions were prepared under the ionic strength conditions used in the NMR studies in order to obtain an accurate measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, and a discussion of pH = {minus}log(a{sub H}{sup +}) versus p[H] = {minus}log[H+] is provided. It is shown that for quantitative studies, the quantity p[H] needs to be used. Fourteen uranium(VI) binding constants recommended by the OECD NEA literature review were corrected to the ionic strengths employed in the NMR study using specific ion interaction theory (SIT), and the predicted species distributions were compared with the actual species observed by multinuclear NMR. Agreement between observed and predicted stability fields is excellent. This establishes the utility of multinuclear NMR as a species-specific tool for the study of the actinide carbonate complexation constants, and serves as a means for validating the recommendations provided by the OECD NEA.

Clark, D.L.; Newton, T.W.; Palmer, P.D.; Zwick, B.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Efficient polynomial expansion of the scattering Green's function: Application to the D+H[sub 2]([ital v]=1) rate constant  

SciTech Connect

We apply the absorbing boundary condition (ABC) discrete variable representation (DVR) theory of quantum reactive scattering to the initial state selected D+H[sub 2]([ital v]=1, [ital j])[r arrow]DH+H reaction. The ABC-DVR Green's function is efficiently computed by a Newton polynomial expansion. We compute accurate reaction probabilities for the total energies and angular momenta required to obtain the thermal rate constants [ital k][sub [ital v]=1, [ital j

Auerbach, S.M.; Miller, W.H. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

490

Faking it Simulating dependent types in Haskell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dependent types reflect the fact that validity of data is often a relative notion by allowing prior data to affect the types of subsequent data. Not only does this make for a precise type system, but also a highly generic one: both ...

Conor McBride

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Filter type rotor for multistation photometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

Shumate, II, Starling E. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

492

Optical Constants Determination of Samarium Holmium and Erbium in the 1.5-850 eV Spectral Range using a Transmittance Method  

SciTech Connect

The optical constants {beta} and {sigma} of the complex refractive index {tilde n} = 1 - {delta} + i{beta} of Sm, Ho, and Er were obtained in the 1.5-850 eV energy range using a transmittance method. Thin films of Sm, Ho, and Dr were deposited by magnetron sputtering, and transmittance was measured using synchrotron radiation using a high vacuum condition. All films were directly coated on Si photodiodes, which were used as coating substrates, as well as photon detectors. Si was used as capping layer while a thin W layer was used as barrier against interface diffusion between Si and the highly reactive rare earth elements. The constants {beta} were extracted from transmittance results, and the constants {sigma} were calculated based on measured {beta} values using the Kramers-Kronig formalism. Small deficiencies determined from the present data using the partial sum rules were partially attributed to the sputtered film densities that could be slightly lower than the bulk values.

B Kjornrattanawanich; D Windt; J Seely

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

493